6,418 results match your criteria Driving and Neurological Disease


Molecular Mechanisms Directing Spine Outgrowth and Synaptic Partner Selection in .

J Exp Neurosci 2018 2;12:1179069518816088. Epub 2018 Dec 2.

Department of Neurobiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, USA.

The development of the nervous system requires precise outgrowth, extension, and wiring of both axons and dendrites to generate properly functioning neural circuits. The molecular mechanisms that shape neurite development, in particular dendritic development, remain incompletely understood. Dendrites are often highly branched and coated with actin-filled, thorny protrusions, called dendritic spines, that allow for increased numbers of synaptic contacts with neighboring neurons. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1179069518816088DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6287294PMC
December 2018
1 Read

Behind the wheel safety in palliative care: a literature review.

BMJ Support Palliat Care 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Cicely Saunders Institute of Palliative Care, Policy and Rehabilitation, Brixton, London, UK.

Background: Driving is a complex activity that requires physical abilities and adequate executive and cognitive functioning. There is concern among specialist palliative care services about patients continuing to drive despite having progressive incurable illnesses, comorbidities and medications to manage their symptoms.

Objectives: To determine the quality of literature available about driving that would apply to palliative care patients, specifically in relation to road test or simulated driving scores and neurocognitive testing. Read More

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http://spcare.bmj.com/lookup/doi/10.1136/bmjspcare-2018-0016
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjspcare-2018-001639DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

Eomes-expressing T-helper cells as potential target of therapy in chronic neuroinflammation.

Authors:
Shinji Oki

Neurochem Int 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Department of Immunology, National Institute of Neuroscience, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP), 4-1-1 Ogawahigashi, Kodaira, Tokyo, 187-8502, Japan. Electronic address:

Reserch progresses in understanding the pathogenicity of multiple sclerosis (MS) in the last couple of decade has enabled us to develop new drug entities available in the clinic. However, we still have not succeeded in preventing conversion from relapsing-remitting MS (RR-MS) to secondary progressive MS (SP-MS) and curing this intractable form of MS. Furthermore, diagnosis is usually retrospective and subjective, relying on gradual worsening of neurological signs/symptoms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuint.2018.11.023DOI Listing
December 2018

The Gold Nanocluster Protects Neurons Directly or via Inhibiting Cytotoxic Secretions of Microglia Cell.

J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2019 Apr;19(4):1986-1995

CAS Key Laboratory for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China.

Neurodegenerative diseases have become a huge challenge to public health, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Microglia driving inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS) has been involved in the pathological process of these disorders and could be novel therapy target. However, traditional anti-inflammatory drugs are not effective in alleviating neuroinflammation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1166/jnn.2019.15762DOI Listing

Elevated cerebrospinal fluid Galectin-9 is associated with central nervous system immune activation and poor cognitive performance in older HIV-infected individuals.

J Neurovirol 2018 Nov 26. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Department of Tropical Medicine, Medical Microbiology & Pharmacology, John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawai'i, 651 Ilalo St BSB 325, Honolulu, HI, 96813, USA.

We previously reported that galectin-9 (Gal-9), a soluble lectin with immunomodulatory properties, is elevated in plasma during HIV infection and induces HIV transcription. The link between Gal-9 and compromised neuronal function is becoming increasingly evident; however, the association with neuroHIV remains unknown. We measured Gal-9 levels by ELISA in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma of 70 HIV-infected (HIV+) adults stratified by age (older > 40 years and younger < 40 years) either ART suppressed or with detectable CSF HIV RNA, including a subgroup with cognitive assessments, and 18 HIV uninfected (HIV-) controls. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s13365-018-0696-3
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-018-0696-3DOI Listing
November 2018
2 Reads

Diet-Induced Hyperinsulinemia as a Key Factor in the Etiology of Both Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia and Essential Hypertension?

Authors:
Wolfgang Kopp

Nutr Metab Insights 2018 8;11:1178638818773072. Epub 2018 May 8.

Former head of the Diagnostikzentrum Graz, Graz, Austria.

Benign prostatic hyperplasia and hypertension are common age-related comorbidities. Although the etiology of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is still largely unresolved and poorly understood, a significant age-independent association was found between BPH and hypertension, indicating a common pathophysiological factor for both diseases. It has previously been suggested that the development of essential hypertension may be related to diet-induced hyperinsulinemia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1178638818773072DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6238249PMC

TBX2 is a neuroblastoma core regulatory circuitry component enhancing MYCN/FOXM1 reactivation of DREAM targets.

Nat Commun 2018 11 19;9(1):4866. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Center for Medical Genetics, Ghent University, Ghent, 9000, Belgium.

Chromosome 17q gains are almost invariably present in high-risk neuroblastoma cases. Here, we perform an integrative epigenomics search for dosage-sensitive transcription factors on 17q marked by H3K27ac defined super-enhancers and identify TBX2 as top candidate gene. We show that TBX2 is a constituent of the recently established core regulatory circuitry in neuroblastoma with features of a cell identity transcription factor, driving proliferation through activation of p21-DREAM repressed FOXM1 target genes. Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-018-06699-9
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-06699-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6242972PMC
November 2018
7 Reads

The History and Horizons of Microscale Neural Interfaces.

Micromachines (Basel) 2018 Sep 6;9(9). Epub 2018 Sep 6.

Department of Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA.

Microscale neural technologies interface with the nervous system to record and stimulate brain tissue with high spatial and temporal resolution. These devices are being developed to understand the mechanisms that govern brain function, plasticity and cognitive learning, treat neurological diseases, or monitor and restore functions over the lifetime of the patient. Despite decades of use in basic research over days to months, and the growing prevalence of neuromodulation therapies, in many cases the lack of knowledge regarding the fundamental mechanisms driving activation has dramatically limited our ability to interpret data or fine-tune design parameters to improve long-term performance. Read More

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http://www.mdpi.com/2072-666X/9/9/445
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/mi9090445DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6187275PMC
September 2018
5 Reads

Visual field defects after radiosurgery versus temporal lobectomy for mesial temporal lobe epilepsy: Findings of the ROSE trial.

Seizure 2018 Dec 31;63:62-67. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA, United States.

Purpose: Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) may be an alternative to anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) for mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). Visual field defects (VFD) occur in 9-100% of patients following open surgery for MTLE. Postoperative VFD after minimally invasive versus open surgery may differ. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S10591311183035
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.seizure.2018.10.017DOI Listing
December 2018
5 Reads

Depression and Alzheimer's Disease Biomarkers Predict Driving Decline.

J Alzheimers Dis 2018 ;66(3):1213-1221

Charles F. and Joanne Knight Alzheimer's Disease Research Center, Washington University, School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA.

Background: Symptomatic Alzheimer's disease (AD) and depression independently increase crash risk. Additionally, depression is both a risk factor for and a consequence of AD.

Objective: To examine whether a depression diagnosis, antidepressant use, and preclinical AD are associated with driving decline among cognitively normal older adults. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAD-180564DOI Listing
January 2018
3 Reads

δ-Secretase-cleaved Tau stimulates Aβ production via upregulating STAT1-BACE1 signaling in Alzheimer's disease.

Mol Psychiatry 2018 Oct 31. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, 30322, USA.

δ-Secretase, an age-dependent asparagine protease, cleaves both amyloid precursor protein (APP) and Tau and is required for amyloid plaque and neurofibrillary tangle pathologies in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, whether δ-secretase activation is sufficient to trigger AD pathogenesis remains unknown. Here we show that the fragments of δ-secretase-cleavage, APP (586-695) and Tau(1-368), additively drive AD pathogenesis and cognitive dysfunctions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41380-018-0286-zDOI Listing
October 2018
5 Reads

Sex differences in autoimmune disorders of the central nervous system.

Semin Immunopathol 2018 Oct 25. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

Institute of Neuroimmunology and Multiple Sclerosis (INIMS), Center for Molecular Neurobiology Hamburg (ZMNH), University Medical Center Hamburg Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

Stronger adaptive immune responses in females can be observed in different mammals, resulting in better control of infections compared to males. However, this presumably evolutionary difference likely also drives higher incidence of autoimmune diseases observed in humans. Here, we summarize sex differences in the most common autoimmune diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) and discuss recent advances in the understanding of possible underlying immunological and CNS intrinsic mechanisms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00281-018-0723-8DOI Listing
October 2018

The glymphatic pathway in neurological disorders.

Lancet Neurol 2018 Nov;17(11):1016-1024

Centre for Translational Neuromedicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; Center for Translational Neuromedicine, Department of Neurosurgery, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, USA; Department of Neuroscience, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, USA. Electronic address:

Background: The glymphatic (glial-lymphatic) pathway is a fluid-clearance pathway identified in the rodent brain in 2012. This pathway subserves the flow of CSF into the brain along arterial perivascular spaces and subsequently into the brain interstitium, facilitated by aquaporin 4 (AQP4) water channels. The pathway then directs flow towards the venous perivascular and perineuronal spaces, ultimately clearing solutes from the neuropil into meningeal and cervical lymphatic drainage vessels. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S14744422183031
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1474-4422(18)30318-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6261373PMC
November 2018
11 Reads

Low-Frequency and Rare-Coding Variation Contributes to Multiple Sclerosis Risk.

Authors:

Cell 2018 Nov 18;175(6):1679-1687.e7. Epub 2018 Oct 18.

Multiple sclerosis is a complex neurological disease, with ∼20% of risk heritability attributable to common genetic variants, including >230 identified by genome-wide association studies. Multiple strands of evidence suggest that much of the remaining heritability is also due to additive effects of common variants rather than epistasis between these variants or mutations exclusive to individual families. Here, we show in 68,379 cases and controls that up to 5% of this heritability is explained by low-frequency variation in gene coding sequence. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00928674183126
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2018.09.049DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6269166PMC
November 2018
3 Reads

HIV Tat causes synapse loss in a mouse model of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder that is independent of the classical complement cascade component C1q.

Glia 2018 Oct 16. Epub 2018 Oct 16.

Center for Neurotherapeutics Discovery, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York.

Microglial activation, increased proinflammatory cytokine production, and a reduction in synaptic density are key pathological features associated with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Even with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), more than 50% of HIV-positive individuals experience some type of cognitive impairment. Although viral replication is inhibited by cART, HIV proteins such as Tat are still produced within the nervous system that are neurotoxic, involved in synapse elimination, and provoke enduring neuroinflammation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/glia.23511DOI Listing
October 2018

Therapeutic opportunities and pitfalls in the treatment of axon degeneration.

Curr Opin Neurol 2018 Dec;31(6):693-701

Departments of Neurosurgery and Neuroscience, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas.

Purpose Of Review: The current review analyzes recent findings that suggest that axon degeneration is a druggable process in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders and a subset of traumas.

Recent Findings: Emerging evidence reveals that axon degeneration is an active and regulated process in the early progression of some neurodegenerative diseases and acute traumas, which is orchestrated through a combination of axon-intrinsic and somatically derived signaling events. The identification of these pathways has presented appealing drug targets whose specificity for the nervous system and phenotypes in mouse models offers significant clinical opportunity. Read More

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http://Insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00019052-900000000-9908
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/WCO.0000000000000621DOI Listing
December 2018
4 Reads

High burden of neurological disease in the older general population: results from the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging.

Eur J Neurol 2018 Oct 9. Epub 2018 Oct 9.

Centre de Recherche du Centre hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC.

Background And Purpose: Our objective was to study the association between the presence of a neurological disease and the comorbidity burden as well as healthcare utilization (HCU).

Methods: Using baseline data from the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (CLSA), we examined the burden of five neurological conditions. The CLSA is a population-based study of approximately 50 000 individuals, aged 45-85 years at baseline. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ene.13823DOI Listing
October 2018
2 Reads

Transcriptional profiling of embryos lacking the lipoprotein receptor SR-B1 reveals a regulatory circuit governing a neurodevelopmental or metabolic decision during neural tube closure.

BMC Genomics 2018 Oct 5;19(1):731. Epub 2018 Oct 5.

Department of Nutrition, Diabetes, and Metabolism, School of Medicine, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Marcoleta 367, 83300024, Santiago, CP, Chile.

Background: The high-density lipoprotein receptor SR-B1 mediates cellular uptake of several lipid species, including cholesterol and vitamin E. During early mouse development, SR-B1 is located in the maternal-fetal interface, where it facilitates vitamin E transport towards the embryo. Consequently, mouse embryos lacking SR-B1 are vitamin E-deficient, and around half of them fail to close the neural tube and show cephalic neural tube defects (NTD). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-018-5110-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6173885PMC
October 2018
7 Reads

Ageing, Cellular Senescence and Neurodegenerative Disease.

Int J Mol Sci 2018 Sep 27;19(10). Epub 2018 Sep 27.

Laboratory of Histology & Embryology, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 75 Mikras Asias Street, Goudi, 115-27 Athens, Greece.

Ageing is a major risk factor for developing many neurodegenerative diseases. Cellular senescence is a homeostatic biological process that has a key role in driving ageing. There is evidence that senescent cells accumulate in the nervous system with ageing and neurodegenerative disease and may predispose a person to the appearance of a neurodegenerative condition or may aggravate its course. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms19102937DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6213570PMC
September 2018
3 Reads
2.860 Impact Factor

Galectin-3-Mediated Glial Crosstalk Drives Oligodendrocyte Differentiation and (Re)myelination.

Front Cell Neurosci 2018 12;12:297. Epub 2018 Sep 12.

Department of Biological Chemistry, School of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Galectin-3 (Gal-3) is the only chimeric protein in the galectin family. Gal-3 structure comprises unusual tandem repeats of proline and glycine-rich short stretches bound to a carbohydrate-recognition domain (CRD). The present review summarizes Gal-3 functions in the extracellular and intracellular space, its regulation and its internalization and secretion, with a focus on the current knowledge of Gal-3 role in central nervous system (CNS) health and disease, particularly oligodendrocyte (OLG) differentiation, myelination and remyelination in experimental models of multiple sclerosis (MS). Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fncel.2018.00297
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fncel.2018.00297DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6143789PMC
September 2018
6 Reads

Therapeutic Advances and Challenges in the Treatment of Progressive Multiple Sclerosis.

Drugs 2018 Oct;78(15):1549-1566

Mellen Center for Multiple Sclerosis Treatment and Research, Neurological Institute, Cleveland Clinic, 9500 Euclid Ave, U-10, Cleveland, OH, 44195, USA.

Despite the fact that majority of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) have relapsing-remitting disease, many transition to secondary progressive disease (SPMS) over time. This transition is thought to be related to neurodegenerative processes increasingly predominating over inflammatory processes as the driving forces of disability. However, some patients initially present with primary progressive disease (PPMS) that is characterized by a gradual accumulation of neurological symptoms and subsequent disability accumulation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40265-018-0984-5DOI Listing
October 2018

Agreement of driving simulator and on-road driving performance in patients with binocular visual field loss.

Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2018 Dec 24;256(12):2429-2435. Epub 2018 Sep 24.

Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital of Larissa, Mezourlo Area, 41222, Larissa, Greece.

Purpose: On-road testing is considered the standard for assessment of driving performance; however, it lacks standardization. In contrast, driving simulators provide controlled experimental settings in a virtual reality environment. This study compares both testing conditions in patients with binocular visual field defects due to bilateral glaucomatous optic neuropathy or due to retro-chiasmal visual pathway lesions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00417-018-4148-9DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Driving Ability in Alzheimer Disease Spectrum: Neural Basis, Assessment, and Potential Use of Optic Flow Event-Related Potentials.

Front Neurol 2018 7;9:750. Epub 2018 Sep 7.

Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Neurological Institute, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.

Driving requires multiple cognitive functions including visuospatial perception and recruits widespread brain networks. Recently, traffic accidents in dementia, particularly in Alzheimer disease spectrum (ADS), have increased and become an urgent social problem. Therefore, it is necessary to develop the objective and reliable biomarkers for driving ability in patients with ADS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2018.00750DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6137098PMC
September 2018
1 Read

Single-cell RNA-seq reveals dynamic transcriptome profiling in human early neural differentiation.

Gigascience 2018 11 1;7(11). Epub 2018 Nov 1.

BGI-Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518083, China.

Background: Investigating cell fate decision and subpopulation specification in the context of the neural lineage is fundamental to understanding neurogenesis and neurodegenerative diseases. The differentiation process of neural-tube-like rosettes in vitro is representative of neural tube structures, which are composed of radially organized, columnar epithelial cells and give rise to functional neural cells. However, the underlying regulatory network of cell fate commitment during early neural differentiation remains elusive. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/gigascience/advance-article/doi/10.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gigascience/giy117DOI Listing
November 2018
25 Reads

Modeling Complex Neurological Diseases with Stem Cells: A Study of Bipolar Disorder.

Results Probl Cell Differ 2018 ;66:265-282

Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute, La Jolla, CA, USA.

The pathogenesis of bipolar disorder (BPD) is unknown. Using human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) to unravel pathological mechanisms in polygenic diseases is challenging, with few successful studies to date. However, hiPSCs from BPD patients responsive to lithium have offered unique opportunities to discern lithium's mechanism of action and hence gain insight into BPD pathology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-93485-3_12DOI Listing
January 2018
1 Read

Inversion produces opposite size illusions for faces and bodies.

Acta Psychol (Amst) 2018 Nov 5;191:15-24. Epub 2018 Sep 5.

Department of Psychological Sciences, Birkbeck, University of London, UK.

Faces are complex, multidimensional, and meaningful visual stimuli. Recently, Araragi, Aotani, & Kitaoka (2012) demonstrated an intriguing face size illusion whereby an inverted face is perceived as larger than a physically identical upright face. Like the face, the human body is a highly familiar and important stimulus in our lives. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00016918183012
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actpsy.2018.08.017DOI Listing
November 2018
8 Reads

Prediction for return to driving after the first-ever stroke in Korea: The KOSCO study.

J Rehabil Med 2018 Sep;50(9):800-805

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, School of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, South Korea.

Objective: To identify contributing factors that can be used to predict which patients with first-ever stroke will return to driving during 1 year after stroke.

Design: Multicentre cohort study.

Subjects: A total of 620 first-ever stroke patients who drove before stroke. Read More

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https://www.medicaljournals.se/jrm/content/abstract/10.2340/
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2340/16501977-2373DOI Listing
September 2018
7 Reads

Neural correlates of changes in sexual function in frontotemporal dementia: implications for reward and physiological functioning.

J Neurol 2018 Nov 28;265(11):2562-2572. Epub 2018 Aug 28.

School of Psychology and Brain and Mind Centre, The University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.

Background: Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is characterised by changes in behaviour including alterations in sexual function. While hypersexual behaviour is commonly thought to predominate, emerging evidence suggests that hyposexual behaviour is in fact most prevalent. The underlying mechanisms driving these behavioural changes remain unclear; however, likely reflect interactions between cognitive, emotional, reward processing and physiological functioning. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00415-018-9024-3
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00415-018-9024-3DOI Listing
November 2018
8 Reads

Increasing access to specialty care for rare diseases: a case study using a foundation sponsored clinic network for patients with neurofibromatosis 1, neurofibromatosis 2, and schwannomatosis.

BMC Health Serv Res 2018 Aug 29;18(1):668. Epub 2018 Aug 29.

Department of Neurology and Cancer Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, 55 Fruit Street, Boston, MA, 02114, USA.

Background: Our primary aim was to assess the ability of a non-profit foundation-sponsored clinic network to facilitate access to specialized care for patients with neurofibromatoses (NF), a group of neurogenetic disorders including NF1, NF2, and schwannomatosis (SWN). Our secondary aim was to identify how our findings in NF could be applied more broadly to other rare diseases.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed aggregate data on patient volume reported by specialty NF clinics in a nonprofit network from 2008 to 2015. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12913-018-3471-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6114484PMC
August 2018
2 Reads

Evidence of attentional impairments using virtual driving simulation in multiple sclerosis.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2018 Oct 4;25:251-257. Epub 2018 Aug 4.

Department of Neurology, Caen University Hospital Centre, Avenue de la Côte de Nacre, CS 30001, 14033 Caen Cedex 9, France; Centre de Ressources et de Compétences SEP, 14000 Caen, France; Réseau Bas-Normand Pour la Prise en Charge de la SEP, 14000 Caen, France.

Background: Detection of attentional disorders in complex situation related to daily life activities in multiple sclerosis patients needs better adapted tools than traditional cognitive assessment.

Objective: To investigate the usefulness of virtual reality assessment of attention in multiple sclerosis, especially to evaluate alertness and divided attention using driving simulation.

Methods: In this preliminary study, 11 relapsing-remitting patients (median EDSS: 2; mean disease duration of 10. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msard.2018.08.005DOI Listing
October 2018

Differential effects of diesel exhaust particles on T cell differentiation and autoimmune disease.

Part Fibre Toxicol 2018 08 24;15(1):35. Epub 2018 Aug 24.

Department of Surgery, Division of Transplantation, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 600 Highland Avenue MC7375, Madison, WI, 53792, USA.

Background: Exposure to particulate matter (PM) has been associated with increased incidence and severity of autoimmune disease. Diesel PM is primarily composed of an elemental carbon core and adsorbed organic compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and contributes up to 40% of atmospheric PM. The organic fraction (OF) of PM excludes all metals and inorganics and retains most organic compounds, such as PAHs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12989-018-0271-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6109291PMC
August 2018
2 Reads

Towards BCI-actuated smart wheelchair system.

Biomed Eng Online 2018 Aug 20;17(1):111. Epub 2018 Aug 20.

College of Artificial Intelligence, National University of Defense Technology, Deya Road, Changsha, 410000, People's Republic of China.

Background: Electroencephalogram-based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) represent novel human machine interactive technology that allows people to communicate and interact with the external world without relying on their peripheral muscles and nervous system. Among BCI systems, brain-actuated wheelchairs are promising systems for the rehabilitation of severely motor disabled individuals who are unable to control a wheelchair by conventional interfaces. Previous related studies realized the easy use of brain-actuated wheelchairs that enable people to navigate the wheelchair through simple commands; however, these systems rely on offline calibration of the environment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12938-018-0545-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6102906PMC
August 2018
10 Reads

Tau protein aggregation is associated with cellular senescence in the brain.

Aging Cell 2018 Dec 11;17(6):e12840. Epub 2018 Oct 11.

Barshop Institute for Longevity and Aging Studies, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas.

Tau protein accumulation is the most common pathology among degenerative brain diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), traumatic brain injury (TBI), and over twenty others. Tau-containing neurofibrillary tangle (NFT) accumulation is the closest correlate with cognitive decline and cell loss (Arriagada, Growdon, Hedley-Whyte, & Hyman, ), yet mechanisms mediating tau toxicity are poorly understood. NFT formation does not induce apoptosis (de Calignon, Spires-Jones, Pitstick, Carlson, & Hyman, 2009), which suggests that secondary mechanisms are driving toxicity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acel.12840DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6260915PMC
December 2018
7 Reads

Lack of short-chain fatty acids and overgrowth of opportunistic pathogens define dysbiosis of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders: A Chinese pilot study.

Mult Scler 2018 Aug 16:1352458518790396. Epub 2018 Aug 16.

Multiple Sclerosis Centre, Department of Neurology, Third Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Background: Intestinal microbiota is an important environmental factor in the initiation and progression of autoimmune diseases. However, investigations on the gut microbiome in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) are relatively insufficient, especially for that of the Asia population.

Objectives: To evaluate whether or not the intestinal microbiota of NMOSD patients had specific microbial signatures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1352458518790396DOI Listing
August 2018
2 Reads

Identification of the potential molecular mechanism and driving mutations in the pathogenesis of familial intestinal gastric cancer by whole exome sequencing.

Oncol Rep 2018 Oct 1;40(4):2316-2324. Epub 2018 Aug 1.

Department of Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210029, P.R. China.

The genetic alterations in familial intestinal gastric cancer (FIGC) have not been clearly understood. Aiming to explore the molecular basis and the driving mutations underlying the pathogenesis of FIGC, we performed exome sequencing of the blood samples of the members of an extended family with FIGC. The differences in mutation patterns between family members with gastric cancer and controls were analysed and the overlapped variants were screened by comparing previously published data for blood and tumours from gastric cancer patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/or.2018.6613DOI Listing
October 2018
5 Reads

Residual Immune Activation and Latency.

Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 2018 ;417:157-180

Laboratory of Immunoregulation, National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.

The introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in the 1990s has dramatically changed the course of HIV infection, decreasing the risk for both AIDS- and non-AIDS-related events. Cancers, cardiovascular disease (CVD), liver and kidney disease, neurological disorders and frailty have become of great importance lately in the clinical management as they represent the principal cause of death in people living with HIV who receive cART (Kirk et al. in Clin Infect Dis 45(1):103-10, 2007; Strategies for Management of Antiretroviral Therapy Study et al. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/82_2018_118DOI Listing
January 2018

Ischemic tau protein gene induction as an additional key factor driving development of Alzheimer's phenotype changes in CA1 area of hippocampus in an ischemic model of Alzheimer's disease.

Pharmacol Rep 2018 Oct 16;70(5):881-884. Epub 2018 Mar 16.

Department of Pathophysiology, Medical University of Lublin, Lublin, Poland; Department of Physiopathology, Institute of Rural Health, Lublin, Poland. Electronic address:

Background: Tauopathies are a class of neurodegenerative illnesses associated with the aberrant accumulation of the tau protein in the brain. The best known out of these diseases is Alzheimer's disease, a disorder where the microtubule associated tau protein becomes hyperphosphorylated (which lowers its binding affinity to microtubules) and accumulates inside neurons in the form of tangles. In this study, we attempt to find out whether brain ischemia may play an important role in tau protein gene alterations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pharep.2018.03.004DOI Listing
October 2018

Nanoscale Discrimination between Toxic and Nontoxic Protein Misfolded Oligomers with Tip-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy.

Small 2018 Sep 9;14(36):e1800890. Epub 2018 Aug 9.

IFAC-CNR, Institute of Applied Physics "Nello Carrara,", National Research Council, Via Madonna del Piano 10, I-50019, Sesto Fiorentino, Italy.

Highly toxic protein misfolded oligomers associated with neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases are nowadays considered primarily responsible for promoting synaptic failure and neuronal death. Unraveling the relationship between structure and neurotoxicity of protein oligomers appears pivotal in understanding the causes of the pathological process, as well as in designing novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies tuned toward the earliest and presymptomatic stages of the disease. Here, it is benefited from tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) as a surface-sensitive tool with spatial resolution on the nanoscale, to inspect the spatial organization and surface character of individual protein oligomers from two samples formed by the same polypeptide sequence and different toxicity levels. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/smll.201800890
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.201800890DOI Listing
September 2018
5 Reads

Brainstem Glioblastoma Multiforme in a Patient with NF1.

Anticancer Res 2018 Aug;38(8):4897-4900

UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, U.S.A.

This case report presents the first known case of a brainstem glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) in a patient with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). While research has proposed that larger germ-line mutations in NF1 may be the driving factor that predisposes patients with NF1 to high-grade astrocytomas, this patient had a nonsense mutation in the NF1 gene, suggesting a variant tumorigenesis. Limited data on targeted immunotherapy for NF1 patients with a GBM have been reported and more data are required before targeted therapies could be proven as second-line treatment options. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.21873/anticanres.12804DOI Listing
August 2018
7 Reads

Molecular Pathogenesis and Emerging Treatment for Glioblastoma.

World Neurosurg 2018 Aug;116:495-504

Department of Neurological Surgery, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York, USA. Electronic address:

Glioblastoma is the most common primary malignant brain tumor, with more than10,000 new cases each year in the United States. Significant basic science and clinical research has been devoted to understanding this disease, yet median survival with standard of care treatment remains approximately 15 months. Over the past decade, advances in genomic sequencing technology, biostatistics, and computing have allowed for an unprecedented ability to profile the gene expression patterns and mutations driving the formation of tumors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2018.04.021DOI Listing

The 100 most cited articles in the .

J Neurointerv Surg 2018 Oct 24;10(10):1020-1028. Epub 2018 Jul 24.

School of Medicine - Faculty of Health, Deakin University, Waurn Ponds, Australia.

Background: The () published its first volume in 2009. Over the ensuing years, flourished and has published a considerable number of high-profile articles. Citation analysis is a method of quantifying various metrics related to scholarly publications. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/neurintsurg-2018-014079DOI Listing
October 2018

Uncovering Discrete Synaptic Proteomes to Understand Neurological Disorders.

Proteomes 2018 Jul 19;6(3). Epub 2018 Jul 19.

Department of Neurology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611, USA.

The mammalian nervous system is an immensely heterogeneous organ composed of a diverse collection of neuronal types that interconnect in complex patterns. Synapses are highly specialized neuronal cell-cell junctions with common and distinct functional characteristics that are governed by their protein composition or synaptic proteomes. Even a single neuron can possess a wide-range of different synapse types and each synapse contains hundreds or even thousands of proteins. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/proteomes6030030DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6161107PMC
July 2018
8 Reads

Associations between self and informant ratings of executive functioning and driver behaviour following acquired brain injury.

J Rehabil Med 2018 Jul;50(7):589-597

Department of Research, Sunnaas Rehabilitation Hospital, NO-1450 Nesoddtangen, Norway.

Objectives: To investigate self and informant ratings of everyday executive functions and their correlation with driving behaviour after acquired brain injury.

Methods: A 1-year follow-up study of 24 adults with stroke and 10 adults with traumatic brain injury deemed fit to drive after a multidisciplinary driving assessment. Baseline measures included neuropsychological tests and self and informant reports of everyday executive function (Behavior Rating of Executive Function; BRIEF-A). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2340/16501977-2359DOI Listing

Laterality of Poststroke Cortical Motor Activity during Action Observation Is Related to Hemispheric Dominance.

Neural Plast 2018 28;2018:3524960. Epub 2018 May 28.

University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Background: Increased activity in the lesioned hemisphere has been related to improved poststroke motor recovery. However, the role of the dominant hemisphere-and its relationship to activity in the lesioned hemisphere-has not been widely explored.

Objective: Here, we examined whether the dominant hemisphere drives the lateralization of brain activity after stroke and whether this changes based on if the lesioned hemisphere is the dominant hemisphere or not. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/3524960DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5994588PMC
December 2018
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Sub-classifying patients with mild traumatic brain injury: A clustering approach based on baseline clinical characteristics and 90-day and 180-day outcomes.

PLoS One 2018 11;13(7):e0198741. Epub 2018 Jul 11.

School of Computing, Informatics, and Decision Systems Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, United States of America.

Background: The current classification of traumatic brain injury (TBI) into "mild", "moderate", or "severe" does not adequately account for the patient heterogeneity that still exists within each of these categories. The objective of this study was to identify "sub-groups" of mild TBI (mTBI) patients based on data available at the time of the initial post-TBI patient evaluation and to determine if the sub-grouping correlates with patient outcomes at 90 and 180 days post-TBI.

Methods: Data from patients in the TRACK-TBI Pilot dataset who had a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of 13 to 15 at arrival to the Emergency Department and a closed head injury were included. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0198741PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6040703PMC
July 2018
17 Reads

Access to social security benefits among multiple sclerosis patients in Italy: A cross-sectional study.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2018 Aug 23;24:107-112. Epub 2018 Jun 23.

Department of Public Health and Paediatrics, University of Turin, Turin, Italy.

Background: Knowledge concerning the predictors of social security benefits and the proportion of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients receiving these benefits is very limited.

Objective: To estimate the likelihood of receiving social security benefits for Italian MS patients.

Methods: From September 2014 to November 2015, we interviewed MS outpatients from two Italian MS clinics to collect information regarding their personal data, clinical and working history, and access to social security benefits. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msard.2018.06.016DOI Listing

Distribution of tightly and loosely bound water in biological macromolecules and age-related diseases.

Authors:
G Kerch

Int J Biol Macromol 2018 Oct 4;118(Pt A):1310-1318. Epub 2018 Jul 4.

Institute of Polymer Materials, Department of Materials Science and Applied Chemistry, Riga Technical University, Azenes 14/24, Riga, Latvia. Electronic address:

This mini-review article is focused on publications devoted to the changes in water binding energy and content of bound water in biological tissues during aging processes, when bound water lost from the hydration layer becomes free water. Bound water is released during cataractogenesis. In skin, water bound to proteins and other biomacromolecules becomes more mobile with increasing skin age. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2018.06.187DOI Listing
October 2018
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A Comprehensive Method for Detecting Fusion Genes in Paediatric Brain Tumours.

Cancer Genomics Proteomics 2018 Jul-Aug;15(4):343-348

Department of Neurosurgery, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: Fusion genes driving tumourigenesis have drawn the attention of researchers and oncologists. Despite the importance of such molecular alterations, there are no comprehensive reproducible methods for detecting fusion genes.

Materials And Methods: Nineteen paediatric brain tumours of five types, namely pilocytic astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma, anaplastic astrocytoma, glioblastoma and, ganglioglioma, were examined to detect fusion genes using a pyrosequencing-based method following RNA isolation, cDNA synthesis and real-time polymerase chain reaction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.21873/cgp.20093DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6070712PMC
November 2018
4 Reads

Pharmacotherapy in Secondary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis: An Overview.

CNS Drugs 2018 Jun;32(6):499-526

Queen Square Multiple Sclerosis Centre, Department of Neuroinflammation, UCL Institute of Neurology, Faculty of Brain Sciences, UCL, London, UK.

Multiple sclerosis is an immune-mediated inflammatory disease of the central nervous system characterised by demyelination, neuroaxonal loss and a heterogeneous clinical course. Multiple sclerosis presents with different phenotypes, most commonly a relapsing-remitting course and, less frequently, a progressive accumulation of disability from disease onset (primary progressive multiple sclerosis). The majority of people with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, after a variable time, switch to a stage characterised by gradual neurological worsening known as secondary progressive multiple sclerosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40263-018-0538-0DOI Listing
June 2018
4 Reads

Falling asleep at the wheel and distracted driving. The High-Risk Professional Drivers study.

Med Lav 2018 03 27;109(3):190-200. Epub 2018 Mar 27.

Unit of Biostatistics and Clinical Epidemiology, Department of Public Health, Experimental and Forensic Medicine, University of Pavia, Italy.

Background: Sleepiness at the wheel and driving while engaged in other activities are well known risk factors for traffic accidents. This article estimates the prevalence of these factors among Italian Professional Drivers (PDs) and their impact on reported driving mistakes.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using anonymous questionnaires. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.23749/mdl.v109i3.6731DOI Listing