Dyskeratosis congenita (DC) is a rare, inherited, bone marrow failure syndrome caused by premature telomere shortening. The classic mucocutaneous triad of clinical features comprises reticulated skin pigmentation, nail dysplasia, and oral leukoplakia. Multiple somatic features, including bone marrow failure, pulmonary fibrosis, and liver disease, are also common. Read More
J Investig Clin Dent 2017 Aug 19. Epub 2017 Aug 19.
Department of Restorative and Prosthetic Dental Sciences, Dar Al Uloom University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
Khat or qat (Catha edulis) is a plant that grows in East Africa and southern Arabia. The leaves and twigs of this small tree are chewed by several millions of people worldwide for their stimulating amphetamine-like effects. The reported prevalence of khat chewing in Europe and the USA is on the rise, especially with global migration. Read More
Melasma is a common acquired condition of symmetric hyperpigmentation, typically occurring on the face, with higher prevalence in females and darker skin types. Multiple etiologies, including light exposure, hormonal influences, and family history, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of this disorder. Overall prevalence ranges widely at 1-50%, since values are typically calculated within a specific ethnic population within a geographic region. Read More
Oral melanoacanthoma is a mucocutaneous, pigmented, rare, benign, and probably reactive lesion. This paper reports for the first time in the literature a case of multifocal oral melanoacanthoma in a patient diagnosed with Addison's disease and concomitant Graves' disease with hyperthyroidism. The patient presented with oral pigmented lesions, which were hypothesized to be mucosal pigmentation associated with Addison's disease. Read More
Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Xiaoaiping combined with chemotherapy in the treatment of advanced esophageal cancer. Methods: This is a multi-center, randomized, open label and parallel controlled study. A total of 124 advanced esophageal cancer patients with Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) score ≥60 and expected survival time≥3 months were enrolled. Read More
Laugier-Hunziker syndrome (LHS) is a rare condition characterized by acquired hyperpigmentation involving the lips, oral mucosa, acral surfaces, nails and perineum. While patients with LHS may manifest pigmentation in all of the aforementioned areas, most present with pigmentation localized to only a few of these anatomical sites. We herein report a patient exhibiting the characteristic pigment distribution pattern associated with LHS. Read More
Cellular pigmentation is an important virulence factor of the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis Pigmentation has been associated with many bacterial functions, including but not limited to colonization, maintaining a local anaerobic environment by binding oxygen molecules, and defense against reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by immune cells. Pigmentation-associated loci identified to date have involved lipopolysaccharide, fimbriae, and heme acquisition and processing. We utilized a transposon mutant library of P. Read More
Buccal mucosa color is explained by hemoglobin in the vessels and melanin in the epithelium. Abnormal presence of melanin pigments (hypermelaninosis, hypermelanocytosis), hematic pigments (hemoglobin, hemosiderin, iron) but also some exogenous circonstancies explain pigmented lesions (figure 1). These lesions could be localized (single lesions), multifocal (multiple lesions) or diffused. Read More
Vitiligo is an autoimmune disorder that involves the interplay between oxidative stress and the immune system. Preliminary observations suggest that the presence of gluten in the diet may play a role in vitiligo development in some patients, but to date vitiligo-specific diets have not been studied. The role of oral supplements, including vitamins, minerals, and botanicals, is increasingly being investigated as adjuncts to conventional medical treatment due to their antioxidant and immunomodulatory activity. Read More
Purpose: Non-inferiority for overall survival (OS) following alternate-day treatment with the oral anticancer drug S-1 compared with standard daily treatment was assessed in Japanese patients with unresectable advanced pancreatic cancer in a multicenter, randomized, phase II study. This trial was registered at the UMIN Clinical Trials Registry (no. 000008604). Read More
Background: Melasma is a chronic acquired focal hypermelanosis affecting photoexposed areas, especially for women during fertile age. Several factors contribute to its development: sun exposure, sex steroids, medicines, and family history. Melanic pigmentation pathway discloses several SNPs in different populations. Read More
Cutaneous adverse drug reactions are among the most common noninfectious rashes of childhood. Cutaneous adverse drug reactions are classified as morbilliform, urticarial, bullous, pustular, or psoriasiform. Atopic dermatitis is one of the most common inflammatory cutaneous eruptions, and is characterized by pruritus and flexural distribution. Read More
Afamelanotide, the first α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) analogue, synthesized in 1980, was broadly investigated in all aspects of pigmentation because its activity and stability were higher than the natural hormone. Afamelanotide binds to the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R), and MC1R signaling increases melanin synthesis, induces antioxidant activities, enhances DNA repair processes and modulates inflammation. The loss-of-function variants of the MC1R present in fair-skinned Caucasians are less effectively activated by the natural hormone. Read More
Taxanes (docetaxel and paclitaxel) are among the most commonly prescribed anticancer drugs approved for the treatment of metastatic or locally advanced breast, non-small cell lung, prostate, gastric, head and neck, and ovarian cancers, as well as in the adjuvant setting for operable node-positive breast cancers. Although the true incidence of dermatological adverse events (AEs) in patients receiving taxanes is not known, and has never been prospectively analysed, they clearly represent one of the major AEs associated with these agents. With an increase in the occurrence of cutaneous AEs during treatment with novel targeted and immunological therapies when used in combination with taxanes, a thorough understanding of reactions attributable to this class is imperative. Read More
Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is an inherited autosomal dominant genetic disorder presenting variable penetrance and expressivity, with an estimated prevalence of 1:42,000. Clinical characteristics of WS include lateral displacement of the internal eye canthus, hyperplasia of the medial portion of the eyebrows, prominent and broad nasal base, congenital deafness, pigmentation of the iris and skin, and white forelock. A 24-year-old male patient, previously diagnosed with WS, was referred to the Special Needs Dental Clinic of Sacred Heart University, Bauru, Brazil. Read More
A 50 year old male presented with progressive difficulty in swallowing both liquid and solid food with no history of Raynaud's phenomenon. A general examination revealed skin changes in the form of thickening, hyperpigmentation and tightening of skin of fingers, hand, forearm and legs. The patient had painless skin induration over the legs, forearm and hand. Read More
Dyskeratosiscongenita (DKC) is a genetically heterogeneous disease of defective telomere maintenance that may demonstrate different patterns of inheritance. It is characterized by thetriad of dystrophy of the nails, leukokeratosis of the oral mucosa, and extensive net-like pigmentation of the skin. We report a case ofDKC who presented with a chief complaint of dysphagia. Read More
Laugier-Hunziker syndrome is a rare benign idiopathic condition characterized by acquired macular pigmentation of lips and buccal mucosa, often accompanied with melanonychia. The main concern with this condition is to rule out other differential diagnosis with systemic repercussions and similar hyperpigmentation patterns, such as Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, adrenal insufficiency and melanoma. We report a 58-year-old female with a 20-year history of Sjögrens syndrome, presenting with melanonychia and hyperpigmentation in the buccal mucosa. Read More
*Departments of Dermatology and Pathology, Hospital Federal de Bonsucesso, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; †Department of Dermatology, Hospital Federal de Bonsucesso, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; ‡Department of Dermatology, Hospital Universitário Gafrée e Guinle, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; §Detartment of Dermatology, Hospital Federal Servidores do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; and ¶ID-Investigação em Dermatologia, dermatopathology consultive services, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Prurigo pigmentosa (PP) is a rare inflammatory disease of the skin of uncertain etiology first reported in Japan. It is typified by recurrent eruptions of itching urticarial macules, papules, vesicopapules, and plaques with a reticular arrangement that quickly resolve leaving a net-like pigmentation. The disease presents specific histopathological features. Read More
Pathogenesis of vitiligo is believed to be multifactorial disease with a wide variety of therapeutic modalities. The aim of this work is to assess the efficacy of oral mini-pulse steroids (OMP) plus Nb-U.V. Read More
Background: Black extrinsic discoloration in primary dentition is a common clinical and aesthetic problem that can co-occur with dental caries, the most common oral diseases in childhood. Although the role of bacteria in the formation of pigment and caries in primary dentition is important, their basic features still remain a further mystery.
Methods: Using targeted sequencing of the V1-V3 hypervariable regions of bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, we obtained a dataset consisting of 831,381 sequences from 111 saliva samples and 110 supragingival plaque samples from 40 patients with pigment (black extrinsic stain), 20 with caries (obvious decay), and 25 with both pigment and caries and from 26 healthy individuals. Read More
Glycyrrhizin has been used clinically for several years due to its beneficial effect on immunoglobulin E (IgE)-induced allergic diseases, alopecia areata and psoriasis. In this study, glycyrrhizin, ultraviolet B light (UVB) or a combination of both were used to treat active-stage generalized vitiligo. One hundred and forty-four patients between the ages of 3 and 48 years were divided into three groups: group A received oral compound glycyrrhizin (OCG); group B received UVB applications twice weekly, and group C received OCG+UVB. Read More
Background: Metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) has historically been refractory to cytotoxic and hormonal agents. IL-2 and IFN-α provide response in a minority of patients. Small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies have established a role in the setting of mRCC. Read More
Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Vitiligo is a depigmentation disorder, which results in substantial cosmetic disfigurement and poses a detriment to patients' physical as well as mental. Now the molecular pathogenesis of vitiligo still remains unclear, which leads to a daunting challenge for vitiligo therapy in modern medicine. Herbal medicines, characterized by multi-compound and multi-target, have long been shown effective in treating vitiligo, but their molecular mechanisms of action also remain ambiguous. Read More
A 43-year-old Japanese man presented with reddish nodules on the ankle. The nodules had a yellowish crust and eroded surface. Dermoscopy revealed red to milky-red globules at the periphery and some glomerular vessels in the center and a whitish-pink network, which corresponded to capillary dilatation in the papillary dermis and prominent acanthosis, respectively. Read More
Dyskeratosis congenita (DKC) is a rare, progressive bone marrow failure syndrome that is characterized by the triad of reticulated skin pigmentation, nail dystrophy and oral leukoplakia. Current evidence indicates that DKC is a disease of defective telomere maintenance, ribosome deficiency and protein synthesis dysfunction. Mortality is often associated with bone marrow failure (BMF), development of malignancy and other multisystem complications of the disease. Read More
Adrenocorticotropin-independent adrenal hyperplasias are rare diseases, which are classified into macronodular (>1 cm) and micronodular (≤1 cm) hyperplasia. Micronodular adrenal hyperplasia is subdivided into primary pigmented adrenocortical disease and a limited or nonpigmented form 'micronodular adrenocortical disease (MAD)', although considerable morphological and genetic overlap is observed between the 2 groups. We present an unusual case of a 44-month-old girl who was diagnosed with Cushing syndrome due to MAD. Read More
Glutathione is a low molecular weight thiol-tripeptide that plays a prominent role in maintaining intracellular redox balance. In addition to its remarkable antioxidant properties, the discovery of its antimelanogenic properties has led to its promotion as a skin-lightening agent. It is widely used for this indication in some ethnic populations. Read More
Background: Lichen planus pigmentosus (LPP) is a cosmetically distressing pigmentary disorder often posing a therapeutic challenge. Isotretinoin has been shown to be effective in oral and cutaneous LP, but its role in LPP is yet unknown.
Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of isotretinoin in the management of LPP. Read More
Objective. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of HIV-associated oral mucosal melanin hyperpigmentation (HIV-OMH) in a specific population of HIV-seropositive South Africans and to analyse the associations between HIV-OMH clinical features and the demographic and immunological characteristics of the study cohort. Material and Methods. Read More
Pigmented cosmetic dermatitis-like (Riehl's melanosis-like) pigmentation was reported in three of 27 patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome. But case reports of such eruptions are rare. We describe three cases of such eruptions associated with primary Sjögren's syndrome or anti-SSA antibody and possible associations with specific types of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and infiltrating lymphocytes. Read More
Objective: The roots of the herb Paeonia lactiflora ('White Peony') are used in association with other herbs in traditional clinical cosmetic practice in China as oral treatment for skin pigmentary disorders, such as brown or dark pigmentary spots. However, the skin-depigmenting potential of Paeonia lactiflora root extract and its main ingredient paeoniflorin has been scarcely investigated by topical application. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Paeonia lactiflora root extract and paeoniflorin as skin whitening agent in cosmetic application. Read More
Erythrosis pigmentosa peribuccalis is an infrequent condition, with fewer than 35 cases reported in the literature, that affects mainly women. It presents as small papules that form a hyperpigmented plaque around the mouth and nose. Little is known about the etiology of this condition, its dermoscopic characteristics have not been described, and no effective treatment has been reported. Read More
Dyskeratosis congenita (DC) is an inherited disease characterized by the triad of skin pigmentation, nail dystrophy, and oral leukoplakia. Among other abnormalities, bone marrow failure and a predisposition to cancer are recognized as the major causes of premature mortality in patients with DC. This disease is associated with short telomeres and mutations in 10 genes associated with telomerase and telomere components. Read More
Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS) is a rare, autosomal dominant condition characterised by mucocutaneous pigmented lesions, gastrointestinal polyposis and a significant risk of cancer. Laugier-Hunziker syndrome (LHS) is a benign condition with similar dermatological features, but with no systemic complications. STK 11 gene testing allows clinicians to differentiate between these two disorders. Read More
Objective: To investigate the pathogenic and clinical presentation and laboratory tests of bullous rash in hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in Xi'an from January 2013 to December 2014 by retrospective analysis.
Method: A total of 224 specimens were collected from clinically diagnosed HFMD cases who were characterized by widespread mucocutaneous bullous reactions in Xi'an Children's Hospital from January 2013 to December 2014, the identification and subtyping of the isolates were conducted with real-time fluorescent quantitative RT-PCR. A retrospective analysis was performed to analyze the clinical presentation, laboratory tests and late follow-up problems of the HFMD. Read More
Background: To examine the relative prevalence, types, and clinical features of pigmented lesions of the oral mucosa in 1275 patients attending a university hospital for dental care.
Methods: Patients attending dental clinics at The University of Jordan Hospital over a 1-year period were examined for the presence of oral pigmentations. Histopathological examination was performed on focally pigmented lesions with a suspicious or uncertain clinical diagnosis. Read More
Black-pigmented bacteria (BPB) are Gram-negative anaerobic, non-motile, proteolytic rods strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease. Although pigments are produced in vitro, black pigmentation is rarely found clinically. However, it may compromise aesthetics and contribute to gingival inflammation. Read More
The aim of the present study was to assess the discoloration of the peri-implant mucosa caused by zirconia (Zr) and titanium (Ti) dental implants with and without soft tissue grafting (STG). Zr and Ti implants were inserted in edentulous areas in pig maxillae. Spectrophotometric measurements were performed prior to and after the insertion of the implants, and following the placement of a STG on the buccal side. Read More
Objectives A xenogeneic human tyrosinase DNA vaccine was developed for treatment of dogs with oral malignant melanoma (Oncept; Merial). No studies have evaluated the safety or efficacy of this vaccine in cats. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety of the canine melanoma vaccine in cats diagnosed with melanoma. Read More
Purpose: To propose a method to measure the esthetics of the smile and to report its validation by means of an intra-rater and inter-rater agreement analysis.
Materials And Methods: Ten variables were chosen as determinants for the esthetics of a smile: smile line and facial midline, tooth alignment, tooth deformity, tooth dischromy, gingival dischromy, gingival recession, gingival excess, gingival scars and diastema/missing papillae. One examiner consecutively selected seventy smile pictures, which were in the frontal view. Read More
Pigmented oral lesions compose a large number of pathological entities, including exogenous pigmentat oral tattoos, such as amalgam and graphite tattoos. We report a rare case of a graphite tattoo on the palate of a 62-year-old patient with a history of pencil injury, compare it with amalgam tattoos, and determine the prevalence of oral tattoos in our Oral Pathology Service. We also compare the clinical and histological findings of grafite and amalgam tattoos. Read More