1,249 results match your criteria Disorders of Oral Pigmentation

Dyskeratosis congenita and squamous cell carcinoma of the mandibular alveolar ridge.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 May 11;14(5). Epub 2021 May 11.

Head and Neck Department, Operative Unit of Maxillo-Facial Surgery and Otolaryngology, IRCCS Ospedale Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza, San Giovanni Rotondo, Puglia, Italy

Dyskeratosis congenita is a rare disease caused by telomerase dysfunction classically characterised by the triad: skin pigmentation, nail dystrophy and mucosal leukoplakia. Few cases are described in literature regarding patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma affected by dyskeratosis congenita, and the therapeutic decisions are not yet well defined. A review of the literature of the last 20 years (2001-2021) was performed, and it was analysed the case of a 38-year-old male patient affected by dyskeratosis congenita diagnosed with a squamous cell carcinoma of the inferior alveolar ridge, treated with surgery. Read More

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Case Report of Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma at the Wrist Joint and the Public Health Crisis of Arsenicosis.

J Health Pollut 2021 Mar 2;11(29):210314. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Department of Pathology; King George's Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Context: Arsenicosis is caused by long term (6 months plus) ingestion of arsenic above a safe dose, characterized by skin lesions and possible involvement of internal organs. Arsenicosis is common in India and Bangladesh where naturally occurring high concentrations of arsenic in the earth's crust contaminate ground water, causing adverse health effects.

Case Presentation: We report a case of a 55-year-old Indian male, resident of a known arsenic endemic region of Uttar Pradesh who suffered from characteristic pulmonary and cutaneous features of chronic arsenic toxicity which included radiological findings of interstitial lung disease, hyperkeratotic lesions over the palms and soles, rain drop like pigmentation over the trunk, and carcinomatous changes at the wrist joint. Read More

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Oral Manifestations in Melanoma Patients Treated with Target or Immunomodulatory Therapies.

J Clin Med 2021 Mar 19;10(6). Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Medical Sciences, Dermatologic Clinic, University of Turin, 10126 Turin, Italy.

Background: BRAF (v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1) and MEK (mitogen activated protein kinase) inhibitors, as well as immunotherapy against cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and the programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) receptor and its ligand (PD-L1), have shown good results in improving the disease-free survival of patients with metastatic melanoma (MM). The aim of this review is to summarize the main oral adverse events (oAEs) occurring in patients undergoing target or immunotherapy. We proposed two separate sections: oAEs during the treatment with (1) target therapies with BRAF and MEK inhibitors and tyrosine kinase inhibitors (gingival hyperplasia, pigmentation disorders, squamo-proliferative lesions) and (2) immunotherapies with CTLA-4 or PD1 inhibitors (lichenoid reactions, immuno-bullous reactions, xerostomia and other reactions). Read More

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Minocycline-induced black bone disease with synovial pigmentation in a patient undergoing revision anterior cruciate ligament surgery: A case report.

Int J Surg Case Rep 2021 Apr 23;81:105819. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Orthopaedic Trauma Service, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Hospital for Special Surgery, NewYork-Presbyterian, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY, United States. Electronic address:

Introduction: Long-term use of minocycline at high doses is associated with hyperpigmentation with multiple sites of involvement. While the cutaneous organs and the oral cavity are most commonly affected, bone discoloration is a rare entity.

Case Presentation: A 19-year-old male patient with a history of acne vulgaris and intermittent treatment with high dose minocycline for three years presented with recurrent anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear. Read More

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Squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue in 5-year-old girl with dyskeratosis congenita.

Kim Jh Kim Cs

Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2021 Mar 15. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Dyskeratosis congenita is a rare inherited bone marrow failure syndrome with three distinct clinical features: nail dystrophy, reticular skin pigmentation, and oral leukoplakia. The case of a 5-year-old female patient diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue is reported here. An autosomal dominant type 3 TINF2 mutation subsequently confirmed the diagnosis of dyskeratosis congenita. Read More

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Clinicopathological and immunohistochemical characteristics of pigmented oral squamous cell carcinoma.

Oncol Lett 2021 Apr 26;21(4):339. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8549, Japan.

Pigmented oral squamous cell carcinoma (POSCC) is a rare and underrecognized pathological variant of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The current study aimed to evaluate the clinicopathological characteristics, treatment outcomes and prognosis of patients with POSCC and to investigate its oncological properties using immunohistochemical studies. A total of 1,512 patients were pathologically diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, and were treated at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Tokyo Medical and Dental University between January 2001 and December 2018. Read More

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Rhododendrol-induced leukoderma update I: Clinical findings and treatment.

J Dermatol 2021 Mar 8. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Department of Pigmentation Research and Therapeutics, Osaka City University, Osaka, Japan.

Individuals who used skin-whitening cosmetics (quasi-drugs) containing 2% rhododendrol-containing agents, developed leukoderma at a higher frequency than those who have used other skin-whitening cosmetics. The Rhododenol Research Team (RD-Team) was formed and commissioned by Kanebo Cosmetics Inc. to conduct research in treatments of rhododendrol-induced leukoderma (RDL), to evaluate effective treatment options from a medical standpoint, and provide information to a wide range of people. Read More

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Complementation in of Porphyromonas gingivalis Lipopolysaccharide Biosynthetic Mutants Demonstrates Lipopolysaccharide Exchange.

J Bacteriol 2021 Apr 21;203(10). Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Oral Health CRC, Melbourne Dental School, Bio21 Institute, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

, a bacterial pathogen contributing to human periodontitis, exports and anchors cargo proteins to its surface, enabling the production of black pigmentation using a type IX secretion system (T9SS) and conjugation to anionic lipopolysaccharide (A-LPS). To determine whether T9SS components need to be assembled for correct secretion and A-LPS modification of cargo proteins, combinations of nonpigmented mutants lacking A-LPS or a T9SS component were mixed to investigate in complementation. Reacquisition of pigmentation occurred only between an A-LPS mutant and a T9SS mutant, which coincided with A-LPS modification of cargo proteins detected by Western blotting and coimmunoprecipitation/quantitative mass spectrometry. Read More

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Substance Use, General Health and Health Literacy as Predictors of Oral Health in Emerging Adult Sexual Minority Men of Color: A Secondary Data Analysis.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 02 18;18(4). Epub 2021 Feb 18.

School of Public Health, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520, USA.

There is limited evidence surrounding oral health in emerging adult, sexual minority men of color. This study examined the association between sociodemographic factors, health literacy, cigarette, e-cigarette, and alcohol use on oral health outcomes. Secondary data analysis was conducted with 322 sexual minority men ages 18-34 in the United States. Read More

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February 2021

Oral mycophenolate mofetil in the treatment of acquired dermal macular hyperpigmentation: An open-label pilot study.

Australas J Dermatol 2021 Mar 4. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.

Background: Literature on treating acquired dermal macular hyperpigmentation is sparse.

Aims And Objectives: To assess treatment response of mycophenolate mofetil in patients having acquired dermal macular hyperpigmentation.

Material And Methods: In this open-label, pilot study, patients of acquired dermal macular hyperpigmentation affecting at least the face and/or neck were included. Read More

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Neuropathy and chloracne induced by 3,5,6-trichloropyridin-2-ol sodium: Report of three cases.

World J Clin Cases 2021 Feb;9(5):1079-1086

Department of Dermatology, The Second Hospital of Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan 030001, Shanxi Province, China.

Background: Chloracne is a rare skin condition that is caused by systemic exposure to halogenated aromatic compounds. The main characteristic of chloracne is blackhead, and in severe cases, it can be accompanied by systemic symptoms. Sodium 3,5,6-trichloropyridin-2-ol (STCP) is a necessary precursor compound for the production of chlorpyrifos and triclopyr, which are extensively used as a pesticide and herbicide, respectively. Read More

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February 2021

Hemochromatosis, alcoholism and unhealthy dietary fat: a case report.

J Med Case Rep 2021 Feb 17;15(1):84. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Family Medicine, Meharry Medical College, Nashville, USA.

Background: Hereditary hemochromatosis is an autosomal recessive disorder where the clinical phenotype of skin pigmentation and organ damage occurs only in homozygotes. Simple heterozygotes, that is, just C282Y, typically do not develop iron overload. Here we present a case where a simple heterozygote in combination with alcoholism developed high ferritin and high transferrin saturation levels indicative of iron overload. Read More

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February 2021

Congenital Malformations in Sea Turtles: Puzzling Interplay between Genes and Environment.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Feb 8;11(2). Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Centro de Investigación en Alimentación y Desarrollo, Mazatlán, Sinaloa 82112, Mexico.

The completion of embryonic development depends, in part, on the interplay between genetic factors and environmental conditions, and any alteration during development may affect embryonic genetic and epigenetic regulatory pathways leading to congenital malformations, which are mostly incompatible with life. Oviparous reptiles, such as sea turtles, that produce numerous eggs in a clutch that is buried on the beach provide an opportunity to study embryonic mortality associated with malformations that occur at different times during development, or that prevent the hatchling from emerging from the nest. In sea turtles, the presence of congenital malformations frequently leads to mortality. Read More

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February 2021

Synbiotics supplement is effective for Melasma improvement.

J Cosmet Dermatol 2021 Jan 21. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Faculty of Public Health, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Background: Melasma is a disorder of melanogenesis among humans causing localized, chronic acquired hypermelanosis of the skin requiring a combination of treatments. Related studies have shown probiotics contribute distinct advantages for skin disorders possibly including melasma because of its anti-inflammatory activities, anti-oxidation properties, ultraviolet protection, and tyrosinase activity inhibition.

Aims: The study aimed to investigate the effects of synbiotics supplement on improving melasma (evaluated from mMASI score). Read More

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January 2021

Identification and characterization of novel variants: modulation of TPP1 protein level offsets the impact of germline loss-of-function variants on telomere length.

Cold Spring Harb Mol Case Stud 2021 Feb 19;7(1). Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Baylor College of Medicine, Integrated Molecular and Biomedical Sciences Graduate Program, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.

Telomere biology disorders, largely characterized by telomere lengths below the first centile for age, are caused by variants in genes associated with telomere replication, structure, or function. One of these genes, , which encodes the shelterin protein TPP1, is associated with both autosomal dominantly and autosomal recessively inherited telomere biology disorders. TPP1 recruits telomerase to telomeres and stimulates telomerase processivity. Read More

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February 2021

Evaluation of prognostic impact of pre-treatment neutrophil to lymphocyte and lymphocyte to monocyte ratios in dogs with oral malignant melanoma treated with surgery and adjuvant CSPG4-antigen electrovaccination: an explorative study.

Vet Comp Oncol 2021 Jun 15;19(2):353-361. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Torino, Grugliasco, Italy.

The role of systemic inflammation in cancer's progression has been widely investigated, especially in melanoma in humans. Pre-treatment leukocyte counts and ratios play a recognized prognostic role in several types of malignancies, but no information is available regarding canine oral malignant melanoma (COMM). The purpose of this explorative retrospective study was to investigate the prognostic impact of pre-treatment neutrophil to lymphocyte (NLR) and lymphocyte to monocyte (LMR) ratios in dogs with oral malignant melanoma that underwent surgical resection and immunotherapy with adjuvant CSPG4-antigen electrovaccination. Read More

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Liver Transplant for Management of Hepatic Complications of Dyskeratosis Congenita: A Case Report.

Exp Clin Transplant 2020 Nov 27. Epub 2020 Nov 27.

From the Division of Transplant Surgery, Department of Surgery, Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, Ohio, USA.

Dyskeratosis congenita, a rare genetic disorder typified by progressive bone marrow failure, is classically characterized by the triad of abnormal skin pigmentation, nail dystrophy, and oral leukoplakia; however, it is a multisystem disease. Although hepatic involvement occurs in about 7% of patients with dyskeratosis congenita, end-stage liver disease is rare. Treatment of dyskeratosis congenita generally involves hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Read More

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November 2020

Oral manifestations of COVID-19 disease: A review article.

Dermatol Ther 2021 Jan 13;34(1):e14578. Epub 2020 Dec 13.

Leishmaniasis Research Center, Afzalipour Hospital, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Dysgeusia is the first recognized oral symptom of novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19). In this review article, we described oral lesions of COVID-19 patients. We searched PubMed library and Google Scholar for published literature since December 2019 until September 2020. Read More

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January 2021

Levofloxacin-Induced Acute Hyperpigmentation Changes in a Chronic Kidney Disease Patient.

Case Rep Med 2020 7;2020:6186471. Epub 2020 Nov 7.

University of Missouri Hospital and Clinic, 1 Hospital Drive, Columbia, MO 65212, USA.

Medication-induced cutaneous hyperpigmentation has variable clinical presentations and is dependent on the specific drug involved. Most commonly, an attentive patient observes such changes early in the course; when missed by the patient, such changes are usually noted by an observant clinician. Clinical diagnosis can be challenging if the patient is on multiple medications because other causes must be excluded. Read More

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November 2020

Long-Term Results (24 Years) of the Treatment of Amalgam Tattoo in the Anterior Maxillary Region: A Histologic and Clinical Case Report.

Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent 2020 Nov/Dec;40(6):891-896

Amalgam tattoos are a serious cosmetic problem for patients. A 35-year-old woman came to a private periodontal practice complaining of black pigmentation (amalgam tattoo) above temporary crowns on the lateral and central maxillary incisors and asked that the cosmetic problem be solved before the new permanent crowns were cemented into place. A full-thickness coronoapical incision was made to raise a thick flap; another incision parallel to the surface of the alveolar mucosa made it possible to remove the pigmented connective tissue, which was sent for histologic examination. Read More

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November 2020

Adverse Drug Events in the Oral Cavity.

Dermatol Clin 2020 Oct 11;38(4):523-533. Epub 2020 Aug 11.

Division of Oral Medicine and Dentistry, Brigham and Women's Hospital, 75 Francis Street, Boston, MA 02115, USA; Department of Oral Medicine, Infection and Immunity, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, 188 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

Adverse reactions to medications are common and may have a variety of clinical presentations in the oral cavity. Targeted therapies and new biologic agents have revolutionized the treatment of cancers, autoimmune diseases, and inflammatory and rheumatologic diseases but have also been associated with adverse events in the oral cavity. This review describes the most common clinical presentations of oral mucosal reactions to medications, namely hyposalivation, lichenoid reactions, ulcers, bullous disorders, pigmentation, fibrovascular hyperplasia, reactive keratosis, dysesthesia, osteonecrosis, infection, angioedema, and malignancy. Read More

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October 2020

Pigmented Lesions.

Dermatol Clin 2020 Oct;38(4):485-494

Department of Oral Surgery, University of Pennsylvania, School of Dental Medicine, 240 South 40th Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.

Oral pigmented lesions have a wide range of clinical presentations, some of which correlate with cutaneous pigmented lesions. This article highlights these correlates and underscores important differences that can potentially have clinical impact. Moreover, given a nonspecific presentation of an oral pigmented lesion, the article provides a reference to aid clinicians with differential diagnoses based on clinical features. Read More

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October 2020

Treatment of the amalgam tattoo in the esthetic zone.

David P Mathews

J Esthet Restor Dent 2020 12 4;32(8):770-775. Epub 2020 Sep 4.

Specialist in Periodontics 4906 105th avenue court NW, Gig Harbor, Washington, USA.

Objective: When pigmentations appeared in the esthetic zone and were visible during the patient's smile, they were very disconcerting. There are multiple techniques to eradicate or ameliorate these discolorations. This article will address those pigmentations caused by amalgam particles. Read More

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December 2020

Four weeks of vitamin D supplementation improves nitric oxide-mediated microvascular function in college-aged African Americans.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2020 10 28;319(4):H906-H914. Epub 2020 Aug 28.

Department of Kinesiology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania.

Reduced nitric oxide (NO)-mediated cutaneous vasodilation, secondary to increased oxidative stress, presents in young African American (AA) compared with European American (EA) adults and may be modulated by vitamin D status. We assessed cutaneous microvascular function in 18 young, healthy (21 ± 2 yr; 9 men, 9 women) subjects before (pre, 8 AA, 10 EA) 4 wk of 2,000 IU/day oral vitamin D supplementation and in 13 subjects after (post, 7 AA, 6 EA) 4 wk of 2,000 IU/day oral vitamin D supplementation. Serum vitamin D concentrations [25(OH)D] were measured at each visit. Read More

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October 2020

[Medicaments and oral healthcare. Adverse effects of medications on the oral mucosa].

Ned Tijdschr Tandheelkd 2020 Jul-Aug;127(7-08):434-440

Many medications prescribed in the Netherlands have adverse effects on the oral mucosa. Adverse events often described are stomatitis, white lesions, abnormal pigmentation and sensibility disorders. Stomatitis is frequently observed in patients using medications for the treatment of malignancies or auto-immune diseases. Read More

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Bilateral Tarsal Conjunctival Pigmentation After Eight Months of Minocycline Therapy.

S D Med 2020 Aug;73(8):360-365

Department of Surgery, University of South Dakota Sanford School of Medicine.

A 71-year-old female presented to the ophthalmology clinic with bilateral brown to black pigmentary cysts in the lower palpebral conjunctiva following eight months of 100 mg twice daily oral minocycline therapy for long- standing pyoderma gangrenosum. Minocycline-induced pigmentation has been reported in skin, nails, teeth, mucosa, thyroid, bones, and sclera. To our knowledge, since 1981, only eight cases of minocycline-induced conjunctival pigmentation have been reported, all of which occurred after longer usage and higher cumulative doses of minocycline. Read More

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Granulomatous pigmented purpuric dermatosis in a young adolescent successfully treated with oral pentoxifylline: A case report.

Dermatol Ther 2020 11 26;33(6):e13995. Epub 2020 Jul 26.

Department of Dermatology, Health Science University, Ümraniye Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey.

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November 2020

Oral rehabilitation in a patient with Jeune syndrome presenting with multiple teeth agenesis.

Spec Care Dentist 2020 Sep 3;40(5):493-497. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Department of Dental Materials and Prosthodontics, School of Dentistry of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo (USP), Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil.

Jeune syndrome (JS) is a rare disease, with systemic manifestations, such as renal and hepatic insufficiency, retinal pigmentation, and respiratory insufficiency. Etiological factors have not been completely elucidated, but the molecular biology has contributed to the diagnosis and understanding of JS with DNA sequencing, showing the association among polymorphisms in different genes DYNC2H1 (MIM 603297) and TCTEX1D2 (MIM617353), which are the main genes associated with JS. There are a few reports on buccal findings in these patients; here, we present dental anomalies and clinical oral findings in a patient with JS, focusing on a multidisciplinary approach for rehabilitation. Read More

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September 2020

A case of new-onset vitiligo in a patient on tofacitinib and brief review of paradoxical presentations with other novel targeted therapies.

Dermatol Online J 2020 Mar 15;26(3). Epub 2020 Mar 15.

Department of Dermatology, Division of Internal Medicine, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX Department of Dermatology, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX.

With recent advancements in the understanding of vitiligo pathogenesis, Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors have emerged as a promising new treatment modality, but their effects remain incompletely elucidated. Tofacitinib, an oral JAK 1/3 inhibitor approved for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, has previously been shown to induce significant re-pigmentation in vitiligo. However, as with other novel targeted therapies, cutaneous adverse effects have been observed. Read More

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