5,333,759 results match your criteria Disorders of Carbohydrate Metabolism

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Cranberry juice decreases disease activity in women with rheumatoid arthritis.

Nutrition 2018 Oct 10;60:112-117. Epub 2018 Oct 10.

Department of Internal Medicine,University of Londrina, Londrina, Paraná, Brazil. Electronic address:

Objectives: Studies have shown that cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) has antiinflammatory and antioxidant effects; however, to our knowledge, the effects of cranberry juice consumption have not been studied in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The aim of this study was to verify the effect of cranberry juice consumption on several inflammatory biomarkers and on the disease activity of patients with RA.

Methods: A prospective study was conducted with 41 women diagnosed with RA. Read More

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October 2018
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Developmental toxicity of kresoxim-methyl during zebrafish (Danio rerio) larval development.

Chemosphere 2018 Dec 8;219:517-525. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Institute of Quality and Standard for Agro-products, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, State Key Laboratory Breeding Base for Zhejiang Sustainable Pest and Disease Control, Hangzhou, 310021, Zhejiang, China. Electronic address:

Kresoxim-methyl (KM) is a broad spectrum strobilurin fungicide that has been used widely on crops around the world. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the toxic effects of KM using various sublethal endpoints during zebrafish (Danio rerio) larval development. Results showed that the LC values of KM to zebrafish at multiple life stages (embryo, larvae, juvenile and adult) were 0. Read More

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December 2018

Functionalized rifampicin-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers enhance macrophages uptake and antimycobacterial activity.

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2018 Dec 4;175:306-313. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Laboratório de Fitotecnologia, Escola de Farmácia, Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, Ouro Preto, Brazil. Electronic address:

Tuberculosis is an infectious bacterial disease that causes millions of deaths worldwide. Current treatment recommended by WHO is effective, however it is an extensive and arduous process associated to severe adverse effects, which induces a low patient compliance and the emerging of multidrug resistant tuberculosis. Thus, as a main goal of this study, rifampicin nanoparticles were surface functionalized with a tuftsin-modifed peptide to selectively recognize receptors located on infected alveolar macrophages, enhancing nanoparticles uptake by these cells and improving antimycobacterial activity. Read More

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December 2018

An update on Drug Repurposing: Re-written saga of the drug's fate.

Biomed Pharmacother 2018 Dec 12;110:700-716. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Pharamacological Modelling and Simulation Centre, M.S.Ramaiah University of Applied Sciences, Bangalore, Karnataka, India; Department of Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmacy, M.S.Ramaiah University of Applied Sciences, Bangalore, Karnataka, India.

Drug repurposing is an unconventional drug discovery approach to explore new therapeutic benefits of existing, shelved and the drugs in clinical trials. This approach is currently emerging to overcome the bottleneck constraints faced during traditional drug discovery in grounds of financial support, timeline and resources. In this direction, several efforts were made for the construction of stratagems based on bioinformatics and computational tools to intensify the repurposing process off-late. Read More

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December 2018
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Therapeutic evaluation of acupoint stimulation with needle-scapelon on rat model of degenerative cervical intervertebral discs.

Biomed Pharmacother 2018 Dec 12;110:677-684. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Acupuncture, Qianfo Shan Hospital, Jinan, Shandong Province, 250014, China.

Cervical spondylosis (CS), which is resulted from degeneration of cervical intervertebral disc, is a common disease seriously threatening human health and quality of life. However, there is still no effective clinic strategies for the treatment of this disease. The acupoint stimulation with needle-scalpel is a widely used approach to treat orthopedic diseases. Read More

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December 2018

The renoprotective effect of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor sitagliptin on adenine-induced kidney disease in rats.

Biomed Pharmacother 2018 Dec 12;110:667-676. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 35, Al Khod, 123, Oman.

We assessed the effect of treatment with the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, sitagliptin, on adenine-induced chronic kidney disease (CKD). Six equal groups of rats were given either normal food or food mixed with adenine (0.25% w/w for five weeks) to induce CKD. Read More

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December 2018

Networks of problems: social, psychological, and genetic influences on health.

Curr Opin Psychol 2018 Nov 30;27:88-92. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Sociology, Stanford University, United States.

An emerging idea in psychopathology conceives of disorders as networks of mutually-reinforcing symptoms that constitute the disorder rather than simply reflect it. This is similar to how social scientists already view socioeconomic status, and has affinities to how physical health problems compound in later life. Social, psychological, and physical conditions might therefore be thought of as networks of problems with 'causal bridges' that span different levels and bring low SES, mental health challenges, and physical health problems into pervasive relationships with one another. Read More

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November 2018
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Immunophenotypic measurable residual disease (MRD) in acute myeloid leukemia: Is multicentric MRD assessment feasible?

Leuk Res 2018 Nov 27;76:39-47. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Department of Hematology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Flow-cytometric detection of now termed measurable residual disease (MRD) in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has proven to have an independent prognostic impact. In a previous multicenter study we developed protocols to accurately define leukemia-associated immunophenotypes (LAIPs) at diagnosis. It has, however, not been demonstrated whether the use of the defined LAIPs in the same multicenter setting results in a high concordance between centers in MRD assessment. Read More

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November 2018

Primary cultured neuronal networks and type 2 diabetes model mouse fatty liver tissues in aqueous liquid observed by atmospheric SEM (ASEM): Staining preferences of metal solutions.

Micron 2018 Nov 23;118:9-21. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Higashi 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8566, Japan. Electronic address:

Neural networking, including axon targeting and synapse formation, is the basis of various brain functions, including memory and learning. Diabetes-mellitus affects peripheral nerves and is known to cause fatty liver disease. Electron microscopy (EM) provides the resolution required to observe changes in fine subcellular structures caused by such physiological and pathological processes, but samples are observed in vacuum. Read More

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November 2018

Acid sphingomyelinase: No potential as a biomarker for multiple sclerosis.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2018 Nov 30;28:44-49. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Molecular Cell biology and Immunology, MS Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam Neuroscience, Amsterdam UMC - location VUmc, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) lacks reliable biomarkers that reflect disease activity. Recent evidence suggests that an altered sphingolipid metabolism is associated with MS pathogenesis.

Objective: To explore acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) activity and altered sphingolipid metabolism as potential biomarkers in serum of MS patients, to predict active and progressive disease, and response to disease modifying therapy (DMT). Read More

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November 2018
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Cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers link toxic astrogliosis and microglial activation to multiple sclerosis severity.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2018 Dec 5;28:34-43. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Neuroimmunological Diseases Section (NDS), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Building 10, Room 5N248, 10 Center Drive, MSC1444, Bethesda, MD 20892, United States. Electronic address:

Background: Once multiple sclerosis (MS) reaches the progressive stage, immunomodulatory treatments have limited efficacy. This suggests that processes other than activation of innate immunity may at least partially underlie disability progression during late stages of MS. Pathology identified these alternative processes as aberrant activation of astrocytes and microglia, and subsequent degeneration of oligodendrocytes and neurons. Read More

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December 2018

Autoimmune encephalitis following alemtuzumab treatment of multiple sclerosis.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2018 Dec 3;28:31-33. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Neurology, St Vincent's Hospital, 390 Victoria St, Darlinghurst, Sydney, NSW 2010, Australia.

Secondary autoimmune disorders are a recognised complication of alemtuzumab treatment for multiple sclerosis. We report a case of autoimmune encephalitis manifesting as a polymorphic epilepsia partialis continua / status epilepticus seven months after the second course of alemtuzumab in a patient with previous autoimmune hypothyroidism and immune thrombocytopenic purpura. An MRI revealed multifocal cortical abnormalities and neuronal loss was evident on biopsy. Read More

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December 2018
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Disrupted structural and functional brain networks in Alzheimer's disease.

Neurobiol Aging 2018 Nov 16;75:71-82. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Dementia Care & Research Center, Peking University Institute of Mental Health (Sixth Hospital), Beijing, China; Beijing Key Laboratory for Translational Research on Diagnosis and Treatment of Dementia, Beijing, China; National Clinical Research Center for Mental Disorders (Peking University Sixth Hospital), Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Studies have demonstrated that the clinical manifestations of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are associated with abnormal connections in either functional connectivity networks (FCNs) or structural connectivity networks (SCNs). However, the FCN and SCN of AD have usually been examined separately, and the results were inconsistent. In this multimodal study, we collected resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging data from 46 patients with AD and 39 matched healthy controls (HCs). Read More

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November 2018
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Influence of hypertension on brain amyloid deposition and Alzheimer's disease signature neurodegeneration.

Neurobiol Aging 2018 Nov 16;75:62-70. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Department of Neuropsychiatry, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea; Institute of Human Behavioral Medicine, Medical Research Center, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; Department of Psychiatry, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

This study aimed to investigate the relationship of hypertension with beta-amyloid (Aβ) and neurodegeneration biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and the modulating effect of apolipoprotein E-ε4 (APOE4). In total, 259 cognitively normal (CN) and 79 AD dementia older adults received clinical assessments including the evaluation for the presence of hypertension, [C]-Pittsburgh-compound-B-positron emission tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and APOE genotyping. We used a clinical stage-specific approach, separately focusing on CN and AD dementia stages. Read More

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November 2018

The association between the longitudinal course of common mental disorders and subsequent physical activity status in young adults: A 30-year birth cohort study.

J Psychiatr Res 2018 Dec 6;109:173-177. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Queensland Centre for Mental Health Research, The Park Centre for Mental Health, Wacol, Australia; School of Public Health, The University of Queensland, Herston, Australia; Metro North Mental Health, Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, Herston, Australia.

Low physical activity is a major public health concern. There has been extensive research examining the role of physical activity as a potentially modifiable risk factor for the onset of mental illness. However, fewer studies have reported how mental disorders affect future physical activity. Read More

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December 2018
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The therapeutic potential of curcumin: A review of clinical trials.

Eur J Med Chem 2018 Dec 7;163:527-545. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Phytochemistry Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, 11369, Iran; Department of Chemistry, Richardson College for the Environmental Science Complex, The University of Winnipeg, Winnipeg, MB, R3B 2G3, Canada. Electronic address:

Curcuma longa L., its derived extracts and even its major compound curcumin has a long history of use and doubtless effectiveness, reported through increasingly detailed in vitro, ex vivo, in vivo and even clinical trials. Regarding its biological effects, multiple health-promoting, disease-preventing and even treatment attributes has been remarkably highlighted. Read More

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December 2018
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Synthesis and evaluation of clioquinol-rolipram/roflumilast hybrids as multitarget-directed ligands for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

Eur J Med Chem 2018 Dec 7;163:512-526. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510006, China. Electronic address:

Considering the importance of PDE4D inhibition and the modulation of biometals in Alzheimer's disease (AD) therapeutics, we have designed, synthesized and evaluated a series of new clioquinol-rolipram/roflumilast hybrids as multitarget-directed ligands for the treatment of AD. In vitro studies demonstrated that some of the molecules processed remarkable inhibitory activity against phosphodiesterase 4D (PDE4D), strong intracellular antioxidant capacity, potent inhibition of metal-induced aggregation of Aβ, and potential blood-brain barrier permeability. Compound 7a demonstrated significant improvement in cognitive and spatial memory in an Aβ-induce mouse model in Morris water-maze test (MWM). Read More

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December 2018

Predictive factors associated with driving under the influence among Brazilian drug-using drivers.

Accid Anal Prev 2018 Dec 12;123:256-262. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Center for Drug and Alcohol Research, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Rua Professor Álvaro Alvim, 400, 90420-020, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.

The incidence of driving under the influence of psychoactive substances (DUI) and its recidivism can be curtailed by the proper identification of specific and predictive characteristics among drug users. In this sense, interpersonal violence (IV), psychiatric comorbidity and impulsivity seem to play an important role in DUI engagement according to previous studies. There are, however, limited data originated from low and middle income countries. Read More

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December 2018

Identification of BVDV2b and 2c subgenotypes in the United States: Genetic and antigenic characterization.

Virology 2018 Dec 12;528:19-29. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Ruminant Diseases and Immunology Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, USDA, ARS, Ames, IA 50010, USA.

Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), a ubiquitous pathogen of cattle, causes subclinical to severe acute disease. Two species of BVDV are recognized, BVDV1 and BVDV2 with BVDV1 divided into at least 21 subgenotypes and BVDV2 into 3-4 subgenotypes, most commonly using sequences from the 5' untranslated region (5' UTR). We report genomic sequencing of 8 BVDV2 isolates that did not segregate into the 2a subgenotype; but represented two additional BVDV2 subgenotypes. Read More

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December 2018

Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography studies of the schizophrenia spectrum: The legacy of Monte S. Buchsbaum, M.D.

Psychiatry Res 2018 Dec 7;271:535-540. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Psychiatry, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, United States; Mental Illness Research, Education, and Clinical Center (VISN 2), James J. Peters VA Medical Center, 130 West Kingsbridge Road, Room 6A-44, Bronx, NY, United States.

This is a selective review of the work of Buchsbaum and colleagues. It revisits and pays tribute to four decades of publications employing positron emission tomography (PET) with fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) to examine the neurobiology of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (including schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) and schizophrenia). Beginning with a landmark FDG-PET study in 1982 reporting hypofrontality in unmedicated schizophrenia patients, Buchsbaum and colleagues published high-impact work on regional glucose metabolic rate (GMR) abnormalities in the spectrum. Read More

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December 2018

Gut microbiota: a potential manipulator for host adipose tissue and energy metabolism.

J Nutr Biochem 2018 Nov 10;64:206-217. Epub 2018 Nov 10.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi, 712100, China. Electronic address:

Normally, the gut microbiota has a mutually beneficial association with host health and maintains its commensal status in mammals. Conversely, it can also negatively influence host physiology under some certain circumstances, including obesity and other disease states. Although numerous gut microbial functions directly affect the gastrointestinal tract, in this paper, we focus on the influences of the gut microbiota on host adipose tissue and energy metabolism, particularly lipometabolism. Read More

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November 2018
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Characterization of vanM carrying clinical Enterococcus isolates and diversity of the suppressed vanM gene cluster.

Infect Genet Evol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, China; Key Laboratory of Microorganism Technology and Bioinformatics Research of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, China. Electronic address:

Here we report the prevalence of the suppressed vanM gene cluster as a reservoir of vancomycin resistance genes. Among 1284 clinical isolates of enterococci from four hospitals in Hangzhou, China, 55 isolates of Enterococcus faecium and one isolate of Enterococcus faecalis screened positive for the vanM genotype. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed that 55 of the 56 vanM-positive isolates were susceptible to vancomycin and teicoplanin. Read More

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December 2018

Genetic susceptibility to Tuberculosis: Interaction between HLA-DQA1 and age of onset.

Infect Genet Evol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Microbiology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.

Several genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified new single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with susceptibility to Tuberculosis (TB). However, many of them were not replicated across ethnic groups. The cause of this phenomenon of genetic heterogeneity is uncertain. Read More

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December 2018
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Caffeine-stimulated muscle IL-6 mediates alleviation of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Key Laboratory of Pu-erh Tea Science, the Ministry of Education, Yunnan Agricultural University, Kunming 650201, China; State Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Bio-Resources in Yunnan, Kunming, China; Pu'erh Tea Research Institute, Pu'erh, China. Electronic address:

Caffeine intake is associated with a reduced risk developing non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain to be fully elucidated. We report here that caffeine markedly improved high fat diet-induced NAFLD in mice resulting in a 10-fold increase in circulating IL-6 levels, leading to STAT3 activation in the liver. Interestingly, the expression of IL-6 mRNA was not increased in the liver, but increased substantially in the muscles of caffeine-treated mice. Read More

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December 2018
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Perineal prevention and protection in obstetrics: CNGOF Clinical Practice Guidelines.

J Gynecol Obstet Hum Reprod 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Obs/Gyn, Epidemiologist. INSERM CIC1402, Université de Poitiers, CHU de Poitiers, France. Electronic address:

Introduction: The objective of these clinical practice guidelines was to analyse all of the interventions during pregnancy and childbirth that might prevent obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS) and postnatal pelvic floor symptoms.

Material And Methods: These guidelines were developed in accordance with the methods prescribed by the French Health Authority (HAS).

Results: A prenatal clinical examination of the perineum is recommended for women with a history of Crohn's disease, OASIS, genital mutilation, or perianal lesions (professional consensus). Read More

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December 2018
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Reduction of cerebral blood flow in community-based adults with subclinical cerebrovascular atherosclerosis: A 3.0T magnetic resonance imaging study.

Neuroimage 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Center for Biomedical Imaging Research, Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Reduction in cerebral blood flow (CBF), one of the major metrics for cerebral perfusion, is associated with many brain disorders. Therefore, early characterization of CBF prior to occurrence of symptoms is essential for prevention of cerebral ischemic disorders. We hypothesized that large artery atherosclerosis might be a potential indicator for decline in cerebral perfusion. Read More

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December 2018
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Zika Virus Diagnosis: Challenges and Solutions.

Clin Microbiol Infect 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Medicine, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine. Miami, FL, 33133 USA.

Background: Since its sudden appearance and link to microcephaly in 2015, the number of PubMed references for Zika virus (ZIKV) has risen from 181 to 5,163, as of writing, with a vast proportion focused on the consequences of ZIKV infection during pregnancy. This level of attention underlies increased demand for sensitive and specific diagnostic tools able to assess risk to an unborn child, as well as to understand the dynamics and consequences of viral persistence.

Aim: Review the expanding knowledge on ZIKV persistence and diagnostic challenges and summarize current advancements in detection. Read More

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December 2018

Clinical relevance of enteropathogen co-infections in preschool children - a population-based repeated cross-sectional study.

Clin Microbiol Infect 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Center for Infectious Disease Control, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven, the Netherlands; Department of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands.

Objectives: This study aimed to (i) determine risk factors for enteropathogen co-infections, (ii) determine whether enteropathogen co-infections influence gastroenteritis risk, and (iii) determine whether enteropathogen co-infection occurred randomly in preschool children.

Methods: A monthly-repeated cross-sectional survey in Dutch children aged 0-48 months was conducted during October 2012-October 2014. 981 stool samples were collected along with questionnaires collecting data on gastrointestinal symptoms and potential risk factors. Read More

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December 2018

Alpha-synuclein is highly prone to distribution in the hippocampus and midbrain in tree shrews, and its fibrils seed Lewy body-like pathology in primary neurons.

Exp Gerontol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Kunming 650118, China; Medical Primate Research Center & Neuroscience Center, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100005, China; Yunnan Key Laboratory of Vaccine Research Development on Severe Infectious Diseases, Kunming 650118, China. Electronic address:

The Chinese tree shrew (TS) has many unique advantages that make it suitable for use as an experimental animal model for human disease including moderate body size, low cost of feeding, short reproductive cycle and lifespan, and close phylogenetic relationship to primates. Our previous studies have shown that TS treated with the mitochondrial inhibitor MPTP displayed classic Parkinsonian symptoms. Additionally, the structure of TS alpha-synuclein (α-syn) is highly homologous to that found in humans. Read More

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December 2018

RelA driven co-expression of CXCL13 and CXCR5 is governed by a multifaceted transcriptional program regulating breast cancer progression.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Immunology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, University of Calcutta, Kolkata 700019, India. Electronic address:

Lethal metastasis of primary breast tumors to lymph nodes has been found to be associated with the co-expression of chemokine CXCL13 and its receptor CXCR5. To date, however, the precise molecular events regulating the co-expression of CXCL13 and CXCR5 in the context of breast cancer progression have not been identified. Therefore, to extend our understanding of the drivers of breast cancer metastasis, we undertook a line of investigation in this study in which we demonstrate that the transcriptional regulation of CXCL13 is mediated by the reciprocal activity of RelA and Nrf2, while CXCR5 is transcriptionally silenced by CpG island methylation within its promoter. Read More

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December 2018

Protective effect of low-intensity transcranial ultrasound stimulation after differing delay following an acute ischemic stroke.

Brain Res Bull 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Scientific Clinical Specialist, Siemens Ltd., Beijing, China.

Background: Ischemic stroke is a clinically common disease requiring early treatment in the acute period of stroke onset. Such early treatment reduces the level of brain injury, promotes functional recovery, and improves long-term prognosis. Previous studies have demonstrated that, in the event of an acute ischemic stroke, low-intensity transcranial ultrasound stimulation (LITUS) can provide neuroprotection. Read More

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December 2018

Immuno-Spin Trapping of Macromolecules Free Radicals In Vitro and In Vivo - One Stop Shopping for Free Radical Detection.

Free Radic Biol Med 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Inflammation, Immunity and Disease Laboratory, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, 111 T.W. Alexander Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA. Electronic address:

The only general technique that allows the unambiguous detection of free radicals is electron spin resonance (ESR). However, ESR spin trapping has severe limitations especially in biological systems. The greatest limitation of ESR is poor sensitivity relative to the low steady-state concentration of free radical adducts, which in cells and in vivo is much lower than the best sensitivity of ESR. Read More

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December 2018

Defective repair capacity of variant proteins of the DNA glycosylase NTHL1 for 5-hydroxyuracil, an oxidation product of cytosine.

Free Radic Biol Med 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Tumor Pathology, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu, Japan.

The NTHL1 gene encodes DNA glycosylase, which is involved in base excision repair, and biallelic mutations of this gene result in NTHL1-associated polyposis (NAP), a hereditary disease characterized by colorectal polyposis and multiple types of carcinomas. However, no proper functional characterization of variant NTHL1 proteins has been done so far. Herein, we report functional evaluation of variant NTHL1 proteins to aid in the accurate diagnosis of NAP. Read More

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December 2018

The RNA helicase DHX33 is required for cancer cell proliferation in human glioblastoma and confers resistance to PI3K/mTOR inhibition.

Cell Signal 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Biology, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen, Guangdong, China. Electronic address:

Human Glioblastoma is one deadly disease; the median survival time is reported to be 13.9 months after treatment. In the present study, we discovered that DHX33 is highly expressed in 84% of all Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Read More

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December 2018

Identification of a novel mutation in FBN1 in a Chinese family with inherited ectopia lentis by targeted NGS.

Gene 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Aier School of Ophthalmology, Central South University, Tianxin District, Changsha, Hunan Province 410015, China; WuhanAier Eye Hospital, Aier Eye Hospital Group, Wuchuan District, Wuhan, Hubei Province 430063, China. Electronic address:

Aims: To diagnose a Chinese family with inherited ectopia lentis in a genetic method and analyze the genotype-phenotype correlation.

Methods: The phenotype of each family member was identified by detailed clinical examination. We used targeted next generation sequencing (NGS) to identify mutations in FBN1 in an efficient and accurate way. Read More

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December 2018

The clinicopathologic impacts and prognostic significance of GLUT1 expression in patients with lung cancer: A meta-analysis.

Gene 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Thoracic Oncology, First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Medical College, Xi'an 710032, Shaanxi Province, PR China. Electronic address:

Background: Accumulating studies have reported that GLUT1 is aberrantly expressed in lung cancer; nevertheless, the clinicopathologic significance and the prognostic role of GLUT1 still remain controversial. The aim of this meta-analysis was to identify the clinicopathologic and prognostic implications of the GLUT1 expression in lung cancer patients.

Materials And Methods: Databases with literature published in English, including Cochrane Library, Embase, Web of Science, and PubMed, and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and WanFang database in Chinese were searched comprehensively for relevant studies in August 2017. Read More

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December 2018

Selective CB2 inverse agonist JTE907 drives T cell differentiation towards a Treg cell phenotype and ameliorates inflammation in a mouse model of inflammatory bowel disease.

Pharmacol Res 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Medicine, Section of Pharmacology, University of Perugia, Italy.

Cannabinoids are known to possess anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties, but the mechanisms involved are not fully understood. CB2 is the cannabinoid receptor that is expressed primarily on hematopoietic cells and mediates the immunoregulatory functions of cannabinoids. In order to study the effect of JTE907, a selective/inverse agonist of CB2 with anti-inflammatory properties, on the differentiation of T cell subtypes, we used an in vitro system of Th lineage-specific differentiation of naïve CD4 T lymphocytes isolated from the mouse spleen. Read More

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December 2018
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Comparison of fatigue, pain and depression in patients with advanced kidney disease and cancer - symptom burden and clusters.

J Pain Symptom Manage 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Surgery, Psychiatry and Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA.

Context: While symptom clusters have been studied in the context of cancer, few data exist in chronic and end stage kidney disease (CKD/ESKD) patients.

Objectives: To (1) characterize and compare symptom cluster phenotypes in patients with advanced CKD, ESKD and cancer, and (2) explore predictors of symptom clusters.

Methods: We conducted secondary data analysis of three prospective studies in which pain, depression, and fatigue were assessed in patients with stage 4-5 CKD, ESKD and gastrointestinal (GI) cancer. Read More

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December 2018

Human olfactory stem cells: As a promising source of dopaminergic neuron-like cells for treatment of Parkinson's disease.

Neurosci Lett 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Applied Biophotonics Research Center, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

The production of dopaminergic (DA) neurons from stem cells holds a great promise for future clinical treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease (PD). Olfactory ecto-mesenchymal stem cells (OE-MSCs) derived from the adult human olfactory mucosa can be easily isolated and expanded in culture while maintaining their immense plasticity. In addition to reduced ethical concerns, OE-MSCs could be transplanted across allogeneic barriers, making them desirable stem cells for clinical applications. Read More

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December 2018

Prostate Cancer Genomic Classifier Relates More Strongly to Gleason Grade Group than PI-RADS Score in Multi-Parametric Prostate MRI-Ultrasound Fusion Targeted Biopsies.

Urology 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Urology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT. Electronic address:

Objective: To assess the association between Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System version 2 (PI-RADSv2) score, the Decipher score and histologic grade of carcinoma in biopsy tissue among low- to intermediate-risk prostate cancer patients.

Methods: MRI-ultrasound targeted biopsy of regions of interest and concurrent 12-core systematic biopsy was performed on men with Gleason grade group (GG) 1 and 2. We compared Decipher score with PI-RADS scores and biopsy Gleason GG. Read More

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December 2018

Alternative splicing of the vitamin D receptor modulates target gene expression and promotes ligand-independent functions.

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, 1007 Agriculture & Life Sciences Building, Corvallis, OR 97331; USA; LS Pharma, 884 Park St., Lebanon, OR 97355; USA.

Alternative splicing modulates gene function by creating splice variants with alternate functions or non-coding RNA activity. Naturally occurring variants of nuclear receptor (NR) genes with dominant negative or gain-of-function phenotypes have been documented, but their cellular roles, regulation, and responsiveness to environmental stress or disease remain unevaluated. Informed by observations that class I androgen and estrogen receptor variants display ligand-independent signaling in human cancer tissues, we questioned whether the function of class II NRs, like the vitamin D receptor (VDR), would also respond to alternative splicing regulation. Read More

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December 2018

Gallstone formation as an example of the two-step space confined aggregation process.

Authors:
Jacek Siódmiak

Biosystems 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Institute of Mathematics and Physics, UTP University of Science and Technology, Al. Prof. S. Kaliskiego 7, 85-796 Bydgoszcz, Poland. Electronic address:

Gallstone disease and in particular its cholesterol type is one of the most common diseases of the digestive system. More than 10% of the population is affected by this disease and in the case of Native Indians of Peru and Chile this rate reaches as much as 100%. While the disease is well-researched from a medical point of view, the two-step mechanism of formation of gallstones is not well studied. Read More

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December 2018

Administration of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids may improve the remodeling and browning in subcutaneous white adipose tissue and thermogenic markers in brown adipose tissue in mice.

Mol Cell Endocrinol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Laboratory of Morphometry, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, Biomedical Center, Institute of Biology, State University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Electronic address:

The role of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in browning and thermogenesis has not been fully elucidated. Thus, we meant to evaluate the effect of EPA and DHA, administered alone or combined, with the activation of browning markers in subcutaneous white adipose tissue (sWAT), and thermogenic markers in brown adipose tissue (BAT). C57BL/6 adult male mice received a control diet or a high-fructose diet (HFru) for eight weeks, but after the first three weeks, HFru was divided into new groups: HFru, HFru + EPA, HFru + DHA, and HFru-EPA + DHA. Read More

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December 2018

Targeting the CD40-CD40L pathway in autoimmune diseases: Humoral immunity and beyond.

Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

MedImmune, Gaithersburg, MD 20878, United States. Electronic address:

CD40 is a TNF receptor superfamily member expressed on both immune and non-immune cells. Interactions between B cell-expressed CD40 and its binding partner, CD40L, predominantly expressed on activated CD4+ T cells, play a critical role in promoting germinal center formation and the production of class-switched antibodies. Non-hematopoietic cells expressing CD40 can also engage CD40L and trigger a pro-inflammatory response. Read More

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December 2018

The neural correlates of discrete gait characteristics in ageing: A Structured Review.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Institute of Neuroscience, Newcastle University Institute of Ageing, Newcastle Upon Tyne, UK; Newcastle Upon Tyne Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, UK. Electronic address:

Gait is complex, described by diverse characteristics underpinned by widespread central nervous system networks including motor and cognitive functions. Despite this, neural substrates of discrete gait characteristics are poorly understood, limiting understanding of gait impairment in ageing and disease. This structured review aims to map gait characteristics, defined from a pre-specified model reflecting independent gait domains, to brain imaging parameters in older adults. Read More

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December 2018
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Pathophysiological Mechanisms Implicated in Postpartum Depression.

Front Neuroendocrinol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Neuroscience, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, 02111, USA. Electronic address:

This review aims to summarize the diverse proposed pathophysiological mechanisms contributing to postpartum depression, highlighting both clinical and basic science research findings. The risk factors for developing postpartum depression are discussed, which may provide insight into potential neurobiological underpinnings. The evidence supporting a role for neuroendocrine changes, neuroinflammation, neurotransmitter alterations, circuit dysfunction, and the involvement of genetics and epigenetics in the pathophysiology of postpartum depression are discussed. Read More

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December 2018

Lower incidence of de novo donor-specific antibodies against HLA-DR in ABO-incompatible renal transplantation.

Hum Immunol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Renal Transplant Surgery, Aichi Medical University School of Medicine, 1-1 Yazakokarimata, Nagakute, Aichi 480-1195, Japan. Electronic address:

Recently, in vitro experiments have demonstrated that anti-blood group A/B antibody binding to endothelial cells induce a protective effect against antibody-mediated injury. This study aimed to clarify the potential clinical benefit of ABO incompatibility in donor-specific HLA antibody (DSA)-induced chronic antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR). We enrolled 215 ABO-incompatible renal transplant (ABO-I) and 467 ABO-identical/compatible renal transplant recipients (ABO-Id/C). Read More

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December 2018

Astaxanthin ameliorates scopolamine-induced spatial memory via reduced cortical-striato-hippocampal oxidative stress.

Brain Res 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of General and Experimental Psychology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Germany. Electronic address:

Alzheimer's disease is characterized by progressive disruption of cholinergic neurotransmission and impaired cognitive functions. In rodents, scopolamine has been used to induce cholinergic dysfunction resulting in cognitive impairments and an increment of oxidative stress in the brain. Here we tested whether oxidative stress can be attenuated via an antioxidant (astaxanthin) to rescue scopolamine-induced spatial memory. Read More

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December 2018

Identification of a circulating miRNA signature in extracellular vesicles collected from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients.

Brain Res 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Université de Moncton, 18 Antonine-Maillet Avenue, Moncton, New Brunswick, E1A 3E9, Canada. Electronic address:

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disorder associated with the progressive death of motor neurons. Mean survival for a patient diagnosed with ALS is between 2 to 5 years. Early and efficient diagnosis of the various forms of ALS remains a significant challenge, resulting in a need to identify clinically-relevant biomarkers in readily accessible body fluids. Read More

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December 2018

Baicalin alleviates 6-hydroxydopamine-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells by down-regulation of microRNA-192-5p.

Brain Res 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Neurosurgery, China-Japan Union Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin 130033, China. Electronic address:

Parkinson's disease (PD), which was caused by neurodegenerative disorder, has no effective treatment until now. Baicalin was reported to have neuroprotective effects. Hence, we investigated the effects of baicalin on PD in an in vitro cell model by using 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced neurotoxicity in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells. Read More

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December 2018
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