22,647 results match your criteria Disorders of Carbohydrate Metabolism


Fasting Ketonuria and the Risk of Incident Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease With and Without Liver Fibrosis in Nondiabetic Adults.

Am J Gastroenterol 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Center for Cohort Studies, Total Healthcare Center, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Introduction: Dietary carbohydrate restriction or ketogenic diets are known to be beneficial in preventing liver fat accumulation. However, the effect of ketonemia on the risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in nondiabetic population is largely unknown. We investigated the association between fasting ketonuria and the risk of incident NAFLD in healthy adults. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Gender characteristics of lipid profile parameters and markers of vascular inflammation in patients with stable angina pectoris in groups with presence and absence of type 2 diabetes.

Klin Lab Diagn 2021 Jun;66(6):325-332

Tyumen Cardiology Research Center, Tomsk National Research Medical Center RAS.

The study of the parameters of the lipid profile and markers of the inflammatory reaction of the vascular wall in patients with stable angina pectoris in the presence or absence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is of great importance for revealing the gender characteristics of the pathophysiological mechanisms of the development and course of diseases, developing secondary prevention of complications and determining the prognosis. 194 patients with stable angina pectoris (SA), single-vessel coronary artery disease, mean age 60.3 ± 7. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Oral Microbiome Characteristics in Patients With Autoimmune Hepatitis.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 19;11:656674. Epub 2021 May 19.

Department of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China.

Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a common cause of liver cirrhosis. To identify the characteristics of the oral microbiome in patients with AIH, we collected 204 saliva samples including 68 AIH patients and 136 healthy controls and performed microbial MiSeq sequencing after screening. All samples were randomly divided into discovery cohorts (46 AIH and 92 HCs) and validation cohorts (22 AIH and 44 HCs). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Draft genome of Puya raimondii (Bromeliaceae), the Queen of the Andes.

Genomics 2021 Jun 2;113(4):2537-2546. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Key Laboratory of Plant Resources Conservation and Sustainable Utilization and Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Applied Botany, South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, China; Center of Conservation Biology, Core Botanical Gardens, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, China; South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Puya raimondii, the Queen of the Andes, is an endangered high Andean species in the Bromeliaceae family. Here, we report its first genome to promote its conservation and evolutionary study. Comparative genomics showed P. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Metabolomics of Spleen-Yang deficiency syndrome and the therapeutic effect of Fuzi Lizhong pill on regulating endogenous metabolism.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Jun 1:114281. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

State Key Laboratory of Southwestern Chinese Medicine Resources; Pharmacy College, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu 611137, China.

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Spleen-Yang deficiency (SYD) is one of the primary causes of many digestive diseases, such as ulcerative colitis (UC), and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), but its endogenous metabolic characteristics are still unclear. Fuzi Lizhong pill (FLZP) is well-known for its powerful capacity for treating SYD; however, its mechanisms require further study.

Aim Of The Study: Herein, our present study aimed to investigate the essence of SYD from the perspective of metabolomics, and tried to reveal the anti-SYD action mechanisms of FLZP. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Pirfenidone modifies hepatic miRNAs expression in a model of MAFLD/NASH.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 3;11(1):11709. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Molecular Biology and Genomics, Institute for Molecular Biology in Medicine and Gene Therapy, Health Sciences University Center, University of Guadalajara, Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico.

miRNAs are involved in the development of metabolic associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). We aimed to evaluate modifications by prolonged-release pirfenidone (PR-PFD) on key hepatic miRNAs expression in a MAFLD/NASH model. First, male C57BL/6J mice were randomly assigned into groups and fed with conventional diet (CVD) or high fat and carbohydrate diet (HFD) for 16 weeks. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Synergistic sequence contributions bias glycation outcomes.

Nat Commun 2021 06 3;12(1):3316. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Chemistry, Tufts University, Medford, MA, USA.

The methylglyoxal-derived hydroimidazolone isomer, MGH-1, is an abundant advanced glycation end-product (AGE) associated with disease and age-related disorders. As AGE formation occurs spontaneously and without an enzyme, it remains unknown why certain sites on distinct proteins become modified with specific AGEs. Here, we use a combinatorial peptide library to determine the chemical features that favor MGH-1. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Roles of microRNAs in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism disorders and their therapeutic potential.

Biochimie 2021 Jun 1;187:83-93. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Tecnologico de Monterrey, School of Engineering and Sciences, Campus Queretaro, Av. Epigmenio Gonzalez, No. 500 Fracc, San Pablo, CP 76130, Querétaro, Mexico. Electronic address:

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small (∼21 nucleotides), endogenous, non-coding RNA molecules implicated in the post-transcriptional gene regulation performed through target mRNA cleavage or translational inhibition. In recent years, several investigations have demonstrated that miRNAs are involved in regulating both carbohydrate and lipid homeostasis in humans and other organisms. Moreover, it has been observed that the dysregulation of these metabolism-related miRNAs leads to the development of several metabolic disorders, such as type 2 diabetes, obesity, nonalcoholic fatty liver, insulin resistance, and hyperlipidemia. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Metabolic Alterations in Sepsis.

J Clin Med 2021 May 29;10(11). Epub 2021 May 29.

Chair of Internal Medicine and Department of Internal Medicine in Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences, Medical University of Lublin, 20-093 Lublin, Poland.

Sepsis is defined as "life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection". Contrary to the older definitions, the current one not only focuses on inflammation, but points to systemic disturbances in homeostasis, including metabolism. Sepsis leads to sepsis-induced dysfunction and mitochondrial damage, which is suggested as a major cause of cell metabolism disorders in these patients. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

A Review on Obesity Management through Natural Compounds and a Green Nanomedicine-Based Approach.

Molecules 2021 May 28;26(11). Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Zoology, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak 124001, India.

Obesity is a serious health complication in almost every corner of the world. Excessive weight gain results in the onset of several other health issues such as type II diabetes, cancer, respiratory diseases, musculoskeletal disorders (especially osteoarthritis), and cardiovascular diseases. As allopathic medications and derived pharmaceuticals are partially successful in overcoming this health complication, there is an incessant need to develop new alternative anti-obesity strategies with long term efficacy and less side effects. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Considerations for Maximizing the Exercise "Drug" to Combat Insulin Resistance: Role of Nutrition, Sleep, and Alcohol.

Nutrients 2021 May 18;13(5). Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Kinesiology & Health, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA.

Insulin resistance is a key etiological factor in promoting not only type 2 diabetes mellitus but also cardiovascular disease (CVD). Exercise is a first-line therapy for combating chronic disease by improving insulin action through, in part, reducing hepatic glucose production and lipolysis as well as increasing skeletal muscle glucose uptake and vasodilation. Just like a pharmaceutical agent, exercise can be viewed as a "drug" such that identifying an optimal prescription requires a determination of mode, intensity, and timing as well as consideration of how much exercise is done relative to sitting for prolonged periods (e. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Taxonomic and Gene Category Analyses of Subgingival Plaques from a Group of Japanese Individuals with and without Periodontitis.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 18;22(10). Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Microbiology, Tokyo Dental College, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0061, Japan.

Periodontitis is an inflammation of tooth-supporting tissues, which is caused by bacteria in the subgingival plaque (biofilm) and the host immune response. Traditionally, subgingival pathogens have been investigated using methods such as culturing, DNA probes, or PCR. The development of next-generation sequencing made it possible to investigate the whole microbiome in the subgingival plaque. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

MicroRNAs and Oxidative Stress: An Intriguing Crosstalk to Be Exploited in the Management of Type 2 Diabetes.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 May 19;10(5). Epub 2021 May 19.

Service of Endocrinology and Nutrition, University Hospital Doctor Peset, Foundation for the Promotion of Health and Biomedical Research in the Valencian Region (FISABIO), 46017 Valencia, Spain.

Type 2 diabetes is a chronic disease widespread throughout the world, with significant human, social, and economic costs. Its multifactorial etiology leads to persistent hyperglycemia, impaired carbohydrate and fat metabolism, chronic inflammation, and defects in insulin secretion or insulin action, or both. Emerging evidence reveals that oxidative stress has a critical role in the development of type 2 diabetes. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The Pentose Phosphate Pathway in Yeasts-More Than a Poor Cousin of Glycolysis.

Biomolecules 2021 May 12;11(5). Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Genetics, Faculty of Biology/Chemistry, University of Osnabrück, Barbarastrasse 11, D-49076 Osnabrück, Germany.

The pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) is a route that can work in parallel to glycolysis in glucose degradation in most living cells. It has a unidirectional oxidative part with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase as a key enzyme generating NADPH, and a non-oxidative part involving the reversible transketolase and transaldolase reactions, which interchange PPP metabolites with glycolysis. While the oxidative branch is vital to cope with oxidative stress, the non-oxidative branch provides precursors for the synthesis of nucleic, fatty and aromatic amino acids. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Targeting Mitochondrial Oncometabolites: A New Approach to Overcome Drug Resistance in Cancer.

Pharmaceutics 2021 May 20;13(5). Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of Oncology, University of Torino, via Santena 5/bis, 10126 Torino, Italy.

Drug resistance is the main obstacle for a successful cancer therapy. There are many mechanisms by which cancers avoid drug-mediated death, including alterations in cellular metabolism and apoptotic programs. Mitochondria represent the cell's powerhouse and the connection between carbohydrate, lipid and proteins metabolism, as well as crucial controllers of apoptosis, playing an important role not only in tumor growth and progression, but also in drug response. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Holter-Derived Autonomic Function, Arrhythmias and Carbohydrate Metabolism in Patients with Class III Obesity Treated with Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy.

J Clin Med 2021 May 15;10(10). Epub 2021 May 15.

Department of Internal Medicine and Cardiology, Medical University of Warsaw, 02-005 Warsaw, Poland.

The effects of weight loss following bariatric surgery on autonomic balance, arrhythmias and insulin resistance are still of interest. We prospectively investigated 50 patients with BMI > 40 kg/m, aged 36.5 (18-56) years who underwent laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Restoration of energy homeostasis by SIRT6 extends healthy lifespan.

Nat Commun 2021 05 28;12(1):3208. Epub 2021 May 28.

The Mina & Everard Goodman Faculty of Life Sciences, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan, Israel.

Aging leads to a gradual decline in physical activity and disrupted energy homeostasis. The NAD-dependent SIRT6 deacylase regulates aging and metabolism through mechanisms that largely remain unknown. Here, we show that SIRT6 overexpression leads to a reduction in frailty and lifespan extension in both male and female B6 mice. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Spinal Cord Injury Reduces Serum Levels of Fibroblast Growth Factor-21 and Impairs Its Signaling Pathways in Liver and Adipose Tissue in Mice.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 11;12:668984. Epub 2021 May 11.

National Center for the Medical Consequences of Spinal Cord Injury, James J. Peters VA Medical Center, Bronx, NY, United States.

Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in dysregulation of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism; the underlying cellular and physiological mechanisms remain unclear. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a circulating protein primarily secreted by the liver that lowers blood glucose levels, corrects abnormal lipid profiles, and mitigates non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. FGF21 acts activating FGF receptor 1 and ß-klotho in adipose tissue and stimulating release of adiponectin from adipose tissue which in turn signals in the liver and skeletal muscle. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Carbohydrate score and rice intake for breakfast, lunch, and dinner and impaired glucose metabolism in a working population: A cross-sectional study.

Clin Nutr ESPEN 2021 Jun 17;43:259-266. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Epidemiology and Prevention, Center for Clinical Sciences, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Background & Aim: Few studies have examined the association between carbohydrate intake and diabetes with consideration to time of eating. We investigated the association of carbohydrate score and rice intake for breakfast, lunch, and dinner with impaired glucose metabolism in a Japanese working population.

Methods: Participants were 1416 workers (aged 18-69 years) without a history of diabetes or serious disease who participated in a health survey. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The intravenous administration of skin-derived mesenchymal stem cells ameliorates hearing loss and preserves cochlear hair cells in cisplatin-injected mice: SMSCs ameliorate hearing loss and preserve outer hair cells in mice.

Hear Res 2021 May 5:108254. Epub 2021 May 5.

Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Mackay Medical College, New Taipei City, Taiwan; Department of Audiology and Speech-Language Pathology, Mackay Medical College, New Taipei City, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be isolated from different tissue origins, such as the bone marrow, the placenta, the umbilical cord, adipose tissues, and skin tissues. MSCs can secrete anti-inflammatory molecules and growth factors for tissue repair and remodeling. However, the ability of skin-derived MSCs (SMSCs) to repair cochlear damage and ameliorate hearing loss remains unclear. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Exploring the Impact of Glyoxal Glycation on β-Amyloid Peptide (Aβ) Aggregation in Alzheimer's Disease.

J Phys Chem B 2021 06 21;125(21):5559-5571. Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 100, Taiwan.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the presence of extracellular senile plaques formed by β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides in the patient's brain. Previous studies have shown that the plaques in the AD brains are colocalized with the advanced glycation end products, which is mainly formed from a series of nonenzymatic reactions of proteins with reducing sugars or reactive dicarbonyls. Glycation was also demonstrated to increase the neurotoxicity of the Aβ peptides. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Limited Association between the Total Healthy Eating Index-2015 Score and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Individuals with Long-Standing Spinal Cord Injury: An Exploratory Study: An Exploratory Study.

J Acad Nutr Diet 2021 May 17. Epub 2021 May 17.

Background: The healthy eating index-2015 (HEI-2015) reflects diet quality in reference to the 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA). Little is known regarding its application in individuals with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI).

Objective: To explore the relationship between diet quality as assessed by the HEI-2015 and cardiovascular risk factors among individuals with chronic SCI. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

FKRP-dependent glycosylation of fibronectin regulates muscle pathology in muscular dystrophy.

Nat Commun 2021 05 19;12(1):2951. Epub 2021 May 19.

Australian Regenerative Medicine Institute (ARMI), Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Science, Monash University, Clayton, VIC, Australia.

The muscular dystrophies encompass a broad range of pathologies with varied clinical outcomes. In the case of patients carrying defects in fukutin-related protein (FKRP), these diverse pathologies arise from mutations within the same gene. This is surprising as FKRP is a glycosyltransferase, whose only identified function is to transfer ribitol-5-phosphate to α-dystroglycan (α-DG). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Fructose and metabolic diseases: too much to be good.

Chin Med J (Engl) 2021 May 18;134(11):1276-1285. Epub 2021 May 18.

NHC Key Laboratory of Hormones and Development, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Metabolic Diseases, Tianjin Medical University Chu Hsien-I Memorial Hospital & Tianjin Institute of Endocrinology, Tianjin 300134, China.

Abstract: Excessive consumption of fructose, the sweetest of all naturally occurring carbohydrates, has been linked to worldwide epidemics of metabolic diseases in humans, and it is considered an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. We provide an overview about the features of fructose metabolism, as well as potential mechanisms by which excessive fructose intake is associated with the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases both in humans and rodents. To accomplish this aim, we focus on illuminating the cellular and molecular mechanisms of fructose metabolism as well as its signaling effects on metabolic and cardiovascular homeostasis in health and disease, highlighting the role of carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein in regulating fructose metabolism. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in obese children and adolescents: a role for nutrition?

Eur J Clin Nutr 2021 May 18. Epub 2021 May 18.

Section of Pediatric Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders Unit, Department of Surgical Sciences, Dentistry, Paediatrics and Gynaecology, University and Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Integrata of Verona, Verona, Italy.

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become the most common cause of chronic liver disease in children, paralleling the increasing prevalence of obesity worldwide. The pathogenesis of paediatric NAFLD is not fully understood, but it is known that obesity, nutrition, lifestyle variables, genetic and epigenetic factors may be causally involved in the development of this common metabolic liver disease. In particular, obesity and nutrition are among the strongest risk factors for paediatric NAFLD, which may exert their adverse hepatic effects already before birth. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

[The role of counterinsular hormones in the regulation of glucose homeostasis and the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus in COPD].

Authors:
V I Kobylyansky

Probl Endokrinol (Mosk) 2021 Feb 17;67(2):93-101. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Institution Scientific Research Institute Rulmonology.

The frequent combination of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an important socially significant and far from being studied problem. However, only a few works are devoted to it. To solve this problem, we analyzed the possible pathogenetic mechanisms from the standpoint of the impact on glucose homeostasis of the main hormones - insular and contrainsular. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Effects of different models of sucrose intake on the oxidative status of the uterus and ovary of rats.

PLoS One 2021 18;16(5):e0251789. Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Applied Microbiology and Human Nutrition Physiology, Faculty of Food Science and Fisheries, West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin, Szczecin, Poland.

The aim of the study was to assess the effect of different models of sucrose intake on carbohydrate-lipid metabolism and changes in oxidant balance in the ovaries and uterus of rats. Animals were divided into three groups: I-basic feed, II-feed contains 8% of sucrose, III-alternately every second week the basic feed and modified feed contains 16% of sucrose. The diet containing 8% of sucrose was found to result in an increased activity of antioxidant enzymes in the blood, with unchanged malonylodialdehyde concentration. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Bariatric surgery and the liver-Mechanisms, benefits, and risks.

Obes Rev 2021 May 18:e13294. Epub 2021 May 18.

Hepatology Research Unit, Department of Internal Medicine and Pediatrics, Liver Research Center Ghent, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.

The prevalence of obesity and metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has risen dramatically over the past decades. At present, bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment for this global health problem, through effects on food intake, gut hormone secretion, metabolic signaling pathways, and adipose tissue dysfunction. The liver occupies a central role in carbohydrate, protein, and lipid metabolism. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Predicting Cardiometabolic Risk From Visceral Abdominal Adiposity in Persons With Chronic Spinal Cord Injury.

J Clin Densitom 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Medical Service, James J. Peters Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Bronx, NY, USA; Department of Veterans Affairs Rehabilitation Research & Development Service, National Center for the Medical Consequences of Spinal Cord Injury, James J. Peters Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Bronx, NY, USA; Departments of Medicine and Rehabilitation and Human Performance, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount, Sinai, New York, NY, USA.

Persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) have increased adiposity that may predispose to cardiovascular disease compared to those who are able-bodied (AB). The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-derived visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and biomarkers of lipid metabolism and insulin resistance in persons with chronic SCI. A prospective observational study in participants with chronic SCI and age- and gender-matched AB controls. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Metabolic Complications in Cardiac Aging.

Front Physiol 2021 29;12:669497. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Center for Translational Medicine, Lewis Katz School of Medicine at Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, United States.

Aging is a process that can be accompanied by molecular and cellular alterations that compromise cardiac function. Although other metabolic disorders with increased prevalence in aged populations, such as diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and hypertension, are associated with cardiovascular complications; aging-related cardiomyopathy has some unique features. Healthy hearts oxidize fatty acids, glucose, lactate, ketone bodies, and amino acids for producing energy. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF