19,024 results match your criteria Disorders of Carbohydrate Metabolism


Diet quality and eating patterns in euthymic bipolar patients.

Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2019 Feb;23(3):1221-1238

Department of Adult Psychiatry, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznań, Poland.

Objective: As mood disorders and obesity are interrelated, and both are linked to increased morbidity and mortality, risk factors for obesity should be identified and closely monitored in patients with bipolar disorder (BD). The aim of this study was to determine the diet quality of BD patients and to investigate its putative associations with comorbid obesity and disorders of carbohydrate metabolism, as well as the relationship between diet and clinical features of BD.

Patients And Methods: Eating patterns in 113 euthymic BD patients and 160 healthy control subjects were assessed using data obtained from a food frequency questionnaire. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.26355/eurrev_201902_17016DOI Listing
February 2019

Chaperone Mediated Autophagy in the Crosstalk of Neurodegenerative Diseases and Metabolic Disorders.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2018 31;9:778. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Dentistry Faculty, Institute in Dentistry Sciences, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile.

Chaperone Mediated Autophagy (CMA) is a lysosomal-dependent protein degradation pathway. At least 30% of cytosolic proteins can be degraded by this process. The two major protein players of CMA are LAMP-2A and HSC70. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2018.00778DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6365421PMC
January 2019

Urine metabolic profiles in paediatric asthma.

Respirology 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Department of Paediatrics, Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, China.

Background And Objective: Asthma is a global problem and complex disease suited for metabolomic profiling. This study explored the candidate biomarkers specific to paediatric asthma and provided insights into asthmatic pathophysiology.

Methods: Children (aged 6-11 years) meeting the criteria for healthy control (n = 29), uncontrolled asthma (n = 37) or controlled asthma (n = 43) were enrolled. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/resp.13479DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Macronutrients and the adipose-liver axis in obesity and fatty liver.

Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol 2019 Feb 11. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Department of Medicine and Liver Center, University of California, San Francisco.

Macronutrient metabolism is a highly orchestrated process, with adipose tissue and liver each playing central roles in nutrient uptake, processing, transport and storage. These two tissues form an important metabolic circuit -- particularly as it relates to lipids as the primary storage form of excess energy. The function of the circuit is influenced by many factors, including the quantity and type of nutrients consumed and their impact on the overall health of the tissues. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcmgh.2019.02.001DOI Listing
February 2019

[The prospective of using plant polyphenols as functional food ingredients].

Vopr Pitan 2018 13;87(6):57-66. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Federal Research Centre of Nutrition, Biotechnology and Food Safety, Moscow.

In this review we briefly discuss the publications dedicated to experimental evaluation of hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant properties of different plant polyphenols. The stages of preclinical studies of their efficacy are presented: in silico studies with molecular docking methods and in vivo studies with the use of genetic and medicamental models of type 2 diabetes. The results of own studies present the substantiation of prospects of using the plant polyphenol extracts as functional food ingredients for diet therapy and treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.24411/0042-8833-2018-10067DOI Listing
November 2018

Relationship between HbA1c and Lipid Profile Seen in Bangladeshi Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients Attending BIRDEM Hospital: A Cross-Sectional Study.

Mymensingh Med J 2019 Jan;28(1):91-95

Dr Afsana Begum, Lecturer, Department of Biochemistry, Mugda Medical College (MuMC), Dhaka, Bangladesh; E-mail:

Diabetes mellitus is one of the leading non-communicable diseases all over the world including Bangladesh. Diabetes is characterized by chronic hyperglycemia and disturbances of carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level of ≥6. Read More

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January 2019

Physicochemical Properties and Health Benefits of Pistachio Nuts.

Int J Vitam Nutr Res 2019 Feb 12:1-11. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

8 Nutrition Research Center, Department of Clinical Nutrition, School of Nutritoin and Food Sciences, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

The genus of Pistacia plant systematically fits into the family of Anacardiaceae. Pistachios contain protein, carbohydrate, dietary fibers, fat, folic acid, vitamin K, magnesium and potassium, gama-tocopherols, phytochemicals, and polyphenols. Collectively, these constituents have been shown to possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory functions to improve overall health when consumed as a healthy diet. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1024/0300-9831/a000529DOI Listing
February 2019
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Metaproteomics reveals persistent and phylum-redundant metabolic functional stability in adult human gut microbiomes of Crohn's remission patients despite temporal variations in microbial taxa, genomes, and proteomes.

Microbiome 2019 Feb 11;7(1):18. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Chemical Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, 37831, USA.

Background: The gut microbiome plays a fundamental role in the human host's overall health by contributing key biological functions such as expanded metabolism and pathogen defense/immune control. In a healthy individual, the gut microbiome co-exists within the human host in a symbiotic, non-inflammatory relationship that enables mutual benefits, such as microbial degradation of indigestible food products into small molecules that the host can utilize, and enhanced pathogen defense. In abnormal conditions, such as Crohn's disease, this favorable metabolic relationship breaks down and a variety of undesirable activities result, including chronic inflammation and other health-related issues. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40168-019-0631-8DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Potassium restriction boosts vacuolar acidity and extends lifespan in yeast.

Exp Gerontol 2019 Feb 8. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

Buck Institute for Research on Aging, Novato, CA, United States of America; Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, UC Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, United States of America. Electronic address:

Lysosome function is compromised during aging and in many disease states. Interventions that promote lysosomal activity and acidification are thus of prime interest as treatments for longevity and health. Intracellular pH can be controlled by the exchange of protons for inorganic ions, and in cells from microbes to man, when potassium is restricted in the growth medium, the cytoplasm becomes acidified. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exger.2019.02.001DOI Listing
February 2019

Association of skeletal muscle and serum metabolites with maximum power output gains in response to continuous endurance or high-intensity interval training programs: The TIMES study - A randomized controlled trial.

PLoS One 2019 11;14(2):e0212115. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Laboratory of Exercise Physiology, School of Physical Education, University of Campinas, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil.

Background: Recent studies have begun to identify the molecular determinants of inter-individual variability of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in response to exercise training programs. However, we still have an incomplete picture of the molecular mechanisms underlying trainability in response to exercise training.

Objective: We investigated baseline serum and skeletal muscle metabolomics profile and its associations with maximal power output (MPO) gains in response to 8-week of continuous endurance training (ET) and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) programs matched for total units of exercise performed (the TIMES study). Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0212115PLOS
February 2019
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Glycogen metabolism and glycogen storage disorders.

Ann Transl Med 2018 Dec;6(24):474

Department of Pediatrics, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Glucose is the main energy fuel for the human brain. Maintenance of glucose homeostasis is therefore, crucial to meet cellular energy demands in both - normal physiological states and during stress or increased demands. Glucose is stored as glycogen primarily in the liver and skeletal muscle with a small amount stored in the brain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm.2018.10.59DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6331362PMC
December 2018
1 Read

Ascaris suum infection was associated with a worm-independent reduction in microbial diversity and altered metabolic potential in the porcine gut microbiome.

Int J Parasitol 2019 Feb 8. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Animal Parasitic Disease Laboratory, Beltsville, MD, USA. Electronic address:

The effect of infection of pigs with Ascaris suum on the microbial composition in the proximal colon and fecal matter was investigated using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The infection significantly decreased various microbial diversity indices including Chao1 richness, but the effect on Chao1 in the colon luminal contents was worm burden-independent. The abundance of 49 genera present in colon contents, such as Prevotella and Faecalibacterium, and 179 operational taxonomic units was significantly changed as a result of infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpara.2018.10.007DOI Listing
February 2019

Effect of a Long Bout Versus Short Bouts of Walking on Weight Loss During a Weight-Loss Diet: A Randomized Trial.

Obesity (Silver Spring) 2019 Feb 9. Epub 2019 Feb 9.

Medical Research Council/Arthritis Research UK Centre for Musculoskeletal Ageing Research, National Institute for Health Research Nottingham Biomedical Research Centre, School of Life Sciences, Nottingham Medical School, Nottingham, UK.

Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different daily physical activity (PA) frequencies, while maintaining the same daily volume of PA, on weight loss, carbohydrate metabolism, and lipid metabolism in women with overweight or obesity throughout a 24-week intervention.

Methods: During their weight-loss plan, 65 women (BMI = 27-35 kg/m ; age = 18-40 years) who had a sedentary lifestyle were randomly allocated to the following groups: diet plus a long bout of moderate physical activity (LBP) (one 50-minute bout of moderate-intensity PA) 6 d/wk or diet plus short bouts of moderate physical activity (SBP) (two 25-minute bouts of moderate-intensity PA) 6 d/wk. Anthropometric and blood measurements were taken at baseline and at 24 weeks. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/oby.22416DOI Listing
February 2019
3.734 Impact Factor

Ces1d deficiency protects against high-sucrose diet-induced hepatic triacylglycerol accumulation.

J Lipid Res 2019 Feb 8. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

University of Alberta, Canada;

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease. TG accumulation in liver is a hallmark of NAFLD. Metabolic studies have confirmed that increased hepatic de novo lipogenesis in humans contributes to fat accumulation in the liver and to NAFLD progression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1194/jlr.M092544DOI Listing
February 2019
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Infant mortality in Brazil attributable to inborn errors of metabolism associated with sudden death: a time-series study (2002-2014).

BMC Pediatr 2019 Feb 8;19(1):52. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

Graduate Program in Genetics and Molecular Biology, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil.

Background: The literature suggests that 0.9 to 6% of infants who die unexpectedly may have had a metabolic disorder. At least 43 different inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs) have been associated with sudden death (SUDI). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12887-019-1421-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6367785PMC
February 2019

Serum-based metabolomics characterization of patients with reticular oral lichen planus.

Arch Oral Biol 2019 Jan 30;99:183-189. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

First Affiliated Hospital, Heilongjiang University of Chinese Medicine, Harbin 150040, PR China. Electronic address:

Objective: Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory mucosal lesion and systemic disease. In OLP, reticular type is the most common presentation of the disease. However, little is known about it. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.archoralbio.2019.01.019DOI Listing
January 2019
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A ketogenic diet diminishes behavioral responses to cocaine in young adult male and female rats.

Neuropharmacology 2019 Feb 4;149:27-34. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Neuroscience Program, Hartford, CT, 06106, USA; Department of Psychology, Trinity College, Hartford, CT, 06106, USA. Electronic address:

Ketogenic diets (KDs) are high fat, low carbohydrate formulations traditionally used to treat epilepsy; more recently, KDs have shown promise for a wide range of other neurological disorders. Drug addiction studies suggest that repeated exposure to drugs of abuse, including cocaine, results in a suite of neurobiological changes that includes neuroinflammation, decreased glucose metabolism, and disordered neurotransmission. Given that KDs positively regulate these factors, we addressed whether administration of a KD has potential as a novel therapy for drug addiction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropharm.2019.02.001DOI Listing
February 2019

Management of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in South Africa: the International ChoLesterol management Practice Study (ICLPS).

Cardiovasc J Afr 2019 Jan 16;30:1-9. Epub 2019 Jan 16.

Sanofi-Aventis, Midrand, South Africa.

The International Cholesterol Management Practice Study (ICLPS) South Africa investigated achievement of European Society of Cardiology (ESC)/European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS) guideline low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) targets in real-world clinical practice. Demographic data, clinical characteristics, cardiovascular risk factors, lipid-modifying medications, lipid values and investigator's assessment of cardiovascular risk were recorded for 396 patients on stable lipid-modifying therapy. Most (98. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5830/CVJA-2018-054DOI Listing
January 2019

The ability of an LC-MS/MS-based erythrocyte GALT enzyme assay to predict the phenotype in subjects with GALT deficiency.

Mol Genet Metab 2019 Jan 22. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Manton Center for Orphan Disease Research, Division of Genetics and Genomics, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States. Electronic address:

Background: GALT deficiency is a rare genetic disorder of carbohydrate metabolism. Due to the decreased activity or absence of the enzyme galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase (GALT), cells from affected individuals are unable to metabolize galactose normally. Lactose consumption in the newborn period could potentially lead to a lethal disease process with multi-organ involvement. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymgme.2019.01.016DOI Listing
January 2019
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Sarcopenia in adults with congenital heart disease: Nutritional status, dietary intake, and resistance training.

J Cardiol 2019 Jan 31. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Department of Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, St. Luke's International Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: This study aimed (1) to assess the nutritional status and dietary intake, (2) compare the body composition and nutritional intake between sarcopenia and non-sarcopenia, and (3) evaluate the effects of resistance training and amino acid intake in adults with congenital heart disease (CHD).

Methods: Study 1 In total, 172 adults with CHD were prospectively enrolled. The Food Frequency Questionnaire was used, and body composition analysis was conducted. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jjcc.2019.01.003DOI Listing
January 2019

Efficacy of Real-Time Continuous Glucose Monitoring to Improve Effects of a Prescriptive Lifestyle Intervention in Type 2 Diabetes: A Pilot Study.

Diabetes Ther 2019 Jan 31. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Health and Biosecurity, Sydney, Australia.

Introduction: Optimising patient adherence to prescribed lifestyle interventions to achieve improved blood glucose control remains a challenge. Combined use of real-time continuous glucose monitoring systems (RT-CGM) may promote improved glycaemic control. This pilot study examines the effects of a prescriptive lifestyle modification programme when combined with RT-CGM on blood glucose control and cardiovascular disease risk markers. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s13300-019-0572-z
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13300-019-0572-zDOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Hyperoxia improves carbohydrate metabolism by browning of white adipocytes in obese type 2 diabetic rats.

Life Sci 2019 Mar 28;220:58-68. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

Endocrine Physiology Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Aims: Type 2 diabetes and obesity are associated with chronic hypoxia, which contributes to adipose tissue dysfunction and development of insulin resistance and metabolic disorders. We assessed long-term effects of hyperoxia on browning of adipocytes and carbohydrate metabolism in a murine model of type 2 diabetes.

Main Methods: Male Wistar rats (190-210 g) were divided into 4 groups: Control, O-treated control, untreated diabetes, and O-treated diabetes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2019.01.045DOI Listing
March 2019
2.702 Impact Factor

Oea Signaling Pathways and the Metabolic Benefits of Vertical Sleeve Gastrectomy.

Ann Surg 2018 Nov 20. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.

Objective: The aim of this study was to determine whether downstream [peroxisome proliferator-activated-receptor alpha (PPARα) and the G-protein coupled receptor, GPR119] and upstream (a fatty acid translocase, CD36) signaling targets of N-oleoylethanolamide (OEA) were necessary for weight loss, metabolic improvements, and diet preference following vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG).

Summary Background Data: OEA is an anorectic N-acylethanolamine produced from dietary fats within the intestinal lumen that can modulate lipid metabolism, insulin secretion, and energy expenditure by activating targets such as PPARα and GPR119.

Methods: Diet-induced obese mice, including wild-type or whole body knockout (KO) of PPARα, GPR119, and CD36, were stratified to either VSG or sham surgery before body weight, body composition, diet preference, and glucose and lipid metabolic endpoints were assessed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SLA.0000000000003093DOI Listing
November 2018

[INFLUENCE OF CHRONIC IMMOBILIZATION STRESS DURING PREGNANCY ON MORPHOFUNCTIONAL STATE OF THE LIVER IN FEMALE RATS DURING POSTPARTUM PERIOD].

Georgian Med News 2018 Dec(285):92-96

Kharkiv National Medical University, Ukraine.

Morphofunctional state of the liver (in particular, indexes of carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism, structural elements and condition of vascular endothelium of the liver) in female rats subjected to immobilization stress during pregnancy, has been studied. Morphological changes in the liver include discomplexation of beam-radial structure, pyknosis of hepatocyte nucleus, increased regeneration activity of parenchyma, and increased stromal parenchymal index. Functional disorders are manifested by development of dysproteinemia, hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia, and increased activity of organo-specific liver enzymes. Read More

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December 2018
4 Reads

A new look at dietary fibers in metabolic syndrome.

Authors:
E V Onuchina

Ter Arkh 2018 Apr;90(4):85-90

Irkutsk State Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education - Branch Campus of the Russian Medical Academy of Continuing Professional Education, Ministry of Health of Russia, Irkutsk, Russia.

Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a cluster of factors associated with high risk of initiation of cardiovascular diseases, of diabetes of the 2nd type, total and cardiovascular mortality. The prevalence of MS in the general population averages 10-25%, varying depending on the region of the world from 3 to 71.7%. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.26442/terarkh201890485-90DOI Listing

The effects of menopausal hormone therapy on proinflammatory cytokines and immunoglobulins in perimenopausal patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

Ter Arkh 2018 Nov;90(10):79-83

Endocrinology Research Centre, Moscow, Russia.

Aim: To determine the effects of menopausal hormone therapy dosage on levels of proinflammatory cytokines and immunoglobulins in bodily fluids of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) during perimenopause.

Materials And Methods: The study included 119 perimenopausal females with moderate type 2 DM and stable COPD with signs of menopausal syndrome. Cytokine levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and blood serum were measured with flow cytofluorometry (Вeckman Coulter FC500, USA) using a multiplex kit for human cytokines (BMS810FF) in adherence to the manufacturer's instructions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.26442/terarkh2018901079-83DOI Listing
November 2018
4 Reads

Influence of visceral obesity on the secretion of adipokines with epicardial adipocytes in patients with coronary heart disease.

Ter Arkh 2018 Nov;90(10):71-78

Research Institute for Complex Issues of Cardiovascular Disease, Kemerovo, Russia.

Aim: To study adipokine-cytokine profile of epicardial adipocytes (EAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) in conjunction with the area of visceral adipose tissue (VAT), biochemical and clinical characteristics of patients with coronary heart disease.

Materials And Methods: Examined 84 patients (70 men and 14 women) with coronary artery disease. In fact the presence of visceral obesity (VO) the patients were divided into two groups. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.26442/terarkh2018901071-78DOI Listing
November 2018
1 Read

Oxidative and carbonyl stress as a factors of the modification of proteins and DNA destruction in diabetes.

Ter Arkh 2018 Nov;90(10):46-50

National Medical Research Center for Cardiology, Moscow, Russia.

Aim: To study the oxidative damage of biopolymers (proteins and nucleic acids) in blood of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM).

Materials And Methods: In the blood of 50 patients with DM and 25 patients without disorders of carbohydrate metabolism were estimated: the level of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) by immunochemical method, the content of SH-groups in plasma proteins, the activity of Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD) in erythrocytes, the length of telomere in leukocyte DNA, the level of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxygunosine (8-oxo-dG) in plasma and urine.

Results: It is shown that in DM patients the level of oxLDL increases and the content of SH-groups in proteins and peptides of the blood plasma decreases, which indicates the development of oxidative stress. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.26442/terarkh2018901046-50DOI Listing
November 2018

Intrahepatic cholestasis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

Ter Arkh 2018 Feb;90(2):69-74

Petrozavodsk State University, Medical Institute, Propaedeutics of Internal Diseases and Hygiene Department, Petrozavodsk, Russia.

Aim: To determine the frequency of intrahepatic cholestasis and its impact on the clinical features of the different forms of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).

Materials And Methods: The study involved 163 patients with NAFLD: 92 (56.4%) with hepatic steatosis (HS), 56 (34. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.26442/terarkh201890269-74DOI Listing
February 2018

Cardiovascular disease and associated comorbid conditions as determinants of adverse  perinatal outcomes in pregnancy - an analysis of the results of the register of pregnant BEREG.

Ter Arkh 2018 Feb;90(1):9-16

Research Institute for complex issues of cardiovascular diseases.

Aim: the Aim of the BEREG Registry was to analyze the prevalence and structure of cardiovascular diseases, associated comorbid conditions and assess their effects on pregnancy and perinatal outcomes in real clinical practice.

Materials And Methods: In Tula city regional perinatal center the observation study named "Assessment of the clinical condition of the pregnant women with cardiovascular disease during gestation, at child delivery, at the early postpartum period and at twelve months after childbirth and assesment of perinatal outcomes, condition of the fetus and the newborn and the quality of treatment of these patients groups.  All eligibly pregnant women hospitalized in 2014 to "Tula regional perinatal center" have been recruited in the Registry. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.26442/terarkh20189019-16DOI Listing
February 2018
1 Read

The ketogenic diet influences taxonomic and functional composition of the gut microbiota in children with severe epilepsy.

NPJ Biofilms Microbiomes 2019 23;5. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

10Center for Translational Microbiome Research (CTMR), Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

The gut microbiota has been linked to various neurological disorders via the gut-brain axis. Diet influences the composition of the gut microbiota. The ketogenic diet (KD) is a high-fat, adequate-protein, low-carbohydrate diet established for treatment of therapy-resistant epilepsy in children. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41522-018-0073-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6344533PMC
January 2019

Critical Role of SREBP (Sterol Regulatory Element-Binding Protein)-1c Large-VLDL (Very Low-Density Lipoprotein) Pathway in Environment-Induced Hypertriglyceridemia of Apo AV Deficiency.

Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2019 Jan 31:ATVBAHA118311931. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

From the Department of Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases, Graduate School of Medicine, the University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Japan (Mikio Takanashi, T. Kimura, C.L., A.M., H. Yoshida, A.N., P.X., S.T., S.O., Y. Iizuka, T.G., T.Y., T. Kadowaki, H.O.).

Objective- APOA5 variants are strongly associated with hypertriglyceridemia, as well as increased risks of cardiovascular disease and acute pancreatitis. Hypertriglyceridemia in apo AV dysfunction often aggravates by environmental factors such as high-carbohydrate diets or aging. To date, the molecular mechanisms by which these environmental factors induce hypertriglyceridemia are poorly defined, leaving the high-risk hypertriglyceridemia condition undertreated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/ATVBAHA.118.311931DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

It takes a village: channeling fatty acid metabolism and triacylglycerol formation via protein interactomes.

J Lipid Res 2019 Jan 25. Epub 2019 Jan 25.

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; School of Public Health, United States

Diet, hormones, gene transcription, and post-translational modifications control the hepatic metabolism of FAs; metabolic dysregulation causes chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, and warrants exploration into the mechanisms directing FA and triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis and degradation. Long-chain FA metabolism begins by formation of an acyl-CoA by a member of the acyl-CoA synthetase family (ACSL). Subsequently, TAG synthesis begins with acyl-CoA esterification to glycerol-3-phosphate by a member of the glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) family. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1194/jlr.S091843DOI Listing
January 2019

Intrauterine growth restriction alters the genome-wide DNA methylation profiles in small intestine, liver and longissimus dorsi muscle of newborn piglets.

Curr Protein Pept Sci 2019 Jan 24. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition - College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University Beijing. China.

Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) remains a major problem in swine production since the associated low birth weight leads to high rates of pre-weaning morbidity and mortality, and permanent retardation of growth and development. The underlying regulatory mechanisms from the aspects of epigenetic modification receive widespread attention. Studies explore the changes in genome wide methylation in small intestine (SI), liver and longissimus dorsi muscle (LDM) between IUGR and normal birth weight (NBW) newborn piglets using a methylated DNA immunoprecipitation-sequencing (MeDIP-Seq) approach. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1389203720666190124165243DOI Listing
January 2019
8 Reads

Disorders Affecting Vitamin B metabolism.

J Inherit Metab Dis 2019 Jan 22. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Genetics and Genomic Medicine, UCL GOS Institute of Child Health, London WC1N 1EH, United Kingdom.

Vitamin B is present in our diet in many forms however only pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) can function as a cofactor for enzymes. The intestine absorbs non-phosphorylated B vitamers, which are converted by specific enzymes to the active PLP form. The role of PLP is enabled by its reactive aldehyde group. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/jimd.12060
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jimd.12060DOI Listing
January 2019
11 Reads

Liver transcriptome data of knockout male rats reveals altered expression of genes involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.

Data Brief 2019 Feb 4;22:771-780. Epub 2019 Jan 4.

Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160, United States.

Estrogens are traditionally considered to be female sex steroid hormones and most of the studies examining estrogen regulation of metabolic function in the liver have been conducted in females. However, the liver expresses high levels of estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) in both males and females, which mediates the hepatic response to estrogens. In this data article, we investigated whether metabolic disorders in knockout () male rats were linked with loss of transcriptional regulation by ESR1 in liver. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2018.12.089DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6330359PMC
February 2019

Ameliorates Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis by Improving Gut Microbial Dysbiosis in Mice Model.

Front Microbiol 2018 8;9:3260. Epub 2019 Jan 8.

Key Laboratory of Applied Technology on Green-Eco-Healthy Animal Husbandry of Zhejiang Province, College of Animal Science and Technology, Zhejiang A and F University, Hangzhou, China.

Several strains exert beneficial effects on the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis and host health. However, whether (BA) can improve gut microbial dysbiosis and ameliorate colitis is unknown. Therefore, we conducted the present study to investigate the effects of BA administration on intestinal morphology, inflammatory response, and colonic microbial composition in a mouse model of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2018.03260DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6331537PMC
January 2019

Gut microbial metabolites in obesity, NAFLD and T2DM.

Nat Rev Endocrinol 2019 Jan 22. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Department of Human Biology, NUTRIM School of Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre+, Maastricht, Netherlands.

Evidence is accumulating that the gut microbiome is involved in the aetiology of obesity and obesity-related complications such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The gut microbiota is able to ferment indigestible carbohydrates (for example, dietary fibre), thereby yielding important metabolites such as short-chain fatty acids and succinate. Numerous animal studies and a handful of human studies suggest a beneficial role of these metabolites in the prevention and treatment of obesity and its comorbidities. Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41574-019-0156-z
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41574-019-0156-zDOI Listing
January 2019
14 Reads

High expression of Chitinase 3-like-1 is an unfavorable prognostic factor in urothelial carcinoma of upper urinary tract and urinary bladder.

Urol Oncol 2019 Jan 16. Epub 2019 Jan 16.

Department of Pathology, Chi Mei Medical Center, Tainan, Taiwan; Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, Chung Hwa University of Medical Technology, Tainan, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Background: Metabolic adaptation in cancer cells is important for cancer cell survival. Alternation in cellular metabolism getting more energy to support cell proliferation played a critical role in disease progression. We initially analyzed the public transcriptome of urothelial carcinoma in Gene Expression Omnibus database (GSE31684) with particular focus on genes associated with carbohydrate metabolism, and found that Chitinase 3-like-1 (CHI3L1) was a significantly up-regulated gene associated with advanced disease status. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urolonc.2019.01.001DOI Listing
January 2019
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Discovery and Characterization of FMN-Binding β-Glucuronidases in the Human Gut Microbiome.

J Mol Biol 2019 Jan 15. Epub 2019 Jan 15.

Department of Chemistry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA; Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA; Department of Microbiology and Immunology, and Integrative Program for Biological and Genome Sciences, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA. Electronic address:

The human gut microbiota encodes β-glucuronidases (GUSs) that play key roles in health and disease via the metabolism of glucuronate-containing carbohydrates and drugs. Hundreds of putative bacterial GUS enzymes have been identified by metagenomic analysis of the human gut microbiome, but less than 10% have characterized structures and functions. Here we describe a set of unique gut microbial GUS enzymes that bind flavin mononucleotide (FMN). Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00222836193001
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmb.2019.01.013DOI Listing
January 2019
6 Reads

HPV, tumour metabolism and novel target identification in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

Br J Cancer 2019 Feb 17;120(3):356-367. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

Cancer Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK.

Background: Metabolic changes in tumour cells are used in clinical imaging and may provide potential therapeutic targets. Human papillomavirus (HPV) status is important in classifying head and neck cancers (HNSCC), identifying a distinct clinical phenotype; metabolic differences between these HNSCC subtypes remain poorly understood.

Methods: We used RNA sequencing to classify the metabolic expression profiles of HPV and HPV HNSCC, performed a meta-analysis on FDG-PET imaging characteristics and correlated results with in vitro extracellular flux analysis of HPV and HPV HNSCC cell lines. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-018-0364-7DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

BILATERAL INTERRELATIONSHIP OF DIABETES AND PERIODONTIUM.

Curr Diabetes Rev 2019 Jan 15. Epub 2019 Jan 15.

BAPUJI DENTAL COLLEGE AND HOSPITAL,PERIODONTICS. India.

Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease characterised by destruction of the supporting structures of the teeth which is a common cause of tooth mortality in all individuals throughout the world. Diabetes is a group of metabolic dysregulation, primarily of carbohydrate metabolism, characterized by hyperglycemia that results from defects in insulin secretion, impaired insulin action, or both. Systematic reviews and meta-analysis have shown that the prevalance of periodontitis is increased in diabetic patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1573399815666190115144534DOI Listing
January 2019
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The role of vitamin D in the human body with a special emphasis on dental issues: Literature review.

Dent Med Probl 2018 Oct-Dec;55(4):419-424

Department of Oral Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry, Wroclaw Medical University, Poland.

The aim of the study was to review the current literature on the role of vitamin D in dentistry. The term vitamin D is defined as a group of compounds which are cholesterol derivatives with a similar chemical structure. It is produced in the human body and passes through many stages of synthesis. Read More

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http://www.dmp.umed.wroc.pl/en/article/2018/55/4/419/
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http://dx.doi.org/10.17219/dmp/99051DOI Listing
January 2019
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Capacity To Utilize Raffinose Dictates Pneumococcal Disease Phenotype.

MBio 2019 Jan 15;10(1). Epub 2019 Jan 15.

Research Centre for Infectious Diseases, Department of Molecular and Biomedical Science, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia

is commonly carried asymptomatically in the human nasopharynx, but it also causes serious and invasive diseases such as pneumonia, bacteremia, and meningitis, as well as less serious but highly prevalent infections such as otitis media. We have previously shown that closely related pneumococci (of the same capsular serotype and multilocus sequence type [ST]) can display distinct pathogenic profiles in mice that correlate with clinical isolation site (e.g. Read More

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http://mbio.asm.org/lookup/doi/10.1128/mBio.02596-18
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.02596-18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6336424PMC
January 2019
3 Reads

Mammalian O-mannosyl glycans: Biochemistry and glycopathology.

Authors:
Tamao Endo

Proc Jpn Acad Ser B Phys Biol Sci 2019 ;95(1):39-51

Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology.

Glycosylation is an important posttranslational modification in mammals. The glycans of glycoproteins are classified into two groups, namely, N-glycans and O-glycans, according to their glycan-peptide linkage regions. Recently, O-mannosyl glycan, an O-glycan, has been shown to be important in muscle and brain development. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2183/pjab.95.004DOI Listing
January 2019

Homeostasis of Glucose and Lipid in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Jan 13;20(2). Epub 2019 Jan 13.

Department of Pediatrics, Taipei Tzu Chi Hospital, Buddhist Tzu Chi Medical Foundation, New Taipei City 23142, Taiwan.

Industrialized society-caused dysregular human behaviors and activities such as overworking, excessive dietary intake, and sleep deprivation lead to perturbations in the metabolism and the development of metabolic syndrome. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the most common chronic liver disease worldwide, affects around 30% and 25% of people in Western and Asian countries, respectively, which leads to numerous medical costs annually. Insulin resistance is the major hallmark of NAFLD and is crucial in the pathogenesis and for the progression from NAFLD to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20020298DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6359196PMC
January 2019
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Vibrational characterization of granulosa cells from patients affected by unilateral ovarian endometriosis: New insights from infrared and Raman microspectroscopy.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2019 Apr 4;212:206-214. Epub 2019 Jan 4.

Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita e dell'Ambiente, Università Politecnica delle Marche, via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona, Italy. Electronic address:

Endometriosis is a chronic gynaecological disease characterised by the presence of endometrial cells in extra-uterine regions. One of the main factors impacting on the fertility of women affected by endometriosis is the poor oocyte quality. Granulosa Cells (GCs) regulate oocyte development and maintain the appropriate microenvironment for the acquisition of its competence; hence, the dysregulation of these functions in GCs can lead to severe cellular damages also in oocytes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2018.12.054DOI Listing
April 2019
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Calcium Pyruvate Exerts Beneficial Effects in an Experimental Model of Irritable Bowel Disease Induced by DCA in Rats.

Nutrients 2019 Jan 10;11(1). Epub 2019 Jan 10.

CIBER-EHD, Department of Pharmacology, Center for Biomedical Research (CIBM), University of Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain.

Pyruvate is a normal constituent of the body that participates in carbohydrate metabolism and functions as a scavenger of free radicals. Calcium pyruvate monohydrate (CPM) is a more stable derivative that has proved its anti-inflammatory effect in experimental colitis, among other disorders, and that could also be considered a source of calcium. Thus, it would be useful for the treatment of diseases with an inflammatory component and a high prevalence of osteoporosis like the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu11010140DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6356508PMC
January 2019
3 Reads

Efficacy of Dual Inhibition of Glycolysis and Glutaminolysis for Therapy of Renal Lesions in Tsc2 Mice.

Neoplasia 2019 02 8;21(2):230-238. Epub 2019 Jan 8.

Institute of Medical Genetics, Division of Cancer and Genetics, School of Medicine, Cardiff University, Heath Park, Cardiff CF14 4XN, UK. Electronic address:

Tuberous sclerosis is caused by mutations in the TSC1 or TSC2 gene and characterized by development of tumors in multiple organs including the kidneys. TSC-associated tumors exhibit somatic loss of the second allele of the TSC genes, leading to aberrant activation of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. Activation of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) causes addiction to glucose and glutamine in Tsc1or Tsc2 mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neo.2018.12.003DOI Listing
February 2019
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A Designer Synbiotic Attenuates Chronic-Binge Ethanol-Induced Gut-Liver Injury in Mice.

Nutrients 2019 Jan 5;11(1). Epub 2019 Jan 5.

Department of Inflammation and Immunity, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA.

Gut dysbiosis and altered short-chain fatty acids are associated with ethanol-induced liver injury. SCFA are fermentation byproducts of the gut microbiota known to have many beneficial biological effects. We tested if a designer synbiotic could protect against ethanol-induced gut-liver injury. Read More

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http://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/11/1/97
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu11010097DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6357124PMC
January 2019
11 Reads