20,969 results match your criteria Disorders of Carbohydrate Metabolism


[Glycemic control in patients with diabetes mellitus on hemodialysis].

Ter Arkh 2019 Oct 15;91(10):124-134. Epub 2019 Oct 15.

Endocrinology Research Centre.

Achievement of stabilization of carbohydrate metabolism in patients with diabetes mellitus, receiving renal replacement therapy with hemodialysis, is a significant problem in endocrinology. It has to do with multiple factors of this cohort of patients, which affect the level of glycemia, pharmacokinetic of drugs, the efficiency of glycemic control. At the moment, the most efficiency method of glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus on hemodialysis is insulin therapy in the basis - bolus regime by analogues of human insulin. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.26442/00403660.2019.10.000352DOI Listing
October 2019

[Diabetes mellitus and chronic liver diseases. Part 1: general mechanisms of etiology and pathogenesis].

Ter Arkh 2019 Oct 15;91(10):106-111. Epub 2019 Oct 15.

Endocrinology Research Centre.

In recent years there has been an active discussion about the relationship between diabetes mellitus (DM) and chronic liver diseases (CLD). On the one hand, patients with diabetes have an increased risk of developing CLD. On the other hand, patients with CLD very often identify abnormal glucose metabolism which ultimately leads to impaired glucose tolerance and the development of diabetes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.26442/00403660.2019.10.000165DOI Listing
October 2019

[Problems of optimal nutrition of elderly and senile patients with comorbidities against obesity].

Ter Arkh 2019 Oct 15;91(10):19-27. Epub 2019 Oct 15.

Scientific Research Institute of Nutrition.

Aim: To analyze the effectiveness of the main and low - calorie standard diets in elderly and senile patients with comorbidities against obesity.

Materials And Methods: Retrospective analysis of the inpatient data. Patients received the main or low - calorie standard diet at the Nutrition clinic. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.26442/00403660.2019.10.000143DOI Listing
October 2019

[Analysis of the impact of vaccination of pneumococcal infection in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in combination with diabetes].

Ter Arkh 2019 Nov 15;91(11):49-54. Epub 2019 Nov 15.

South Ural State Medical University Department of Therapy Institute of Additional Professional Education.

Aim: The article presents data on the evaluation of the clinical efficacy of using a conjugated pneumococcal vaccine in patients with COPD in combination with 2-type diabetes during a 3-year follow - up period.

Materials And Methods: The study included 309 patients with an isolated course of COPD and in combination with diabetes. The main parameters for evaluating the effectiveness were: the dynamics of clinical symptoms - shortness of breath on the mMRC scale, CAT test, FEV1, the number of exacerbations, hospitalizations, the number of pneumonia, the state of carbohydrate metabolism (HbA1c) and the lipid profile. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.26442/00403660.2019.11.000424DOI Listing
November 2019

[Diabetes mellitus and chronic liver diseases. Literature review (part 2): treatment features].

Ter Arkh 2019 Dec 15;91(12):115-121. Epub 2019 Dec 15.

Endocrinology Research Centre.

Diabetes mellitus (DM) and chronic liver disease (CLD) are pathological conditions associated with each other and reaching epidemic proportions. There is a strong pathogenetic relationship of carbohydrate metabolism disorders and a number of CLD. Common mechanisms that provoke metabolic and autoimmune disorders in the development of various CLD, leading to steatosis, insulin resistance (IR), impaired glucose tolerance and the development of DM are described. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.26442/00403660.2019.12.000166DOI Listing
December 2019

Carbohydrate response element-binding protein regulates lipid metabolism via mTOR complex1 in diabetic nephropathy.

J Cell Physiol 2020 Jun 24. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Department of Pathology, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, China.

Lipid deposition caused by the disorder of renal lipid metabolism is involved in diabetic nephropathy (DN). Carbohydrate response element-binding protein (ChREBP) is a key transcription factor in high glucose-induced cellular fat synthesis. At present, the regulation and mechanism of ChREBP on fat metabolism in diabetic kidneys are still unclear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcp.29890DOI Listing

Comparison of Meconium Microbiome in Dizygotic and Monozygotic Twins Born by Caesarean Section (CS).

Front Microbiol 2020 3;11:1139. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, China.

The early-life microbiota triggers life-long effects on physiological functions and health disorders. Previous studies in adult twins or animal models have revealed associations between host genetics and the harmonious microbiota. However, such associations may be obscured by the fact that each intra-pair of twins will continually encounter various environmental factors as they grow up. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.01139DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7283445PMC

Leptin decreases de novo lipogenesis in patients with lipodystrophy.

JCI Insight 2020 Jun 23. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, United States of America.

De novo lipogenesis (DNL) plays a role in the development of hepatic steatosis. In humans with lipodystrophy, reduced adipose tissue causes lower plasma leptin, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and ectopic triglyceride (TG) accumulation. We hypothesized that recombinant leptin (metreleptin) for 6 months in 11 patients with lipodystrophy would reduce DNL by decreasing insulin resistance and glycemia, thus reducing circulating and hepatic-TG. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.137180DOI Listing

An Integrated Fecal Microbiome and Metabolomics in T2DM Rats Reveal Antidiabetes Effects from Host-Microbial Metabolic Axis of EtOAc Extract from .

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2020 27;2020:1805418. Epub 2020 May 27.

Key Laboratory of Digital Quality Evaluation of Chinese Materia Medical of State Administration of TCM, China.

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic metabolic disease. (), also named Kushen, is a famous Chinese herbal medicine that has been used to prevent and cure T2DM both in folk medicine and in medical institution. However, its mechanism of action remains unclear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/1805418DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7273480PMC

Chloroquine in controlling biological infections.

Pol Merkur Lekarski 2020 Jun;48(285):199-203

Mazovian Center of Rehabilitation STOCER, Konstancin-Jeziorna, Poland.

From the middle of the 17th century, Cinchona tree's bark, which contains quinine, was used as an anti-malarial agent. It wasn't until the midtwentieth century that chloroquine was synthesized, followed by its further derivatives. Chloroquine inhibits protozoan polymerase activity, leading to an increase in heme, which is toxic to Plasmodium. Read More

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Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors: Experimental Targeting for the Treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases.

Front Pharmacol 2020 27;11:730. Epub 2020 May 27.

UGC Salud Mental, Instituto de Investigación Biomédica de Málaga (IBIMA), Hospital Regional Universitario de Málaga, Universidad de Málaga, Málaga, Spain.

The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are a group of nuclear receptor proteins that promote ligand-dependent transcription of target genes that regulate energy production, lipid metabolism, and inflammation. The PPAR superfamily comprises three subtypes, PPARα, PPARγ, and PPARβ/δ, with differential tissue distributions. In addition to their different roles in the regulation of energy balance and carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, an emerging function of PPARs includes normal homeostasis of intestinal tissue. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2020.00730DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7266982PMC

Metabolic profiles of Oncomelania hupensis after molluscicidal treatment: Carbohydrate metabolism targeted and energy deficiency.

Acta Trop 2020 Jun 10;210:105580. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Department of Parasitology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071, Hubei Province, China. Electronic address:

Oncomelania hupensis is the intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum, one of the Schistosoma species that can cause human schistosomiasis. Molluscicidal treatment remains the primary means to control snail. Niclosamide is the only molluscicide recommended by the World Health Organization, and it has been used throughout schistosomiasis-endemic areas in China for almost 30 years. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2020.105580DOI Listing
June 2020
2.270 Impact Factor

The competitive athlete with type 1 diabetes.

Diabetologia 2020 Jun 12. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Applied Sport, Technology, Exercise and Medicine Research Centre (A-STEM), Swansea University, A111 Engineering East, Fabian Way, Crymlyn Burrows, Swansea, SA1 8EN, UK.

Regular exercise is important for health, fitness and longevity in people living with type 1 diabetes, and many individuals seek to train and compete while living with the condition. Muscle, liver and glycogen metabolism can be normal in athletes with diabetes with good overall glucose management, and exercise performance can be facilitated by modifications to insulin dose and nutrition. However, maintaining normal glucose levels during training, travel and competition can be a major challenge for athletes living with type 1 diabetes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00125-020-05183-8DOI Listing

[Effects of residual apple fermentation products on continuous cropping soil environment and the growth of Malus hupehensis Rehd. Seedlings].

Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao 2020 May;31(5):1443-1450

College of Horticulture Science and Engineering, Shandong Agricultural University/State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology, Tai'an 271018, Shandong, China.

Effects of fermented apple products on the growth of continuous cropping Malus hupehensis Rehd. seedlings and soil environment were examined in a pot experiment to provide theoretical basis for apple replant disease. There were four treatments, the replanted soil (control, CK), sterilized replant soil (T), replanted soil applied with apple fermentation products (T), and replanted soil applied with sterilized apple fermentation products (T). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.13287/j.1001-9332.202005.028DOI Listing

Destigmatizing Carbohydrate with Food Labeling: The Use of Non-Mandatory Labelling to Highlight Quality Carbohydrate Foods.

Nutrients 2020 Jun 9;12(6). Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5B 1W8, Canada.

Dietary carbohydrates are components of healthy foods, but many carbohydrate foods have recently been stigmatized as primary causes of diet-related risk factors for chronic disease. There is an opportunity to enhance efforts within the food landscape to encourage the consumption of higher quality carbohydrate foods. The use of labelling is one strategy that permits consumers to identify healthy carbohydrate foods at the point-of-purchase. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12061725DOI Listing

Dietary habits, lipoprotein metabolism and cardiovascular disease: From individual foods to dietary patterns.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2020 Jun 9:1-19. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Lipids and Atherosclerosis Unit, IMIBIC/Reina Sofia University Hospital/University of Cordoba, Cordoba, Spain.

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the first cause of mortality in Western countries. Among cardiometabolic risk factors, dyslipidemia, and especially high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations, have been extensively linked to the development and progression of atherosclerosis and to CVD events. Recent evidence has shown that the prevention of unhealthy dietary habits and sedentarism is crucial in the management of dyslipidemia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2020.1764487DOI Listing

Suppression of High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity by Platycodon Grandiflorus in Mice Is Linked to Changes in the Gut Microbiota.

J Nutr 2020 Jun 8. Epub 2020 Jun 8.

College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, National Engineering Research Center for Fruit and Vegetable Processing, Key Laboratory of Fruit and Vegetable Processing, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China.

Background: The root of Platycodon grandiflorus (PG) has a long-standing tradition in the Asian diet and herbal medicine, because of its anti-inflammatory and antiobesity effects. Changes in the gut microbiota can have dietary effects on host health, which suggests a relation between the 2.

Objectives: The aim of our study was to investigate the relation between PG-mediated suppression of obesity and the composition and functioning of the gut microbiota. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxaa159DOI Listing

In vivo dual RNA-seq reveals that neutrophil recruitment underlies differential tissue tropism of Streptococcus pneumoniae.

Commun Biol 2020 Jun 5;3(1):293. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Research Centre for Infectious Diseases, Department of Molecular and Biomedical Science, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, 5005, Australia.

Streptococcus pneumoniae is a genetically diverse human-adapted pathogen commonly carried asymptomatically in the nasopharynx. We have recently shown that a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the raffinose pathway regulatory gene rafR accounts for a difference in the capacity of clonally-related strains to cause localised versus systemic infection. Using dual RNA-seq, we show that this SNP affects expression of bacterial genes encoding multiple sugar transporters, and fine-tunes carbohydrate metabolism, along with extensive rewiring of host transcriptional responses to infection, particularly expression of genes encoding cytokine and chemokine ligands and receptors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s42003-020-1018-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7275033PMC

Lactobacillus casei LH23 modulates the immune response and ameliorates DSS-induced colitis via suppressing JNK/p-38 signal pathways and enhancing histone H3K9 acetylation.

Food Funct 2020 Jun;11(6):5473-5485

Key Laboratory of Industrial Fermentation Microbiology, Ministry of Education and Tianjin, College of Biotechnology, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, 300457, P.R. China. and Tianjin Engineering Research Center of Microbial Metabolism and Fermentation Process Control, Tianjin 300457, China.

Probiotics are thought to have immunomodulatory functions, improve inflammatory disorders and treat inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Here, we screened a new probiotic strain with anti-inflammatory activity and investigated its effect on the immune cell response and histone acetylation. Lactobacillus casei (L. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0fo00546kDOI Listing

Urinary metabolomic signatures in reticular oral lichen planus.

Heliyon 2020 May 22;6(5):e04041. Epub 2020 May 22.

College of Pharmacy, Guizhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Guian new area 550025, PR China.

Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory disease. Among all the clinical forms in OLP, reticular type has the highest incidence rate. Previous studies have applied metabolomics to investigate the metabolic changes of oral mucosa and blood samples from reticular OLP patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e04041DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7256305PMC

Ruminal Methanogenic Responses to the Thiamine Supplementation in High-Concentrate Diets.

Animals (Basel) 2020 May 28;10(6). Epub 2020 May 28.

State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, Institute of Animal Science, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193, China.

Background: Thiamine supplementation in high-concentrate diets (HC) was confirmed to attenuate ruminal subacute acidosis through promoting carbohydrate metabolism, however, whether thiamine supplementation in HC impacts methane metabolism is still unclear. Therefore, in the present study, thiamine was supplemented in the high-concentrate diets to investigate its effects on ruminal methanogens and methanogenesis process.

Methods: an in vitro fermentation experiment which included three treatments: control diet (CON, concentrate/forage = 4:6; DM basis), high-concentrate diet (HC, concentrate/forage = 6:4; DM basis) and high-concentrate diet supplemented with thiamine (HCT, concentrate/forage = 6:4, DM basis; thiamine supplementation content = 180 mg/kg DM) was conducted. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10060935DOI Listing

Polyglucosan body structure in Lafora disease.

Carbohydr Polym 2020 Jul 14;240:116260. Epub 2020 Apr 14.

Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY, 40536, USA; Lafora Epilepsy Cure Initiative, Epilepsy and Brain Metabolism Center, and Center for Structural Biology, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY, 40536, USA. Electronic address:

Abnormal carbohydrate structures known as polyglucosan bodies (PGBs) are associated with neurological disorders, glycogen storage diseases (GSDs), and aging. A hallmark of the GSD Lafora disease (LD), a fatal childhood epilepsy caused by recessive mutations in the EPM2A or EPM2B genes, are cytoplasmic PGBs known as Lafora bodies (LBs). LBs result from aberrant glycogen metabolism and drive disease progression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2020.116260DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7266828PMC

Effect of red kaolin on the diversity of functional genes based on Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways during chicken manure composting.

Bioresour Technol 2020 Sep 26;311:123584. Epub 2020 May 26.

College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi Province 712100, China. Electronic address:

The transcription and expression of functional genes governed the biotransformation of nutrients during composting. In this study, the diversities of functional genes were investigated in 50 days chicken manure composting through six treatments amended with different dosage of red kaolin. Results showed that based on Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway annotation, Metabolism possessed largest proportion and richest genes number among six pathways, of which carbohydrate metabolism (81007) were significantly greater than others; while Human Disease and Organismal Systems were relatively lower. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2020.123584DOI Listing
September 2020
4.494 Impact Factor

Effects of a High-Protein Diet on Cardiometabolic Health, Vascular Function, and Endocannabinoids-A PREVIEW Study.

Nutrients 2020 May 22;12(5). Epub 2020 May 22.

Department of Nutrition and Movement Sciences, Maastricht University Medical Centre, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands.

An unfavorable lipid profile and being overweight are known mediators in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. The effect of diet, particularly high in protein, remains under discussion. Therefore, this study examines the effects of a high-protein (HP) diet on cardiometabolic health and vascular function (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12051512DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7284520PMC

Proteomic investigation of interhyphal interactions between strains of Agaricus bisporus.

Fungal Biol 2020 Jun 28;124(6):579-591. Epub 2020 Feb 28.

Department of Biology, Maynooth University, Maynooth, Co. Kildare, Ireland; Kathleen Lonsdale Institute for Human Health Research, Maynooth University, Maynooth, Co. Kildare, Ireland. Electronic address:

Hyphae of filamentous fungi undergo polar extension, bifurcation and hyphal fusion to form reticulating networks of mycelia. Hyphal fusion or anastomosis, a ubiquitous process among filamentous fungi, is a vital strategy for how fungi expand over their substrate and interact with or recognise self- and non-self hyphae of neighbouring mycelia in their environment. Morphological and genetic characterisation of anastomosis has been studied in many model fungal species, but little is known of the direct proteomic response of two interacting fungal isolates. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.funbio.2020.02.011DOI Listing

An altered fecal microbial profiling in rosacea patients compared to matched controls.

J Formos Med Assoc 2020 May 20. Epub 2020 May 20.

Faculty of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan; Division of Translational Research, Center of Excellence for Cancer Research, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; Institute of Biomedical Informatics and Institute of Clinical Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan; Department of Public Health, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan; National Institute of Cancer Research, National Health Research Institutes, Maioli, Taiwan; Taiwan Microbiota Consortium, Taipei, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Background/purpose: Rosacea has been linked to inflammatory bowel disease and small bowel bacterial overgrowth. We aimed to investigate the fecal microbial profiling and the potential gene functions between rosacea and non-rosacea subjects.

Methods: A case-control study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfma.2020.04.034DOI Listing

Impact of mariculture-derived microplastics on bacterial biofilm formation and their potential threat to mariculture: A case in situ study on the Sungo Bay, China.

Environ Pollut 2020 Jul 9;262:114336. Epub 2020 Mar 9.

Yellow Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Qingdao, 266071, China.

Microplastics (MPs) pollution in the marine environment has attracted considerable global attention. However, the colonization of microorganisms on mariculture-derived MPs and their effects on mariculture remain poorly understood. In this study, the MPs (fishing nets, foams and floats) and a natural substrate, within size ranges (1-4 mm), were then incubated for 21 days in Sungo Bay (China), and the composition and diversity of bacterial communities attached on all substrates were investigated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.114336DOI Listing

Predictive model of bosentan-induced liver toxicity in Japanese patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension.

Can J Physiol Pharmacol 2020 May 20. Epub 2020 May 20.

Kobe Pharmaceutical University, 12883, Clinical Pharmaceutical Science , 4-19-1, Motoyama-kitamachi, Higashinada , Kobe, Japan , 658-8588.

Bosentan, an endothelin receptor antagonist, has been widely used as a first-line medication for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). However, liver dysfunction is a major side effect of bosentan treatment that could hamper the optimal management of patients with PAH. Previously, we demonstrated, using drug metabolism enzymes and transporters (DMET) analysis, that the carbohydrate sulfotransferase 3 (CHST3) and CHST13 alleles are significantly more frequent in patients with elevated amino-transferases during therapy with bosentan than they are in patients without liver toxicity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/cjpp-2019-0656DOI Listing

LXRα Regulates ChREBPα Transactivity in a Target Gene-Specific Manner through an Agonist-Modulated LBD-LID Interaction.

Cells 2020 May 13;9(5). Epub 2020 May 13.

Department of Molecular Medicine, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, N-0317 Oslo, Norway.

The cholesterol-sensing nuclear receptor liver X receptor (LXR) and the glucose-sensing transcription factor carbohydrate responsive element-binding protein (ChREBP) are central players in regulating glucose and lipid metabolism in the liver. More knowledge of their mechanistic interplay is needed to understand their role in pathological conditions like fatty liver disease and insulin resistance. In the current study, LXR and ChREBP co-occupancy was examined by analyzing ChIP-seq datasets from mice livers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells9051214DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7290792PMC

Gene Expression Profiling of Mediators Associated with the Inflammatory Pathways in the Intestinal Tissue from Patients with Ulcerative Colitis.

Mediators Inflamm 2020 18;2020:9238970. Epub 2020 Jan 18.

Inflammatory Bowel Disease Clinic, Department of Gastroenterology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, México City, Mexico.

Background: Multiple genes have been associated with IBD, and many of these can be linked to alterations in autophagy, UPR, ubiquitination, and metabolic and immune response pathways. The aim of this study was to analyze a transcriptomic panel of mediators associated with the inflammatory pathways in the colonic mucosa of UC patients. . Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/9238970DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7201440PMC
January 2020

SRC-2 Coactivator: a role in human metabolic evolution and disease.

Authors:
Bert W O'Malley

Mol Med 2020 May 14;26(1):45. Epub 2020 May 14.

Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, 1 Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX, 77030, USA.

The large family of transcriptional coactivators originated with the cloning of the subfamily of Steroid Receptor Coactivators (SRC-1,2,3). These 3 coactivators serve as primary 'master genes' to direct the coordinate transcription of multiple genes required for physiological goals in cells, specifically, carbohydrate, lipid, or anabolic growth metabolisms. SRC-2 is of special interest in terms of lipid metabolism and energy accrual and is the topic of a collection of our research discoveries and publications described in this Perspective. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s10020-020-00168-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7227291PMC

High Glucose Induces Lipid Accumulation via 25-Hydroxycholesterol DNA-CpG Methylation.

iScience 2020 May 29;23(5):101102. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

Department of Internal Medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University/McGuire VA Medical Centre, Research 151, 1201 Broad Rock Boulevard, Richmond, VA 23249, USA. Electronic address:

This work investigates the relationship between high-glucose (HG) culture, CpG methylation of genes involved in cell signaling pathways, and the regulation of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in hepatocytes. The results indicate that HG leads to an increase in nuclear 25-hydroxycholesterol (25HC), which specifically activates DNA methyltransferase-1 (DNMT1), and regulates gene expression involved in intracellular lipid metabolism. The results show significant increases in CpG levels in at least 2,225 genes involved in 57 signaling pathways. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2020.101102DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7225732PMC

A Brazilian regional basic diet-induced chronic malnutrition drives liver inflammation with higher ApoA-I activity in C57BL6J mice.

Braz J Med Biol Res 2020 8;53(6):e9031. Epub 2020 May 8.

Laboratório da Biologia da Cicatrização Tecidual, Ontogenia e Nutrição de Tecidos, Departamento de Morfologia e Instituto de Biomedicina, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza, CE, Brasil.

Malnutrition is still considered endemic in many developing countries. Malnutrition-enteric infections may cause lasting deleterious effects on lipid metabolism, especially in children living in poor settings. The regional basic diet (RBD), produced to mimic the Brazilian northeastern dietary characteristics (rich in carbohydrate and low in protein) has been used in experimental malnutrition models, but few studies have explored the effect of chronic RBD on liver function, a central organ involved in cholesterol metabolism. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1414-431x20209031DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7228546PMC

Cardiovascular Risk Distribution in a Contemporary Polish Collective.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 May 9;17(9). Epub 2020 May 9.

Department of Nursing, Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin, Żołnierska 48, 71-210 Szczecin, Poland.

The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of selected risk factors for cardiovascular disease (hypertension, overweight, obesity, carbohydrate metabolism disorders, a positive family history, a lack of physical activity), and to estimate the risk of a cardiovascular incident according to the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) algorithm for patients aged 35, 40, 45, 50, and 55 years, included in a primary-care prevention program, with regard to selected variables (sex and age brackets). The study sample consisted of 2009 subjects, 63% of whom were women. The largest group was the group of 35-year-olds (27%). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17093306DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7246610PMC

Thyroid dysfunction in patients with diabetic retinopathy.

Endokrynol Pol 2020 ;71(2):176-183

Clinical Department of Endocrinology, Diabetology, and Internal Diseases, School of Medicine, Collegium Medicum, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Poland.

Thyroid disease and diabetes mellitus (DM) are the most common endocrinopathies in clinical practice that interact with each other. On the one hand, thyroid hormones regulate carbohydrate metabolism and pancreas functions, and on the other hand DM affects the function and work of the thyroid gland. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a highly specific neurovascular complication of both type 1 and type 2 DM, which is a significant cause of vision loss on a global scale. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/EP.a2020.0013DOI Listing
January 2020

Molecular changes in transcription and metabolic pathways underlying muscle atrophy in the CuZnSOD null mouse model of sarcopenia.

Geroscience 2020 May 12. Epub 2020 May 12.

Aging & Metabolism Research Program, Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, Oklahoma City, OK, USA.

Mice lacking the superoxide anion scavenger CuZn superoxide dismutase (Sod1 mice) develop a number of age-related phenotypes, including an early progression of muscle atrophy and weakness (sarcopenia) associated with loss of innervation. The purpose of this study was to delineate the early development of sarcopenia in the Sod1 mice and to measure changes in the muscle transcriptome, proteome, and eicosanoid profile at the stage when sarcopenia is markedly induced in this model (7-9 months of age). We found a strong correlation between muscle atrophy and mitochondrial state 1 hydroperoxide production, which was 40% higher in isolated mitochondria from Sod1 mouse gastrocnemius muscle by 2 months of age. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11357-020-00189-xDOI Listing

Habenula lesions improve glucose metabolism in rats with type 2 diabetes by increasing insulin sensitivity and inhibiting gluconeogenesis.

BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care 2020 May;8(1)

School of Medicine, Dalian University, Dalian, China

Introduction: The habenular nucleus (Hb), a famous relay station in the midbrain, is vital for controlling many physiological functions of vertebrates. The role of Hb in the pathogenesis of depression has been thoroughly studied, but whether it functions in the pathogenesis of diabetes remains unknown. In this study, we found that Hb lesions could improve glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) by inhibiting the peripheral sympathetic nervous system and hepatic glucose production. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjdrc-2020-001250DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7223026PMC

Beyond Body Weight-Loss: Dietary Strategies Targeting Intrahepatic Fat in NAFLD.

Authors:
Nicolai Worm

Nutrients 2020 May 6;12(5). Epub 2020 May 6.

Department of Nutrition, German University for Prevention and Health Care Management, 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany.

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has emerged as the most prevalent liver disease in industrialized countries. It is regarded as the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) resulting from insulin resistance. Moreover, insulin resistance impairs glycogen synthesis, postprandially diverting a substantial amount of carbohydrates to the liver and storing them there as fat. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12051316DOI Listing

Heme oxygenase-1 alleviated non-alcoholic fatty liver disease via suppressing ROS-dependent endoplasmic reticulum stress.

Life Sci 2020 Jul 3;253:117678. Epub 2020 May 3.

Department of Traditional and Western Medical Hepatology, Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, 050051 Shijiazhuang, China; Hebei Provincial Key Laboratory of Liver Fibrosis in Chronic Liver Diseases, China. Electronic address:

Aims: The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response plays a crucial role in the development of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) exerts beneficial effects against oxidative injury in NASH. This study is aimed to clarify whether HO-1 is an effective therapeutic strategy for NASH via regulation of ER stress. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2020.117678DOI Listing

New aspects of hepatic endothelial cells in physiology and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2020 Jun 6;318(6):C1200-C1213. Epub 2020 May 6.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Beadle Center, Lincoln, Nebraska.

The liver is the central metabolic hub for carbohydrate, lipid, and protein metabolism. It is composed of four major types of cells, including hepatocytes, endothelial cells (ECs), Kupffer cells, and stellate cells. Hepatic ECs are highly heterogeneous in both mice and humans, representing the second largest population of cells in liver. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpcell.00062.2020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7311747PMC

Novel variants in turkish patients with glycogen storage disease.

Pediatr Int 2020 May 6. Epub 2020 May 6.

University of Health Sciences, Kanuni Sultan Süleyman Training and Research Hospital, Division of Pediatric Metabolism, Istanbul, Turkey.

Background: Glycogen storage diseases (GSD) are disorder of autosomal recessive carbohydrate metabolism characterized by glycogen accumulation. Commonly affected organs are liver and muscle tissue, but patients may present with different clinical manifestations. The presence of glycogen can be demonstrated in biopsies and definitive diagnosis can be made by enzymatic or molecular analysis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ped.14286DOI Listing

Metabolomic Profiling Revealed Potential Biomarkers in Patients With Moyamoya Disease.

Front Neurosci 2020 21;14:308. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Jining First People's Hospital, Jining Medical University, Jining, China.

Metabolomics is increasingly used to observe metabolic patterns and disease-specific metabolic biomarkers. However, serum metabolite analysis of moyamoya disease (MMD) is rarely reported. We investigated serum metabolites in MMD and compared them with those of healthy controls (HCs) using a non-targeted gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) approach to identify metabolic biomarkers associated with MMD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2020.00308DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7186471PMC

Evaluation of toxic effects of platinum-based antineoplastic drugs (cisplatin, carboplatin and oxaliplatin) on green alga Chlorella vulgaris.

Aquat Toxicol 2020 Jun 24;223:105495. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran; Environment Research Center, Research Institute for Primordial Prevention of Non-Communicable Disease, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran. Electronic address:

Platinum-based antineoplastic drugs (PBADs) enter the environment via hospital and municipal wastes as reactive and highly toxic molecules. Chlorella vulgaris is a freshwater microalgae and is used as an excellent aquatic model for toxicity assessment. In the present study, the toxicity of PBADs to C. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2020.105495DOI Listing

Substituting Lean Beef for Carbohydrate in a Healthy Dietary Pattern Does Not Adversely Affect the Cardiometabolic Risk Factor Profile in Men and Women at Risk for Type 2 Diabetes.

J Nutr 2020 May 2. Epub 2020 May 2.

Midwest Biomedical Research Center for Metabolic and Cardiovascular Health, Addison, IL, USA.

Background: Observational evidence suggests that red meat intake is associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease incidence, but few randomized controlled trials have assessed effects of lean, unprocessed red meat intake on insulin sensitivity and other cardiometabolic risk factors.

Objective: This study compared the USDA Healthy US-Style Eating Pattern, low in saturated fat and red meat (<40 g/d red meat; USDA-CON), with a modified version with an additional 150 g/d lean beef as an isocaloric replacement for carbohydrate (USDA-LB) on insulin sensitivity and cardiometabolic risk markers.

Methods: Participants (7 men, 26 women; 44. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxaa116DOI Listing

Microbiota Composition and Metabolism Are Associated With Gut Function in Parkinson's Disease.

Mov Disord 2020 May 1. Epub 2020 May 1.

Pacific Parkinson's Research Centre and Djavad Mowafaghian Centre for Brain Health, UBC, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Background: Parkinson's disease is characterized by a high burden of gastrointestinal comorbidities, especially constipation and reduced colonic transit time, and by gut microbiota alterations. The diverse metabolites produced by the microbiota are broadly relevant to host health. How microbiota composition and metabolism relate to gastrointestinal function in Parkinson's disease is largely unknown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mds.28052DOI Listing

Vitamin D receptor promotes healthy microbial metabolites and microbiome.

Sci Rep 2020 Apr 30;10(1):7340. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, USA.

Microbiota derived metabolites act as chemical messengers that elicit a profound impact on host physiology. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) is a key genetic factor for shaping the host microbiome. However, it remains unclear how microbial metabolites are altered in the absence of VDR. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-64226-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7192915PMC

Amino acids serve as an important energy source for adult flukes of Clonorchis sinensis.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2020 04 30;14(4):e0008287. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Department of Parasitology, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, People's Republic of China.

Clonorchiasis, caused by chronic infection with Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis), is an important food-borne parasitic disease that seriously afflicts more than 35 million people globally, resulting in a socioeconomic burden in endemic regions. C. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0008287DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7217481PMC

Metabolic monitoring via on-line analysis of 13C-enriched carbon dioxide in exhaled mouse breath using substrate-integrated hollow waveguide infrared spectroscopy and luminescence sensing combined with Bayesian sampling.

J Breath Res 2020 Apr 28. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Institute of Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, Universitaet Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, 89081 Ulm, Ulm, GERMANY.

In studies that target specific functions or organs, the response is often overlaid by indirect effects of the intervention on global metabolism. The metabolic side of these interactions can be assessed based on total energy expenditure (TEE) and the contributions of the principal energy sources, carbohydrates, proteins and fat to whole body CO2 production. These parameters can be identified from indirect calorimetry using respiratory oxygen intake and CO2 dioxide production data that are combined with the response of the 13CO2 release in the expired air and the glucose tracer enrichment in plasma following a 13C glucose stable isotope infusion. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1752-7163/ab8dcdDOI Listing

Hypoglycaemia and its management in primary care setting.

Diabetes Metab Res Rev 2020 Apr 28:e3332. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Hypoglycaemia is common in patients with type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes and constitutes a major limiting factor in achieving glycaemic control among people with diabetes. While hypoglycaemia is defined as a blood glucose level under 70 mg/dL (3.9 mmol/L), symptoms may occur at higher blood glucose levels in individuals with poor glycaemic control. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/dmrr.3332DOI Listing