4,193,527 results match your criteria Disease Models & Mechanisms [Journal]


T-cell immunology of the lung: maintaining the balance between host defence and immune pathology.

Authors:
Daniel M Altmann

Immunology 2019 Jan;156(1):1-2

Department of Medicine, Hammersmith Hospital, London, UK.

Respiratory immunology poses the dual questions of how to grapple with lung infection as one of the greatest unmet global health needs of our time, while also dealing with the growing challenge posed by chronic diseases of excessive or inappropriate lung inflammation and immunity, such as chronic obstructive lung disease and asthma. These separate branches of pulmonary research are linked by the clear observation that, in a tissue as fragile as the lung, protection from microbial attack may come at the cost of chronic inflammatory damage. A number of recent studies have considered specific aspects of this double-edged sword, including the diversity of responses to fungal exposure, sources and consequences of interleukin-17 immunity, and the role of tertiary lymphoid follicles in the lung. Read More

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January 2019
10 Reads

Neurofilament Light in the Serum and Cerebrospinal Fluid of Hip Fracture Patients with Delirium.

Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2018 Dec 6;46(5-6):346-357. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Oslo Delirium Research Group, Department of Geriatric Medicine, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

Background: Delirium is associated with new-onset dementia, suggesting that delirium pathophysiology involves neuronal injury. Neurofilament light (NFL) is a sensitive biomarker for neuroaxonal injury.

Methods: NFL was measured in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) (n = 130), preoperative serum (n = 192), and postoperative serum (n = 280) in hip fracture patients, and in CSF (n = 123) and preoperative serum (n = 134) in cognitively normal older adults undergoing elective surgery. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Impact of Hybrid Therapy Comprising Peritoneal Dialysis and Hemodialysis on Acute Cardiovascular Events.

Blood Purif 2018 Dec 6:1-7. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Background: The impact of hybrid therapy comprising peritoneal dialysis (PD) and hemodialysis on cardiovascular events in PD patients remains unclear.

Objective: We aimed to evaluate the effect of hybrid therapy on cardiovascular events.

Methods: A total of 93 PD patients undergoing hybrid therapy for ≥3 years were divided into 2 groups according to left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF): lower ejection fraction (LEF [n = 29], LVEF < 60%) and normal ejection fraction (NEF [n = 64], LVEF ≥60%). Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Microbial Intervention as a Novel Target in Treatment of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Progression.

Cell Physiol Biochem 2018 Dec 6;51(5):2123-2135. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Gastroenterology, Guangzhou Digestive Disease Center, Guangzhou First People's Hospital, the Second Affiliated Hospital of South China University of Technology, Guangzhou,

Background/aims: Emerging evidence suggests a close link between gut microbiota and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In this study, we aimed to investigate the association between gut microbiota and the DNA methylation of adiponectin (an adipocyte-specific adipocytokine) in rats, following diet-induced NAFLD.

Methods: 50 male SD rats were randomly divided into five groups with or without a high fat diet (HFD), antibiotics, and probiotics, in order to establish an imbalanced gut microbiota and probiotic treatment model in NAFLD rats. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Developing a Process for Returning Medically Actionable Genomic Variants to Latino Patients in a Federally Qualified Health Center.

Public Health Genomics 2018 Dec 6:1-8. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.

Aim: To develop a process for returning medically actionable genomic variants to Latino patients receiving care in a Federally Qualified Health Center.

Methods: Prior to recruitment, researchers met with primary care providers to (1) orient clinicians to the project, (2) establish a process for returning actionable and nonactionable results to participants and providers through the electronic health record, and (3) develop a process for offering clinical decision support for follow-up education and care. A Community Advisory Board was engaged to provide input on recruitment strategies and materials for conveying results to participants. Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

Difficult Patient Behavior in Dialysis Facilities.

Blood Purif 2018 Dec 6:1-5. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Difficult behavior exhibited by dialysis patients is a spectrum that includes nonadherence, verbal or physical abuse, and threatening acts. Such behaviors may lead to harmful consequences to the patient, other patients, the facility, and staff and can culminate in involuntary discharge. It is important to recognize that these "difficult behaviors" may be due to underlying psychosocial or medical issues, which places an onus on care providers to explore further. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Cigarette Smoke Extract Promotes TIM4 Expression in Murine Dendritic Cells Leading to Th2 Polarization through ERK-Dependent Pathways.

Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2018 Dec 6:1-10. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Laboratory of Clinical Immunology, Wuhan No. 1 Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), Wuhan,

Smoking is considered to be the main source of indoor pollution, and it has been identified as an important environmental factor contributing to asthma onset. We know that T helper 2 (Th2) response plays a crucial role in the process of asthma disease. We have investigated the reaction of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) on Th polarization which is controlled by dendritic cells (DCs). Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

In silico Leishmania proteome mining applied to identify drug target potential to be used to treat against visceral and tegumentary leishmaniasis.

J Mol Graph Model 2018 Nov 29;87:89-97. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências da Saúde: Infectologia e Medicina Tropical, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil; Departamento de Patologia Clínica, COLTEC, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Electronic address:

New therapeutic strategies against leishmaniasis are desirable, since the treatment against disease presents problems, such as the toxicity, high cost and/or parasite resistance. As consequence, new antileishmanial compounds are necessary to be identified, as presenting high activity against Leishmania, but low toxicity in mammalian hosts. In the present study, a Leishmania proteome mining strategy was developed, in order to select new drug targets with low homology to human proteins, but that are considered relevant for the parasite' survival. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Hot spots for GPCR signaling: lessons from single-molecule microscopy.

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2018 Dec 3;57:57-63. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Institute of Pharmacology and Bio-Imaging Center, University of Würzburg, Germany.

G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are among the best-studied membrane receptors, mainly due to their central role in human physiology, involvement in disease and relevance as drug targets. Although biochemical and pharmacological studies have characterized the main steps in GPCR signaling, how GPCRs produce highly specific responses in our cells remains insufficiently understood. New developments in single-molecule microscopy have made it possible to study the protein-protein interactions at the basis of GPCR signaling in previously inconceivable detail. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

(Pyrrolo-pyridin-5-yl)benzamides: BBB permeable monoamine oxidase B inhibitors with neuroprotective effect on cortical neurons.

Eur J Med Chem 2018 Nov 13;162:793-809. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Organic Chemistry, Centre of Phytochemistry, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Bl. 9, Sofia, 1113, Bulgaria.

An extensive study was performed to develop a series of (pyrrolo-pyridin-5-yl)benzamides as reversible MAO-B inhibitors. Compounds 14 (NTZ-2020, hMAO-B IC = 1.11 nM, K = 0. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

Longer schooling but not better off? A quasi-experimental study of the effect of compulsory schooling on biomarkers in France.

Soc Sci Med 2018 Nov 23;220:379-386. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Harvard T H Chan School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Ave, Boston, MA, 02115, USA; CUNY Graduate School of Public Health and Health Policy, 205 East 42nd Street, New York, NY, 10017, USA.

Less schooling is associated with increased biological risks for chronic disease, but whether increasing years of schooling through policy interventions reduces these risks remains unclear. We examine the effect of a major education reform introduced in 1959 that raised the minimum school leaving age from 14 to 16 years in France, offering a unique natural experiment. We assess the causal impact of increased schooling duration on 16 biomarkers of cardiovascular, metabolic, organ and immune function in a large cohort of men and women born around 1953. Read More

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November 2018
6 Reads

Social support and second trimester depression.

Midwifery 2018 Nov 23;69:158-162. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Nursing Department of Shanghai First Maternity and Infant Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, No.2699, West Gaoke Road, Pudong New Area, Shanghai 201204, China.

Background: Depression is the most prevalent psychiatric disease during and after pregnancy (Aktas and Yesilcicek, 2015). Social supportive system (SSS) serves to protect against the development of depressive symptoms (Moshki and Cheravi, 2016). The mitigating effect of SSS on depression among expectant Chinese women is unclear. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Er Shen Wan extract alleviates polyuria and regulates AQP 2 and AVPR 2 in a rat model of spleen-kidney Yang deficiency-induced diarrhea.

Biomed Pharmacother 2018 Dec 3;110:302-311. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

College of Pharmacy, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu 610075, PR China; Sichuan Neo-Green Pharmaceutical Technology Development Co., Ltd, Chengdu 610081, PR China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Er Shen Wan (ESW), has been empirically used for treating spleen-kidney Yang deficiency (SKYD) syndrome in Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for centuries and shows a variety of activities. The medicinal formula is a mixture of two component herbs, Psoraleae Fructus (PF, Bu-Gu-Zhi in Chinese) and Myristicae Semen (MS, Rou-Dou-Kou in Chinese). The current study was designed to evaluate ESWP antidiuretic treatment of polyuria and to explore potential mechanisms of renal water metabolism in the rat model of SKYD-induced diarrhea. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Wuzhi capsule (Schisandra Sphenanthera extract) attenuates liver steatosis and inflammation during non-alcoholic fatty liver disease development.

Biomed Pharmacother 2018 Dec 3;110:285-293. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Organ Transplantation, ChangZheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, 200003, China. Electronic address:

Objective: Wuzhi (WZ) capsule contains an ethanol extract of Schisandra sphenanthera. The efficacy of WZ in treating non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has not yet been elucidated. The present study assessed the effects of WZ on NAFLD. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads
2.023 Impact Factor

Impact of short-term traffic-related air pollution on the metabolome - Results from two metabolome-wide experimental studies.

Environ Int 2018 Dec 3;123:124-131. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

MRC/PHE Centre for Environment and Health, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom; Italian Institute for Genomic Medicine (IIGM), Turin, Italy. Electronic address:

Exposure to traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) has been associated with adverse health outcomes but underlying biological mechanisms remain poorly understood. Two randomized crossover trials were used here, the Oxford Street II (London) and the TAPAS II (Barcelona) studies, where volunteers were allocated to high or low air pollution exposures. The two locations represent different exposure scenarios, with Oxford Street characterized by diesel vehicles and Barcelona by normal mixed urban traffic. Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

A multifunctional compound ebselen reverses memory impairment, apoptosis and oxidative stress in a mouse model of sporadic Alzheimer's disease.

J Psychiatr Res 2018 Nov 27;109:107-117. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Laboratório de Síntese, Reatividade e Avaliação Farmacológica e Toxicológica de Organocalcogênios, Departamento de Bioquímica e Biologia Molecular, Centro de Ciências Naturais e Exatas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, CEP 97105-900, Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Electronic address:

Alzheimer 's disease (AD) is characterized by progressive cognitive decline including memory impairment, cortical dysfunction, and neuropsychiatric disturbances. The drug discovery to treat AD consists to develop compounds able to act in multiple molecular targets involved in the pathogenesis of the disease and the repositioning of old drugs for new application. This way, the intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of streptozotocin (STZ) has been used as a metabolic model of sporadic AD. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Combined juvenile polyposis syndrome and hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (JPS/HHT) with MRI and endoscopic correlation.

Clin Imaging 2018 Dec 2;54:37-39. Epub 2018 Dec 2.

Department of Radiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 330 Brookline Ave., Boston, MA 02215, USA.

Juvenile polyposis syndrome (JPS) may coexist with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) due to implication of the SMAD4 gene in a subset of both diseases. To the best of our knowledge, we present the first case in the radiologic literature on the MRI findings in a patient with this rare combined diagnosis undergoing workup for burden of disease. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Gastric wall fat halo sign in patients without intestinal disease.

Clin Imaging 2018 Nov 30;54:31-36. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Trabzon Kanuni Education and Research Hospital, Department of Radiology, 61080 Trabzon, Turkey.

Purpose: To investigate the relationship between gastric wall fat halo sign and visceral obesity with potentially associated diseases.

Materials And Methods: Between September 2015 and April 2017, 90 patients with gastric wall fat halo signs and 130 controls were prospectively evaluated. Patient height, weight, body mass index (BMI), sex, age, subcutaneous fat area (SFA), visceral fat area (VFA), total fat area (TFA), percentage of visceral fat (VF%) and the presence of colic or ileal fat halo signs, hepatic steatosis and aortic calcified plaques were recorded for the two groups. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

Phyllodes tumors of the breast. The treatment results for 340 patients from a single cancer centre.

Breast 2018 Nov 26;43:85-90. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Department of Surgical Oncology, Centre of Oncology, Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Institute, Cracow Branch, ul. Garncarska 11, 31-115 Cracow, Poland.

Purpose: The primary treatment of choice for patients with phyllodes tumor of the breast (PTB) is surgery. Two major problems regarding the treatment of such patients remain unclear: what is the appropriate surgical margin and what role is played by adjuvant radiotherapy (ART).

Methods: The study provides a retrospective review of all patients with PTB treated between 1952 and 2013 at a single institute. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Non-GVHD ocular complications after hematopoietic cell transplantation: expert review from the Late Effects and Quality of Life Working Committee of the CIBMTR and Transplant Complications Working Party of the EBMT.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Ophthalmology, Hospital Universitario Puerta de Hierro, Madrid, Spain.

Non-graft-versus-host disease (non-GVHD) ocular complications are generally uncommon after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), but can cause prolonged morbidity affecting activities of daily living and quality of life. Here we provide an expert review of non-GVHD ocular complications in a collaboration between transplant physicians and ophthalmologists through the Late Effects and Quality of Life Working Committee of the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research and the Transplant Complications Working Party of the European Society of Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Complications discussed in this review include cataracts, glaucoma, ocular infections, ocular involvement with malignancy, ischemic microvascular retinopathy, central retinal vein occlusion, retinal hemorrhage, retinal detachment and ocular toxicities associated with medications. Read More

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December 2018
5 Reads

Interstitial Lung Disease Onset and Its Risk Factors in Japanese Patients with ALK-positive NSCLC Following Treatment with Crizotinib.

J Thorac Oncol 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Tokyo Medical University Hospital, 6-7-1 Nishishinjuku, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-0023, Japan.

Introduction: The study objective was to determine the incidence and characteristics of drug-induced interstitial lung disease (ILD) associated with an orally available small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor, crizotinib in the real-world clinical setting.

Methods: Post-marketing surveillance was performed in Japan to obtain information on the safety and efficacy of crizotinib. Target patients included all patients with anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who received crizotinib, during the enrollment period between May 2012 and December 2014. Read More

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December 2018
5 Reads

The unique spatial-temporal treatment failure patterns of adjuvant gefitinib therapy: A post-hoc analysis of the ADJUVANT trial (CTONG 1104).

J Thorac Oncol 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Guangdong Lung Cancer Institute, Guangdong General Hospital & Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Introduction: Adjuvant gefitinib therapy prolonged disease-free survival (DFS) in patients with resected early-stage epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutation positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in the ADJUVANT study (CTONG 1104). However, treatment failure patterns after gefitinib therapy are less well characterized.

Methods: Overall, 222 stage N1-N2, EGFR-mutant NSCLC patients received gefitinib or vinorelbine plus cisplatin (VP) treatment. Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

An affinity peptide exerts antiviral activity by strongly binding nervous necrosis virus to block viral entry.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, Institute of Aquatic Economic Animals and Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Improved Variety Reproduction in Aquatic Economic Animals, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Nervous necrosis virus (NNV) causes viral nervous necrosis (VNN), a disease that leads to almost 100% mortality among larvae and juvenile fish, severely affecting the aquaculture industry. VNN vaccines based on inactivated viruses or virus-like particles (VLPs) are unsuitable for fish fry with immature adaptive immune systems. Here, we applied an anti-NNV strategy based on affinity peptides (AFPs). Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Protective effect of forsythoside B against lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury by attenuating the TLR4/NF-κB pathway.

Int Immunopharmacol 2018 Dec 3;66:336-346. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Key Laboratory of Prevention and Management of Chronic Kidney Disease of Zhanjiang City, Affiliated Hospital of Guangdong Medical University, Zhanjiang, Guangdong, 524001, China. Electronic address:

Acute lung injury (ALI), which is mainly triggered by infection, pneumonia, vasculitis, and sepsis, has no specific and effective therapy except for primary supportive treatment or bedside care. Excessive inflammation caused by innate immune cells is the major characteristic of ALI. Forsythoside B, a phenylethanoside compound, possesses good antioxidant and anti-bacterial properties in vivo and in vitro. Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads
2.472 Impact Factor

Prediction of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in the diagnosis and progression of autoimmune encephalitis.

Neurosci Lett 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Neurology, Shandong Provincial Hospital affiliated to Shandong University, Jing Wu Road, Huaiyin District, Jinan, 250021, Shandong, China. Electronic address:

Objective: Autoimmune encephalitis (AIE) is a group of inflammatory disorders of the brain. The severity of AIE vary among individuals and it is always a challenge to predict. In this study, we measured the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), a novel potential biomarker of inflammatory status in other inflammatory diseases, in AIE patients and evaluated NLR as a biomarker for monitoring AIE progression. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads
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