2,474 results match your criteria Dirofilariasis


[Dirofilariasis in the head and neck region. Case report].

Orv Hetil 2018 Nov;159(45):1844-1847

Fül-Orr-Gégészeti és Fej-Nyaksebészeti Klinika, Semmelweis Egyetem, Általános Orvostudományi Kar Budapest, Szigony u. 36., 1083.

Dirofilariasis refers to an infection caused by a specific parasitic roundworm. Dirofilaria repens - transmitted by mosquito bites - accounts for most human cases. The parasite forms a subcutaneous mass called cutaneous dirofilariasis near the original site of intrusion. Read More

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November 2018
5 Reads

A preliminary survey of filarial parasites in dogs and cats in Sri Lanka.

PLoS One 2018 2;13(11):e0206633. Epub 2018 Nov 2.

Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Kelaniya, Kelaniya, Sri Lanka.

Human brugian filariasis has re-emerged in Sri Lanka after a quiescent period of four decades. This study investigated the prevalence of canine and feline filarial parasites in three localities with human sub-periodic brugian filariasis, in order to determine their potential reservoir status. All reachable dogs and cats, both stray and domestic, within a 350m radius of an index case of brugian filariasis in three locations (Madampe, Wattala and Weliweriya) were screened for microfilariae using Giemsa stained thick blood smears. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads
3.230 Impact Factor

A Case of Subconjunctival Dirofilariasis in Bulgaria.

Authors:
Nina S Stoyanova

Folia Med (Plovdiv) 2018 Jun;60(2):323-327

Department of Ophthalmology, Medical Faculty, Medical University of Plovdiv, Plovdiv, Bulgaria.

We report a case of subconjunctival invasion of Dirofilaria repens in a woman from Southern Bulgaria. Dirofilariasis is an extremely rare parasitic disease for Bulgaria. It occurs as an endemic parasitosis in the Mediterranean countries. Read More

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June 2018
2 Reads

Application of Dirofilaria immitis immunoreactive proteins in serodiagnosis.

Parasite Immunol 2018 Oct 17:e12598. Epub 2018 Oct 17.

Department of Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Dirofilariasis is a zoonotic global vector-borne disease caused by Dirofilaria immitis. The present study focuses on the somatic and excretory/secretory (E/S) proteins released from adult D. immitis. Read More

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October 2018
6 Reads

Epididymal Dirofilariasis in a Child. First Case Report from Bulgaria.

Med Princ Pract 2018 Oct 17. Epub 2018 Oct 17.

Objective: To present case of a child with epididymal dirofilariasis.

Clinical Presentation And Intervention: An 11-year-old boy is admitted at the Clinic of Pediatric Urology for elective surgery treatment of epididymal cyst on the left side. After removal, the cyst was sent for histological examination. Read More

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October 2018
1.110 Impact Factor

Molecular detection of in dogs and mosquitoes in Tabasco, Mexico.

J Vector Borne Dis 2018 Apr-Jun;55(2):151-158

Laboratorio de Arbovirologia, Centro de Investigaciones Regionales "Dr. Hideyo Noguchi", Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán, Mérida, México.

Background & Objectives: Dirofilaria immitis is a filarial nematode that causes heartworm disease in domestic as well as wild canines and felines; and cutaneous or pulmonary infections in humans. The purpose of the study was to estimate the prevalence of D. immitis in domestic dogs in Tabasco, Mexico and to assay mosquitoes temporally and spatially associated with dogs for evidence of infection. Read More

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October 2018
14 Reads

Two cases of subcutaneous dirofilariasis in Barcelona, Spain.

Parasitol Res 2018 Nov 2;117(11):3679-3681. Epub 2018 Oct 2.

ISGlobal, Hospital Clínic - Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

In recent years, the number of reported cases of human dirofilariasis in Europe has increased and the circulation of Dirofilaria spp. in mosquitoes in several European countries has been proven. We report here two likely autochthonous cases of subcutaneous human dirofilariasis from Barcelona, Spain, caused by Dirofilaria repens. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

There is a worm in my eye! Ocular dirofilariasis.

Eur J Ophthalmol 2018 Oct 1:1120672118803519. Epub 2018 Oct 1.

Department of Surgical, Medical, Molecular Pathology and of Critical Area, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy.

Introduction: To report a case of ocular dirofilariasis in Central Italy (Pisa, Tuscany) and review the previous cases of ocular dirofilariasis reported in Italy.

Case Description: A 67-year-old man complained about recurrent ocular redness and discomfort previously treated as conjunctivitis. The slit-lamp examination showed a round, translucent cystic swelling under the bulbar conjunctiva of the right eye, near the lateral canthus. Read More

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October 2018
1 Read
1.060 Impact Factor

Feline heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) infection: first case report of serological diagnosis in Brazil, confirmed by molecular assay.

An Acad Bras Cienc 2018 Aug 26;90(2 suppl 1):2293-2297. Epub 2018 Jul 26.

Departamento de Microbiologia e Parasitologia, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Rua Professor Hernani Melo, 101, São Domingos, 24210-130 Niterói, RJ, Brazil.

The clinical importance of heartworm infection in cats has indeed increased in recent years. Dirofilaria immitis infection has been reported worldwide in cats and continues to be regularly diagnosed in endemic areas. The diagnosis can be overlooked easily, especially in Brazil, where there is not a specific feline immunodiagnostic test, forcing the veterinarians to use a test made for the canine host. Read More

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August 2018
2 Reads

Prevalence of canine heartworm infection in Mississippi animal shelters.

Vet Parasitol 2018 Aug 17;259:68-73. Epub 2018 Jul 17.

Department of Basic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Mississippi State University, P.O. Box 6100, MS, 39762, USA. Electronic address:

Understanding diagnosis of heartworm disease in the context of animal shelters' needs and expectations is crucial for developing guidelines that specifically address the unique shelter population. Accurate and economical heartworm testing strategies are essential. However, current comprehensive guidelines for the management of heartworm disease in dogs are directed toward client-owned animals and do not address needs of animal shelters and other resource-scarce facilities. Read More

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August 2018
20 Reads

Approaches to Canine Heartworm Disease Treatment Among Alumni of a Single College of Veterinary Medicine.

J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 2018 Sep/Oct;54(5):246-256. Epub 2018 Jul 24.

From the Department of Small Animal Medicine and Surgery (A.C.D-J., A.E.C., G.S.R., K.E.C., I.R.) and Department of Infectious Diseases (A.R.M.), College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia; and Department of Population Health and Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina (M.C.).

This descriptive study was designed to ascertain the current heartworm treatment strategies employed by veterinary graduates of a single college of veterinary medicine, to assess the frequency with which each of these treatment strategies is prescribed, and to report the motivation behind the use of these treatment strategies. A survey containing a combination of multiple-choice and open-ended questions was distributed via e-mail with an online link during 2013 to graduates of the University of Georgia College of Veterinary Medicine. Demographic data and opinions regarding treatment for cases of canine heartworm disease (HWD) were obtained, and motivation for recommending different treatment strategies was assessed. Read More

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November 2018

Melanization of Larvae in Different Culicid Species.

J Arthropod Borne Dis 2018 Mar 18;12(1):94-99. Epub 2018 Mar 18.

Department of Veterinary Medicine, Federal Rural University of Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil.

Background: is an important filarioid transmitted by culicids. The vector role of these arthropods may be influenced by biological events as melanization against larvae. This study aimed to detect the occurrence of melanization in , () and () experimentally infected with . Read More

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Dirofilaria repens infection as a cause of intensive peripheral microfilariemia in a Polish patient: process description and cases review.

Acta Parasitol 2018 Sep;63(3):657-663

Poznań University of Medical Sciences, Department and Clinic of Tropical and Parasitic Diseases, Poznań, Poland.

Dirofilariasis is a parasitic disease of dogs and other carnivores transmitted mainly by the mosquitoes of the genera Culex, Aedes, Anopheles. Full life cycle of the Dirofilaria nematodes in humans is extremely rarely observed, usually lacking species determination at the molecular level. We report fully documented unusual clinical manifestation of subcutaneous dirofilariasis with intensive microfilariemia in peripheral blood revealed by the Knott's concentration technique. Read More

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September 2018
1 Read

Migrating Dirofilaria repens.

N Engl J Med 2018 Jun;378(25):e35

University of Salamanca, Salamanca, Spain.

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June 2018
3 Reads

Peripheral venous vs. capillary microfilariaemia in a dog co-infected with Dirofilaria repens and D. immitis: A comparative approach using triatomine bugs for blood collection.

Vet Parasitol 2018 Jun 30;257:54-57. Epub 2018 May 30.

Department of Parasitology and Parasitic Diseases, University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca, Calea Mănăștur, 3-5, 400372, Cluj-Napoca, Romania.

Dirofilaria immitis and D. repens are mosquito-borne nematodes, primarily infecting dogs, but also other species of carnivores and even humans. Given their impact on animal and human health, the transmission of these filarioids has been widely studied. Read More

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June 2018
29 Reads

Dirofilaria repens-An etiological factor or an incidental finding in cytologic and histopathologic biopsies from dogs.

Vet Clin Pathol 2018 Jun;47(2):307-311

Department of Pathological Anatomy, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Olsztyn, Poland.

Dirofilaria repens is an endemic, zoonotic parasite of carnivores, causing subcutaneous dirofilariasis, which is mostly asymptomatic. The aim of this study was to describe 22 cases of canine subcutaneous dirofilariasis. The cytologic and histopathologic samples were collected from dogs, which presented with various clinical signs such as cutaneous/subcutaneous nodules, hydropericardium, ascites, and lymphadenomegaly. Read More

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A rare case of human pulmonary dirofilariasis with nodules mimicking malignancy: approach to diagnosis and treatment.

J Cardiothorac Surg 2018 Jun 11;13(1):65. Epub 2018 Jun 11.

Department for the Treatment and Study of Cardiothoracic Diseases and Cardiothoracic Transplantation, IRCCS ISMETT, Via Tricomi 5, Palermo, Italy.

Background: Human pulmonary dirofilariasis is a rare zoonosis caused by the dog worm Dirofilaria spp., a parasite transmitted by mosquitos and resulting in peripheral lung nodules. The filarial nematode enters the subcutaneous tissue, travels to the right ventricle and dies causing a small pulmonary infarction that may embolize through the pulmonary vessels and may appear as a solitary nodule. Read More

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June 2018
3 Reads
1.020 Impact Factor

Heartworm on the rise-new insights into Dirofilaria immitis epidemiology.

Parasitol Res 2018 Jul 17;117(7):2347-2350. Epub 2018 May 17.

Private Veterinary Practice BHVet, Koľajná 27, 83106, Bratislava, Slovakia.

Until recently Dirofilaria immitis, the causative agent of serious canine heartworm disease, has been detected relatively infrequently in Central Europe in comparison with the predominant D. repens species. In the present study, the elevated number of heartworm cases among dogs from a breeding establishment in south-western Slovakia is described. Read More

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[Autochthonous dirofilariasis in the temporal muscle].

Med Mal Infect 2018 09 3;48(6):424-426. Epub 2018 May 3.

Département d'ORL et chirurgie maxillo-faciale, hôpital Gui-de-Chauliac, 80, avenue Augustin-Fliche, 34295 Montpellier, France; Faculté de médecine, université de Montpellier, 641, avenue du Doyen-Gaston-Giraud, 34093 Montpellier, France.

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September 2018

Urbanization impact on mosquito community and the transmission potential of filarial infection in central Europe.

Parasit Vectors 2018 04 24;11(1):261. Epub 2018 Apr 24.

Department of Zoology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Comenius University, Mlynská dolina B-1, SK-842 15, Bratislava, Slovakia.

Background: Despite long-term research on dirofilariosis in Slovakia, little attention has thus far been paid to Dirofilaria vectors. The particular aim of the present study was molecular screening for filarioid parasites in two different habitats of Bratislava, the capital city of Slovakia. In addition, the effect of urbanisation on mosquito species abundance and composition, associated with the risk of mosquito-borne infections, was studied and discussed. Read More

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April 2018
4 Reads

Profiling extracellular vesicle release by the filarial nematode Brugia malayi reveals sex-specific differences in cargo and a sensitivity to ivermectin.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 04 16;12(4):e0006438. Epub 2018 Apr 16.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, United States of America.

The filarial nematode Brugia malayi is an etiological agent of Lymphatic Filariasis. The capability of B. malayi and other parasitic nematodes to modulate host biology is recognized but the mechanisms by which such manipulation occurs are obscure. Read More

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April 2018
4 Reads

Wolbachia, doxycycline and macrocyclic lactones: New prospects in the treatment of canine heartworm disease.

Vet Parasitol 2018 Apr 9;254:95-97. Epub 2018 Mar 9.

Department of Veterinary Science, University of Parma, Parma, Italy.

Melarsomine dihydrochloride (Immiticide®, Merial) is the only approved adulticidal drug for the treatment of canine heartworm disease (HWD). However, in cases where arsenical therapy is not possible or is contraindicated, a monthly heartworm preventive along with doxycycline for a 4-week period, which targets the bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia, might be considered. There are published reports on the efficacy of ivermectin and doxycycline in both experimentally and naturally infected dogs, but no data on the use of other macrocyclic lactones (MLs) with a similar treatment regime. Read More

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April 2018
4 Reads

Comparison of six commercial antigen kits for detection of Dirofilaria immitis infections in canines with necropsy-confirmed heartworm status.

Vet Parasitol 2018 Apr 25;254:178-182. Epub 2018 Feb 25.

Department of Comparative Diagnostic and Population Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, 2015 SW 16th Avenue, Gainesville, FL 32610-0123, USA. Electronic address:

Patient-side test kits for detecting antigenemia in dogs associated with sexually mature female heartworms (Dirofilaria immitis) have been available for three decades, and these tests are continually updated and improved. To define the sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of contemporary antigen detection tests against cardiopulmonary D. immitis burden, we evaluated five patient-side kits-Anigen Rapid One Step (Bio note), SNAP 4Dx Plus Test Kit (IDEXX), WITNESS Heartworm Canine Heartworm Antigen Test Kit (Zoetis), VetScan Canine Heartworm Rapid Test (Abaxis), and Solo Step CH Canine Heartworm Antigen Test (Heska), and one microplate ELISA (DiroCHEK; Zoetis), using archived canine sera divided into five subclasses of female worms (0, 1-5, 6-20, 21-40, and >40). Read More

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April 2018
5 Reads

Dirofilaria immitis and Angiostrongylus vasorum: The current situation of two major canine heartworms in Portugal.

Vet Parasitol 2018 Mar 31;252:120-126. Epub 2018 Jan 31.

CIISA, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade de Lisboa, Avenida da Universidade Técnica, 1300-477 Lisboa, Portugal.

Cardiopulmonary nematodes are life-threatening pet parasites increasingly reported throughout Europe, with overlapping endemic areas. Dirofilaria immitis is a mosquito-borne whilst Angiostrongylus vasorum is a snail-borne pathogen. Both adult nematodes reside in the pulmonary arteries and right cardiac ventricle of domestic and wild canids, causing a wide spectrum of clinical presentations ranging from cough, dyspnoea and exercise intolerance to severe vascular and pulmonary disease with hearth failure that may lead to death. Read More

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March 2018
2 Reads

Can P-glycoprotein and β-tubulin polymorphisms be used as genetic markers of resistance in Dirofilaria immitis from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil?

BMC Res Notes 2018 Feb 23;11(1):152. Epub 2018 Feb 23.

Laboratório de Imunomodulação e Protozoologia, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fiocruz, Av. Brasil 4365, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 21040-360, Brazil.

Objective: Dirofilaria immitis, the causative agent of canine heartworm infection, is worldwide the most important filarid to affect domestic dogs. Prevention of this infection is done by macrocyclic lactones, but some reports on the lack of efficacy have been published. Although the actual cause of resistance is unknown, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on a P-glycoprotein ABC transporter and β-tubulin genes have been pointed out as candidates for genetic markers of resistance. Read More

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February 2018
6 Reads

Aberrant migration and surgical removal of a heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) from the femoral artery of a cat.

J Vet Intern Med 2018 Mar 20;32(2):792-796. Epub 2018 Feb 20.

Department of Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, California.

A cat was evaluated for an acute-onset of right pelvic limb paresis. Thoracic radiographs revealed normal cardiac size and tortuous pulmonary arteries. Abdominal ultrasound identified a heartworm (HW) extending from the caudal abdominal aorta into the right external iliac artery and right femoral artery. Read More

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March 2018
1 Read

Evaluation of heat-treating heartworm-positive canine serum samples during treatment with Advantage Multi for Dogs and doxycycline.

Parasit Vectors 2018 02 20;11(1):98. Epub 2018 Feb 20.

University of Georgia, College of Veterinary Medicine, Athens, GA, USA.

Background: The use of heat-treatment in canine and feline serum has been hypothesized to break the formation of antigen-antibody complexes, thereby freeing the heartworm antigen allowing for detection by commercially available heartworm antigen kits. While studies have analyzed the effect of heat-treating serum and plasma samples in the detection of heartworm antigen, these studies have not utilized necropsy verified results for validation. This study evaluated the use of heat-treating serum samples in experimentally infected dogs during adulticidal treatment in comparison with necropsy adult heartworm recovery. Read More

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February 2018
2 Reads

Subconjunctival ocular filariasis -Case report.

Rom J Ophthalmol 2017 Jan-Mar;61(1):76-79

County Emergency Hospital, Cluj-Napoca, Romania.

We are presenting the case of a patient who was clinically diagnosed with subconjunctival ocular dirofilariasis, confirmed by the parasitological examination. The treatment consisted in the surgical extraction of the parasite, a local treatment with antibiotics and steroidal anti-inflammatory mydriatic and general treatment with antihelminthic, antibiotic, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory drugs. The intraoperative and postoperative evolution of the case was favorable. Read More

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May 2018
3 Reads

Molecular characterization of human isolates from Kerala.

Indian J Med Res 2017 10;146(4):528-533

Department of Veterinary Biochemistry, College of Veterinary & Animal Sciences, Thrissur, India.

Background & Objectives: Human dirofilariosis is a well-recognized zoonosis caused by several species of the genus Dirofilaria. The disease is prevalent among canines and human beings in Kerala. The objective of the present study was to confirm the human Dirofilaria isolates by molecular characterization. Read More

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October 2017

The Canary Islands as a model of risk of pulmonary dirofilariasis in a hyperendemic area.

Parasitol Res 2018 Mar 2;117(3):933-936. Epub 2018 Feb 2.

Research Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences (IUIBS), University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35001, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain.

We assessed the risk of human pulmonary dirofilariasis in the Canary Islands, hyperendemic for canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis), a zoonotic vector-borne infection. For this purpose, 1479 inhabitants were tested for anti-D. immitis antibodies. Read More

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March 2018
1 Read

Leishmania infantum, Dirofilaria spp. and other endoparasite infections in kennel dogs in central Italy.

Parasite 2018 1;25. Epub 2018 Feb 1.

Dipartimento di Scienze Veterinarie-Università di Pisa, Pisa, Italy.

Prevalence and risk factors of Leishmania infantum, Dirofilaria spp. and other potentially zoonotic or canine-specific endoparasite infections were assessed in 639 kennel dogs from central Italy. To this end, individual blood and fecal samples were examined using parasitological, immunological and molecular techniques. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

First report of a naturally patent infection with Dirofilaria immitis in an otter (Lutra lutra).

Parasitol Res 2018 Mar 26;117(3):929-931. Epub 2018 Jan 26.

Faculty of Biology, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 16, Belgrade, 11000, Serbia.

Dirofilaria immitis causes a severe and life-threatening cardio-pulmonary disease in Europe, Asia, Africa, and the Americas; also, zoonotic infections have been reported. This parasitic vector-borne disease is mostly common in domestic and wild canids and felids. Here, we present a rare finding of this roundworm in the heart of a Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra). Read More

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March 2018
1 Read

Conjunctival Dirofilariasis Causing Symptoms for 1 Day.

Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2018 Sep/Oct;34(5):e178

Department of Ophthalmology, Morsani College of Medicine, Tampa, Florida, U.S.A.

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September 2018
1 Read

Dirofilariasis mimicking an osteoma.

Neurol India 2018 Jan-Feb;66(1):255-256

Department of Neurosurgery, St. Gregorius Medical Mission Hospital, Parumala, India.

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January 2018
3 Reads

Seroprevalence of Dirofilaria immitis in Cats from Liaoning Province, Northeastern China.

Korean J Parasitol 2017 Dec 31;55(6):673-677. Epub 2017 Dec 31.

Key Laboratory of Zoonosis, Ministry of Education, College of Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, Changchun, 130062, China.

The present study was performed to investigate the seroprevalence and risk factors for Dirofilaria immitis infection in cats from Liaoning province, northeastern China. From October 2014 to September 2016, sera of 651 cats, including 364 domestic cats and 287 feral cats (332 females and 319 males) were assessed. They were tested for the presence of D. Read More

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December 2017
7 Reads

Human Subconjunctival Dirofilariasis Presenting as the Daytime Photophobia: A Case Report.

Iran J Public Health 2017 Oct;46(10):1430-1434

Shahid Beheshti Hospital, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran.

We report a case of subconjunctival worm with a rare presentation of diurnal photophobia and temporal conjunctival injection. This case report describes a subconjunctival dirofilariasis in a 59-year-old man presented with foreign body sensation, localized tenderness, and eye redness during the day. After removal of subconjunctival 10 cm worm, the diagnosis was compatible with . Read More

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October 2017
7 Reads

Ocular dirofilariasis: Ophthalmic implication of climate change on vector-borne parasites.

Am J Ophthalmol Case Rep 2017 Sep 12;7:9-10. Epub 2017 Apr 12.

Kresge Eye Institute, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, USA.

Purpose: To describe a geographically rare case of ophthalmic dirofilariasis.

Observations: An 81-year-old male of good socioeconomic status living in the state of Michigan in the United States, presented to the eye clinic with a painful red left eye. He had not traveled outside of the state of Michigan in over three years. Read More

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September 2017
3 Reads

Cross-sectional survey of health management and prevalence of vector-borne diseases, endoparasites and ectoparasites in Samoan dogs.

Aust Vet J 2017 Dec;95(12):462-468

Institute of Veterinary, Animal and Biomedical Sciences, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand.

Objective: To determine the prevalence of selected canine vector-borne diseases (Leishmania infantum, Anaplasma spp., Ehrlichia canis, Borrelia burgdorferi and Dirofilaria immitis) and endo- and ectoparasites in Samoan dogs presenting for surgical sterilisation and to report on the general health management of the dogs.

Methods: This study was a prospective serological cross-sectional survey. Read More

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December 2017
13 Reads

Evaluation of a rapid immunochromatographic test for the detection of low burden Dirofilaria immitis (heartworm) in dogs and cats.

Parasitol Res 2018 Jan 9;117(1):31-34. Epub 2017 Dec 9.

BVT-Virbac, 285 avenue de Rome, 83500, La Seyne sur Mer, France.

The performance of a rapid immunochromatographic test for the detection of Dirofilaria immitis antigens (Speed Diro™; BVT-Virbac, France) was assessed in 49 experimentally infected dogs and in 244 naturally infected animals; 142 dogs and 102 cats. In experimentally infected dogs, Speed Diro™ showed a sensitivity of 90.9% in dogs infected with one adult female worm and 100% in dogs infected with more than one female worm. Read More

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January 2018
1 Read

A case of human ocular dirofilariasis in a patient with multiple endocrine neoplasia in Northwest Spain.

Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin 2018 10 6;36(8):529-530. Epub 2017 Dec 6.

Laboratory of Parasitology, Faculty of Pharmacy and IBSAL, University of Salamanca, Salamanca, Spain.

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October 2018
10 Reads

Examination of the "susceptibility gap" in the treatment of canine heartworm infection.

Parasit Vectors 2017 Nov 9;10(Suppl 2):513. Epub 2017 Nov 9.

ELANCO, Greenfield, IN, USA.

Background: The "susceptibility gap" in a dog diagnosed with adult heartworms has been defined as the period of time in which some Dirofilaria immitis stages are not susceptible to treatment with either macrocyclic lactones or melarsomine dihydrochloride. This was previously defined within the American Heartworm Society guidelines as a period of about 3 months "as per product labels." It can be postulated, however, that a susceptibility gap does not exist with the combination of continued macrocyclic lactone therapy coupled with a three-dose melarsomine dihydrochloride protocol where the first intramuscular treatment is near the time of first diagnosis. Read More

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November 2017
6 Reads

Investigating management choices for canine heartworm disease in northern Mississippi.

Authors:
Tobi N Ku

Parasit Vectors 2017 Nov 9;10(Suppl 2):474. Epub 2017 Nov 9.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Mississippi State University, 240 Wise Center Drive, Starkville, MS, USA.

Background: There are concerns that the chronic use of macrocyclic lactone preventives to kill adult heartworms ("soft-" or "slow-kill") may have contributed to the development of macrocyclic lactone resistance. This prospective analysis was designed to expand our understanding of currently employed treatment decisions, protocols utilized in a "slow-kill" methodology, and trends in heartworm prevention in a region with concerns about macrocyclic lactone resistance. We tested the hypothesis that practitioners underestimate the actual percentage of heartworm-positive dogs treated with "slow-kill" therapy. Read More

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November 2017

Prevalence and epidemiology of canine and feline heartworm infection in Taiwan.

Parasit Vectors 2017 Nov 9;10(Suppl 2):484. Epub 2017 Nov 9.

Taiwan Academy of Veterinary Internal Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan.

Background: Heartworm, Dirofilaria immitis, has long been recognized in Taiwanese dogs but feline heartworm infection has been largely overlooked by veterinarians and pet owners. The main goal of this study was to determine the prevalence and epidemiology of canine and feline heartworm infection in Taiwan.

Methods: Household dogs and cats were selected from 103 veterinary hospitals in 13 cities throughout Taiwan. Read More

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November 2017
6 Reads

Acute phase proteins and markers of oxidative stress to assess the severity of the pulmonary hypertension in heartworm-infected dogs.

Parasit Vectors 2017 Nov 9;10(Suppl 2):477. Epub 2017 Nov 9.

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Research Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences (IUIBS), University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Trasmontaña s/n, 35413-Arucas, Las Palmas, Gran Canaria, Spain.

Background: Canine heartworm infection is characterized by pulmonary endarteritis and pulmonary hypertension (PH). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between PH with the concentrations of different positive (C-reactive protein [CRP] and haptoglobin [Hp]) and negative (albumin and paraoxonase-1 [PON-1]) acute phase proteins (APP), as well as the oxidative stress, by measuring glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in 27 heartworm-infected dogs on Day 0 (diagnosis) and Day 120 (1 month after the last adulticide injection). Presence/absence of PH was determined by the Right Pulmonary Artery Distensibility (RPAD) Index. Read More

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November 2017
6 Reads

Evaluation of cardiopulmonary and inflammatory markers in dogs with heartworm infection during treatment with the 2014 American Heartworm Society recommended treatment protocol.

Parasit Vectors 2017 Nov 9;10(Suppl 2):535. Epub 2017 Nov 9.

Section of Small Animal Internal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kangwon National University, 1 Kangwondaehak-gil, Chuncheon-si, Gangwon-do, 24341, Republic of Korea.

Background: Heartworm disease in dogs is a life-threatening parasitic disease. Although adulticide treatment with melarsomine has been proven to be the most effective, complications associated with adulticide treatment are major concerns for clinicians.

Methods: This study evaluated the change in levels of D-dimer, interleukin-6, C-reactive protein and cardiac troponin I in 12 dogs with different severities of heartworm infection treated by the American Heartworm Society (AHS) recommended protocol during the treatment period. Read More

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November 2017
11 Reads

The progression of heartworm associated respiratory disease (HARD) in SPF cats 18 months after Dirofilaria immitis infection.

Parasit Vectors 2017 Nov 9;10(Suppl 2):533. Epub 2017 Nov 9.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama, 36849, USA.

Background: Heartworm-associated respiratory disease (HARD) in cats is induced by the arrival and death of immature adult Dirofilaria immitis in the pulmonary system and is indistinguishable from mature adult heartworm infection.

Methods: A controlled, blind research study investigated the long-term (18 months post infection, PI) consequences of the inflammatory response associated with the death of immature adult heartworms in cats. Three groups of cats, 10 per group, were infected with 100 third-stage (L3) larvae by subcutaneous injection. Read More

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November 2017
18 Reads

Shifting the paradigm in Dirofilaria immitis prevention: blocking transmission from mosquitoes to dogs using repellents/insecticides and macrocyclic lactone prevention as part of a multimodal approach.

Parasit Vectors 2017 Nov 9;10(Suppl 2):525. Epub 2017 Nov 9.

TRS Labs, Inc., 215 Paradise Boulevard, Athens, GA, 30607, USA.

Background: This study assessed the influence of a topical ectoparasiticide (dinotefuran-permethrin-pyriproxyfen, DPP, Vectra® 3D, Ceva Animal Health) combined with a macrocyclic lactone (milbemycin oxime, MBO, Interceptor®, Virbac) on transmission of heartworm L3 from mosquitoes to dogs and subsequent development of worms in treated dogs exposed to infected mosquitoes.

Methods: Thirty-two beagle dogs were allocated to four groups of eight: Group 1, untreated controls; Group 2, treated topically with DPP on Day 0; Group 3, treated orally with MBO on Day 51; and Group 4, treated with DPP on Day 0 and MBO on Day 51. Dogs were exposed under sedation for 1 h to Dirofilaria immitis (JYD-34)-infected Aedes aegypti on Days 21 and 28. Read More

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November 2017
47 Reads

Considerations for using minocycline vs doxycycline for treatment of canine heartworm disease.

Authors:
Mark G Papich

Parasit Vectors 2017 Nov 9;10(Suppl 2):493. Epub 2017 Nov 9.

Department of Molecular Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, 1060 William Moore Drive, Raleigh, NC, 27607, USA.

Background: Doxycycline has been considered the first drug of choice for treating Wolbachia, a member of the Rickettsiaceae, which has a symbiotic relationship with filarial worms, including heartworms. Wolbachia, is susceptible to tetracyclines, which have been used as adjunctive treatments for heartworm disease. Treatment with doxycycline reduces Wolbachia numbers in all stages of heartworms and improves outcomes and decreased microfilaremia in dogs treated for heartworm disease. Read More

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November 2017
10 Reads

Comparative evaluation of commercially available point-of-care heartworm antigen tests using well-characterized canine plasma samples.

Parasit Vectors 2017 Nov 9;10(Suppl 2):475. Epub 2017 Nov 9.

Department of Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Auburn University, Auburn, AL, 36849, USA.

Background: Dirofilaria immitis is a worldwide parasite that is endemic in many parts of the United States. There are many commercial assays available for the detection of D. immitis antigen, one of which was modified and has reentered the market. Read More

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November 2017
10 Reads

Cardiopulmonary and inflammatory biomarkers in heartworm disease.

Parasit Vectors 2017 Nov 9;10(Suppl 2):534. Epub 2017 Nov 9.

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Research Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences (IUIBS), University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Trasmontaña s/n, 35413-Arucas, Las Palmas, Spain.

In heartworm disease, several biomarkers of cardiopulmonary injury and inflammatory activity have been studied during the recent years. D-dimer is a fibrin degradation product present after a clot is degraded, which has been reported to provide support for the diagnosis of pulmonary thromboembolism in heartworm disease. Furthermore, concentrations increment with increased disease severity and during the adulticide treatment. Read More

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November 2017
4 Reads