2,813 results match your criteria Dirofilariasis


Vector-borne pathogens in dogs from areas where leishmaniosis is endemic.

Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports 2022 Jul 9;32:100746. Epub 2022 Jun 9.

Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Bari, Valenzano, Bari, Italy.

Many vector-borne pathogens (VBPs), including Ehrlichia canis and Dirofilaria immitis, may infect simultaneously dogs in areas where Leishmania infantum is endemic, especially in the tropics, where highly abundant arthropod vectors thrive. The aim of this study was to compare the frequency of simultaneous VBPs infection in Leishmania-positive and Leishmania-negative dogs. Animals enrolled in this study were divided in two groups (G1 and G2), G1 being comprised of L. Read More

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Human pulmonary dirofilariasis: A pitfall in solitary pulmonary nodule.

Pulmonology 2022 Jun 12. Epub 2022 Jun 12.

Hospital de Santa Marta, Centro Hospitalar Lisboa Central, Portugal.

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De Novo Assembly of the Genome by Long-Read Nanopore-Based Sequencing Technology on an Adult Worm from a Canine Cardiopulmonary Dirofilariosis Case.

Animals (Basel) 2022 May 25;12(11). Epub 2022 May 25.

ICBAS-School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Porto University, 4050-313 Porto, Portugal.

is a zoonotic parasitic nematode that infects domestic and wild canids, among its vertebrate hosts. The genetic analysis of nowadays transcends the need for genetic taxonomy of nematodes, such as the study of resistance to macrocyclic lactone. We expanded the use of long-read nanopore-based sequencing technology on nematodes by performing genomic de novo assembly of a specimen retrieved from a canine cardiopulmonary dirofilariasis case using the ONT MinION platform, followed by the study of macrocyclic lactone resistance. Read More

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Seropositivity of main vector-borne pathogens in dogs across Europe.

Parasit Vectors 2022 Jun 6;15(1):189. Epub 2022 Jun 6.

Institute for Parasitology and Tropical Veterinary Medicine, Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

Background: Canine vector-borne disease (CVBD) has been an area of increasing interest in Europe over the last few decades, and there have been changes in the prevalence and distribution of many of these diseases. Monitoring CVBD infections in Europe is often done by individual countries, but aggregated data for the European countries are helpful to understand the distribution of CVBDs.

Methods: We used an extensive retrospective database of results from point-of-care rapid enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests on dogs across Europe to identify distribution and seropositivity in animals tested for selected CVBDs (Anaplasma spp. Read More

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Seroprevalence of Feline Heartworm in Spain: Completing the Epidemiological Puzzle of a Neglected Disease in the Cat.

Front Vet Sci 2022 12;9:900371. Epub 2022 May 12.

Zoonotic Infections and One Health Group, Laboratory of Parasitology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Salamanca, Campus Miguel Unamuno, Salamanca, Spain.

Feline heartworm is a vector-borne zoonotic disease caused by . It is a cosmopolitan disease that is continuously expanding. Spain is considered an endemic country; however, although there are many published studies in dogs, feline heartworm has been poorly studied in this country. Read More

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Canine filaria species in selected lymphatic filariasis endemic and non-endemic areas in Sri Lanka.

Parasitol Res 2022 Jul 26;121(7):2187-2191. Epub 2022 May 26.

Deparment of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Kelaniya, Ragama, Gampaha District, Sri Lanka.

Subperiodic brugian filariasis and dirofilariasis show a rising trend in Sri Lanka posing a threat to public health. As information was limited on canine filaria species in Sri Lanka, we studied the filaria parasites among dog populations in lymphatic filariasis (LF) endemic and non-endemic regions by microscopy and molecular methods. Thick blood smears (TBSs) were performed among 295 dogs presenting to veterinary clinics for surgical or sterilization procedures in Galle (LF endemic) and Mullaitivu (LF non-endemic) districts, of which 55. Read More

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Treatment with doxycycline is associated with complete clearance of circulating Wolbachia DNA in Dirofilaria immitis-naturally infected dogs.

Acta Trop 2022 Aug 19;232:106513. Epub 2022 May 19.

Dipartimento di Medicina Veterinaria, Università degli Studi di Bari, Valenzano, Italy; Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran. Electronic address:

Bacteria of the genus Wolbachia are endosymbionts of parasitic filarial nematodes, including Dirofilaria immitis, and are a target for the treatment of canine heartworm disease. In the present study, 53 naturally-infected dogs were divided in three groups, based on their positivity to D. immitis by antigen and Knott tests, to assess the efficacy of doxycycline treatment in eliminating Wolbachia from circulating blood. Read More

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Serum protein electrophoresis in Dirofilaria immitis naturally infected dogs: Latest news and a systematic literature review.

Vet Parasitol 2022 May 13;305:109720. Epub 2022 May 13.

Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Bari, 70010 Valenzano, Italy. Electronic address:

According to the main Guidelines on canine heartworm disease (HWD) by the American and European Societies (i.e., AHS, ESDA, and ESCCAP), a correct diagnosis of Dirofilaria immitis infection should include the detection of circulating microfilariae in the whole blood and the adult antigens in serum or plasma sample. Read More

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Subconjunctival human dirofilariasis by in the Mediterranean Basin.

Am J Ophthalmol Case Rep 2022 Jun 30;26:101570. Epub 2022 Apr 30.

Departamento de Parasitología, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Valencia, Valencia, Spain.

Purpose: Human dirofilariasis cases have increased in Europe for the last few decades. We document an autochthonous case of dirofilariasis infection in the subconjunctival space of a 60-year-old Spanish man.

Observations: The patient presented with pain in his right eye, which was diagnosed as -scleritis. Read More

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in Dogs and Humans in Slovenia.

J Vet Res 2022 Mar 1;66(1):117-123. Epub 2022 Mar 1.

Institute of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Introduction: The prevalence of in dogs in countries bordering Slovenia ranges from 1.5% to 47.3%. Read More

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Canine antibody response against Dirofilaria repens in natural occult and microfilaremic infections.

Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 2022 Jul 2;86:101818. Epub 2022 May 2.

Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Department of Preclinical Sciences, Division of Parasitology and Infectious Diseases, Poland.

Dirofilaria repens is the causative agent of the zoonotic canine skin condition called subcutaneous dirofilariosis. Despite being endemic throughout much of Europe, little is known about host humoral responses to D. repens. Read More

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Dirofilaria immitis antigenemia and microfilaremia in Iberian wolves and red foxes from Portugal.

Parasit Vectors 2022 May 9;15(1):119. Epub 2022 May 9.

ICBAS-School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Porto University, Porto, Portugal.

Background: Dirofilaria immitis is a parasitic nematode endemic in the Mediterranean countries, which causes cardiopulmonary dirofilariosis in wild and domestic animals. Despite being recognized hosts of D. immitis, wild carnivores such as wolves and foxes are frequently disregarded when considering a potential role in the transmission of these zoonotic nematodes. Read More

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Vector-borne pathogens of zoonotic concern in hunting dogs of southern Italy.

Acta Trop 2022 Aug 18;232:106502. Epub 2022 May 18.

Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Bari Aldo Moro, 70010 Valenzano (Bari), Italy; Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran. Electronic address:

Dogs are commonly exposed to vector-borne pathogens (VBPs), yet few data are available on hunting dogs, which are often at high risk of infection due to their involvement in field activities. To investigate the occurrence of VBPs and evaluate the relative performance of different diagnostic tools, blood and serum samples were collected from hunting dogs (n = 1,433) in rural areas of southern Italy. All samples were tested by Knott's technique for filarioids, serologically (SNAP® 4Dx® Plus) for Anaplasma spp. Read More

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Prevalence and molecular characterization of Dirofilaria immitis in road killed canids of northern Iran.

BMC Vet Res 2022 May 2;18(1):161. Epub 2022 May 2.

Foodborne and Waterborne Diseases Research Center, Research Institute for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Dirofilaria immitis is a mosquito-borne filarial nematode, which infects primarily wild and domestic canids, causing cardiopulmonary dirofilariasis. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and characterize molecular features of D. immitis in road killed canids, northern Iran. Read More

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2022 Update of the Consensus on the Rational Use of Antithrombotics and Thrombolytics in Veterinary Critical Care (CURATIVE) Domain 1- Defining populations at risk.

J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) 2022 May 2;32(3):289-314. Epub 2022 May 2.

School of Veterinary Medicine, Murdoch University, Murdoch, Australia.

Objectives: To expand the number of conditions and interventions explored for their associations with thrombosis in the veterinary literature and to provide the basis for prescribing recommendations.

Design: A population exposure comparison outcome format was used to represent patient, exposure, comparison, and outcome. Population Exposure Comparison Outcome questions were distributed to worksheet authors who performed comprehensive searches, summarized the evidence, and created guideline recommendations that were reviewed by domain chairs. Read More

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First case of ocular dirofilariosis in Bulgaria caused by gravid female Dirofilaria repens.

Ann Parasitol 2022 ;68(1):191-193

Department of Epidemiology, Parasitology and Tropical Medicine, Faculty of Public Health, Medical University of Pleven, Sv. Kliment Ohridski 1, Pleven 5800, Bulgaria

Dirofilariosis caused by Dirofilaria (Nochtiella) repens is recorded sporadically among people in Europe, Asia and Africa. Still a worldwide controversy exist upon human parasite hosting. Herein, the first case of ocular dirofilariosis in Bulgaria caused by gravid female is presented. Read More

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Subcutaneous dirofilariosis in Italy: a diagnostic hypothesis to remind when the anamnesis is misleading.

Pathologica 2022 Apr;114(2):174-177

Pathology Unit, IRCCS San Raffaele Institute, Milan, Italy.

Subcutaneous parasitic infections are possible matches in routine pathology and can be detected not only in patients coming from or travelling in tropical countries, but also when the anamnesis does not suggest at first worm infestations.

Here we report the case of a young man from the north-west of Italy, with a negative anamnesis for travels but the presence of dogs at home, who presented a subcutaneous nodule showing a nematode surrounded by a fibrous capsule; the morphology was suggestive for Dirofilaria repens. Dirofilariosis is a zoonosis caused by D. Read More

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Further data on the distribution of Dirofilaria spp. in the Czech Republic in dogs.

Folia Parasitol (Praha) 2022 Mar 31;69. Epub 2022 Mar 31.

Department of Pathology and Parasitology, University of Veterinary Sciences, Brno, Czech Republic.

Based on previously published data, the Czech Republic is regarded an endemic country of the onchocercid nematodes Dirofilaria immitis (Leidy, 1856) and Dirofilaria repens Railliet et Henry, 1911. Nevertheless, while cases of D. repens are commonly reported from dogs in South Moravia, no recent records of D. Read More

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Ferret Cardiology.

Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract 2022 May;25(2):541-562

Division of Zoological Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Yalelaan 108, Utrecht 3584 CM, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

Cardiac disease is relatively common in middle-aged to older ferrets and may comprise acquired or congenital disorders leading to problems with conduction, contractility, or outflow. Clinical signs are often seen in advanced stages of the disease, with lethargy, hind limb weakness, ascites, hepatosplenomegaly, and respiratory distress owing to pleural effusion or lung edema being prominent features. Diagnostic workup and therapeutic intervention largely follow guidelines such as those established for dogs and cats, with feline doses often serving as a starting point for therapy. Read More

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A study on canine dirofilariasis in selected areas of Sri Lanka.

BMC Res Notes 2022 Apr 14;15(1):137. Epub 2022 Apr 14.

Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka.

Objectives: Canine dirofilariasis is a mosquito borne zoonotic filarial parasitic disease caused by Dirofilaria species. In Sri Lanka, human dirofilariasis is endemic and well documented. Even though canine dirofilariasis is an established infection among dog populations in Sri Lanka, the prevalence and risk factors were not documented in Kanthale divisional secretariat, Eastern Province of Sri Lanka. Read More

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Live Intraoral of Lower Lip Mimicking Mucocele-First Reported Case from Croatia.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2022 04 4;19(7). Epub 2022 Apr 4.

Department of Oral Medicine, School of Dental Medicine, University of Zagreb, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia.

Dirofilariasis is an endemic infestation in tropical and subtropical countries caused by about 40 different species. It rarely occurs in the oral cavity and is mostly presented as mucosal and submucosal nodules. Differential diagnoses include lipoma, mucocele, and pleomorphic adenoma. Read More

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Human Dirofilariasis Caused by Dirofilaria repens in Sri Lanka from 1962 to 2020.

Acta Parasitol 2022 Jun 5;67(2):628-639. Epub 2022 Apr 5.

Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka.

Purpose: Sri Lanka has reported the highest prevalence of human dirofilariasis cases in Asia. Thus far, Dirofilaria repens is the only reported Dirofilaria species that affect humans, dogs, and cats in Sri Lanka. Therefore, this systematic review was carried out to analyse the studies performed on dirofilariasis in Sri Lanka. Read More

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Incidental immitis; a microfilaria medley.

Vet Clin Pathol 2022 Mar;51(1):6-7

Department of Public Health and Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA.

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Subconjunctival Dirofilariasis presenting as orbital cellulitis.

Indian J Ophthalmol 2022 Apr;70(4):1438

Orbit and Oculoplasty Service, Vitreoretina Service, Prabha Eye Clinic and Research Centre, Bangalore, Karnataka, India.

Background: Dirofilariasis is an emerging zoonosis in India. Most of the cases from India have been reported from the states of Kerala, coastal Karnataka and Maharashtra, and a few from the North India, Orissa and Assam. Dogs, cats, foxes and other wild animals are definitive hosts for dirofilaria. Read More

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Development of rapid in vitro colorimetric enzymatic activity assay to differentiate macrocyclic lactone susceptible and resistant Dirofilaria immitis isolates.

Vet Parasitol 2022 Apr 11;304:109696. Epub 2022 Mar 11.

Institute of Parasitology, McGill University, Sainte Anne-de-Bellevue, QC, Canada.

The filarial parasite Dirofilaria immitis causes dirofilariosis, a potentially fatal pulmonary condition in canids and felines. Dirofilariosis can be prevented by treatment with a prophylactic macrocyclic lactone (ML) regimen. Unfortunately, ML-resistant D. Read More

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Dirofilaria repens predominates in shelter dogs from South Romania.

Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 2022 May 9;84:101793. Epub 2022 Mar 9.

Laboratory of Helminthology, Centro de Investigación en Enfermedades Tropicales, University of Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica. Electronic address:

Canine filarioids are zoonotic vector-borne parasitic nematodes distributed mostly in the tropics and subtropics. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, distribution, etiology and genetic variation of canine filarioid infections by three different PCR techniques in four Southern Romanian counties. Blood samples of 300 shelter dogs were screened for infections with canine filarioids by real-time PCR. Read More

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Preventive efficacy of six monthly oral doses of Simparica Trio, Heartgard Plus, and Interceptor Plus against a macrocyclic lactone-resistant strain (ZoeLA) of heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) in dogs.

Parasit Vectors 2022 Mar 11;15(1):81. Epub 2022 Mar 11.

Zoetis, Veterinary Medicine Research and Development, 333 Portage Street, Kalamazoo, MI, 49007, USA.

Background: Administration of four to six consecutive monthly doses of 24 µg/kg moxidectin alone shows high effectiveness in preventing the maturation of macrocyclic lactone (ML)-resistant heartworm strains, Dirofilaria immitis JYD-34 and ZoeLA. This laboratory study evaluated the efficacy of six consecutive monthly oral doses of Simparica Trio (moxidectin/sarolaner/pyrantel) compared to six monthly doses of either Heartgard Plus (ivermectin/pyrantel) or Interceptor Plus (milbemycin oxime/praziquantel) against ML-resistant D. immitis ZoeLA strain. Read More

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Moxidectin: heartworm disease prevention in dogs in the face of emerging macrocyclic lactone resistance.

Parasit Vectors 2022 Mar 11;15(1):82. Epub 2022 Mar 11.

Zoetis, Kalamazoo, MI, USA.

Heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) disease continues to increase and spread, remaining one of the most important and pathogenic parasitic diseases of dogs, despite the regular use of macrocyclic lactones (MLs) in preventive products. Dogs harboring strains of D. immitis resistant to MLs, the only drug class available for heartworm prevention in the United States, have been documented and proven. Read More

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Global Climate Change and Human Dirofilariasis in Russia.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2022 03 6;19(5). Epub 2022 Mar 6.

Martsinovsky Institute of Medical Parasitology, Tropical and Vector-Borne Diseases, Sechenov University, 119435 Moscow, Russia.

Human dirofilariasis is a vector-borne helminth disease caused by two species of : and . The vectors of the helminth are mosquitoes in the family Culicidae. The definitive hosts of are dogs and, to a lesser extent, cats. Read More

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Filarids (Spirurida: Onchocercidae) in wild carnivores and domestic dogs from the Brazilian Atlantic forest.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2022 03 8;16(3):e0010213. Epub 2022 Mar 8.

São Paulo State University-Unesp, Agrarian and Veterinarian Sciences School (FCAV), Department of Pathology, Reproduction, and One Health, Jaboticabal, Brazil.

Onchocercidae nematodes are heteroxenous parasites with worldwide distribution, and some of the species associated to animals may present zoonotic potential. Climatic changes and anthropic influences on the environment may result in vectors' proliferation, facilitating the spillover to humans and/or non-typical animal hosts. The Iguaçu National Park (PARNA Iguaçu), one of the most important Brazilian natural remanescents of Atlantic rainforest, is strongly affected by human activities such as tourism and agriculture. Read More

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