20,758 results match your criteria Diphtheria


A previously treated severe haemophilia A patient developed high-titre inhibitor after vaccinations.

Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol 2020 Jan-Dec;34:2058738420934618

Hemophilia Work Group, Hematology Oncology Center, Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University, National Center for Children's Health, Beijing, China.

The factor VIII (FVIII)-neutralizing antibody (inhibitor) seen in 25%-30% of patients with severe haemophilia A (SHA). Vaccination is a non-genetic risk factor of inhibitor development as 'danger signal' which may provide a pro-inflammatory microenvironment to increase FVIII immunogenicity. We reported a previously treated SHA patient postponed the first vaccination to 15-month age received diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus intramuscularly. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2058738420934618DOI Listing

Cytokine regulation of apoptosis-induced apoptosis and apoptosis-induced cell proliferation in vascular smooth muscle cells.

Apoptosis 2020 Jul 5. Epub 2020 Jul 5.

Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Cambridge, ACCI, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Box 110, CB2 0QQ, Cambridge, UK.

Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are the main structural cell of blood vessels, and VSMC apoptosis occurs in vascular disease, after injury, and in vessel remodeling during development. Although VSMC apoptosis is viewed as silent, recent studies show that apoptotic cells can promote apoptosis-induced compensatory proliferation (AICP), apoptosis-induced apoptosis (AIA), and migration of both local somatic and infiltrating inflammatory cells. However, the effects of VSMC apoptosis on adjacent VSMCs, and their underlying signaling and mechanisms are unknown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10495-020-01622-4DOI Listing

Toxin-Mediated siRNA Delivery.

Trends Pharmacol Sci 2020 Jun 30. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Center for Nanomedicine and Division of Engineering in Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA; Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Electronic address:

AB toxins with built-in cell targeting and endosomal escape mechanisms are attractive intracellular delivery vehicles. However, their compatibility with nucleic-acid-based therapeutics is not fully explored. Arnold et al. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tips.2020.06.006DOI Listing

Seroprevalence of Measles, Rubella, Tetanus, and Diphtheria Antibodies among Children in Haiti, 2017.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Global Immunization Division, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

In Haiti, measles, rubella, and maternal and neonatal tetanus have been eliminated, but a diphtheria outbreak is ongoing as of 2019. We conducted a national representative, household-based, two-stage cluster survey among children aged 5-7 years in 2017 to assess progress toward maintenance of control and elimination of selected vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs). We stratified Haiti into west region (west department, including the capital city) and non-west region (all other departments). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.20-0112DOI Listing

The Practice Guideline for Vaccinating Korean Patients with Autoimmune Inflammatory Rheumatic Disease.

Infect Chemother 2020 Jun;52(2):252-280

Department of Rheumatology, Chonnam National University Medical School & Hospital, Gwangju, Korea.

To develop a clinical practice guideline for vaccination in patients with autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic disease (AIIRD), the Korean College of Rheumatology and the Korean Society of Infectious Diseases developed a clinical practice guideline according to the clinical practice guideline development manual. Since vaccination is unlikely to cause AIIRD or worsen disease activities, required vaccinations are recommended. Once patients are diagnosed with AIIRD, treatment strategies should be established and, at the same time, monitor their vaccination history. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3947/ic.2020.52.2.252DOI Listing

An engineered chimeric toxin that cleaves activated mutant and wild-type RAS inhibits tumor growth.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611;

Despite nearly four decades of effort, broad inhibition of oncogenic RAS using small-molecule approaches has proven to be a major challenge. Here we describe the development of a pan-RAS biologic inhibitor composed of the RAS-RAP1-specific endopeptidase fused to the protein delivery machinery of diphtheria toxin. We show that this engineered chimeric toxin irreversibly cleaves and inactivates intracellular RAS at low picomolar concentrations terminating downstream signaling in receptor-bearing cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2000312117DOI Listing

Suboptimal uptake of meningococcal vaccines among older adolescents: Barriers, solutions, and future research directions.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2020 Jul 2:1-5. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Yale School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics , New Haven, CT, USA.

Over the past 15 y, several vaccines have been added to the recommended immunization schedule for adolescents in the United States. In addition to annual influenza vaccination, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis (Tdap), meningococcal conjugate (MenACWY), and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine for routine administration at ages 11-12 y, and a second dose of MenACWY at age 16. A vaccine against meningococcal disease caused by serogroup B (MenB) is also available and recommended for shared clinical decision-making. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2020.1754052DOI Listing

Vaccination coverage of recommended vaccines and determinants of vaccination in at-risk groups.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2020 Jul 2:1-8. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Leuven University Vaccinology Center , Department of Public Health and Primary Care, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Upon exposure to vaccine-preventable diseases, certain individuals are at increased risk for complications due to preexisting diseases, age or immunosuppressive treatment. Vaccination against influenza, pneumococcal disease and hepatitis B (for some groups) is advised in addition to standard vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis. We estimated the vaccination coverage and determinants of recommended vaccinations in patients with diabetes mellitus type 1 (n = 173) and type 2 (n = 177), chronic kidney disease (CKD) (n = 138), heart failure (n = 200), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (n = 187), HIV (n = 201) or solid organ transplantation (SOT) (n = 201) in a monocentric study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2020.1763739DOI Listing

Determining Which of Several Simultaneously Administered Vaccines Increase Risk of an Adverse Event.

Drug Saf 2020 Jul 1. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 1620 Tremont Street, Suite 3030, Boston, MA, 02120, USA.

Introduction: Childhood immunization schedules often involve multiple vaccinations per visit. When increased risk of an adverse event is observed after simultaneous (same-day) vaccinations, it can be difficult to ascertain which triggered the adverse event. This methods paper discusses a systematic process to determine which of the simultaneously administered vaccine(s) are most likely to have caused an observed increase in risk of an adverse event. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40264-020-00967-8DOI Listing

Identifying vaccination rates of adult patients in ambulatory care clinics.

SAGE Open Med 2020 20;8:2050312120935461. Epub 2020 Jun 20.

Walreens, Purcellville, USA.

Background: While pharmacists have provided vaccinations to patients in the community pharmacy setting, pharmacist involvement within the medical office setting is not well documented in the literature. The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists reports that ambulatory care pharmacists are screening for and administering vaccinations at a declining rate, despite standards of practice. Vaccination rates for adults 19-64 years of age remain low, based on Healthy People 2020 goals, putting them at risk for vaccine-preventable diseases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2050312120935461DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7307275PMC

Assessing the efficiency of Iran health system in making progress towards universal health coverage: a comparative panel data analysis.

Cost Eff Resour Alloc 2020 29;18:20. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Knowledge Utilization Research Center, Community-Based Participatory-Research Center,and School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Building upon decades of continuous reforms, Iran has been implementing various initiatives to reach universal health coverage (UHC). Improving efficiency is a crucial intermediate policy objective for UHC. Therefore, this article aimed to measure the efficiency and productivity changes of the Iranian health system in making progress towards UHC during 2010-2015 in comparison with 36 selected other upper-middle-income countries. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12962-020-00215-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7324989PMC

Tagraxofusp for the Treatment of Blastic Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell Neoplasm (BPDCN): A Brief Report on Emerging Data.

Onco Targets Ther 2020 9;13:5199-5205. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Hematology Department, University Hospitals of Toulouse, IUC Toulouse-Oncopole, Toulouse, France.

Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) is a rare myeloid malignancy, for which conventional chemotherapy has poor outcomes. CD123, the α-subunit of interleukin (IL)-3 receptor, is constantly overexpressed at the surface of tumoral cells. Tagraxofusp (or SL-401) is a recombinant cytotoxin which consists of human interleukin-3 fused to a truncated diphtheria toxin. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OTT.S228342DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7293389PMC

Producing Standardized Country-Level Immunization Delivery Unit Cost Estimates.

Pharmacoeconomics 2020 Jun 28. Epub 2020 Jun 28.

Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Center for Health Decision Science, 718 Huntington Avenue 2nd Floor, Boston, MA, 02115, USA.

Background: To plan for the financial sustainability of immunization programs and make informed decisions to improve immunization coverage and equity, decision-makers need to know how much these programs cost beyond the cost of the vaccine. Non-vaccine delivery cost estimates can significantly influence the cost-effectiveness estimates used to allocate resources at the country level. However, many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) do not have immunization delivery unit cost estimates available, or have estimates that are uncertain, unreliable, or old. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40273-020-00930-6DOI Listing

Lessons learned from an under-reported mumps epidemic among Rohingya refugees in Cox's Bazar District, Bangladesh.

Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2020 Jun 23. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Department of Clinical Sciences, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, UK.

Background: In 2018, a large mumps epidemic coincided with an outbreak of diphtheria in refugee camps established in Bangladesh for the Rohingya people. These refugees did not receive a mumps-containing vaccine.

Methods: Cases of mumps were reported to the WHO's Early Warning, Alert and Response System (EWARS) during the Rohingya refugee crisis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/trstmh/traa048DOI Listing

Limited Impact of Human Cytomegalovirus Infection in African Infants on Vaccine-Specific Responses Following Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis and Measles Vaccination.

Front Immunol 2020 5;11:1083. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Infant Immunology Group, Vaccines and Immunity Theme, MRC Unit, Fajara, Gambia.

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection has a profound effect on the human immune system, causing massive clonal expansion of CD8, and to a lesser extend CD4 T cells. The few human trials that have explored the effect of HCMV infection on responses to vaccination are conflicting, with some studies suggesting no effect whilst others suggest decreased or increased immune responses. Recent studies indicate substantial differences in overall immune system reactivity to vaccines based on age and sex, particularly cellular immunity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.01083DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7291605PMC

Control of vaccine preventable diseases in Australian infants: reviewing a decade of experience with DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib vaccine.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2020 Jun 23:1-15. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Vaccine and Immunisation Research Group (Virgo), University of Melbourne, School of Population and Global Health and Murdoch Children's Research Institute , Melbourne, Australia.

The combined vaccine against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B, poliomyelitis, and b (DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib, Infanrix Hexa, GSK) has been used for childhood immunization in Australia according to a two-, four-, six-month schedule since 2009. We reviewed data available in the Australian National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System, annual vaccination coverage reports, the Database of Adverse Event Notifications, and peer-reviewed literature to assess vaccine coverage rates, incidence of all six vaccine preventable diseases, and the safety profile of DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib vaccine in Australian infants over a period of ten years of exclusive use. Between 2009 and 2018 vaccine coverage for infants aged 12 months increased from 91. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2020.1764826DOI Listing

Penta is associated with an increased female-male mortality ratio: cohort study from Bangladesh.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2020 Jun 23:1-8. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Former Deputy Executive Director, icddr,b , Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccine may be associated with excess female deaths. There are few studies of possible nonspecific effects of the DTP-containing vaccine Penta (DTP-hepatitis B- influenzae type . We therefore investigated whether Penta vaccinations were associated with excess female deaths in rural Bangladesh. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2020.1763084DOI Listing

Crystal Structure of Exotoxin A from Pathogenic Species.

Authors:
Geoffrey Masuyer

Toxins (Basel) 2020 Jun 15;12(6). Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Department of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, Centre for Therapeutic Innovation, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY, UK.

exotoxin A (AE) is a bacterial virulence factor recently discovered in a clinical case of necrotising fasciitis caused by the flesh-eating . Here, database mining shows that AE is present in the genome of several emerging pathogenic species. The X-ray crystal structure of AE was solved at 2. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/toxins12060397DOI Listing

Impact of state weights on national vaccination coverage estimates from household surveys in Nigeria.

Vaccine 2020 Jul 10;38(32):5060-5070. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Institute for Disease Modeling, 3150 139th Ave SE, Bellevue, WA 98005, USA.

National vaccination coverage estimates from household surveys are widely used in monitoring and planning of immunization programs. In Nigeria, survey-reported national coverage estimates have shown large fluctuations in the past few years. In this paper, we examine the impact of state-level survey weighting on Nigeria's national vaccination coverage estimation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2020.05.026DOI Listing

Impact of a Catch-Up Strategy of DT-IPV Vaccination during Hospitalization on Vaccination Coverage among People Over 65 Years of Age in France: The HOSPIVAC Study (Vaccination during Hospitalization).

Vaccines (Basel) 2020 Jun 9;8(2). Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Le Mans Hospital, 72000 Le Mans, France.

In France, diphtheria tetanus and inactivated polio vaccine (DT-IPV) coverage and immunization are insufficient in the elderly and decrease with age. The principal objective of this study was to assess the impact of a strategy of catch-up DT-IPV vaccination during hospitalization in people over the age of 65 years in central France (the Sarthe region). We performed a prospective, single-center, cluster-randomized study (four hospital wards). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8020292DOI Listing

Measuring the cellular memory B cell response after vaccination in patients after allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

Ann Hematol 2020 Jun 9. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Department of Biology, Division of Genetics, Nikolaus-Fiebiger-Center for Molecular Medicine, Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany.

After allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), patients are repetitively vaccinated to reduce the risk of infection caused by the immune deficiency following allogeneic HSCT. By the vaccination of transplanted patients, the humoral memory function can be restored in the majority of cases. It is unknown, however, to what extent memory B cells derived from the donor contribute to the mobilization of antibody-secreting cells and long-term humoral memory in patients after allogeneic HSCT. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00277-020-04072-9DOI Listing

Donor bone-marrow CXCR4+ Foxp3+ T-regulatory cells are essential for costimulation blockade-induced long-term survival of murine limb transplants.

Sci Rep 2020 Jun 9;10(1):9292. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Division of Transplant Immunology, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, and Biesecker Center for Pediatric Liver Disease, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia and University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA.

Vascularized composite allotransplantation (VCA) allows tissue replacement after devastating loss but is currently limited in application and may be more widely performed if maintenance immunosuppression was not essential for graft acceptance. We tested whether peri-transplant costimulation blockade could prolong VCA survival and required donor bone-marrow cells, given that bone-marrow might promote graft immunogenicity or graft-versus-host disease. Peritransplant CD154 mAb/rapamycin (RPM) induced long-term orthotopic hindlimb VCA survival (BALB/c->C57BL/6), as did CTLA4Ig/RPM. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-66139-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7283338PMC

Diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis: unequal vaccine siblings with distinct characteristics.

Authors:
Ulrich Heininger

Clin Infect Dis 2020 Jun 9. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

University of Basel Children's Hospital, Department of Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, Spitalstrasse, Basel, Switzerland.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa643DOI Listing

Ensilicated tetanus antigen retains immunogenicity: in vivo study and time-resolved SAXS characterization.

Sci Rep 2020 Jun 8;10(1):9243. Epub 2020 Jun 8.

Department of Chemistry, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath, BA2 7AY, United Kingdom.

Our recently developed ensilication approach can physically stabilize proteins in silica without use of a pre-formed particle matrix. Stabilisation is done by tailor fitting individual proteins with a silica coat using a modified sol-gel process. Biopharmaceuticals, e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-65876-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7280242PMC

Access, demand, and utilization of childhood immunization services: A cross-sectional household survey in Western Area Urban district, Sierra Leone, 2019.

J Glob Health 2020 Jun;10(1):010420

Global Immunization Division (GID), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Background: Urban childhood immunization programs face unique challenges in access, utilization, and demand due to frequent population movement between and within localities, sprawling informal settlements, and population heterogeneity. We conducted a cross-sectional household survey in the Western Area Urban district, Sierra Leone, stratified by slums and non-slums as defined by the United Nations Development Program.

Methods: Based on data from child vaccination cards, weighted vaccination coverage was estimated from 450 children aged 12-36 months (household response rate = 83%). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7189/jogh.10.010420DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7243070PMC

Prognostic value of OCT4A and SPP1C transcript variant co-expression in early-stage lung adenocarcinoma.

BMC Cancer 2020 Jun 5;20(1):521. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Department of Human Morphology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1, Shikata-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama, 700-8558, Japan.

Background: Octamer-binding transcription factor 4A (OCT4A) is essential for cell pluripotency and reprogramming both in humans and mice. To date, however, the function of human OCT4 in somatic and/or tumour tissues is largely unknown.

Methods: RT-PCR was used to identify full-length splice forms of OCT4 transcripts in normal and cancer cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-020-06969-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7275395PMC

Phylogenomic characterisation of a novel corynebacterial species pathogenic to animals.

Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 2020 Aug 4;113(8):1225-1239. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.

The genus Corynebacterium includes species of biotechnological, medical and veterinary importance. An atypical C. ulcerans strain, W25, was recently isolated from a case of necrotizing lymphadenitis in a wild boar. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10482-020-01430-5DOI Listing

Active SMS-based surveillance of adverse events following immunisation with influenza and pertussis-containing vaccines in Australian pregnant women using AusVaxSafety.

Vaccine 2020 Jun 2;38(31):4892-4900. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

National Centre for Immunisation Research and Surveillance, Children's Hospital at Westmead, Westmead, New South Wales, Australia; Discipline of Child and Adolescent Health, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia; Department of Microbiology and Infectious Disease, Children's Hospital at Westmead, Westmead, New South Wales, Australia. Electronic address:

Background: Maternal immunisation is important to protect both mother and baby, but safety concerns can lead to low uptake. AusVaxSafety participant-based surveillance actively monitors adverse events following immunisation (AEFI) in Australia. We aimed to analyse AEFI in the days following vaccination with seasonal inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) and/or reduced antigen diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine (dTpa) in pregnant women in Australia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2020.04.056DOI Listing

Attenuated diphtheria toxin mediates siRNA delivery.

Sci Adv 2020 May 1;6(18):eaaz4848. Epub 2020 May 1.

Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Toxins efficiently deliver cargo to cells by binding to cell surface ligands, initiating endocytosis, and escaping the endolysosomal pathway into the cytoplasm. We took advantage of this delivery pathway by conjugating an attenuated diphtheria toxin to siRNA, thereby achieving gene downregulation in patient-derived glioblastoma cells. We delivered siRNA against integrin-β1 ()-a gene that promotes invasion and metastasis-and siRNA against eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 subunit b ()-a survival gene. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aaz4848DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7195190PMC

Access to skilled attendant at birth and the coverage of the third dose of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine across 14 West African countries - an equity analysis.

Int J Equity Health 2020 Jun 1;19(1):78. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

African Population and Health Policy Initiative, Gombe, Nigeria.

Background: Universal Health Coverage (UHC) remains a critical public health goal that continues to elude many countries of the global south. As countries strive for its attainment, it is important to track progress in various subregions of the world to understand current levels and mechanisms of progress for shared learning. Our aim was to compare multidimensional equity gaps in access to skilled attendant at birth (SAB) and coverage of the third dose of Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis (DTP3) across 14 West African countries. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12939-020-01204-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7268225PMC

Efficiency of placental transfer of vaccine-elicited antibodies relative to prenatal Tdap vaccination status.

Vaccine 2020 Jun 29;38(31):4869-4876. Epub 2020 May 29.

Duke Human Vaccine Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA; Department of Pediatrics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA. Electronic address:

Administration of vaccines during pregnancy provides maternal protection against infectious diseases. This protection is extended to their infants during the first months of life, as pathogen-specific antibodies formed in response to maternal vaccination are transferred across the placenta to the fetus. Notably, Tdap (tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis) vaccination booster is routinely administered to pregnant women both to prevent neonatal tetanus and to ensure that infants have protective levels of pertussis antibodies until they are able to establish their own vaccine-induced levels. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2020.05.036DOI Listing

An infant who suffered seizures many times after pentavalent vaccination: A case report.

North Clin Istanb 2020 9;7(3):302-304. Epub 2020 Apr 9.

Department of Pediatric Neurology, Ankara Yildirim Beyazit University, Yenimahalle Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey.

Although rare, serious adverse effects may be seen after vaccination. Especially, the whole-cell pertussis vaccine has been held responsible for neurological side effects, as the most important problem in vaccination. With the advancement in vaccination technologies, whole-cell pertussis vaccine has been replaced by acellular pertussis vaccine, and neurological side effects have been significantly reduced. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14744/nci.2019.50375DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7251270PMC

Microglia depletion fails to abrogate inflammation-induced sickness in mice and rats.

J Neuroinflammation 2020 May 31;17(1):172. Epub 2020 May 31.

Department of Symptom Research, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Unit 1055 6565 MD Anderson Boulevard, Houston, TX, 77030, USA.

Background: Production of inflammatory mediators by reactive microglial cells in the brain is generally considered the primary mechanism underlying the development of symptoms of sickness in response to systemic inflammation.

Methods: Depletion of microglia was achieved in C57BL/6 mice by chronic oral administration of PLX5622, a specific antagonist of colony stimulating factor-1 receptor, and in rats by a knock-in model in which the diphtheria toxin receptor was expressed under the control of the endogenous fractalkine receptor (CX3CR1) promoter sequence. After successful microglia depletion, mice and rats were injected with a sickness-inducing dose of lipopolysaccharide according to a 2 (depletion vs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12974-020-01832-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7262755PMC

Early smallpox vaccine manufacturing in the United States: Introduction of the "animal vaccine" in 1870, establishment of "vaccine farms", and the beginnings of the vaccine industry.

Vaccine 2020 Jun 27;38(30):4773-4779. Epub 2020 May 27.

Instituto de Biofísica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

For the first 80-90 years after Jenner's discovery of vaccination in 1796, the main strategy used to disseminate and maintain the smallpox vaccine was arm-to-arm vaccination, also known as Jennerian or humanized vaccination. A major advance occurred after 1860 with the development of what was known as "animal vaccine", which referred to growing vaccine material from serial propagation in calves before use in humans. The use of "animal vaccine" had several advantages over arm-to-arm vaccination: it would not transmit syphilis or other human diseases, it ensured a supply of vaccine even in the absence of the spontaneous occurrence of cases of cowpox or horsepox, and it allowed the production of large amounts of vaccine. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2020.05.037DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7294234PMC

Seroprevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus infection and immunity to measles, rubella, tetanus and diphtheria among schoolchildren aged 6-7 years old in the Solomon Islands, 2016.

Vaccine 2020 Jun 28;38(30):4679-4686. Epub 2020 May 28.

Global Immunization Division, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, United States.

The Western Pacific Region (WPR) established a goal to decrease chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection among children to <1% and to achieve ≥95% hepatitis B vaccine birth dose (HepB-BD) and ≥95% three-dose (HepB3) coverage by 2017. In 2016, we conducted a national serosurvey in the Solomon Islands among 6-7-year-old school children to assess progress towards the control goal and immunity to measles, rubella, tetanus and diphtheria. Eighty schools were selected systematically proportional to their 6-7-year-old population; all 6-7-year-olds were enrolled. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2020.05.029DOI Listing

DTX3L/ARTD9 contributes to inflammation of fibroblast-like synoviocytes by increasing STAT1 translocation.

Tissue Cell 2020 Jun 16;64:101339. Epub 2020 Jan 16.

School of Medicine, Southeast University, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Zhongda Hospital Affiliated to Southeast University, No. 87 Dingjiaqiao Road, 210009, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, China.

Deltex-3-like (DTX3L), an E3 ligase, which is also known as B-lymphoma and BAL-associated protein (BBAP), is a member of the Deltex (DTX) family and was originally identified as a binding partner of diphtheria-toxin-like ADP-ribosyltransferase-9 (ARTD9). The present study found that DTX3L and ARTD9 were upregulated in synovial tissues obtained from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients compared with those from the controls. Healthy synovial tissues were obtained by arthroscopic biopsy from patients with meniscus injury (n = 10 samples) without a history of RA in the Orthopedic Department of the Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tice.2020.101339DOI Listing

Estimation of the wastage rate of MMR and pentavalent vaccines in open and closed vials in three western provinces of Iran.

Heliyon 2020 May 20;6(5):e04016. Epub 2020 May 20.

Technical Officer, Vaccines and Immunization, World Health Organization, Genev, Switzerland.

Background: Vaccine wastage is one of quality indicators of immunization program and high vaccine wastage will increase overall costs and impede efforts towards a more efficient and sustainable program. We aimed at estimating of the wastage rates of Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR) and pentavalent (diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-hepatitis B -Haemophilus influenza type b) vaccines in different vaccine vial sizes.

Study Design: Multicentre descriptive study using existing data. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e04016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7240321PMC

Tagraxofusp as treatment for patients with blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm.

Expert Rev Anticancer Ther 2020 Jun 24:1-8. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Department of Leukemia, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center , Houston, TX, USA.

Introduction: Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) is a rare, aggressive hematologic malignancy that previously lacked standardized therapeutic approaches. CD123 (interleukin-3 receptor alpha unit) is highly expressed in many hematologic malignancies, including BPDCN. Tagraxofusp-ezrs (tagraxofusp from herein) is an agent that consists of interleukin-3 fused to a truncated diphtheria toxin, targeting CD123. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14737140.2020.1776120DOI Listing

Infant antibody levels following 10-valent pneumococcal-protein D conjugate and DTaP-Hib vaccinations in the first year of life after maternal Tdap vaccination: An open-label, parallel, randomised controlled trial.

Vaccine 2020 Jun 21;38(29):4632-4639. Epub 2020 May 21.

Centre for Infectious Disease Control, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Background: Maternal antibody levels after Tdap vaccination during pregnancy may affect infant primary antibody responses to pertussis, Tetanus toxoid (TT), Diphtheria toxoid (DT) vaccinations and pneumococcal vaccines with diphtheria toxin mutants like CRM197 as carrier protein.

Methods: Mothers were recruited in an open label randomised parallel controlled trial in 2014-2016 through midwifes. They received Tdap [Boostrix] at 30-32 weeks of pregnancy (n = 58) or within 48 h after delivery (n = 60). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2020.04.001DOI Listing

Timeliness of childhood vaccinations in Armenia, 2015-2016.

Vaccine 2020 Jun 21;38(30):4671-4678. Epub 2020 May 21.

Department of Epidemiology, Milken Institute School of Public Health, George Washington University, 950 New Hampshire Ave NW 5(th) Floor, Washington, DC 20052, United States.

Background: Successful control of vaccine preventable diseases not only requires high coverage but also requires that vaccines are administered in a timely manner. Prior studies have examined the timing of vaccinations in Armenia and found that although vaccination coverage is high, children are not receiving the vaccinations in a timely manner. This study aims to further elucidate the timing and associated factors of childhood vaccinations among children in Armenia in 2015-2016. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2020.05.032DOI Listing

Macrophage-like THP-1 cells show effective uptake of silica nanoparticles carrying inactivated diphtheria toxoid for vaccination.

J Nanopart Res 2020 8;22(1):23. Epub 2020 Jan 8.

Nuffield Department of women's and reproductive health, Oxford University, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK.

Nanoparticles may be used in vaccinology as an antigen delivery and/or an immunostimulant to enhance immunity. Porous silica has been identified as an effective adjuvant for more than a decade, and we have therefore investigated the take up rate by an immortalized macrophage-like cell line of a number of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNPs) with differing diameter and pore size. The MSNPs were synthesized using a sol-gel reaction and post-synthesis removal of the template. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11051-019-4720-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7223038PMC
January 2020

Compliance with the guidelines on recommended immunization schedule in patients with inflammatory bowel disease: implications on public health policies.

BMC Public Health 2020 May 19;20(1):713. Epub 2020 May 19.

Catalan Health Institute (ICS), Primary Care, Lleida, Spain.

Background: Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have a higher risk of developing opportunistic infections due to either the disease itself or to treatment with immunosuppressants. This risk can be reduced through vaccination. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of compliance with the guidelines on recommended immunization schedule in patients with IBD in the health district of Lleida, Spain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-08850-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7236120PMC

Resistance to Antiseptics and Disinfectants of Planktonic and Biofilm-Associated Forms of .

Microb Drug Resist 2020 May 19. Epub 2020 May 19.

Laboratory of Diphtheria and Corynebacteria of Clinical Relevance (LDCIC), Faculdade de Ciências Médicas (FCM), Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), The Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Diphtheria/National Health Foundation/Ministry of Health-FNS/MS, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Disinfection and antisepsis are of primary importance in controlling nosocomial infections and outbreaks by pathogens expressing multiple resistance to antimicrobial agents (multidrug-resistant [MDR]) used in therapy. Nowadays, infections related to health services (HAIs) due to MDR and multidrug-susceptible (MDS) should not be underestimated, including patients using invasive medical devices. The virulence potential of needs further investigation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/mdr.2019.0124DOI Listing

Efficacy and Safety of Revaccination against Tetanus, Diphtheria, Haemophilus influenzae Type b and Hepatitis B Virus in a Prospective Cohort of Adult Recipients of Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2020 May 17. Epub 2020 May 17.

Hospices Civils de Lyon, Hôpital de la Croix-Rousse, Service des Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales, Lyon, France; Université Claude Bernard Lyon I, Villeurbanne, France; Centre International de Recherche en Infectiologie, INSERM U1111, Université́ Claude Bernard Lyon 1, CNRS, UMR5308, Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon, Univ Lyon, Lyon, France; INSERM, F-CRIN, Innovative Clinical Research Network in Vaccinology (I-REIVAC), Paris Cedex, France.

Data on immunogenicity and safety of the recommended revaccination schedule against diphtheria, tetanus, poliomyelitis, pertussis, Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), and hepatitis B in adult allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) recipients are limited. This prospective single-center cohort study (April 2014 to March 2018) included adult allo-HSCT recipients referred to a dedicated vaccinology consultation and vaccinated with the pediatric combined diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, hepatitis B virus, inactivated poliovirus, and Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTaP(±HB)-IPV-Hib) vaccine (3 doses 1 month apart, booster dose 1 year later). The proportion of responders to tetanus, diphtheria, Hib, and hepatitis B vaccine and geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) of antibodies were assessed before and up to 24 months after vaccination. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2020.05.006DOI Listing

Factors Affecting the Implementation Process of Pertussis [Tdap] Immunization in Pregnant Women in an Italian Region: A Qualitative Study.

Front Public Health 2020 22;8:120. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Department of Translational Research and New Technologies in Medicine and Surgery, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy.

Whooping cough (pertussis) represents one of the most prevalent vaccine-preventable diseases in Western countries, capable of causing disease in infants, with a high risk of severe complications. To protect new-borns from pertussis, many countries have introduced the acellular pertussis adult vaccine in combination with tetanus and diphtheria toxoids for women in the third trimester of pregnancy. Thanks to the approval of the new National Immunization Prevention Plan 2017-2019: Italy is among those countries. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2020.00120DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7212430PMC

Recombinant Costimulatory Fusion Proteins as Functional Immunomodulators Enhance Antitumor Activity in Murine B16F10 Melanoma.

Vaccines (Basel) 2020 May 14;8(2). Epub 2020 May 14.

State Key Laboratory of Microbial Metabolism, School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China.

Blocking inhibitory signaling and engaging stimulatory signaling have emerged as important therapeutic modalities for cancer immunotherapy. This study aimed to investigate immunomodulatory features of three recombinant costimulatory ligand proteins in a mouse model, which are extracellular domains of OX40-ligand (OX40L), 4-1BB-ligand (4-1BBL), or two domains in tandem, fused with the transmembrane domain of diphtheria toxin (DTT), named DTT-COS1, DTT-COS2, and DTT-COS12, respectively. In vitro study showed that DTT-COS1 and DTT-COS12 had immunological activity increasing the ratio of CD8/CD4 T cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8020223DOI Listing

Infant vaccine co-administration: review of 18 years of experience with GSK's hexavalent vaccine co-administered with routine childhood vaccines.

Expert Rev Vaccines 2020 May 18;19(5):419-443. Epub 2020 May 18.

GSK , Wavre, Belgium.

Introduction: The benefits of vaccine co-administration include improved vaccine acceptance and uptake resulting in an increased coverage and protection against multiple childhood diseases, with minimal medical visits. The diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-hepatitis B-poliomyelitis- type b vaccine (DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hib) has been available for more than 19 years and is recommended for co-administration with several other infant vaccines.

Areas Covered: This is a comprehensive review (34 studies, 21,000 participants) describing the immunogenicity and safety of DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hib when co-administered with 12 different vaccines in infants including pneumococcal, meningococcal, rotavirus or measles-mumps-rubella-varicella. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14760584.2020.1758560DOI Listing
May 2020
4.210 Impact Factor

Perinatal health care providers' approaches to recommending and providing pertussis vaccination in pregnancy: a qualitative study.

CMAJ Open 2020 Apr-Jun;8(2):E377-E382. Epub 2020 May 15.

Vaccine Evaluation Center (Mijović, Greyson, Gemmell, Bettinger), BC Children's Hospital Research Institute, University of British Columbia; Department of Pediatrics (Mijović, Bettinger), Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC; Department of Communication (Greyson), University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Mass.; Quebec National Institute of Public Health (Trottier, Vivion, Dubé), Québec, Que.; Department of Pediatrics (Graham), Faculty of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS; Department of Anthropology (Dubé), Université Laval, Québec, Que.

Background: In 2018, the Canadian National Advisory Committee on Immunization and the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada recommended a single dose of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid and reduced acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine in every pregnancy. To understand how perinatal health care providers in Canada are translating recent recommendations for universal antenatal Tdap vaccine into routine clinical practice, we examined health care providers' perceptions of what influences their ability to recommend and provide Tdap vaccine consistently to pregnant women.

Methods: Between June 2018 and July 2019, we conducted semistructured telephone interviews with perinatal health care providers (nurses, midwives, family physicians and obstetricians) from 5 provinces (British Columbia, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec and Nova Scotia) representing diverse educational experiences, practice settings and models of care. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.9778/cmajo.20190215DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7239636PMC

Review of pediatric encephalitis and encephalopathy cases following immunization reported to the Canadian Immunization Monitoring Program Active (IMPACT) from 1992 to 2012.

Vaccine 2020 Jun 12;38(28):4457-4463. Epub 2020 May 12.

Department of Pediatrics, Dalhousie University and Canadian Center for Vaccinology, IWK Health Centre, Halifax, NS, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Neurological adverse events following immunization (AEFI) remain poorly characterized. Our objective was to describe pediatric acute and chronic encephalopathy and encephalitis cases following immunization reported via active sentinel surveillance from 1992 to 2012.

Methods: This case series provides a descriptive analysis of encephalopathy/encephalitis admissions reported to the Canadian Immunization Monitoring Program ACTive (IMPACT). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2020.04.035DOI Listing