20,030 results match your criteria Diphtheria


Serologic Status of Routine Childhood Vaccines, Cytomegalovirus, and Epstein-Barr Virus in Children With Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

Inflamm Bowel Dis 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Section of Paediatric Gastroenterology, Department of Paediatrics, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

Background: Data on the serologic status of childhood vaccines, cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), are limited in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Therefore, we evaluated vaccine coverage and seroprotection, along with CMV and EBV seropositivity, in pediatric IBD.

Methods: In a cross-sectional study, demographic data, IBD history, vaccine records, and serum for antibodies against measles, mumps, rubella, diphtheria, tetanus, varicella, hepatitis B (HBV), CMV, and EBV were collected from children with IBD. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Pharmacist insights into adolescent human papillomavirus vaccination provision in the United States.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

a Department of Epidemiology , Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill , Chapel Hill , NC.

HPV vaccination coverage in the United States (US) falls short of the Healthy People 2020 goal of 80% coverage among 13-15 year-old adolescents. Pharmacies are a promising alternative vaccine delivery site that may increase access to HPV vaccination. Our objective was to assess pharmacists' insights into HPV vaccination provision to adolescents. Read More

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December 2018

Inducible reporter/driver lines for the Arabidopsis root with intrinsic reporting of activity state.

Plant J 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Institute for Molecular Plant Science, University of Edinburgh.

Cell-, tissue- or organ-specific inducible expression systems are powerful tools for functional analysis of changes to the pattern, level or timing of gene expression. However, plant researchers lack standardised reagents that promote reproducibility across the community. Here, we report the development and functional testing of a Gateway-based system for quantitatively, spatially and temporally controlling inducible gene expression in Arabidopsis which overcomes several drawbacks of legacy systems. Read More

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December 2018

The uptake of adolescent vaccinations through the School Immunisation Program in specialist schools in Victoria, Australia.

Vaccine 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

The Department of Paediatrics, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia; Department of General Medicine, The Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Australia; Vaccine and Immunisation Research Group, Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Melbourne, Australia; The School of Population Health, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.

Background: As part of the National Immunisation Program (NIP) students in Australia receive adolescent immunisations through the School Immunisation Program at 12 to 13 years. For children with disabilities attending specialist schools, no vaccine uptake data is collected at this time point. We aimed to determine uptake of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (dTpa) and Human Papillomavirus (HPV) immunisations amongst young people with disabilities in specialist schools in Victoria. Read More

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December 2018

[Georg von Hofmann-Wellenhof-130 years ago the first victim at the beginning of the investigation of infectious diseases in Austria].

Authors:
Heinz Flamm

Wien Med Wochenschr 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Klinisches Institut, Universität Wien, Martinstraße 7, 3400, Klosterneuburg, Österreich.

After his medical studies in Vienna and Graz, Georg von Hofmann-Wellenhof, born in 1860 in Vienna, became an assistant at the Pathology Institute at the University of Graz. In 1887, he described a bacterium in the pharynx which resembled diphtheria bacillus. As it was not pathogenic in animal experiments, he named it Bacillus pseudodiphthericus, now Corynebacterium pseudodiphthericum. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Obstetrician-Gynecologists' Strategies to Address Vaccine Refusal Among Pregnant Women.

Obstet Gynecol 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Adult and Child Consortium for Health Outcomes Research and Delivery Science, the Department of Pediatrics, and the Department of Community and Behavioral Health, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, and Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora, Colorado; the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, Washington, DC; the National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia; and the Division of General Internal Medicine, Denver Health, Denver, Colorado.

Objective: To describe 1) obstetrician-gynecologists' (ob-gyns') perceptions of the frequency of vaccine refusal among pregnant patients and perceived reasons for refusal and 2) ob-gyns' strategies used when encountering vaccine refusal and perceived effectiveness of those strategies.

Methods: We conducted an email and mail survey among a nationally representative network of ob-gyns from March 2016 to June 2016.

Results: The response rate was 69% (331/477). Read More

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December 2018

Assessment of vaccination coverage of adolescents aged 16-18 years with an innovative electronic immunization record system.

Med Mal Infect 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Groupe d'études en préventologie (GEP), hôpital d'instruction des armées Robert-Picqué, 351, route de Toulouse, 33140 Villenave-d'Ornon, France.

Objectives: To measure vaccine coverage among adolescents aged 16-18 years who participated in the National Defense Preparation Day in the Aquitaine region using the free electronic immunization record.

Patients And Methods: We considered adolescents aged 16-18 years who participated in the National Defense Preparation Day in the Aquitaine region from April to October 2013. All participants received a letter explaining how to create an electronic immunization record. Read More

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December 2018

Cost-effectiveness of adult vaccinations: A systematic review.

Vaccine 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Berry Technology Solutions, USA.

Background: Coverage levels for many recommended adult vaccinations are low. The cost-effectiveness research literature on adult vaccinations has not been synthesized in recent years, which may contribute to low awareness of the value of adult vaccinations and to their under-utilization. We assessed research literature since 1980 to summarize economic evidence for adult vaccinations included on the adult immunization schedule. Read More

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December 2018

Seroprevalence of diphtheria and pertussis immunoglobulin G among children with pneumonia in Ji'nan, China.

BMC Pediatr 2018 Dec 5;18(1):383. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Pediatric Respiratory Infection Diseases, Key Laboratory of Major Diseases in Children, Ministry of Education, National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Diseases, National Key Discipline of Pediatrics (Capital Medical University), Beijing Pediatric Research Institute, Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University, National Center for Children's Health, Beijing, 100045, China.

Background: Vaccination is still one of the most important methods to control and prevent childhood infections including diphtheria and pertussis. This study evaluated the level of diphtheria (DT) and pertussis (PT)-related antibodies among children with pneumonia in Ji'nan, China.

Methods: A total of 484 sera of children from 1 day to 13 years of age were collected from 2014 to 2015 in Ji'nan. Read More

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December 2018
4 Reads

Immunogenicity and safety of a tetanus-diphtheria vaccine and a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine after concomitant vaccination in ≥ 50-year-old adults.

BMC Infect Dis 2018 Dec 5;18(1):628. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: When two or more vaccines are administered concurrently, there is concern about safety and immunogenicity from vaccine interaction.

Methods: Subjects aged ≥50 years were randomized 1:1:1 to receive tetanus-diphtheria (Td) + 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13; Group 1), PCV13 alone (Group 2), or Td alone (Group 3). After single or concomitant vaccination, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and opsonophagocytic assay (OPA) were performed to compare immunogenicity for Td and PCV13, respectively. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Use of different combination diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccines does not increase risk of 30-day infant mortality. A population-based linkage cohort study using administrative data from the Australian Childhood Immunisation Register and the National Death Index.

Vaccine 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Discipline of Paediatrics, School of Medicine, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia; Robinson Research Institute, University of Adelaide, South Australia, Australia. Electronic address:

Objective: To determine whether differences in combination DTaP vaccine types at 2, 4 and 6 months of age were associated with mortality (all-cause or non-specific), within 30 days of vaccination.

Design: Observational nationwide cohort study.

Setting: Linked population data from the Australian Childhood Immunisation Register and National Death Index. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Genome-wide comparison of Corynebacterium diphtheriae isolates from Australia identifies differences in the Pan-genomes between respiratory and cutaneous strains.

BMC Genomics 2018 Dec 4;19(1):869. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Centre for Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, Westmead Hospital, PO Box 533, Wentworthville, NSW, 2145, Australia.

Background: Corynebacterium diphtheriae is the main etiological agent of diphtheria, a global disease causing life-threatening infections, particularly in infants and children. Vaccination with diphtheria toxoid protects against infection with potent toxin producing strains. However a growing number of apparently non-toxigenic but potentially invasive C. Read More

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December 2018

Vaccine-preventable disease control in the People's Republic of China: 1949-2016.

Vaccine 2018 Dec 26;36(52):8131-8137. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

National Immunization Program, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Background: China's immunization program is one of the oldest and largest in the world. Rates of vaccine-preventable diseases (VPD) are comparable to those in high-income countries. The program's evolution has been characterized by ambitious target setting and innovative strategies that have not been widely described. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Optic neuritis following diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, and inactivated poliovirus combined vaccination: a case report.

J Med Case Rep 2018 Nov 30;12(1):356. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Austin Retina Associates, 801 W. 38th St, Suite 200, Austin, TX, 78705, USA.

Background: Diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, and inactivated poliovirus combined vaccine is widely used in young children as part of a series of immunizations before they start attending school. Case studies of demyelinating conditions following administration of diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, and polio vaccine have been reported, but none so far resulting in optic neuritis. This report further contributes to the database of central nervous system demyelinating conditions affiliated with receipt of vaccines. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Integrated Safety Profile of a New Approved, Fully-liquid DTaP5-HB-IPV-Hib Vaccine.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2018 Nov 27. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA.

Background: DTaP5-HB-IPV-Hib is a fully-liquid, hexavalent vaccine containing a 5-antigen pertussis component; approved since 2016 in Europe (Vaxelis™) for primary and booster vaccination in infants and toddlers against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B, poliomyelitis and invasive diseases caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). The comparator vaccine (control) was INFANRIX™ hexa (DTaP3-IPV-HepB/Hib) in European studies and PENTACEL™ (DTaP5-IPV/Hib) in US studies.

Methods: Data from six studies were integrated and analyzed to provide a comprehensive safety profile. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

Vaccination for influenza and pneumococcus in patients with gastrointestinal cancer or inflammatory bowel disease: A prospective cohort study of methods for improving coverage.

Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2019 Jan 28;49(1):84-90. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Gastroenterology and NGERE Unit, Inserm, University Hospital of Nancy, Lorraine University, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, France.

Background: Although influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations for high-risk populations are recommended by current guidelines, vaccination coverage is low in patients with gastrointestinal cancer (GC) or inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

Aim: To evaluate the impact of a specialised infectious disease consultation on vaccination coverage rates in these patients.

Methods: Between December 2016 and April 2017, all patients with GC or IBD followed in the outpatient clinic of the Gastroenterology department at the Nancy University Hospital enrolled in a 3-phase vaccination programme. Read More

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January 2019
3 Reads

A murine model of acute lung injury identifies growth factors to promote tissue repair and their biomarkers.

Genes Cells 2018 Nov 25. Epub 2018 Nov 25.

Department of Biochemistry, Toho University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Type II alveolar epithelial cells (AEC2s) play a crucial role in the regeneration of type I AECs after acute lung injury. The mechanisms underlying the regeneration of AEC2s are not fully understood. To address this issue, here we investigated a murine model of acute lung injury using mice expressing human Diphtheria Toxin Receptor (DTR) under the control of Lysozyme M promoter (LysM-DTR). Read More

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November 2018

Observational studies of non-specific effects of Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis vaccines in low-income countries: Assessing the potential impact of study characteristics, bias and confounding through meta-regression.

Vaccine 2019 Jan 22;37(1):34-40. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

GSK, Avenue Fleming 20, B-1300 Wavre, Belgium.

Introduction: It has been suggested that some vaccines have effects beyond protection against the diseases they target, called non-specific effects (NSEs). In 2016, a systematic review by Higgins et al., commissioned by the WHO Strategic Advisory Group of Experts (SAGE) on immunization, estimated the relative risk (RR) of all-cause mortality after whole-cell Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis (DTwP) vaccination to be 1. Read More

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January 2019
1 Read

Molecular characterization of Corynebacterium diphtheriae isolates in Malaysia between 1981 and 2016.

J Med Microbiol 2018 Nov 22. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

2​Bacteriology Unit, Infectious Disease Research Centre, Institute for Medical Research, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Sporadic diphtheria cases in Malaysia have remained low in number since the 1990s. However, in 2016 a total of 31 cases were reported nationwide and to investigate this we performed molecular characterization of 30 Corynebacterium diphtheriae isolates collected from 1981 to 2016 using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). C. Read More

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November 2018

Serum microRNA Profiles Serve as Novel Biomarkers for Autoimmune Diseases.

Front Immunol 2018 16;9:2381. Epub 2018 Oct 16.

State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Jiangsu Engineering Research Center for MicroRNA Biology and Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, NJU Advanced Institute for Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China.

Autoimmune diseases involve a complex dysregulation of immunity. Autoimmune diseases include many members [e.g. Read More

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October 2018
8 Reads

Genetic models reveal origin, persistence and non-redundant functions of IL-17-producing γδ T cells.

J Exp Med 2018 Dec 19;215(12):3006-3018. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Institute of Immunology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany

γδ T cells are highly conserved in jawed vertebrates, suggesting an essential role in the immune system. However, γδ T cell-deficient mice display surprisingly mild phenotypes. We hypothesized that the lack of γδ T cells in constitutive mice is functionally compensated by other lymphocytes taking over genuine γδ T cell functions. Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

Unique role for dentate gyrus microglia in neuroblast survival and in VEGF-induced activation.

Glia 2018 Nov 19. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Department of Developmental Biology and Cancer Research, Hadassah Medical School, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel.

Neurogenic roles of microglia (MG) are thought to include an active role in adult hippocampal neurogenesis in addition to their established roles in pruning surplus dendrites and clearing dead neuroblasts. However, identification of such a role and its delineation in the neurogenic cascade is yet to be established. Using diphtheria toxin-aided MG ablation, we show that MG reduction in the DG-the site where neuronal stem cells (NSCs) reside-is sufficient to impede overall hippocampal neurogenesis due to reduced survival of newly formed neuroblasts. Read More

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November 2018

BHLHA15-positive Secretory Precursor Cells Can Give Rise to Tumors in Intestine and Colon in Mice.

Gastroenterology 2018 Nov 15. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Division of Digestive and Liver Disease, Department of Medicine. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: The intestinal epithelium is maintained by long-lived intestinal stem cells (ISCs) that reside near the crypt base. Above the ISC zone, there are short-lived progenitors that normally give rise to lineage-specific differentiated cell types but can dedifferentiate into ISCs in certain circumstances. However, the role of epithelial dedifferentiation in cancer development has not been fully elucidated. Read More

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November 2018
8 Reads
16.716 Impact Factor

Immunogenicity and safety following primary and booster vaccination with a hexavalent diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, hepatitis B, inactivated poliovirus and Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine: a randomized trial in the United States.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2018 Nov 16. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

c GSK , Wavre , Belgium.

Combined hexavalent diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-hepatitis B-inactivated poliomyelitis and Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine (DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hib) can further reduce the number of injections in pediatric immunization schedules of countries currently using pentavalent DTaP combination vaccines. This open-label, randomized, multicenter study (NCT02096263) conducted in the United States evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hib vaccine compared with concomitant administration of DTaP-HBV-IPV and Hib or DTaP-IPV/Hib and HBV vaccines. We randomized (1:1:1) infants to receive 3-dose priming with DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hib boosted with DTaP+ Hib, DTaP-HBV-IPV+ Hib boosted with DTaP+ Hib, or DTaP-IPV/Hib+ HBV boosted with DTaP-IPV/Hib, at 2, 4, 6, and 15-18 months of age. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Global Routine Vaccination Coverage - 2017.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2018 Nov 16;67(45):1261-1264. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Endorsed by the World Health Assembly in 2012, the Global Vaccine Action Plan 2011-2020 (GVAP) (1) calls on all countries to reach ≥90% national coverage with all vaccines in the country's national immunization schedule by 2020. This report updates previous reports (2,3) and presents global, regional, and national vaccination coverage estimates and trends as of 2017. It also describes the number of infants surviving to age 1 year (surviving infants) who did not receive the third dose of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis-containing vaccine (DTP3), a key indicator of immunization program performance (4,5), with a focus on the countries with the highest number of children who did not receive DTP3 in 2017. Read More

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November 2018
9 Reads

Immunogenicity and safety of a combined DTPa-IPV/Hib vaccine administered as a three-dose primary vaccination course in healthy Korean infants: phase III, randomized study.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2018 Nov 15:1-10. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

m St. Vincent's Hospital, College of Medicine , The Catholic University of Korea , Suwon , The Republic of Korea.

We assessed the immunogenicity and safety of a three-dose primary vaccination schedule with the combined diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-inactivated poliovirus/Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine (DTPa-IPV/Hib) in Korean infants. In this phase III open-label, multicenter study (NCT01309646), healthy infants aged 42-69 days (randomized 1:1) received three doses of either pentavalent DTPa-IPV/Hib (DTPa-IPV/Hib group) or DTPa-IPV and Hib vaccines administered separately (DTPa-IPV+Hib group) at 2, 4, 6 months of age. The primary objective was to demonstrate non-inferiority of DTPa-IPV/Hib compared to DTPa-IPV+Hib vaccines in terms of immune responses to all vaccine antigens, 1 month post-dose 3. Read More

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November 2018
9 Reads
2.130 Impact Factor

The impact of timing of maternal influenza immunization on infant antibody levels at birth.

Clin Exp Immunol 2018 Nov 13. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Mucosal Infection and Immunity Group, Section of Virology, Department of Medicine, St Mary's Campus, Imperial College London, UK.

Pregnant women and infants are at an increased risk of severe disease after influenza infection. Maternal immunization is a potent tool to protect both these at-risk groups. While the primary aim of maternal influenza vaccination is to protect the mother, a secondary benefit is the transfer of protective antibodies to the infant. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

Effect of HIV exposure and timing of antiretroviral therapy initiation on immune memory responses to diphtheria, tetanus, whole cell pertussis and hepatitis B vaccines.

Expert Rev Vaccines 2018 Nov 10:1-10. Epub 2018 Nov 10.

a Department of Science and Technology, Health Sciences , National Research Foundation:Vaccine Preventable Diseases University of the Witwatersrand , Johannesburg , South Africa.

Objectives: We evaluated memory responses and antibody persistence to diphtheria-toxoid, tetanus-toxoid, whole-cell-pertussis (DTwP), and Hepatitis-B vaccines in HIV-unexposed, HIV-exposed-uninfected and HIV-infected children previously randomized to initiate time-limited ART at 6-10 weeks (ART-Immed) or when clinically/immunologically indicated (ART-Def).

Methods: All children received DTwP booster at 15-18 months. Antibodies were measured for pertussis-toxoid, filamentous haemagglutinin (FHA), diphtheria-toxoid, tetanus-toxoid, and hepatitis-B prior to booster, 1-2 weeks post-booster and at 24 months of age. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

A comparison of three strategies for biopanning of phage-scFv library against diphtheria toxin.

J Cell Physiol 2018 Nov 11. Epub 2018 Nov 11.

Department of Clinical Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The biopanning process is a critical step in phage display for isolating peptides or proteins with specific binding properties. Conventional panning methods are sometimes not so effective and may result in nonspecific or low-yield positive results. In this study, three different strategies including soluble antibody-capturing, pH-stepwise elution, and conventional panning were used for enrichment of specific clones against diphtheria toxoid. Read More

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November 2018
8 Reads

The Effect of Concurrent Tetanus-diphtheria Vaccination on the Antibody Response to Rabies Vaccine: A Preliminary Study.

Prague Med Rep 2018 ;119(2-3):113-121

Department of Biostatistics, Sakarya University Faculty of Medicine, Sakarya, Turkey.

The number of studies in the literature investigating the effect of tetanus vaccination on rabies prophylaxis is rather limited. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of concurrent tetanus-diphtheria (Td) vaccination on the antibody response to rabies vaccine. The data of consecutive 80 patients who presented to Sakarya University Training and Research Hospital, Department of Emergency due to rabies suspected exposure between 15 October 2012 and 12 June 2013 were enrolled to this study. Read More

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January 2018
2 Reads

Depletion of regulatory T cells in ongoing paracoccidioidomycosis rescues protective Th1/Th17 immunity and prevents fatal disease outcome.

Sci Rep 2018 Nov 8;8(1):16544. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Departamento de Imunologia, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

In human paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), a primary fungal infection typically diagnosed when the disease is already established, regulatory T cells (Treg) cells are associated with disease severity. Experimental studies in pulmonary PCM confirmed the detrimental role of these cells, but in most studies, Tregs were depleted prior to or early during infection. These facts led us to study the effects of Treg cell depletion using a model of ongoing PCM. Read More

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November 2018
5 Reads

Comparisons of immunization records between a community pharmacy, a regional registry, and a health system.

J Am Pharm Assoc (2003) 2018 Nov 5. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Objectives: To compare the completeness of immunization records for 6 vaccines between a community pharmacy database, a regional immunization information system (IIS), and a health system's electronic health record (EHR).

Methods: In a community pharmacy immunization program, 2 pharmacists and a community pharmacy resident performed a needs assessment for 6 vaccines (tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccine for adults or diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine for children and adolescents, zoster vaccine live, 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, hepatitis B vaccine series, and human papillomavirus vaccine) for more than 2400 patients from August 2016 to March 2017. This was a retrospective study to review immunization records for 243 patients. Read More

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November 2018
6 Reads

Evaluation of a Hexavalent-Pentavalent-Hexavalent Infant Primary Vaccination Series Followed by a Pentavalent Booster Vaccine in Healthy Infants and Toddlers.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2018 Nov 7. Epub 2018 Nov 7.

Sanofi Pasteur, USA.

Background: This study assessed a pediatric mixed hexavalent diphtheria (D)-tetanus (T)-acellular pertussis (aP)-inactivated poliovirus (IPV)-hepatitis B (HB)-Haemophilus influenzae b (PRP-T)-pentavalent (DTaP-IPV//PRP-T)-hexavalent primary series schedule followed by a pentavalent booster.

Methods: Healthy infants (N=265) who had received a prior HB vaccination received a fully liquid, hexavalent vaccine (DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T) at 2 and 6 months of age and a reconstituted pentavalent vaccine (DTaP-IPV//PRP-T) at 4 months of age. Coadministered vaccines were pneumococcal vaccine (PCV13) at 2 and 4 months [and optionally at 6 months of age], rotavirus (RV) vaccine at 2-4-6 months, and meningococcal serogroup C vaccine at 2 months. Read More

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November 2018
9 Reads

Massive diphtheria outbreak among Rohingya refugees: lessons learnt.

J Travel Med 2018 Nov 8. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Directorate General of Health Services, Bangladesh.

Several lessons can be learnt from the massive diphtheria outbreak faced by Rohingya (Forcibly Displaced Myanmar Nationals) refugees who fled violence in Myanmar and settled in camps and makeshift settlements in Cox's Bazar, Bangladesh, 2017-2018. Read More

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November 2018
1.525 Impact Factor

Evaluation of Potency on Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoid for Adult Vaccines by In Vivo Toxin Neutralization Assay Using National Reference Standards.

Osong Public Health Res Perspect 2018 Oct;9(5):278-282

Biologics Research Division, National Institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation, Cheongju, Korea.

Objectives: Vaccinations against diphtheria and tetanus are essential in providing immunity against these bacterial infections. The potency of diphtheria and tetanus toxoid vaccines can be measured using the in vivo toxin neutralization assay. The limit of potency of this assay was determined only for children. Read More

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October 2018
6 Reads

Intravenous Delivery of Bac Transposons as a Useful Tool for Liver-Specific Gene-Switching.

Int J Mol Sci 2018 Nov 2;19(11). Epub 2018 Nov 2.

Section of Gene Expression Regulation, Frontier Science Research Center, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544, Japan.

Hydrodynamics-based gene delivery (HGD) is an efficient method for transfecting plasmid DNA into hepatocytes in vivo. However, the resulting gene expression is transient, and occurs in a non-tissue specific manner. The Bac (PB) transposon system allows chromosomal integration of a transgene in vitro. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

Cardiotoxicity associated with Midazolam in a patient with Diphtheria.

Curr Drug Saf 2018 Nov 5. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Pediatrics Department, Government Medical College, Sir T G hospital, Bhavnagar, Gujarat. India.

Adverse cardiorespiratory events are associated with its continuous iv infusion used for sedation. Here we are reporting a case of 5 year old male child suffering from diphtheria, who received midazolam in the form of iv infusion for sedation. Six hours after starting midazolam infusion he started developing pulsus bigeminus and bradycardia and eventual death. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

Persistence of antibodies against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, and poliovirus types I, II, and III following immunization with DTaP combined with inactivated wild-type polio vaccine (DTaP-wIPV).

Jpn J Infect Dis 2018 Oct 31. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

Kawasaki City Institute for Public Health.

A follow-up serological study was conducted involving 47 subjects who received four doses of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids combined with acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP) together with Salk-type inactivated polio vaccine (DTaP-wIPV) until 6 years of age. All antibody levels declined more rapidly than expected within 3 years after the completion of the primary vaccination with 4th booster dose and titers persisted until 6 years of age. The positive rate of the IgG antibody against pertussis toxin (PT) was 31. Read More

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October 2018
1 Read

Generation of a human monoclonal antibody to cross-reactive material 197 (CRM₁₉₇) and development of a sandwich ELISA for CRM₁₉₇ conjugate vaccines.

J Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Oct 19. Epub 2018 Oct 19.

Department of Systems Immunology, College of Biomedical Science, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, Korea.

Cross-reactive material 197 (CRM₁₉₇) is a non-toxic mutant of diphtheria toxin containing a single amino acid substitution of glycine 52 with glutamic acid. CRM₁₉₇ has been used as a carrier protein for poorly immunogenic polysaccharide antigens to improve immune responses. In this study, to develop a sandwich ELISA that can detect CRM₁₉₇ and CRM₁₉₇ conjugate vaccines, we generated a human anti-CRM₁₉₇ monoclonal antibody (mAb) 3F9 using a phage-displayed human synthetic Fab library and produced mouse anti-CRM₁₉₇ polyclonal antibody. Read More

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October 2018
6 Reads

Insulin Secretion Depends on Intra-islet Glucagon Signaling.

Cell Rep 2018 Oct;25(5):1127-1134.e2

NovoNordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, 2200 Copenhagen, Denmark; Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, 2200 Copenhagen, Denmark.

The intra-islet theory states that glucagon secretion is suppressed when insulin secretion is stimulated, but glucagon's role in intra-islet paracrine regulation is controversial. This study investigated intra-islet functions of glucagon in mice. We examined glucagon-induced insulin secretion using isolated perfused pancreata from wild-type, GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) knockout, diphtheria toxin-induced proglucagon knockdown, β cell-specific glucagon receptor (Gcgr) knockout, and global Gcgr knockout (Gcgr) mice. Read More

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October 2018

Factors influencing the routine immunization status of children aged 2-3 years in China.

PLoS One 2018 31;13(10):e0206566. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

National Immunization Program, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China.

Objectives: To examine the factors associated with the routine immunization status of children aged 2-3 years in China for gaining a better understanding of the Expanded Program on Immunization and to provide evidence for formulating specific strategies to guide the allocation of health resources.

Methods: We analyzed data from 45095 children aged 2-3 years in the 2013 National Immunization Coverage Survey to identify the sociodemographic and provider-associated factors affecting the full immunization status of children. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed. Read More

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October 2018
2 Reads

Understanding barriers and predictors of maternal immunization: Identifying gaps through an exploratory literature review.

Vaccine 2018 Nov 28;36(49):7445-7455. Epub 2018 Oct 28.

Office of the Director, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia. Electronic address:

Background: The Advisory Committee for Immunization Practices recommends that all pregnant women receive the seasonal influenza vaccine and the tetanus toxoid, diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine during every pregnancy. However, vaccination coverage rates are suboptimal among pregnant women in the United States, leaving these women and their unborn children at risk of vaccine-preventable diseases and their complications.

Objectives: We sought to understand the current landscape of published literature regarding maternal immunization, including barriers to and predictors of vaccine acceptance, and identify gaps in the research in order to inform strategies for future programmatic improvement. Read More

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November 2018
10 Reads

Interaction of meningococcal conjugate vaccines with other conjugate or diphtheria-tetanus containing vaccines.

J Travel Med 2018 Jan;25(1)

National Centre for Immunisation Research and Surveillance (NCIRS), Children's Hospital at Westmead, Westmead, NSW 2145, Australia.

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January 2018
3 Reads

Intracellular trafficking of diphtheria toxin and its mutated form, CRM197, in the endocytic pathway.

North Clin Istanb 2018 19;5(2):89-95. Epub 2018 Apr 19.

Department of Biophysics, Istanbul University, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey.

Objective: Diphtheria toxin (DTx) is a well-characterized bacterial toxin. However, the endocytic pathway of the mutant of DTx, CRM197, which is used as an immunological adjuvant, has not yet been fully explained. The aim of this study was to investigate the intracellular trafficking of CRM197-loaded endosomes. Read More

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April 2018
6 Reads

Systematic review shows that immunising internationally adopted children is a major challenge for primary health care.

Acta Paediatr 2018 Oct 28. Epub 2018 Oct 28.

Department of Health Sciences, University of Florence, Anna Meyer Children's University Hospital, Florence, Italy.

Aim: This systematic review aimed to provide an overview of the immunisation of internationally adopted children and to discuss possible vaccination strategies.

Methods: A literature search was performed covering papers published in English from 1988 to 15 June 2018 using the Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Library databases. This identified 749 studies and 41 full texts were evaluated. Read More

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October 2018
2 Reads

A SNP-based phylogenetic analysis of Corynebacterium diphtheriae in Malaysia.

BMC Res Notes 2018 Oct 25;11(1):760. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

Molecular Diagnostics and Protein Unit, Specialised Diagnostics Centre, Institute for Medical Research, Jalan Pahang, Kuala Lumpur, 50588, Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Objective: There is a lack of study in Corynebacterium diphtheriae isolates in Malaysia. The alarming surge of cases in year 2016 lead us to evaluate the local clinical C. diphtheriae strains in Malaysia. Read More

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October 2018

Taxonomic status of Corynebacterium diphtheriae biovar Belfanti and proposal of Corynebacterium belfantii sp. nov.

Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2018 Dec 24;68(12):3826-3831. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

1​Institut Pasteur, Biodiversity and Epidemiology of Bacterial Pathogens & National Reference Center for the Corynebacteria of the diphtheriae complex, Paris, France.

Clinical isolates belonging to Corynebacterium diphtheriae biovar Belfanti were characterized by genomic sequencing and biochemical and chemotaxonomic analyses. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that biovar Belfanti represents a branch that is clearly demarcated from C. diphtheriae strains of biovars Mitis and Gravis. Read More

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December 2018

A randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled trial comparing antibody responses to homeopathic and conventional vaccines in university students.

Vaccine 2018 Nov 21;36(48):7423-7429. Epub 2018 Oct 21.

Hospital for Sick Childrene, 555 University Avenue Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X8, Canada.

Background: Homeopathic vaccines are licensed in many countries but scientific data to support their use are sparse. The goal of this study was to compare the antibody response of homeopathic and conventional vaccines and placebo in young adults. We hypothesized that there would be no significant difference between homeopathic vaccines and placebo, while there would be a significant increase in antibodies in those received conventional vaccines. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads