21,771 results match your criteria Diphtheria


Effectiveness of using liquid transport media in bacteriological diagnostics of diphtheria infection.

Klin Lab Diagn 2022 Jun;67(6):350-354

G.N. Gabrichevsky Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology.

The results of evaluating the effectiveness of the use of liquid transport media at the preanalytical stage of bacteriological diagnosis of diphtheria infection are presented. A typical toxigenic strain of C. diphtheriae biovar gravis № 665 was used. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Effect of early two-dose measles vaccination on childhood mortality and modification by maternal measles antibody in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa: A single-centre open-label randomised controlled trial.

EClinicalMedicine 2022 Jul 27;49:101467. Epub 2022 May 27.

Bandim Health Project, Indepth Network, Apartado 861, Bissau, Guinea-Bissau.

Background: Early 2-dose measles vaccine (MV) at 4 and 9 months of age vs. the WHO strategy of MV at 9 months of age reduced all-cause child mortality in a previous trial. We aimed to test two hypotheses: 1) a 2-dose strategy reduces child mortality between 4 and 60 months of age by 30%; 2) receiving early MV at 4 months in the presence versus absence of maternal measles antibodies (MatAb) reduces child mortality by 35%. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Evaluation of the Potency of the Pertussis Vaccine in Experimental Infection Model with : Study of the Case of the Pertussis Vaccine Used in the Expanded Vaccination Program in Algeria.

Vaccines (Basel) 2022 Jun 6;10(6). Epub 2022 Jun 6.

Laboratoire des Microorganismes et Biomolécules Actives (LR03ES03), Faculté des Sciences de Tunis (FST), Université Tunis El Manar, Campus Universitaire, Tunis 2092, Tunisia.

In Algeria, vaccination against pertussis is carried out using the whole-cell pertussis vaccine combined with the diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DTwp). The quality control of vaccines locally produced or imported is carried out before the batch release. The aim of our work was to evaluate the potency of pertussis vaccines. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Advances on Delivery of Cytotoxic Enzymes as Anticancer Agents.

Molecules 2022 Jun 14;27(12). Epub 2022 Jun 14.

Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201203, China.

Cancer is one of the most serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths worldwide annually, and, therefore, it is one of the most investigated research disciplines. Developing efficient anticancer tools includes studying the effects of different natural enzymes of plant and microbial origin on tumor cells. The development of various smart delivery systems based on enzyme drugs has been conducted for more than two decades. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Naushad's Modification of Griggs Percutaneous Tracheostomy: Retrospective Case Series Study on 200 Patients at Subharti Medical College, Meerut, India.

Maedica (Bucur) 2022 Mar;17(1):64-73

Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Subharti Medical College Meerut U.P. 250005, India.

Percutaneous dilational tracheostomy (PDT) is a frequently performed procedure in critically ill patients in hospital emergency department, intensive care unit (ICU) and operating theater (OT). The purpose of this study is to describe a technical modification of Griggs percutaneous tracheostomy by using two 7G and 12G dilators after undergoing sterilization by ethylene oxide. Two hundred patients underwent the procedure. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Hematopoietic Stem Cell-Derived Adipocytes Modulate Adipose Tissue Cellularity, Leptin Production and Insulin Responsiveness in Female Mice.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2022 3;13:844877. Epub 2022 Jun 3.

Geriatric Research, Education and Clinical Center, Rocky Mountain Regional Veterans Administration (VA) Medical Center, Aurora, CO, United States.

A subpopulation of adipocytes in the major adipose depots of mice is produced from hematopoietic stem cells rather than mesenchymal progenitors that are the source of conventional white and brown/beige adipocytes. To analyze the impact of hematopoietic stem cell-derived adipocytes (HSCDAs) in the adipose niche we transplanted HSCs in which expression of a diphtheria toxin gene was under the control of the adipocyte-specific adiponectin gene promoter into irradiated wild type recipients. Thus, only adipocytes produced from HSC would be ablated while conventional white and brown adipocytes produced from mesenchymal progenitor cells would be spared. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Safety of tetanus, diphtheria, acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccination during pregnancy.

Vaccine 2022 Jun 15. Epub 2022 Jun 15.

Department of Research and Evaluation, Kaiser Permanente Southern California, Pasadena, CA, USA.

The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety of prenatal tetanus, diphtheria, acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccination. This cohort study was conducted among pregnant members at Kaiser Permanente Southern California (KPSC). The exposed cohort consisted of women who received Tdap vaccine on or after the 27th week of pregnancy between January 2018 and January 2019. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Evaluation of vaccination status of health care workers for recommended vaccines and their acceptance of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2022 Jun 17:1-6. Epub 2022 Jun 17.

Introduction: Health care workers (HCWs) are disproportionately exposed to infectious diseases and play a role in nosocomial transmission, making them a key demographic for vaccination. HCW vaccination rates are not optimal in many countries; hence, compulsory vaccination policies have been implemented in some countries. Although these policies are effective and necessary under certain conditions, resolving HCWs' hesitancies and misconceptions about vaccines is crucial. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Brain Mast Cells in Sleep and Behavioral Regulation.

Curr Top Behav Neurosci 2022 Jun 17. Epub 2022 Jun 17.

Sleep and Circadian Neurobiology Laboratory, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA, USA.

The function of mast cells in the brain for the mediation of neurobehavior is largely unknown. Mast cells are a heterogeneous population of granulocytic cells in the immune system. Mast cells contain numerous mediators, such as histamine, serotonin, cytokines, chemokines, and lipid-derived factors. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Maternal Postnatal Depression and Completion of Infant Immunizations: A UK Cohort Study of 196,329 Mother-Infant Pairs, 2006-2015.

J Clin Psychiatry 2022 Jun 13;83(4). Epub 2022 Jun 13.

Department of Primary Care and Population Health, Institute of Epidemiology & Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom.

To examine the relationship between maternal postnatal depression and completion of infant vaccinations.

We conducted a cohort study using data from The Health Improvement Network (THIN), a large UK primary care electronic health record database. We identified 196,329 mother-infant pairs in which the infant was born between 2006 and 2015. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Influenza and Tdap Vaccines: Practices and Perception among Hispanic Women attending Tertiary Center in Puerto Rico.

P R Health Sci J 2022 Jun;41(2):68-73

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Puerto Rico, Medical Sciences Campus, San Juan, PR.

Objective: Explore influenza and Tdap immunization knowledge, attitudes, and practices among Hispanics patients attending prenatal care in a tertiary hospital in Puerto Rico as well as barriers encountered by patients regarding vaccination practices during pregnancy.

Methods: Descriptive study conducted at the University District Hospital prenatal care clinics in the Medical Sciences Campus of Puerto Rico from September 2016 to June 2017.

Results: A total of 189 pregnant women were recruited. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Do intentions lead to action? Results of a longitudinal study assessing determinants of Tdap vaccine uptake during pregnancy in Quebec, Canada.

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2022 Jun 13;22(1):477. Epub 2022 Jun 13.

CHU Sainte-Justine Research Center, Montreal, Qc, Canada.

Background: In Canada, vaccination against pertussis (Tdap) during pregnancy has been recommended since 2018, with suboptimal uptake. We aimed to assess the determinants of intention and uptake of Tdap vaccine among pregnant women in Quebec.

Methods: Participants (< 21 weeks of pregnancy) were recruited in four Quebec regions. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Exposed and Sequestered Antigens in Testes and Their Protection by Regulatory T Cell-Dependent Systemic Tolerance.

Front Immunol 2022 26;13:809247. Epub 2022 May 26.

Department of Pathology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, United States.

Continuous exposure of tissue antigen (Ag) to the autoantigen-specific regulatory T cells (Treg) is required to maintain Treg-dependent systemic tolerance. Thus, testis autoantigens, previously considered as sequestered, may not be protected by systemic tolerance. We now document that the complete testis antigen sequestration is not valid. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The Tyranny of Distance: The Treatment and Prevention of Diphtheria in Middle Canada, 1894-1920.

Authors:
Alan R Rushton

J Hist Med Allied Sci 2022 Jun 11. Epub 2022 Jun 11.

Hunterdon Medical Center, New Jersey, United States.

Before 1900, diphtheria was a deadly infection in Canadian children. Clinical trials in Europe demonstrated that "antitoxin" decreased mortality of the disease. Canadian physicians first utilized the new medication in 1894 and found it most efficacious when administered early in the illness. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

solid tumor targeting with recombinant VEGF-diphtheria immunotoxin.

Iran J Basic Med Sci 2022 Jan;25(1):27-31

Biotechnology Research Center, Venom & Biotherapeutics Molecules Lab, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran.

Objectives: A variety of signaling molecules have been identified that play a role in angiogenesis, of prime importance, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its resceptor (VEGFR), which is highly expressed in most human solid tumors. Targeting VEGF or/and VEGFR with immunotoxin may be a promising approach to directly affect cancer cells. Immunotoxins are for targeted treatment comprising two functional moieties, an antibody that binds to target cells along with toxin that kills molecules. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2022

Evaluating vaccination coverage and timeliness in American Indian/Alaska Native and non-Hispanic White children using state immunization information system data, 2015-2017.

Prev Med Rep 2022 Jun 5;27:101817. Epub 2022 May 5.

University of Montana, Center for Population Health Research, Missoula, MT, United States.

Comprehensive estimates of vaccination coverage and timeliness of vaccine receipt among American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) children in the United States are lacking. This study's objectives were to quantify vaccination coverage and timeliness, as well as the proportion of children with specific undervaccination patterns, among AI/AN and non-Hispanic White (NHW) children ages 0-24 months in Montana, a large and primarily rural U.S. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Maternal Tdap Vaccination during Pregnancy: Impact on Infant Anti-pertussis Antibody Concentrations by Maternal Pertussis Priming Series.

Clin Infect Dis 2022 Jun 1. Epub 2022 Jun 1.

Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA.

Background: Acellular pertussis (aP) vaccines replaced whole cell pertussis (wP) vaccines for the U.S. childhood primary series in 1997. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Islet cell replacement and transplantation immunology in a mouse strain with inducible diabetes.

Sci Rep 2022 May 31;12(1):9033. Epub 2022 May 31.

Department of Developmental Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, 94305, USA.

Improved models of experimental diabetes are needed to develop cell therapies for diabetes. Here, we introduce the B6 RIP-DTR mouse, a model of experimental diabetes in fully immunocompetent animals. These inbred mice harbor the H2 major histocompatibility complex (MHC), selectively express high affinity human diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR) in islet β-cells, and are homozygous for the Ptprc (CD45. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Trigeminal neurons control immune-bone cell interaction and metabolism in apical periodontitis.

Cell Mol Life Sci 2022 May 31;79(6):330. Epub 2022 May 31.

Department of Endodontics, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, 7703 Floyd Curl Dr, San Antonio, TX, 78229, USA.

Apical periodontitis (AP) is an inflammatory disease occurring following tooth infection with distinct osteolytic activity. Despite increasing evidence that sensory neurons participate in regulation of non-neuronal cells, their role in the development of AP is largely unknown. We hypothesized that trigeminal ganglia (TG) Nav1. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Immunisation status of UK-bound refugees between January, 2018, and October, 2019: a retrospective, population-based cross-sectional study.

Lancet Public Health 2022 May 27. Epub 2022 May 27.

Migrant Health Research Group, Institute for Infection and Immunity, St George's, University of London, London, UK. Electronic address:

Background: WHO's new Immunization Agenda 2030 places a focus on ensuring migrants and other marginalised groups are offered catch-up vaccinations across the life-course. Yet, it is not known to what extent specific groups, such as refugees, are immunised according to host country schedules, and the implications for policy and practice. We aimed to assess the immunisation coverage of UK-bound refugees undergoing International Organization for Migration (IOM) health assessments through UK resettlement schemes, and calculate risk factors for under-immunisation. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Epitope Profiling of Diphtheria Toxoid Provides Enhanced Monitoring for Consistency Testing during Manufacturing Process Changes.

Vaccines (Basel) 2022 May 13;10(5). Epub 2022 May 13.

Department of Analytical Sciences, Sanofi Pasteur, Toronto, ON M2R 3T4, Canada.

In the vaccine industry, multiple physicochemical, immunological, and analytical methods are applied throughout the manufacturing process to characterize and monitor the quality of vaccines. Presented here is the Single Epitope Antigenicity Test (SEAT), an innovative, quantitative epitope profiling method which provides an extended immunochemical analysis for diphtheria toxoid (DTxd) to be used for consistency testing during manufacturing process changes. The method uses BioLayer Interferometry (BLI) and a panel of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to independently assess nine individual antigenic sites of DTxd. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Vaccination against Bacterial Infections: Challenges, Progress, and New Approaches with a Focus on Intracellular Bacteria.

Authors:
Anke Osterloh

Vaccines (Basel) 2022 May 10;10(5). Epub 2022 May 10.

Department of Infection Immunology, Research Center Borstel, Parkallee 22, 23845 Borstel, Germany.

Many bacterial infections are major health problems worldwide, and treatment of many of these infectious diseases is becoming increasingly difficult due to the development of antibiotic resistance, which is a major threat. Prophylactic vaccines against these bacterial pathogens are urgently needed. This is also true for bacterial infections that are still neglected, even though they affect a large part of the world's population, especially under poor hygienic conditions. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Vaccination Coverage against Tetanus, Diphtheria, Pertussis and Poliomyelitis and Validity of Self-Reported Vaccination Status in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis.

J Pers Med 2022 Apr 23;12(5). Epub 2022 Apr 23.

Department of Neurology, Neuroimmunology Section, Rostock University Medical Center, Gehlsheimer Str. 20, 18147 Rostock, Germany.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic immune-mediated disease with a neurodegenerative component of the central nervous system. Immunomodulatory therapy can increase the risk of infection, which is a particular risk for MS patients. Therefore, a complete vaccination status is of utmost importance as protection against vaccine-preventable infectious diseases. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Targeted ablation of Lgr5-expressing intestinal stem cells in diphtheria toxin receptor-based mouse and organoid models.

STAR Protoc 2022 Jun 18;3(2):101411. Epub 2022 May 18.

A∗STAR Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, Singapore 138648, Singapore.

Intestinal cells marked by Lgr5 function as tissue-resident stem cells that sustain the homeostatic replenishment of the epithelium. By incorporating a diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR) cassette linked to the Lgr5 coding region, native Lgr5-expressing cells are susceptible to ablation upon DT administration . A similar strategy can be used for Lgr5-expressing cells within organoids established from DTR models. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Non-specific effects of BCG and DTP vaccination on infant mortality: An analysis of birth cohorts in Ghana and Tanzania.

Vaccine 2022 Jun 23;40(27):3737-3745. Epub 2022 May 23.

Department of Global Health and Population, Harvard T H Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA; Department of Global Health, George Washington University Milken Institute School of Public Health, Washington, DC, USA; Department of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, George Washington University Milken Institute School of Public Health, Washington, DC, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Vaccines may induce non-specific effects on survival and health outcomes, in addition to protection against targeted pathogens or disease. Observational evidence suggests that infant Baccillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination may provide non-specific survival benefits, while diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccination may increase the risk of mortality. Non-specific vaccine effects have been hypothesized to modify the effect of neonatal vitamin A supplementation (NVAS) on mortality. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Effect of different types of dry swabs and their storage conditions on the inoculation of Corynebacterium diphtheriae.

Klin Lab Diagn 2022 May;67(5):296-300

G.N. Gabrichevsky Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology.

The results of evaluating the effectiveness of C. diphtheriae inoculation using different types of dry swabs in studies simulating various conditions of its storage at the preanalytical stage of a laboratory study for diphtheria are presented. A typical toxigenic strain of C. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

A prospective observational study of community-acquired bacterial bloodstream infections in Metro Manila, the Philippines.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2022 05 25;16(5):e0010414. Epub 2022 May 25.

School of Tropical Medicine and Global Health, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan.

Community-acquired bacterial bloodstream infections are caused by diverse pathogens with changing antimicrobial-resistance patterns. In low-middle income countries in Southeast Asia, where dengue fever is endemic and a leading cause of fever, limited information is available about bacterial bloodstream infections due to challenges of implementing a blood culture service. This study describes bacterial bloodstream pathogens and antimicrobial-resistance patterns in Metro Manila, the Philippines. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Multilevel analysis of predictors of multiple indicators of childhood vaccination in Nigeria.

PLoS One 2022 25;17(5):e0269066. Epub 2022 May 25.

WorldPop, School of Geography and Environmental Science, University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom.

Background: Substantial inequalities exist in childhood vaccination coverage levels. To increase vaccine uptake, factors that predict vaccination coverage in children should be identified and addressed.

Methods: Using data from the 2018 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey and geospatial data sets, we fitted Bayesian multilevel binomial and multinomial logistic regression models to analyse independent predictors of three vaccination outcomes: receipt of the first dose of Pentavalent vaccine (containing diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis, Hemophilus influenzae type B and Hepatitis B vaccines) (PENTA1) (n = 6059) and receipt of the third dose having received the first (PENTA3/1) (n = 3937) in children aged 12-23 months, and receipt of measles vaccine (MV) (n = 11839) among children aged 12-35 months. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Investigating preparation and characterisation of diphtheria toxoid-loaded on sodium alginate nanoparticles.

IET Nanobiotechnol 2022 Jul 24;16(5):199-209. Epub 2022 May 24.

Department of Research and Development, Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Agriculture Research Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj, Iran.

This paper aims to investigate the preparation and characterisation of the alginate nanoparticles (NPs) as antigen delivery system loaded by diphtheria toxoid (DT). For this purpose, both the loading capacity (LC) and Loading efficiency (LE) of the alginate NPs burdened by DT are evaluated. Moreover, the effects of different concentrations of sodium alginate and calcium chloride on the NPs physicochemical characteristics are surveyed in addition to other physical conditions such as homogenization time and rate. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Zoonotic Transmission of Diphtheria from Domestic Animal Reservoir, Spain.

Emerg Infect Dis 2022 06;28(6):1257-1260

Toxigenic Corynebacterium ulcerans is as an emerging zoonotic agent of diphtheria. We describe the zoonotic transmission of diphtheria caused by toxigenic C. ulcerans from domestic animals in Spain, confirmed by core-genome multilocus sequence typing. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF