213,774 results match your criteria Diffusion Tensor Imaging


Hybrid colloidal suspensions tailored as gels to remove radioactive bitumen stains.

J Environ Manage 2018 Dec 3;232:660-665. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

CEA, DEN, Univ Montpellier, DE2D, SEAD, Laboratoire des Procédés Supercritiqueset de Décontamination, Marcoule, F-30207Bagnols-sur-Cèze, France. Electronic address:

Vacuumable gels have been developed in the nuclear industry to decontaminate solid surfaces with little or no mechanical operations and without producing any liquid effluents. These gels can be spread on the contaminated surface and rapidly trap the radio-contaminants by sorption after corroding the substrate down to several tens of microns if necessary. The gel then dries and eventually fractures into a non-powdery solid that is easily removable by brushing or vacuum cleaning. Read More

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December 2018

Chitosan microparticles embedded with multi-responsive poly(N-vinylcaprolactam-co-itaconic acid-co-ethylene-glycol dimethacrylate)-based hydrogel nanoparticles as a new carrier for delivery of hydrophobic drugs.

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2018 Nov 22;175:73-83. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Laboratory of Polymers, Department of Chemical Engineering, Engineering School of Lorena, University of São Paulo, EEL-USP, Estrada Municipal do Campinho, s/n, 12602-810, Lorena, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:

In this paper, chitosan was used as protective agent for dual temperature-/pH-sensitive poly(N-vinylcaprolactam-co-itaconic acid-co-ethylene- glycol dimethacrylate)- based hydrogel nanoparticles (poly(NVCL-co-IA-co-EGDMA)) aiming avoid their undesirable colloidal destabilization at different conditions of body human tissues. Thus, poly(NVCL-co-IA-co-EGDMA) was embedded into chitosan and a new solid dispersion was prepared via spray-drying and ketoprofen was used as carrier. Two different sizes of hydrogel nanoparticles (120. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

Carotid Endarterectomy for Medical Therapy-resistant Symptomatic Low-grade Stenosis.

World Neurosurg 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Neurosurgery, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan.

Background: Plaque characteristics play pivotal roles in ischemic events, but stenosis severity does not accurately reflect carotid plaque volume due to expansive remodeling in some patients with low-grade stenosis (LGS).

Objective: This study aimed to assess the safety, efficacy, and durability of carotid endarterectomy (CEA) for symptomatic LGS.

Methods: Study participants comprised 61 consecutive patients who underwent CEA for symptomatic carotid stenosis. Read More

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December 2018

Preparation and optimization of poly (lactic acid) nanoparticles loaded with fisetin to improve anti-cancer therapy.

Int J Biol Macromol 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, PR China. Electronic address:

Fisetin is a natural flavonoid with promising antitumor activity, whereas its clinical application is limited by its hydrophobic property. In this study, we aimed to load fisetin into poly(lactic acid) (PLA) nanoparticles to increase fisetin's solubility and therapeutic efficacy. Based on spontaneous emulsification solvent diffusion (SESD) method, the formulation of PLA nanoparticles was optimized by two successive experimental designs. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Cabazitaxel and Thymoquinone co-loaded Lipospheres as a Synergistic Combination for Breast Cancer.

Chem Phys Lipids 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Pharmaceutics, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education & Research (NIPER), Hyderabad, 500037, India. Electronic address:

Cabazitaxel as microtubule inhibitor and thymoquinone as HDAC inhibitor affects the important genes like p53, STAT3, Bax, BCL-2, p21 and down regulation of NF-κB are reported for potential activity against breast tumors. However, poor aqueous solubility and permeability hinders the delivery of these drugs to target site. To address the delivery challenges cabazitaxel and thymoquinone co-loaded lipospheres were developed. Read More

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December 2018

Transmission dynamics of re-emerging rabies in domestic dogs of rural China.

PLoS Pathog 2018 Dec 6;14(12):e1007392. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

KU Leuven, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Rega Institute, Laboratory of Evolutionary and Computational Virology, Leuven, Belgium.

Despite ongoing efforts to control transmission, rabies prevention remains a challenge in many developing countries, especially in rural areas of China where re-emerging rabies is under-reported due to a lack of sustained animal surveillance. By taking advantage of detailed genomic and epidemiological data for the re-emerging rabies outbreak in Yunnan Province, China, collected between 1999 and 2015, we reconstruct the demographic and dispersal history of domestic dog rabies virus (RABV) as well as the dynamics of dog-to-dog and dog-to-human transmission. Phylogeographic analyses reveal a lower diffusion coefficient than previously estimated for dog RABV dissemination in northern Africa. Read More

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December 2018

Supramolecular Polymer Cross-Linked by Discrete Tris-[2]pseudorotaxane Metallacycles and Its Redox-Responsive Behavior.

Inorg Chem 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Green Chemistry and Chemical Processes, School of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering , East China Normal University , Shanghai 200062 , P. R. China.

A new discrete hexagonal metallacycle M containing tris-[2]pseudorotaxane moiety has been successfully designed and synthesized via coordination-driven self-assembly. The newly designed tris-[2]pseudorotaxane metallacycle was well characterized with nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectra analysis. Such tris-[2]pseudorotaxane metallacycle M and pillar[5]arene dimer (PD) could further form a new family of cross-linked redox-responsive supramolecular polymer M⊃(PD) through a host-guest interaction. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Direct Imaging of Photo-Switching Molecular Conformations Using Individual Metal Atom Markers.

ACS Nano 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Photo-switching behavior of individual organic molecules was imaged by annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (ADF-STEM) using a highly electron beam transparent graphene support. Photo-switching azobenzene derivatives with ligands at each ends containing single transition metal atoms (Pt) were designed (Pt-complex), and the distance between the strong ADF-STEM contrast from the two Pt atoms in each Pt-complex is used to track molecular length changes. UV irradiation was used to induce photo-switching of the Pt complex on graphene, and we show that the measured Pt-Pt distances within isolated molecules decreases from ~2. Read More

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December 2018

Single-scan diffusion-ordered NMR spectroscopy of SABRE-hyperpolarized mixtures.

Chemphyschem 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Bâtiment 27, 1, avenue de la Terrasse, 91198, Gif-sur-Yvette, FRANCE.

The analysis of complex mixtures of dissolved molecules is a major challenge, especially for systems that gradually evolve, e.g., in the course of a chemical reaction or in the case of chemical instability. Read More

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December 2018

CuO-Coated and Cu-doped Co-modified P2-type Na[NiMn]O for sodium-ion batteries.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

College of Materials Science and Opto-electronic Technology, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, P. R. China.

Layered P2-type CuO-coated Na2/3[Ni1/3Mn2/3]O2 (NNMO@CuO) with excellent rate capability and cycling performance was investigated as a sodium-ion battery cathode material for the first time. The NNMO@CuO cathode material combines the advantages of CuO coating and Cu2+ doping. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images, TEM elemental line scan analysis and ex situ scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images show that CuO has been successfully coated on the particle surface uniformly, and that this CuO layer effectively suppresses the exfoliation of the metal oxide layers and unfavorable side reactions. Read More

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December 2018

A Functional Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF) Promoter Polymorphism is Associated with Reduced Diffusing Capacity.

Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Pulmonary and Critical Care, Yale University School of Medicine, United States.

Cigarette smoke exposure is the leading modifiable risk factor for COPD, however the clinical and pathologic consequences of chronic cigarette smoke exposure are variable amongst smokers. MIF (Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor) is a pleiotropic cytokine implicated in the pathogenesis of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Within the promoter of the MIF gene is a functional polymorphism that regulates MIF expression (-794 CATT microsatellite repeat) ( rs5844572). Read More

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December 2018

Interhemispheric anatomical disconnection in disorders of consciousness patients.

J Neurotrauma 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Neurologico "Carlo Besta", Neuroradiology department, Milano, Italy ;

In disorder of consciousness (DOC) patients, corpus callosum (CC) and subcortical white matter (SWM) integrity were showed to discriminate between diagnostic categories. The aims of the study were: 1) to clarify the link between the integrity of CC and of SWM and the clinical status in DOC patients, disentangling the role played by the different brain injuries (traumatic or hemorrhagic brain injury); 2) to investigate the relationship between the CC integrity and the brain metabolism. We assessed the diagnostic accuracy of the CC and SWM integrity, using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI), in a sample of DOC individuals, well-balanced for diagnosis and etiology. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Brain Health: Impact on Long-Range Cortical Connections and Cognitive Performance.

J Am Heart Assoc 2018 Dec;7(23):e010054

1 Department of Neurology Medical University of South Carolina Charleston SC.

Background Cardiovascular risk factor burden in the absence of clinical or radiological "events" is associated with mild cognitive impairment. Magnetic resonance imaging techniques exploring the integrity of neuronal fiber connectivity within white matter networks supporting cognitive processing could be used to measure the impact of cardiovascular disease on brain health and be used beyond bedside neuropsychological tests to detect subclinical changes and select or stratify participants for entry into clinical trials. Methods and Results We assessed the relationship between verbal IQ and brain network integrity and the effect of cardiovascular risk factors on network integrity by constructing whole-brain structural connectomes from magnetic resonance imaging diffusion images (N=60) from people with various degrees of cardiovascular risk factor burden. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Diffusion Kurtosis Imaging Reflects Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP), Topo IIα, and O⁶-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase (MGMT) Expression in Astrocytomas.

Med Sci Monit 2018 Dec 6;24:8822-8830. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Radiology, First Clinical Medical College, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, Shanxi, China (mainland).

BACKGROUND Astrocytomas are the most common primary brain neoplasms. Biological indicators of astrocytomas can reflect its biological characteristics. The aim of this study was to assess the expression of the pathological glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) Topo IIα and O⁶-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) in astrocytomas using magnetic resonance (MR) diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) to evaluate the biological characteristics of astrocytomas. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Biomaterial-Based "Structured Opals" with Programmable Combination of Diffractive Optical Elements and Photonic Bandgap Effects.

Adv Mater 2018 Dec 6:e1805312. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tufts University, 4 Colby Street, Medford, MA, 02155, USA.

Naturally occurring iridescent systems produce brilliant color displays through multiscale, hierarchical assembly of structures that combine reflective, diffractive, diffusive, or absorbing domains. The fabrication of biopolymer-based, hierarchical 3D photonic crystals through the use of a topographical templating strategy that allows combined optical effects derived from the interplay of predesigned 2D and 3D geometries is reported here. This biomaterials-based approach generates 2D diffractive optics composed of 3D nanophotonic lattices that allow simultaneous control over the reflection (through the 3D photonic bandgap) and the transmission (through 2D diffractive structuring) of light with the additional utility of being constituted by a biocompatible, implantable, edible commodity textile material. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Ultra high field Imaging of Myelin Disease Models: Towards Specific Markers of Myelin Integrity?

J Comp Neurol 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Paris 06, Brain and Spine Institute, ICM, Hôpital de la Pitié Salpêtrière, Paris, France.

Specific Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) markers of myelin are critical for the evaluation and development of regenerative therapies for demyelinating diseases. Several MRI methods have been developed for myelin imaging, based either on acquisition schemes or on mathematical modeling of the signal. They generally showed good sensitivity but validation for specificity towards myelin is still warranted to allow a reliable interpretation in an in vivo complex pathological environment. Read More

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December 2018

Multilevel diffusion tensor imaging classification technique for characterizing neurobehavioral disorders.

Brain Imaging Behav 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Institute for Biological and Medical Engineering, Schools of Engineering, Biology and Medicine, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile.

This proposed novel method consists of three levels of analyses of diffusion tensor imaging data: 1) voxel level analysis of fractional anisotropy of white matter tracks, 2) connection level analysis, based on fiber tracks between specific brain regions, and 3) network level analysis, based connections among multiple brain regions. Machine-learning techniques of (Fisher score) feature selection, (Support Vector Machine) pattern classification, and (Leave-one-out) cross-validation are performed, for recognition of the neural connectivity patterns for diagnostic purposes. For validation proposes, this multilevel approach achieved an average classification accuracy of 90% between Alzheimer's disease and healthy controls, 83% between Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment, and 83% between mild cognitive impairment and healthy controls. Read More

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December 2018
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White matter microstructure varies with post-traumatic stress severity following medical trauma.

Brain Imaging Behav 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Psychology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, CIRC 235H, 1720 2nd Avenue South, Birmingham, AL, 35294, USA.

The prefrontal cortex, amygdala, hippocampus, and hypothalamus are important components of the neural network that mediates the healthy learning, expression, and regulation of emotion. These brain regions are connected by white matter pathways that include the cingulum bundle, uncinate fasciculus, and fornix/stria terminalis. Individuals with trauma and stress-related disorders show dysfunction of the cognitive-affective processes supported by the brain regions these white matter tracts connect. Read More

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December 2018
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Multiparametric whole-body 3.0-T MRI in newly diagnosed intermediate- and high-risk prostate cancer: diagnostic accuracy and interobserver agreement for nodal and metastatic staging.

Eur Radiol 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

UCL Centre for Medical Imaging, 2nd Floor Charles Bell House, 43 - 45 Foley Street, London, W1W 7TS, UK.

Objectives: To determine the diagnostic accuracy and interobserver concordance of whole-body (WB)-MRI, vs. Tc bone scintigraphy (BS) and fluoro-ethyl-choline (F-choline) PET/CT for the primary staging of intermediate/high-risk prostate cancer.

Methods: An institutional review board approved prospective cohort study carried out between July 2012 and November 2015, whereby 56 men prospectively underwent 3. Read More

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December 2018

Magnetic resonance imaging of the time course of hyperpolarized Xe gas exchange in the human lungs and heart.

Eur Radiol 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Oncology, University of Oxford, Old Road Campus Research Building, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford, OX3 7DQ, UK.

Purpose: To perform magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), human lung imaging, and quantification of the gas-transfer dynamics of hyperpolarized xenon-129 (HPX) from the alveoli into the blood plasma.

Materials And Methods: HPX MRI with iterative decomposition of water and fat with echo asymmetry and least-square estimation (IDEAL) approach were used with multi-interleaved spiral k-space sampling to obtain HPX gas and dissolved phase images. IDEAL time-series images were then obtained from ten subjects including six normal subjects and four patients with pulmonary emphysema to test the feasibility of the proposed technique for capturing xenon-129 gas-transfer dynamics (XGTD). Read More

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December 2018
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Correlations between cervical spinal cord magnetic resonance diffusion tensor and diffusion kurtosis imaging metrics and motor performance in patients with chronic ischemic brain lesions of the corticospinal tract.

Neuroradiology 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

ITAB-Institute of Advanced Biomedical Technologies, University "G. D'Annunzio" Chieti-Pescara, Chieti, Italy.

Purpose: To investigate modifications of Magnetic Resonance Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) and Diffusion Kurtosis Imaging (DKI) metrics in lateral white matter (WM) bundles of the cervical spinal cord in patients with previous stroke in the vascular territory of the middle cerebral artery (MCA).

Methods: Twenty consecutive patients with a previous ischemic stroke of the MCA territory and a varying degree of upper motor impairment were enrolled. DKI was centered at the C3C4 and C5C6 intervertebral level. Read More

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December 2018
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Two ancient neuropeptides, PACAP and AVP, modulate motivated behavior at synapses in the extrahypothalamic brain: a study in contrast.

Cell Tissue Res 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Section on Molecular Neuroscience, Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Regulation, NIMH-IRP, Building 49, Room 5A-32, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD, USA.

We examine evolutionary aspects of two primordial neuropeptides, arginine vasopressin (AVP) and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP); the distribution of AVP and PACAP and their receptors in mammals; AVP and PACAP release patterns relevant to their roles in neuroendocrine control in brain and periphery; and finally the intricate interlocking of homeostatic and allostatic regulation created by extrahypothalamic AVP and PACAP projections to brain circuit nodes important in controlling appetitive, avoidance and aggressive motor responses. A cardinal feature of peptide neurotransmission important in regulatory control of organismic responses and emphasized in this review, is that neuropeptides are released from large dense-core vesicles docked not only within axonal varicosities and dendrites but also at presynaptic nerve terminal sites, along with small clear synaptic vesicles, at active zones. Peptide transmitter nerve terminals, from hypothalamic and other projections, are distributed widely to multiple brain areas important in integrative control of behavior. Read More

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December 2018

Function-specific Tractography of Language Pathways Based on nTMS Mapping in Patients with Supratentorial Lesions.

Clin Neuroradiol 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Neurosurgery, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Ismaninger Str. 22, 81675, Munich, Germany.

Purpose: In patients with supratentorial lesions diffusion tensor imaging fiber tracking (DTI-FT) is increasingly used to visualize subcortical fiber courses. Navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) was applied in this study to reveal specific cortical functions by investigating the particular language errors elicited by stimulation. To make DTI-FT more function-specific, the identified language-positive nTMS spots were used as regions of interest (ROIs). Read More

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December 2018
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MRI Presentation of Infectious Intracranial Aneurysms in Infective Endocarditis.

Neurocrit Care 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Cerebrovascular Center, Neurological Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA.

Background: The radiographic appearance of infectious intracranial aneurysms (IIAs) of infective endocarditis (IE) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of brain is varied. We aimed to describe the IIA-specific MRI features in a series of patients with IIAs.

Methods: Records of patients with active IE who had digital subtraction angiography (DSA) at a tertiary medical center from January 2011 to December 2016 were reviewed. Read More

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December 2018
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Embedded Finite Elements for Modeling Axonal Injury.

Ann Biomed Eng 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, 16801, USA.

The purpose of this paper is to propose and develop a large strain embedded finite element formulation that can be used to explicitly model axonal fiber bundle tractography from diffusion tensor imaging of the brain. Once incorporated, the fibers offer the capability to monitor tract-level strains that give insight into the biomechanics of brain injury. We show that one commercial software has a volume and mass redundancy issue when including embedded axonal fiber and that a newly developed algorithm is able to correct this discrepancy. Read More

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December 2018

A Porous and Conductive Graphite Nanonetwork Forming on the Surface of KCuS for Energy Storage.

Front Chem 2018 21;6:555. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Key Laboratory of Material Physics of Ministry of Education, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China.

A flexible all-solid-state supercapacitor is fabricated by building a layer of porous and conductive nanonetwork on the surface of KCuS nanowires supported on the carbon fiber fabric, where the porous and conductive nanonetwork is assembled by graphite nanoparticles. This porous graphite layer plays a key role in providing ion diffusion channels to access the KCuS through the pores for electrochemical reactions and forming electron transport pathways from the graphite network to the electronic collector of the carbon fiber fabric. This flexible supercapacitor exhibits excellent electrochemical performance with high specific capacitance of 408 F g at a current density of 0. Read More

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November 2018
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Chemical methods for determining the electron storage capacity of black carbon.

MethodsX 2018 17;5:1515-1520. Epub 2018 Nov 17.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, 19716, United States.

Electron storage capacity (ESC) is a new and important property that determines the capacity of a black carbon to mediate abiotic and microbial electron transfer reactions in natural and engineered systems. It is necessary to develop accurate and reproducible methods to measure black carbon's ESC in order to understand its redox behavior and to predict its capacity to support redox transformation of contaminants in subsurface environments. In this study, we developed chemical methods that employed combinations of reductants and oxidants of different redox potentials - Ti(III) citrate or dithionite as reductant, and ferricyanide or dissolved O as oxidant - to measure the ESC of a wood-derived biochar. Read More

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November 2018

Peer-led intervention to prevent and reduce STI transmission and improve sexual health in secondary schools (STASH): protocol for a feasibility study.

Pilot Feasibility Stud 2018 29;4:180. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

1MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, University of Glasgow, Top Floor, 200 Renfield St, Glasgow, G2 3AX UK.

Background: Young people in the UK are at highest risk of sexually transmitted infections and report higher levels of unsafe sex than any other age group. Involving peer supporters in intervention delivery is acceptable to students and effective in reducing risk behaviours via 'diffusion of innovation', particularly where peer supporters are influential in their networks. Informal peer-led interventions offer a useful alternative to peer-led didactic teaching, which has shown limited effects. Read More

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November 2018

Coexistent sarcoidosis and lymphangioleiomyomatosis in a patient with cystic lung disease.

Respirol Case Rep 2019 Feb 28;7(2):e00389. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Respiratory Medicine Cork University Hospital Ireland.

A 45-year-old lady presented acutely with pleuritic chest pain, haemoptysis, and dyspnoea. Her background was significant for a 1.4 cm renal angiomyolipoma, and she was an ex-smoker without any relevant family history. Read More

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February 2019

A discontinuous Galerkin model for fluorescence loss in photobleaching of intracellular polyglutamine protein aggregates.

BMC Biophys 2018 29;11. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Campusvej 55, Odense M, 5230 Denmark.

Background: Intracellular phase separation and aggregation of proteins with extended poly-glutamine (polyQ) stretches are hallmarks of various age-associated neurodegenerative diseases. Progress in our understanding of such processes heavily relies on quantitative fluorescence imaging of suitably tagged proteins. Fluorescence loss in photobleaching (FLIP) is particularly well-suited to study the dynamics of protein aggregation in cellular models of Chorea Huntington and other polyQ diseases, as FLIP gives access to the full spatio-temporal profile of intensity changes in the cell geometry. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Cerebral Microbleeds in the Patients With Acute Stroke Symptoms.

Front Neurol 2018 21;9:988. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Department of Neurology, Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul, South Korea.

Some patients with acute stroke symptoms do not show hyperintensities on diffusion-weighted image (DWI). A few case reports have indicated that acutely developed cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) might cause focal symptoms. This study sought to investigate the incidence and characteristics of symptomatic CMBs in the patients with acute stroke symptoms but without DWI ischemic lesions. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

White Matter Plasticity Keeps the Brain in Tune: Axons Conduct While Glia Wrap.

Front Cell Neurosci 2018 16;12:428. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada.

Precise timing of neuronal inputs is crucial for brain circuit function and development, where it contributes critically to experience-dependent plasticity. Myelination therefore provides an important adaptation mechanism for vertebrate circuits. Despite its importance to circuit activity, the interplay between neuronal activity and myelination has yet to be fully elucidated. Read More

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November 2018
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Distribution and drug resistance of pathogenic bacteria in ventilator-associated pneumonia at a local hospital of North-eastern China.

Infect Drug Resist 2018 13;11:2249-2255. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Department of Emergency, Shengjing Hospital Affiliated to China Medical University, Heping District, Shenyang, Liaoning Province 110004, People's Republic of China,

Purpose: To study the distribution of pathogenic bacteria in ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), and epidemiological characteristics of extended-spectrum β lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria.

Patients And Methods: Lower respiratory tract secretions from 156 patients with mechanical ventilation were collected using a protective specimen brush (PSB), with quantitative bacterial culture carried out and antibiotic sensitivity measured. ESBLs produced by Gram-negative bacilli were detected using the double disk diffusion method and monitored by plasmid profiles. Read More

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November 2018

A Pitfall for Diffusion-weighted MR Imaging When Assessing the Response to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Ewing Sarcoma.

Magn Reson Med Sci 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen.

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December 2018
1 Read

Improved Visualization of Middle Ear Cholesteatoma with Computed Diffusion-weighted Imaging.

Magn Reson Med Sci 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University.

Computed DWI (cDWI) is a mathematical technique that calculates arbitrary higher b value images from at least two different lower b values. In addition, the removal of high intensity noise with image processing on cDWI could improve cholesteatoma-background contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). In the present study, noise reduction was performed by the cut-off values of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) less than 0 and 0. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Objectively Measured Disrupted Sleep Is Independently and Directly Associated With Low Exercise Capacity in Males: A Structural Equation Model.

J Clin Sleep Med 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Study Objectives: We investigated the interaction between objective sleep disturbance and obesity, sedentary lifestyle, and lung dysfunction and whether it is negatively associated with cardiorespiratory fitness.

Methods: In this community cohort study of 521 men (age 46.6 ± 7. Read More

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November 2018

Diffusion-weighted imaging and diffusion kurtosis imaging for early evaluation of the response to docetaxel in rat epithelial ovarian cancer.

J Transl Med 2018 Dec 5;16(1):340. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Radiology, Jinshan Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, University, 1508 Longhang Road, Shanghai, 201508, People's Republic of China.

Background: To investigate diffusion-weighted magnetic imaging (DWI) and diffusion kurtosis magnetic imaging (DKI) for the early detection of the response to docetaxel (DTX) chemotherapy in rat epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC).

Methods: 7,12-Dimethylbenz[A]anthracene was applied to induce orthotopic EOC in Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats with EOC were treated with DTX on day 0 (treatment group) or were left untreated (control group). Read More

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December 2018
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All that is silver is not toxic: silver ion and particle kinetics reveals the role of silver ion aging and dosimetry on the toxicity of silver nanoparticles.

Part Fibre Toxicol 2018 Dec 5;15(1):47. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Health Effects and Exposure Science, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, 99352, USA.

Background: When suspended in cell culture medium, nano-objects composed of soluble metals such as silver can dissolve resulting in ion formation, altered particle properties (e.g. mass, morphology, etc. Read More

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December 2018

Ultrasonic Transmission Tomography Sensor Design for Bubble Identification in Gas-Liquid Bubble Column Reactors.

Sensors (Basel) 2018 Dec 4;18(12). Epub 2018 Dec 4.

School of Automation, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an 710129, China.

Scientists require methods to monitor the distribution of gas bubbles in gas-liquid bubble column reactors. One non-destructive method that can potential satisfy this requirement in industrial situations is ultrasonic transmission tomography (UTT). In this paper, an ultrasonic transmission tomography sensor is designed for measuring bubble distribution in a reactor. Read More

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December 2018

Predictive connectome subnetwork extraction with anatomical and connectivity priors.

Comput Med Imaging Graph 2018 Aug 25;71:67-78. Epub 2018 Aug 25.

Medical Image Analysis Lab, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, Canada.

We present a new method to identify anatomical subnetworks of the human connectome that are optimally predictive of targeted clinical variables, developmental outcomes or disease states. Given a training set of structural or functional brain networks, derived from diffusion MRI (dMRI) or functional MRI (fMRI) scans respectively, our sparse linear regression model extracts a weighted subnetwork. By enforcing novel backbone network and connectivity based priors along with a non-negativity constraint, the discovered subnetworks are simultaneously anatomically plausible, well connected, positively weighted and reasonably sparse. Read More

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Sex differences in network controllability as a predictor of executive function in youth.

Neuroimage 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Bioengineering, School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA; Department of Physics & Astronomy, College of Arts and Sciences, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA; Department of Neurology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA; Department of Electrical and Systems Engineering, School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA. Electronic address:

Executive function is a quintessential human capacity that emerges late in development and displays different developmental trends in males and females. Sex differences in executive function in youth have been linked to vulnerability to psychopathology as well as to behaviors that impinge on health, wellbeing, and longevity. Yet, the neurobiological basis of these differences is not well understood, in part due to the spatiotemporal complexity inherent in patterns of brain network maturation supporting executive function. Read More

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November 2018

Mechanisms of vascular dysfunction evoked by ionizing radiation and possible targets for its pharmacological correction.

Biochem Pharmacol 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Pharmacology, New York Medical College, 15 Dana Road, Valhalla, 10595, NY, the US. Electronic address:

Ionizing radiation (IR) leads to a variety of the cardiovascular diseases, including the arterial hypertension. A number of studies have demonstrated that blood vessels represent important target for IR, and the endothelium is one of the most vulnerable components of the vascular wall. IR causes an inhibition of nitric oxide (NO)-mediated endothelium-dependent vasodilatation and generation of reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen (RNS) species trigger this process. Read More

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November 2018

Reusable Enzymatic Fiber Mats for Neurotoxin Remediation in Water.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Highly effective and reusable organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH)-loaded fiber mats have been fabricated that are capable of degrading toxic organophosphates (OPs) over a broad range of relevant concentrations (from 8 ppm to 8,250 ppm). The inherent fragility of enzymes, a major impediment in their incorporation into technologically-relevant materials, was overcome while retaining their high catalytic efficiency, selectivity and sensitivity via a random heteropolymers (RHP) approach. Kinetic analysis guides the design of polycaprolactone matrix morphology from films to fibers, facilitating substrate diffusion in the material. Read More

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December 2018

Analysis of Ion Motion and Diffusion Confinement in Inverted Drift Tubes and Trapped Ion Mobility Spectrometry Devices.

Anal Chem 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Ion motion in Trapped Ion Mobility Spectrometers (TIMS) and Inverted Drift Tubes (IDT) has been investigated. The 2D axi-symmetric analytical solution to the Nernst-Planck equation for constant gas flows and opposed linearly increasing fields is presented for the first time and is used to study the dynamics of ion distributions in the ramp region. It is shown that axial diffusion confinement is possible and that broad packets of ions injected initially into the system can be contracted. Read More

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December 2018

A Dissociation in Effects of Risperidone Monotherapy on Functional and Anatomical Connectivity Within the Default Mode Network.

Schizophr Bull 2018 Dec 2. Epub 2018 Dec 2.

Department of Psychiatry, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China.

Respective changes in functional and anatomical connectivities of default mode network (DMN) after antipsychotic treatment have been reported. However, alterations in structure-function coupling after treatment remain unknown. We performed diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging in 42 drug-naive first-episode schizophrenia patients (FESP) both at baseline and after 8-weeks risperidone monotherapy, and in 38 healthy volunteers. Read More

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December 2018

Nonintubated surgical biopsy of undetermined interstitial lung disease: a multicentre outcome analysis.

Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Section of Biostatistics, Tor Vergata University, Rome, Italy.

Objectives: Nonintubated surgical biopsy (NISB) of interstitial lung disease (ILD) has shown promise in unicentre reports as a reliable method to achieve pathological diagnosis with low morbidity. The aim of this study was to investigate for the first time early outcomes of NISB of ILD using a multicentre retrospective analysis.

Methods: Seven European and extra-European institutions participated in the study. Read More

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December 2018
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Developing High Performance GaP/Si Heterojunction Solar Cells.

J Vis Exp 2018 Nov 16(141). Epub 2018 Nov 16.

School of Electrical, Computer, and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University.

To improve the efficiency of Si-based solar cells beyond their Shockley-Queisser limit, the optimal path is to integrate them with III-V-based solar cells. In this work, we present high performance GaP/Si heterojunction solar cells with a high Si minority-carrier lifetime and high crystal quality of epitaxial GaP layers. It is shown that by applying phosphorus (P)-diffusion layers into the Si substrate and a SiNx layer, the Si minority-carrier lifetime can be well-maintained during the GaP growth in the molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Read More

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November 2018

The Role of Cognitive Reserve in Alzheimer's Disease and Aging: A Multi-Modal Imaging Review.

J Alzheimers Dis 2018 Nov 26. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Brain Investigation and Neuromodulation Lab, Department of Medicine, Surgery and Neuroscience, Neurology and Clinical Neurophysiology Section, University of Siena, Italy.

Comforts in modern society have generally been associated with longer survival rates, enabling individuals to reach advanced age as never before in history. With the increase in longevity, however, the incidence of neurodegenerative diseases, especially Alzheimer's disease, has also doubled. Nevertheless, most of the observed variance, in terms of time of clinical diagnosis and progression, often remains striking. Read More

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November 2018

Development and evaluation of multistructured and hierarchical epidermal growth factor-poly (ε-caprolactone) scaffolds.

IEEE Trans Nanobioscience 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

In this study, we separately fabricated the poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds containing epidermal growth factor (EGF) by using our-self fabricated electrospinning machine for tissue regeneration application. Several fundamental properties, including the dimensions, wettability and EGF release profiles, of the fabricated EGF-PCL the bead, fibrous and multistructured scaffolds were characterised by using the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), contact angle goniometer and vertical diffusion system. The EGF release profiles of three scaffolds were measured for 200 hours and the multistructured scaffold performed stable and long EGF release properties. Read More

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November 2018
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