18,245 results match your criteria Diffusion Tensor Imaging


Investigating the association between sleep quality and diffusion-derived structural integrity of white matter in early adolescence.

J Adolesc 2020 Jul 2;83:12-21. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Sunshine Coast Mind and Neuroscience Thompson Institute, Birtinya, QLD, Australia.

Introduction: Poor sleep quality has been linked to reduced neural connectivity through decreased white matter (WM) structural integrity. WM tract development has been shown to continue throughout adolescence with studies reporting positive correlations between diffusion-derived estimates of structural integrity and reduced sleep quality in adult samples. Few studies have investigated this relationship exclusively within a sample of young adolescents. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2020.06.008DOI Listing

Fixel-based analysis links white matter characteristics, serostatus and clinical features in limbic encephalitis.

Neuroimage Clin 2020 May 26;27:102289. Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Epileptology, University Hospital Bonn, Venusberg-Campus 1, 53127 Bonn, Germany; Epilepsy Center Frankfurt Rhine-Main, Department of Neurology, Goethe University Frankfurt, Schleusenweg 2, 60528 Frankfurt, Germany; Center for Personalized Translational Epilepsy Research (CePTER), Goethe University Frankfurt, Schleusenweg 2, 60528 Frankfurt, Germany. Electronic address:

Limbic encephalitis (LE) is an autoimmune syndrome often associated with temporal lobe epilepsy. Recent research suggests that particular structural changes in LE depend on the type of the associated antibody and occur in both mesiotemporal gray matter and white matter regions. However, it remains questionable to what degree conventional diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)-methods reflect alterations in white matter microstructure, since these methods do not account for crossing fibers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nicl.2020.102289DOI Listing

Structural network efficiency predicts cognitive decline in cerebral small vessel disease.

Neuroimage Clin 2020 Jun 25;27:102325. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Radboud University Medical Center, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Department of Neurology, Nijmegen, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is a common disease in older adults and a major contributor to vascular cognitive impairment and dementia. White matter network damage is a potentially important mechanism by which SVD causes cognitive impairment. Earlier studies showed that a higher degree of white matter network damage, indicated by lower global efficiency (a graph-theory measure assessing efficiency of network information transfer), was associated with lower scores on cognitive performance independent of MRI markers for SVD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nicl.2020.102325DOI Listing

Use of multi-flip angle measurements to account for transmit inhomogeneity and non-Gaussian diffusion in DW-SSFP.

Neuroimage 2020 Jul 1:117113. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Wellcome Centre for Integrative Neuroimaging, FMRIB, Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Diffusion-weighted steady-state free precession (DW-SSFP) is an SNR-efficient diffusion imaging method. The improved SNR and resolution available at ultra-high field has motivated its use at 7T. However, these data tend to have severe B inhomogeneity, leading not only to spatially varying SNR, but also to spatially varying diffusivity estimates, confounding comparisons both between and within datasets. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2020.117113DOI Listing

Mesoscale diffusion magnetic resonance imaging of the ex vivo human hippocampus.

Hum Brain Mapp 2020 Jul 4. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.

Mesoscale diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) endeavors to bridge the gap between macroscopic white matter tractography and microscopic studies investigating the cytoarchitecture of human brain tissue. To ensure a robust measurement of diffusion at the mesoscale, acquisition parameters were arrayed to investigate their effects on scalar indices (mean, radial, axial diffusivity, and fractional anisotropy) and streamlines (i.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hbm.25119DOI Listing

Language network reorganization before and after temporal lobe epilepsy surgery.

J Neurosurg 2020 Jul 3:1-9. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Departments of1Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy.

Objective: Epilepsy surgery is the recommended treatment option for patients with drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). This method offers a good chance of seizure freedom but carries a considerable risk of postoperative language impairment. The extremely variable neurocognitive profiles in surgical epilepsy patients cannot be fully explained by extent of resection, fiber integrity, or current task-based functional MRI (fMRI). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.4.JNS193401DOI Listing

Neural correlates of rehabilitation program with robot-assisted intensive therapy in one case of Holmes tremor.

Ann Phys Rehabil Med 2020 Jun 30. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Service de neurochirurgie, CHU de Clermont-Ferrand, Clermont-Ferrand, F-63000, France; Université Clermont Auvergne, CNRS, SIGMA Clermont, Clermont-Ferrand, F-63000, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rehab.2020.06.002DOI Listing

Magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound ablation of hypothalamic hamartoma as a disconnection surgery: a case report.

Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Southern Tohoku Research Institute for Neuroscience, Fukushima, Japan.

We report the case of a patient with hypothalamic hamartoma (HH) who was successfully treated with magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) for ablation as a disconnection surgery. A 26-year-old man with gelastic epilepsy had been diagnosed with HH at 3 years of age, and antiepileptic drugs were administered due to worsening episodes. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a sessile parahypothalamic hamartoma and MRgFUS ablation was performed, creating an oval-shaped lesion at the boundary area of the HH. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00701-020-04468-6DOI Listing

Investigation of quantitative susceptibility mapping in diagnosis of tuberous sclerosis complex and assessment of associated brain injuries at 1.5 Tesla.

J Clin Transl Res 2020 Apr 11;5(3):102-108. Epub 2020 Mar 11.

Department of Radiology, Baoji Center Hospital, Baoji 721008, Shaanxi, P.R. China.

Background And Aim: Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a rare disease with serious clinical consequences such as mental deficiency and epilepsy. The pathological changes of TSC include demyelination and subependymal calcified nodules. Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) is a newly developed imaging technique which is capable of quantitatively measuring the susceptibility induced by iron deposition, calcification, and demyelination. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7326276PMC

Diffusion tensor imaging quantifying the severity of chronic hepatitis in rats.

BMC Med Imaging 2020 Jul 2;20(1):74. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Radiology, The Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University, 25 Taiping Street, Luzhou, Sichuan, 646000, People's Republic of China.

Background: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is mainly used for detecting white matter fiber in the brain. DTI was applied to assess fiber in liver disorders in previous studies. However, the data obtained have been insufficient in determining if DTI can be used to exactly stage chronic hepatitis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12880-020-00466-3DOI Listing

Maturational trajectories of white matter microstructure underlying the right presupplementary motor area reflect individual improvements in motor response cancellation in children and adolescents.

Neuroimage 2020 Jun 29:117105. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance, Centre for Functional and Diagnostic Imaging and Research, Copenhagen University Hospital Hvidovre, Hvidovre, Denmark. Electronic address:

The ability to effectively suppress motor response tendencies is essential for focused and goal-directed behavior. Here, we tested the hypothesis that developmental improvement in the ability to cancel a motor response is reflected by maturational changes in the white matter underlying the right presupplementary motor area (preSMA) and posterior inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), two cortical key areas of the fronto-basal ganglia "stopping" network. Eighty-eight typically-developing children and adolescents, aged 7-19 years, were longitudinally assessed with the stop-signal task (SST) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the brain over a period of six years. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2020.117105DOI Listing

Enhanced white matter reorganization and activated brain glucose metabolism by enriched environment following ischemic stroke: Micro PET/CT and MRI study.

Neuropharmacology 2020 Jun 29:108202. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China; Beijing Key Lab of TCM Collateral Disease Theory Research, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Enriched environment (EE) is an effective rehabilitative protocol designed to enhance sensorimotor, cognitive and social stimulation. Current understanding of neuronal remodeling after EE intervention mainly derived from conventional histological methods. The efficacy of EE treatment on post-stroke brain reorganization still needed to be elucidated in vivo. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropharm.2020.108202DOI Listing

Assessing neuraxial microstructural changes in a transgenic mouse model of early stage Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis by ultra-high field MRI and diffusion tensor metrics.

Animal Model Exp Med 2020 Jun 16;3(2):117-129. Epub 2020 Apr 16.

Department of Bioengineering University of Illinois at Chicago Chicago IL USA.

Objective: Cell structural changes are one of the main features observed during the development of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In this work, we propose the use of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) metrics to assess specific ultrastructural changes in the central nervous system during the early neurodegenerative stages of ALS.

Methods: Ultra-high field MRI and DTI data at 17. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ame2.12112DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7323706PMC

Multiparametric MRI characterization of level dependent differences in lumbar muscle size, quality, and microstructure.

JOR Spine 2020 Jun 3;3(2):e1079. Epub 2020 Feb 3.

Department of Bioengineering University of California San Diego California.

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a diagnostic tool that can be used to noninvasively assess lumbar muscle size and fatty infiltration, important biomarkers of muscle health. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is an MRI technique that is sensitive to muscle microstructural features such as fiber size (an important biomarker of muscle health), which is typically only assessed using invasive biopsy techniques. The goal of this study was to establish normative values of level-dependent lumbar muscle size, fat signal fraction, and restricted diffusion assessed by MRI in a highly active population. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsp2.1079DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7323468PMC

Reorganization of Brain White Matter in Persistent Idiopathic Tinnitus Patients Without Hearing Loss: Evidence From Baseline Data.

Front Neurosci 2020 16;14:591. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Department of Radiology, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

It remains unknown whether tinnitus or tinnitus-related hearing loss (HL) could indirectly impair or reshape the white matter (WM) of the human brain. We aim to explore the possible brain WM change in tinnitus patients without HL and further to investigate their associations with clinical variables. Structural and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of 20 idiopathic tinnitus patients without HL and 22 healthy controls (HCs) were obtained. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2020.00591DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7308730PMC

MRI and tractography techniques to localize the ventral intermediate nucleus and dentatorubrothalamic tract for deep brain stimulation and MR-guided focused ultrasound: a narrative review and update.

Neurosurg Focus 2020 Jul;49(1):E8

Departments of1Radiology.

The thalamic ventral intermediate nucleus (VIM) can be targeted for treatment of tremor by several procedures, including deep brain stimulation (DBS) and, more recently, MR-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS). To date, such targeting has relied predominantly on coordinate-based or atlas-based techniques rather than directly targeting the VIM based on imaging features. While general regional differences of features within the thalamus and some related white matter tracts can be distinguished with conventional imaging techniques, internal nuclei such as the VIM are not discretely visualized. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.4.FOCUS20170DOI Listing

Genetic and microstructural differences in the cortical plate of gyri and sulci during gyrification in fetal sheep.

Cereb Cortex 2020 Jul 1. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

The Ritchie Centre, Hudson Institute of Medical Research, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3168, Australia.

Gyrification of the cerebral cortex is a developmentally important process, but the mechanisms that drive cortical folding are not fully known. Theories propose that changes within the cortical plate (CP) cause gyrification, yet differences between the CP below gyri and sulci have not been investigated. Here we report genetic and microstructural differences in the CP below gyri and sulci assessed before (at 70 days of gestational age [GA] 70), during (GA 90), and after (GA 110) gyrification in fetal sheep. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhaa171DOI Listing

State-of-the-art imaging for glioma surgery.

Neurosurg Rev 2020 Jun 30. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Neurosurgery and Cancer Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam UMC location VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Diffuse gliomas are infiltrative primary brain tumors with a poor prognosis despite multimodal treatment. Maximum safe resection is recommended whenever feasible. The extent of resection (EOR) is positively correlated with survival. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10143-020-01337-9DOI Listing

Neuroimage-Based Consciousness Evaluation of Patients with Secondary Doubtful Hydrocephalus Before and After Lumbar Drainage.

Neurosci Bull 2020 Jul 1. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Department of Radiology and Biomedical Research Imaging Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, 27599, USA.

Hydrocephalus is often treated with a cerebrospinal fluid shunt (CFS) for excessive amounts of cerebrospinal fluid in the brain. However, it is very difficult to distinguish whether the ventricular enlargement is due to hydrocephalus or other causes, such as brain atrophy after brain damage and surgery. The non-trivial evaluation of the consciousness level, along with a continuous drainage test of the lumbar cistern is thus clinically important before the decision for CFS is made. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12264-020-00542-2DOI Listing

Connectome mapping with edge density imaging differentiates pediatric mild traumatic brain injury from typically developing controls: proof of concept.

Pediatr Radiol 2020 Jun 30. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Neural Connectivity Laboratory, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California, San Francisco, 185 Berry St., Suite 350, San Francisco, CA, 94158, USA.

Background: Although acute neurologic impairment might be transient, other long-term effects can be observed with mild traumatic brain injury. However, when pediatric patients with mild traumatic brain injury present for medical care, conventional imaging with CT and MR imaging often does not reveal abnormalities.

Objective: To determine whether edge density imaging can separate pediatric mild traumatic brain injury from typically developing controls. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00247-020-04743-9DOI Listing

Neurocognitive signatures of phonemic sequencing in expert backward speakers.

Sci Rep 2020 Jun 30;10(1):10621. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Universidad de San Andrés, Vito Dumas 284, B1644BID Victoria, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Despite its prolific growth, neurolinguistic research on phonemic sequencing has largely neglected the study of individuals with highly developed skills in this domain. To bridge this gap, we report multidimensional signatures of two experts in backward speech, that is, the capacity to produce utterances by reversing the order of phonemes while retaining their identity. Our approach included behavioral assessments of backward and forward speech alongside neuroimaging measures of voxel-based morphometry, diffusion tensor imaging, and resting-state functional connectivity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-67551-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7326922PMC

Diffusion tensor imaging of the C1-C3 dorsal root ganglia and greater occipital nerve for cervicogenic headache.

Korean J Pain 2020 Jul;33(3):275-283

Department of Pain, Affiliated Hospital of North Sichuan Medical College, Nanchong, China.

Background: Previous studies showed neurography and tractography of the greater occipital nerve (GON). The purpose of this study was determining diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) parameters of bilateral GONs and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) in unilateral cervicogenic headache as well as the grading value of DTI for severe headache. The correlation between DTI parameters and clinical characteristics was evaluated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3344/kjp.2020.33.3.275DOI Listing

Diffusion MR Imaging in the Head and Neck: Principles and Applications.

Neuroimaging Clin N Am 2020 Aug 11;30(3):261-282. Epub 2020 Jun 11.

Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Indiana University School of Medicine, 550 North University Boulevard, Room 0663, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA; Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA. Electronic address:

Diffusion imaging is a functional MR imaging tool that creates tissue contrast representative of the random, microscopic translational motion of water molecules within human body tissues. Long considered a cornerstone MR imaging sequence for brain imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) increasingly is used for head and neck imaging. This review reports the current state of diffusion techniques for head and neck imaging, including conventional DWI, DWI trace with apparent diffusion coefficient map, diffusion tensor imaging, intravoxel incoherent motion, and diffusion kurtosis imaging. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nic.2020.04.001DOI Listing

The TOTEM RRMS (Testosterone Treatment on neuroprotection and Myelin Repair in Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis) trial: study protocol for a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

Trials 2020 Jun 29;21(1):591. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Centre d᾿Investigation Clinique INSERM 1434, Strasbourg, France.

Background: Central nervous system damage in multiple sclerosis (MS) is responsible for serious deficiencies. Current therapies are focused on the treatment of inflammation; however, there is an urgent need for innovative therapies promoting neuroregeneration, particularly myelin repair. It is demonstrated that testosterone can act through neural androgen receptors and several clinical observations stimulated an interest in the potential protective effects of testosterone treatment for MS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13063-020-04517-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7322908PMC

Sensitivity analysis of effective transverse shear viscoelastic and diffusional properties of myelinated white matter.

Phys Med Biol 2020 Jun 29. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Rutgers The State University of New Jersey, 98 BRETT ROAD, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, New Brunswick, New Jersey, 08901-8554, UNITED STATES.

Motivated by the need to interpret the results from a combined use of in vivo brain Magnetic Resonance Elastography (MRE) and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI), we developed a computational framework to study the sensitivity of single-frequency MRE and DTI metrics to white matter microstructure and cell-level mechanical and diffusional properties. White matter was modeled as a triphasic unidirectional composite, consisting of parallel cylindrical inclusions (axons) surrounded by sheaths (myelin), and embedded in a matrix (glial cells plus extracellular matrix). Only 2D mechanics and diffusion in the transverse plane (perpendicular to the axon direction) was considered, and homogenized (effective) properties were derived for a periodic domain containing a single axon. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6560/aba0ccDOI Listing

Subject-specific muscle properties from diffusion tensor imaging significantly improve the accuracy of musculoskeletal models.

J Anat 2020 Jun 29. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Musculoskeletal and Ageing Science , Institute of Life Course and Medical Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK.

Musculoskeletal modelling is an important platform on which to study the biomechanics of morphological structures in vertebrates and is widely used in clinical, zoological and palaeontological fields. The popularity of this approach stems from the potential to non-invasively quantify biologically important but difficult-to-measure functional parameters. However, while it is known that model predictions are highly sensitive to input values, it is standard practice to build models by combining musculoskeletal data from different sources resulting in 'generic' models for a given species. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/joa.13261DOI Listing

[A preliminary study on schizophrenia of distinct antipsychotic response based on diffusion tensor imaging].

Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi 2020 Jun;37(3):480-486

Huaxi MR Research Center (HMRRC), Department of Radiology, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, P.R.China.

The study aims to investigate whether there is difference in pre-treatment white matter parameters in treatment-resistant and treatment-responsive schizophrenia. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was acquired from 60 first-episode drug-naïve schizophrenia (39 treatment-responsive and 21 treatment-resistant schizophrenia patients) and 69 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Imaging data was preprocessed via FSL software, then diffusion parameters including fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD) and radial diffusivity (RD) were extracted. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7507/1001-5515.201905062DOI Listing

Prospective Follow-up of Intramedullary Slitlike Cavities: A Consecutive Series of 48 Patients.

Front Neurol 2020 12;11:495. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Neurosurgery Department, Bicêtre University Hospital, Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris (APHP), Université Paris-Sud, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France.

Predicting whether intramedullary slitlike cavity (SC) will worsen over time or remain stable is an outstanding clinical challenge. The aim of this study was to identify early features of SC (clinical and magnetic resonance imaging [MRI] findings). We prospectively included all patients referred to our institution following the discovery of a SC and divided them in two groups: typical SC (defined as a cavity spanning fewer than three vertebrae, not enlarging the spinal cord, and located at the midline between the anterior third and posterior two-thirds of the spinal cord) or atypical SC (all others). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2020.00495DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7304370PMC

A Machine Learning Approach for the Differential Diagnosis of Alzheimer and Vascular Dementia Fed by MRI Selected Features.

Front Neuroinform 2020 11;14:25. Epub 2020 Jun 11.

NMR Research Unit, Department of Neuroinflammation, Faculty of Brain Sciences, Queen Square MS Centre, UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology, London, United Kingdom.

Among dementia-like diseases, Alzheimer disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VD) are two of the most frequent. AD and VD may share multiple neurological symptoms that may lead to controversial diagnoses when using conventional clinical and MRI criteria. Therefore, other approaches are needed to overcome this issue. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fninf.2020.00025DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7300291PMC

Pinpointing Neural Correlates of Attachment in Poly-Drug Use: A Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study.

Front Neurosci 2020 11;14:596. Epub 2020 Jun 11.

Institute of Psychology, University of Graz, Graz, Austria.

An increasing amount of evidence indicates the significance of attachment in the etiology of poly-drug use disorder (PUD). The aim of this study was to investigate associations between PUD and adult attachment in particular, with a focus on white matter (WM) fiber tract integrity. For this purpose, we selected several regions-of-interest based on previous findings which were examined for their role in PUD and estimated whole-brain associations between adult attachment and WM integrity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2020.00596DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7300178PMC

White matter alterations and the conversion to psychosis: A combined diffusion tensor imaging and glutamate H MRS study.

Schizophr Res 2020 Jun 25. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Laboratory of Experimental Psychiatry, Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía, Mexico City, Mexico; Neuropsychiatry Department, Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía, Mexico City, Mexico. Electronic address:

Introduction: Widespread white matter abnormalities and alterations in glutamate levels have been reported in patients with schizophrenia. We hypothesized that alterations in white matter integrity and glutamate levels in individuals at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis are associated with the subsequent development of psychosis.

Methods: Participants included 33 antipsychotic naïve CHR (Female 7/Male 26, Age 19. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2020.06.006DOI Listing

Structural MRI outcomes and predictors of disease progression in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Neuroimage Clin 2020 Jun 17;27:102315. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Neuroimaging Research Unit, Institute of Experimental Neurology, Division of Neuroscience, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy; Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: Considering the great heterogeneity of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), the identification of accurate prognostic predictors is fundamental for both the clinical practice and the design of treatment trials. This study aimed to explore the progression of clinical and structural brain changes in patients with ALS, and to assess magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures of brain damage as predictors of subsequent functional decline.

Methods: 50 ALS patients underwent clinical evaluations and 3 T MRI scans at regular intervals for a maximum of 2 years (total MRI scans = 164). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nicl.2020.102315DOI Listing

A novel node-level structure embedding and alignment representation of structural networks for brain disease analysis.

Med Image Anal 2020 Jun 17;65:101755. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

College of Computer Science and Technology, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, MIIT Key Laboratory of Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, Nanjing 210029, China. Electronic address:

Brain networks based on various neuroimaging technologies, such as diffusion tensor image (DTI) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), have been widely applied to brain disease analysis. Currently, there are several node-level structural measures (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.media.2020.101755DOI Listing

Towards safe operation of an active retinal prosthesis during functional MRI and diffusion tensor imaging.

Magn Reson Imaging 2020 Jun 25;72:14-18. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Imaging Institute, The Cleveland Clinic, United States of America. Electronic address:

Objective: To determine if the Argus II retinal prosthesis can operate during functional MRI (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) acquisitions and if currents induced in the prosthesis by imaging are at safe levels.

Materials And Methods: One Argus II retinal prosthesis was modified to enable current measurements during imaging. Active electronics were modified to enable operation during scans. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mri.2020.06.013DOI Listing

Brain structural connectome in relation to PRRT2 mutations in paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia.

Hum Brain Mapp 2020 Jun 27. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Huaxi MR Research Center (HMRRC), Department of Radiology, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan Province, China.

This study explored the topological characteristics of brain white matter structural networks in patients with Paroxysmal Kinesigenic Dyskinesia (PKD), and the potential influence of the brain network stability gene PRRT2 on the structural connectome in PKD. Thirty-five PKD patients with PRRT2 mutations (PKD-M), 43 PKD patients without PRRT2 mutations (PKD-N), and 40 demographically-matched healthy control (HC) subjects underwent diffusion tensor imaging. Graph theory and network-based statistic (NBS) approaches were performed; the topological properties of the white matter structural connectome were compared across the groups, and their relationships with the clinical variables were assessed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hbm.25091DOI Listing
June 2020
5.969 Impact Factor

Assessing changes in microstructural integrity of white matter tracts in children with leukaemia following exposure to chemotherapy.

Pediatr Radiol 2020 Jun 26. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Department of Paediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Background: Intrathecal and intravenous chemotherapy, specifically methotrexate, might contribute to neural microstructural damage.

Objective: To assess, by diffusion tensor imaging, microstructural integrity of white matter in paediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) following intrathecal and intravenous chemotherapy.

Materials And Methods: Eleven children diagnosed with de novo ALL underwent MRI scans of the brain with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) prior to commencement of chemotherapy and at 12 months after diagnosis, using a 3-tesla (T) MRI scanner. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00247-020-04717-xDOI Listing

White Matter Development from Birth to 6 Years of Age: A Longitudinal Study.

Cereb Cortex 2020 Jun 27. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Department of Psychiatry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA.

Human white matter development in the first years of life is rapid, setting the foundation for later development. Microstructural properties of white matter are linked to many behavioral and psychiatric outcomes; however, little is known about when in development individual differences in white matter microstructure are established. The aim of the current study is to characterize longitudinal development of white matter microstructure from birth through 6 years to determine when in development individual differences are established. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhaa170DOI Listing

Urate is closely linked to white matter integrity in multiple system atrophy.

Ann Clin Transl Neurol 2020 Jun;7(6):1029-1039

Department of Neurology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.

Objective: We aimed to investigate the association of the serum urate level with cortical thickness and white matter integrity in multiple system atrophy (MSA).

Methods: We recruited 75 MSA patients and 42 controls who underwent brain MRI and measured serum urate level at baseline. Using cortical thickness and tract-based spatial statistics analyses, we investigated the correlation between serum urate levels and cortical thickness or diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures in controls and MSA patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/acn3.51073DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7318089PMC

The role of diffusion tensor imaging metrics in the discrimination between cerebellar medulloblastoma and brainstem glioma.

Authors:
Nguyen Minh Duc

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2020 Jun 26:e28468. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Doctoral Program, Department of Radiology, Hanoi Medical University, Ha Noi, Vietnam.

Background: Differentiation between cerebellar medulloblastoma and brainstem glioma is necessary for certain clinical circumstances. We aimed to evaluate the function of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) metrics in the differentiation between cerebellar medulloblastomas and brainstem gliomas in children.

Procedure: The institutional review board approved this prospective study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.28468DOI Listing

Diffusion Tensor Imaging Studies on Recovery of Injured Optic Radiation: A Minireview.

Neural Plast 2020 9;2020:8881224. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, College of Medicine, Yeungnam University, Daemyungdong, Namku, Daegu 705-717, Republic of Korea.

The optic radiation (OR) is a visual neural fiber pathway for the transfer of visual information from the lateral geniculate body of the thalamus to the primary visual cortex. To demonstrate the recovery of an OR injury, quantification and visualization of changes to the injured OR are necessary. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) allows determination of the state of an OR by assessing the obtained DTI parameters. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/8881224DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7301249PMC

Influence of duration of injury on diffusion tensor imaging in acute canine spinal cord injury.

J Neurotrauma 2020 Jun 26. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

NCSU College of Veterinary Medicine, Clinical Sciences, 1060 William Moore Dr, Raleigh, North Carolina, United States, 27607;

Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) quantifies microstructural lesion characteristics but impact of the interval between spinal cord injury (SCI) and examination on imaging characteristics is unclear. Our objective was to investigate the impact of duration of injury on DTI indices in dogs with acute, spontaneous SCI due to thoracolumbar intervertebral disc herniation (IVDH) and explore associations with clinical severity. Twenty-six dogs with acute thoracolumbar IVDH of variable severity who underwent DTI were included. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/neu.2019.6786DOI Listing

White matter changes in children and adolescents with reactive attachment disorder: A diffusion tensor imaging study.

Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging 2020 Jun 15;303:111129. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Research Center for Child Mental Development, University of Fukui, Fukui, Japan; Department of Child and Adolescent Psychological Medicine, University of Fukui Hospital, Fukui, Japan; Division of Developmental Higher Brain Functions, United Graduate School of Child Development, University of Fukui, Fukui, Japan. Electronic address:

Childhood maltreatment is associated with altered brain structure and function and is a major risk factor for psychopathology, including reactive attachment disorder (RAD). However, whether changes to white matter microstructural integrity are associated with RAD is unclear. We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to assess group differences in fractional anisotropy (FA) in patients with RAD (n = 25; mean age = 13. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pscychresns.2020.111129DOI Listing

Awake Craniotomy with Cortical and Subcortical Speech Mapping for Supramarginal Cavernoma Resection.

World Neurosurg 2020 Jun 22. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Department of Neurologic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida, USA. Electronic address:

Awake craniotomy allows mapping of eloquent brain regions and monitoring neurocognitive functioning intraoperatively to maximize extent of resection and minimize cognitive morbidity. During resection of cavernous malformations in eloquent areas, intraoperative cognitive monitoring can also allow for safer maximal excision of the hemosiderin ring which is correlated with improved seizure-free outcome. We present the case of a 33-year-old right handed male with a new onset seizures who presented to local ED after experiencing visual hallucinations before losing consciousness. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2020.06.094DOI Listing

Effects of photobiomodulation combined with MSCs transplantation on the repair of spinal cord injury in rat.

J Cell Physiol 2020 Jun 24. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Medical Science & Peking Union Medical College, Tianjin, China.

Stem cell transplantation has shown promising regenerative effects against neural injury, and photobiomodulation (PBM) can aid tissue recovery. This study aims to evaluate the therapeutic effect of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) and laser alone or combined on spinal cord injury (SCI). The animals were divided into SCI, hUCMSCs, laser treatment (LASER) and combination treatment (hUCMSCs + LASER) groups. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcp.29902DOI Listing

Habituation of auditory startle reflex is a new sign of minimally conscious state.

Brain 2020 Jun 25. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Institut du Cerveau et de la Moelle épinière - ICM, Inserm U1127, CNRS UMR 7225, F-75013, Paris, France.

Neurological examination of non-communicating patients relies on a few decisive items that enable the crucial distinction between vegetative state (VS)-also coined unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS)-and minimally conscious state. Over the past 10 years, this distinction has proven its diagnostic value as well as its important prognostic value on consciousness recovery. However, clinicians are currently limited by three factors: (i) the current behavioural repertoire of minimally conscious state items is limited and restricted to a few cognitive domains in the goldstandard revised version of the Coma Recovery Scale; (ii) a proportion of ∼15-20% clinically VS/UWS patients are actually in a richer state than VS/UWS as evidenced by functional brain imaging; and (iii) the neurophysiological and cognitive interpretation of each minimally conscious state item is still unclear and debated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awaa159DOI Listing

Prevention of Early Alzheimer's Disease by Erinacine A-Enriched Mycelia Pilot Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Study.

Front Aging Neurosci 2020 3;12:155. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Medical Laboratory and Biotechnology, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung City, Taiwan.

Objective: To investigate the efficacy and safety of three mycelia (EAHE) capsules (350 mg/capsule; containing 5 mg/g erinacine A active ingredient) per day for the treatment of patients with mild Alzheimer's Disease (AD).

Methods: This study comprised a 3-week no-drug screening period, followed by a 49-week double-blind treatment period with 2-parallel groups in which eligible patients were randomized to either three 5 mg/g EAHE mycelia capsules per day or identical appearing placebo capsules. Cognitive assessments, ophthalmic examinations, biomarker collection, and neuroimaging were followed throughout the study period. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2020.00155DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7283924PMC

Correlation Between the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale- 3 Edition Metrics and Brain Structure in Healthy Individuals: A Whole-Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study.

Front Hum Neurosci 2020 3;14:211. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Mental Disorder Research, National Institute of Neuroscience, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, 3 edition (WAIS-III) is widely used to evaluate the intelligence quotient (IQ). We aimed to investigate the correlation between the WAIS-III metrics and whole-brain structures using magnetic resonance imaging.

Methods: The participants were 266 healthy, right-handed individuals (age: 45. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2020.00211DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7283913PMC

Stress-Induced Microstructural Alterations Correlate With the Cognitive Performance of Rats: A Longitudinal Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study.

Front Neurosci 2020 3;14:474. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Neurobiology of Stress Research Group, Szentágothai Research Centre, University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary.

Stress-induced cellular changes in limbic brain structures contribute to the development of various psychopathologies. detection of these microstructural changes may help us to develop objective biomarkers for psychiatric disorders. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is an advanced neuroimaging technique that enables the non-invasive examination of white matter integrity and provides insights into the microstructure of pathways connecting brain areas. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2020.00474DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7283577PMC

Multimodal MRI Longitudinal Assessment of White and Gray Matter in Different SPG Types of Hereditary Spastic Paraparesis.

Front Neurosci 2020 4;14:325. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Severe Developmental Disabilities Unit, Scientific Institute, IRCCS Eugenio Medea, Conegliano, Italy.

Hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSP) are a group of genetically and clinically heterogeneous neurologic disorders. Hereby we describe a relatively large group of patients (pts) affected by HSP studied at baseline (31 pts) and at follow-up (mean period 28.9 ± 8. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2020.00325DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7287014PMC

Differences of connectivity between ESRD patients with PD and HD.

Brain Behav 2020 Jun 24:e01708. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Department of Neurology, Haeundae Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan, Korea.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate alterations in structural and functional brain connectivity between patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) who were undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD) and hemodialysis (HD).

Methods: We enrolled 40 patients with ESRD who were undergoing PD (20 patients) and HD (20 patients). We also enrolled healthy participants as a control group. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/brb3.1708DOI Listing