19,848 results match your criteria Diffusion Tensor Imaging

Glymphatic clearance function in patients with cerebral small vessel disease.

Neuroimage 2021 Jun 10;238:118257. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Neurology, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University, School of Medicine, 88# Jiefang Road, Hangzhou 310009, China. Electronic address:

Few studies have focused on the connection between glymphatic dysfunction and cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD), partially due to the lack of non-invasive methods to measure glymphatic function. We established modified index for diffusion tensor image analysis along the perivascular space (mALPS-index), which was calculated on diffusion tensor image (DTI), compared it with the classical detection of glymphatic clearance function calculated on Glymphatic MRI after intrathecal administration of gadolinium (study 1), and analyzed the relationship between CSVD imaging markers and mALPS-index in CSVD patients from the CIRCLE study (ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT03542734) (study 2). Read More

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A history of previous childbirths is linked to women's white matter brain age in midlife and older age.

Hum Brain Mapp 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

NORMENT, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo & Division of Mental Health and Addiction, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.

Maternal brain adaptations occur in response to pregnancy, but little is known about how parity impacts white matter and white matter ageing trajectories later in life. Utilising global and regional brain age prediction based on multi-shell diffusion-weighted imaging data, we investigated the association between previous childbirths and white matter brain age in 8,895 women in the UK Biobank cohort (age range = 54-81 years). The results showed that number of previous childbirths was negatively associated with white matter brain age, potentially indicating a protective effect of parity on white matter later in life. Read More

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White Matter Structural and Network Topological Changes Underlying the Behavioral Phenotype of MECP2 Mutant Monkeys.

Cereb Cortex 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

State Key Laboratory of Primate Biomedical Research, Institute of Primate Translational Medicine, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650500, China.

To explore the brain structural basis underlying the behavioral abnormalities associated with Rett syndrome (RTT), we carried out detailed longitudinal noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging analyses of RTT monkey models created by gene-editing, from weaning, through adolescence, till sexual maturation. Here, we report abnormal developmental dynamics of brain white matter (WM) microstructures and network topological organizations via diffusion tensor imaging. Specifically, disrupted WM microstructural integrity was observed at 9 months, but recovered thereafter, whereas WM network topological properties showed persistent abnormal dynamics from 9 to 37 months. Read More

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Diffusion tensor imaging of vertebral bone marrow in children with Gaucher's disease type I and III: Pre- and post-therapy.

Clin Imaging 2021 Jun 7;79:207-212. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Gastroenterology and Hepatology Unit, Department of Pediatrics, Mansoura Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura, Egypt.

Purpose: To assess diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the vertebral bone marrow (BM) in children with Gaucher's disease (GD) types I and III before and after therapy.

Methods: Prospective study was conducted upon 25 children with GD type I (n = 17) and III (n = 8) and 13 age and sex-matched controls underwent DTI of vertebral BM. Mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA) of vertebral BM was calculated and correlated with genotyping, chitotriosidase, hemoglobin (HB) and, platelet count. Read More

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Multi-modal imaging of a single mouse brain over five orders of magnitude of resolution.

Neuroimage 2021 Jun 8:118250. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Neurobiology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States.

Mammalian neurons operate at length scales spanning six orders of magnitude; they project millimeters to centimeters across brain regions, are composed of micrometer-scale-diameter myelinated axons, and ultimately form nanometer scale synapses. Capturing these anatomical features across that breadth of scale has required imaging samples with multiple independent imaging modalities. Translating between the different modalities, however, requires imaging the same brain with each. Read More

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Structural white matter alterations in carpal tunnel syndrome: A modified TBSS study.

Brain Res 2021 Jun 8:147558. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

School of Rehabilitation Science, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, China; Center of Rehabilitation Medicine, Yueyang Hospital of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Functional and structural brain alterations have been noted in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), the most common entrapment peripheral neuropathy. Previous studies were mainly focused on somatosensory cortices. However, the changes of white matter diffusion properties in nonsensorimotor cortices remain uninvestigated. Read More

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Maturation and degeneration of the human brainstem across the adult lifespan.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 Jun 11;13. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Laboratory of Clinical Investigation, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA.

Brainstem tissue microstructural properties change across the adult lifespan. However, studies elucidating the biological processes that govern brainstem maturation and degeneration are lacking. In the present work, conducted on a large cohort of 140 cognitively unimpaired subjects spanning a wide age range of 21 to 94 years, we implemented a multi-parameter approach to characterize the sex- and age differences. Read More

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White matter impairments in patients with schizophrenia: A multisite diffusion MRI study.

Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2021 Jun 8;111:110381. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Psychiatry, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

There is a lack of convincing and replicative findings regarding white matter abnormalities in schizophrenia. Several multisite diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) studies have been conducted to increase statistical power and reveal subtle white matter changes. Data pooling methods are crucial in joint analysis to compensate for the use of different scanners and image acquisition parameters. Read More

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Temporal lobe epilepsy with or without hippocampal sclerosis: Structural and functional connectivity using advanced MRI techniques.

J Neuroimaging 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Neurology and Radiology, Haeundae Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan, Republic of Korea.

Background And Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in structural connectivity based on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and functional connectivity based on arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI between temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients with and without hippocampal sclerosis (HS).

Methods: We enrolled 50 patients with TLE, including 25 patients with HS and 25 patients without HS, who underwent brain MRI, including DTI and ASL. We calculated the network parameters of structural connectivity based on DTI and functional connectivity based on ASL using a graph theoretical analysis. Read More

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Function-structure coupling: White matter functional magnetic resonance imaging hyper-activation associates with structural integrity reductions in schizophrenia.

Hum Brain Mapp 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

The Clinical Hospital of Chengdu Brain Science Institute, MOE Key Lab for Neuroinformation, Center for Information in Medicine, School of Life Science and Technology, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, People's Republic of China.

White matter (WM) microstructure deficit may be an underlying factor in the brain dysconnectivity hypothesis of schizophrenia using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). However, WM dysfunction is unclear in schizophrenia. This study aimed to investigate the association between structural deficits and functional disturbances in major WM tracts in schizophrenia. Read More

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Brain connectivity markers in advanced Parkinson's disease for predicting mild cognitive impairment.

Eur Radiol 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Neurosurgery, Shenzhen Second People's Hospital, The First Affiliated Hospital of Shenzhen University, 3002# Sungang West Road, Futian District, Shenzhen, 518035, China.

Objectives: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a well-defined non-motor manifestation and a harbinger of dementia in Parkinson's disease. This study is to investigate brain connectivity markers of MCI using diffusion tensor imaging and resting-state functional MRI, and help MCI diagnosis in PD patients.

Methods: We evaluated 131 advanced PD patients (disease duration > 5 years; 59 patients with MCI) and 48 healthy control subjects who underwent a diffusion-weighted and resting-state functional MRI scanning. Read More

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Diffusion Tensor Imaging Correlates of Concussion Related Cognitive Impairment.

Front Neurol 2021 24;12:639179. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Neurology, University of Texas McGovern Medical School, Houston, TX, United States.

Cognitive impairment after concussion has been widely reported, but there is no reliable imaging biomarker that predicts the severity of cognitive decline post-concussion. This study tests the hypothesis that patients with a history of concussion and persistent cognitive impairment have fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) values from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) that are specifically associated with poor performance on the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Fifty-three subjects (19 females) with concussions and persistent cognitive symptoms had MR imaging and the MoCA. Read More

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Brain Connect 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

University of Cape Town, 37716, Biomedical Engineering Research Centre, Division of Biomedical Engineering, Department of Human Biology, Observatory, Cape Town, Western Cape, South Africa.

Introduction: Even with the increased access and early initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), children with perinatally acquired HIV (CPHIV) continue to demonstrate white matter alterations. Children perinatally HIV-exposed, but uninfected (CHEU) alike show differences in white matter integrity compared to children who are HIV-unexposed and uninfected (CHUU).

Objectives: Mapping white matter connections that link grey matter regions that form resting-state (RS) functional networks may demonstrate whether structural and functional connectivity alterations in HIV infection and exposure may be related. Read More

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Empirical validation of gradient field models for an accurate ADC measured on clinical 3T MR systems in body oncologic applications.

Phys Med 2021 Jun 6;86:113-120. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, United States.

Purpose: To empirically corroborate vendor-provided gradient nonlinearity (GNL) characteristics and demonstrate efficient GNL bias correction for human brain apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) across 3T MR systems and spatial locations.

Methods: Spatial distortion vector fields (DVF) were mapped in 3D using a surface fiducial array phantom for individual gradient channels on three 3T MR platforms from different vendors. Measured DVF were converted into empirical 3D GNL tensors and compared with their theoretical counterparts derived from vendor-provided spherical harmonic (SPH) coefficients. Read More

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Characterizing white matter alterations subject to clinical laterality in drug-naïve de novo Parkinson's disease.

Hum Brain Mapp 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, Western University, London, Canada.

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that is characterized by a range of motor and nonmotor symptoms, often with the motor dysfunction initiated unilaterally. Knowledge regarding disease-related alterations in white matter pathways can effectively help improve the understanding of the disease and propose targeted treatment strategies. Microstructural imaging techniques, including diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), allows inspection of white matter integrity to study the pathogenesis of various neurological conditions. Read More

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Diffusion tensor imaging indices of acute muscle damage are augmented after exercise in peripheral arterial disease.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Penn State Heart and Vascular Institute, Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA, USA.

Purpose: Although it is known that peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is associated with chronic myopathies, the acute muscular responses to exercise in this population are less clear. This study used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to compare acute exercise-related muscle damage between PAD patients and healthy controls.

Methods: Eight PAD patients and seven healthy controls performed graded plantar flexion in the bore of a 3T MRI scanner. Read More

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Effects of seizure burden on structural global brain networks in patients with unilateral hippocampal sclerosis.

Brain Behav 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Instituto Estadual do Cérebro Paulo Niemeyer, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Background And Purpose: Temporal lobe epilepsy secondary to hippocampal sclerosis is related to epileptogenic networks rather than a focal epileptogenic source. Graph-theoretical gray and white matter networks may help to identify alterations within these epileptogenic networks.

Methods: Twenty-seven patients with hippocampal sclerosis and 14 controls underwent magnetic resonance imaging, including 3D-T1, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery, and diffusion tensor imaging. Read More

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Socioeconomic factors, stress, hair cortisol, and white matter microstructure in children.

Dev Psychobiol 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, New York, USA.

Socioeconomic disadvantage has been linked to increased stress exposure in children and adults. Exposure to stress in childhood has been associated with deleterious effects on cognitive development and well-being throughout the lifespan. Further, exposure to stress has been associated with differences in brain development in children, both in cortical and subcortical gray matter. Read More

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Blue-Light Therapy Strengthens Resting-State Effective Connectivity within Default-Mode Network after Mild TBI.

J Cent Nerv Syst Dis 2021 19;13:11795735211015076. Epub 2021 May 19.

Social, Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience (SCAN) Laboratory, Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA.

Background: Emerging evidence suggests that post concussive symptoms, including mood changes, may be improved through morning blue-wavelength light therapy (BLT). However, the neurobiological mechanisms underlying these effects remain unknown. We hypothesize that BLT may influence the effective brain connectivity (EC) patterns within the default-mode network (DMN), particularly involving the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), which may contribute to improvements in mood. Read More

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Elucidation of the relationship between sensory processing and white matter using diffusion tensor imaging tractography in young adults.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 8;11(1):12088. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Neuropsychiatry, University of Fukui, Eiheiji, Japan.

Sensory processing and behaviors are altered during the development of connectivity between the sensory cortices and multiple brain regions in an experience-dependent manner. To reveal the relationship between sensory processing and brain white matter, we investigated the association between the Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile (AASP) and neural connectivity in the white matter tracts of 84 healthy young adults using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). We observed a positive relationship between AASP scores (i. Read More

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The Current Status of Concussion Assessment Scales: A Critical Analysis Review.

JBJS Rev 2021 06 8;9(6). Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Departments of Orthopaedic Surgery (C.A.S., N.N.T., G.B.N., S.A.C., and J.E.V.) and Family Medicine (S.A.C.), University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Cleveland, Ohio.

»: Concussion is a complex pathophysiologic process that affects the brain; it is induced by biomechanical forces, with alteration in mental status with or without loss of consciousness.

»: Concussion assessment tools may be broadly categorized into (1) screening tests such as the SAC (Standardized Assessment of Concussion), the BESS (Balance Error Scoring System), and the King-Devick (KD) test; (2) confirmatory tests including the SCAT (Sport Concussion Assessment Tool), the ImPACT (Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing), and the VOMS (Vestibular Oculomotor Screening); and (3) objective examinations such as brain network activation (BNA) analysis, imaging studies, and physiologic markers.

»: The KD, child SCAT3 (cSCAT3), child ImPACT (cImPACT), and VOMS tests may be used to evaluate for concussion in the pediatric athlete. Read More

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Aerobic exercise, cardiorespiratory fitness, and the human hippocampus.

Hippocampus 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.

The hippocampus is particularly susceptible to neurodegeneration. Physical activity, specifically increasing cardiorespiratory fitness via aerobic exercise, shows promise as a potential method for mitigating hippocampal decline in humans. Numerous studies have now investigated associations between the structure and function of the hippocampus and engagement in physical activity. Read More

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Imaging the Substantia Nigra in Parkinson Disease and Other Parkinsonian Syndromes.

Radiology 2021 Jun 8:203341. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

From the Departments of Radiology (Y.J.B., B.S.C., S.J.C., J.H.K.), Neurology (J.M.K., J.H.C.), and Nuclear Medicine (Y.S.S.), Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 173-82 Gumi-ro, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 463-707, Republic of Korea; Departments of Radiology (C.H.S.) and Neurology (B.J.), Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea; and Division of Biomedical Engineering, Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, Yongin, Republic of Korea (Y.N.).

Parkinson disease is characterized by dopaminergic cell loss in the substantia nigra of the midbrain. There are various imaging markers for Parkinson disease. Recent advances in MRI have enabled elucidation of the underlying pathophysiologic changes in the nigral structure. Read More

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Commentary on "White Matter Abnormalities in Late Onset First Episode Mania: A Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study".

Ariel Gildengers

Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 2021 May 17. Epub 2021 May 17.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 3811 O'Hara St., Pittsburgh, PA. Electronic address:

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White matter tracts in Bipolar Disorder patients: A comparative study based on diffusion kurtosis and tensor imaging.

J Affect Disord 2021 May 27;292:45-55. Epub 2021 May 27.

Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning, China.. Electronic address:

Background: Diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI), an extension of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), is a powerful tool for studying human brain.The purpose is to investigate differences between DKI and DTI by comparing parameters in same analysis methods with bipolar disorder (BD) patients.

Methods: In this study, we attained in 47 BD patients and 49 age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy controls, complimented DTI and DKI scanning and got Fractional Anisotropy (FA), Mean Diffusion (MD) and Mean Kurtosis (MK). Read More

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Anterior cingulate cortex metabolites and white matter microstructure: a multimodal study of emergent alcohol use disorder.

Brain Imaging Behav 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Indiana University School of Medicine, 355 West 16th Street, GH 4100, Indianapolis, IN, 46202, USA.

Multimodal imaging is increasingly used to address neuropathology associated with alcohol use disorder (AUD). Few studies have investigated relationships between metabolite concentrations and white matter (WM) integrity; currently, there are no such data in AUD. In this preliminary study, we used complementary neuroimaging techniques, magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), to study AUD neurophysiology. Read More

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Preoperative nTMS and Intraoperative Neurophysiology - A Comparative Analysis in Patients With Motor-Eloquent Glioma.

Front Oncol 2021 21;11:676626. Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Neurosurgery, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin and Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

Background: The resection of a motor-eloquent glioma should be guided by intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IOM) but its interpretation is often difficult and may (unnecessarily) lead to subtotal resection. Navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) combined with diffusion-tensor-imaging (DTI) is able to stratify patients with motor-eloquent lesion preoperatively into high- and low-risk cases with respect to a new motor deficit.

Objective: To analyze to what extent preoperative nTMS motor risk stratification can improve the interpretation of IOM phenomena. Read More

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Insular Connectivity Is Associated With Self-Appraisal of Cognitive Function After a Concussion.

Front Neurol 2021 21;12:653442. Epub 2021 May 21.

Keenan Research Centre for Biomedical Science of St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Concussion is associated with acute cognitive impairments, with declines in processing speed and reaction time being common. In the clinical setting, these issues are identified symptom assessments and neurocognitive test (NCT) batteries. Practice guidelines recommend integrating both symptoms and NCTs into clinical decision-making, but correlations between these measures are often poor. Read More

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A Systematic Review of MRI Neuroimaging for Education Research.

Front Psychol 2021 20;12:617599. Epub 2021 May 20.

Program of Learning Sciences, School of Learning Informatics, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei, Taiwan.

This study aims to disclose how the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) neuroimaging approach has been applied in education studies, and what kind of learning themes has been investigated in the reviewed MRI neuroimaging research. Based on the keywords "brain or neuroimaging or neuroscience" and "MRI or diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) or white matter or gray matter or resting-state," a total of 25 papers were selected from the subject areas "Educational Psychology" and "Education and Educational Research" from the Web of Science and Scopus from 2000 to 2019. Content analysis showed that MRI neuroimaging and learning were studied under the following three major topics and nine subtopics: cognitive function (language, creativity, music, physical activity), science education (mathematical learning, biology learning, physics learning), and brain development (parenting, personality development). Read More

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White Matter Integrity Involvement in the Preclinical Stage of Familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease: A Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study.

Front Aging Neurosci 2021 19;13:655667. Epub 2021 May 19.

Department of Neurology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Objective: The objective of the study was to explore patterns of white matter (WM) alteration in preclinical stage familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (fCJD) using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI).

Methods: Seven asymptomatic carriers of the G114V mutation and six non-carriers were recruited from the same fCJD kindred and follow-up obtained from all asymptomatic carriers and two non-carriers 2 years later. Overlapping WM patterns were also explored in asymptomatic carriers and symptomatic CJD patients. Read More

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