21,687 results match your criteria Diffusion Tensor Imaging

Aberrant White Matter Organization Correlated With Neurodevelopment Outcomes in Tetralogy of Fallot: An Atlas-Based Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study.

Pediatr Neurol 2022 May 27;133:15-20. Epub 2022 May 27.

Department of Radiology, Children's Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, China. Electronic address:

Background: White matter injury (WMI) and impaired neurodevelopment are common in children with congenital heart disease. However, the effect of WMI on neurodevelopmental outcomes is still rarely reported. In this study, we aimed to investigate microstructural changes in white matter (WM) and its relationship with neurodevelopmental outcomes and further explore the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms of neurocognitive impairments in the tetralogy of Fallot (ToF). Read More

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Melodic Intonation Therapy in Post-Stroke Non-Fluent Aphasia and Its Effects on Brain Plasticity.

J Clin Med 2022 Jun 17;11(12). Epub 2022 Jun 17.

School of Medicine, University of Málaga, 29010 Málaga, Spain.

Melodic Intonation Therapy (MIT) is one of the most well-known therapies for the rehabilitation of speech in patients with non-fluent aphasia and which is thought to promote right-hemisphere involvement in language processing. This review focuses on the study of language lateralization and/or neuroplastic reorganization with neuroimaging and/or neurophysiological techniques in non-fluent aphasic patients post-stroke during or after MIT. A systematic search was carried out according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) in databases (PubMed, Scopus, EMBASE, Dialnet, Web of Science, Cochrane) with the keywords melodic intonation therapy, neuroimaging, functional magnetic resonance, and positron emission tomography and the boolean operators AND and OR. Read More

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Prognosis of the Ipsilesional Corticospinal Tracts with Preserved Integrities at the Early Stage of Cerebral Infarction: Follow Up Diffusion Tensor Tractography Study.

Healthcare (Basel) 2022 Jun 13;10(6). Epub 2022 Jun 13.

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, College of Medicine, Yeungnam University, Daemyungdong, Namku, Daegu 42415, Korea.

This study examined the prognosis of the ipsilesional corticospinal tracts (CSTs) with preserved integrities at the early stage of cerebral infarction using follow-up diffusion tensor tractography (DTT). Thirty-one patients with a supratentorial infarction were recruited. DTT, Motricity Index (MI), modified Brunnstrom classification (MBC), and functional ambulation category (FAC) were performed twice at the early and chronic stages. Read More

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Role of Diffusion Tensor Imaging in Diagnosis and Estimation of Shunt Effect for Hydrocephalus in Stroke Patients: A Narrative Review.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2022 May 25;12(6). Epub 2022 May 25.

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, College of Medicine, Yeungnam University, Namku, Taegu 42415, Korea.

Hydrocephalus is a dilatation of the brain ventricular system by the accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid within the ventricle caused by impaired cerebrospinal fluid circulation or clearance. A diagnosis of hydrocephalus at the chronic stage of stroke has been mainly made by clinical features and radiologic findings on brain computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. On the other hand, it could not determine the effect of hydrocephalus or shunt effect on the periventricular neural structures. Read More

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Reduced and delayed myelination and volume of corpus callosum in an animal model of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders partially benefit from voluntary exercise.

Sci Rep 2022 Jun 23;12(1):10653. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, University of Delaware, 105 The Green, Newark, DE, 19716, USA.

1 in 20 live births in the United States is affected by prenatal alcohol exposure annually, creating a major public health crisis. The teratogenic impact of alcohol on physical growth, neurodevelopment, and behavior is extensive, together resulting in clinical disorders which fall under the umbrella term of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD). FASD-related impairments to executive function and perceptual learning are prevalent among affected youth and are linked to disruptions to corpus callosum growth and myelination in adolescence. Read More

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Changes of Brain Structures and Psychological Characteristics in Predatory, Affective Violent and Nonviolent Offenders.

Tomography 2022 Jun 8;8(3):1485-1492. Epub 2022 Jun 8.

Department of Radiology, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung 81362, Taiwan.

Purpose: Violent subjects were demonstrated to exhibit abnormal brain structures; however, the brain changes may be different between criminals committing affective (VA), predatory violence (VP), and non-violence (NV). Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the differences in brain structures and psychological characteristics between VA, VP, and NV offenders.

Methods: Twenty male criminal subjects (7 VP; 6 VA; and 7 NV) offenders; and twenty age-matched male healthy non-criminals were enrolled in this study. Read More

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Hypertrophic olivary degeneration and palatal myoclonus from a infection of the brain: illustrative case.

J Neurosurg Case Lessons 2022 Jun 13;3(24):CASE2265. Epub 2022 Jun 13.

Department of Neurological Surgery, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan; and.

Background: Hypertrophic olivary degeneration (HOD) is a rare condition that can occur after disruption of the Guillain-Mollaret triangle. Clinically, HOD can present with palatal myoclonus with or without oculopalatal tremor, which sometimes results in symptomatic dysphagia and/or speech abnormalities. This condition is commonly associated with vascular lesions, with only three prior reported cases of HOD resulting from intracranial abscess. Read More

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Structure-function coupling as a correlate and potential biomarker of cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis.

Netw Neurosci 2022 Jun 1;6(2):339-356. Epub 2022 Jun 1.

Department of Anatomy and Neurosciences, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, MS Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam Neuroscience, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) features extensive connectivity changes, but how structural and functional connectivity relate, and whether this relation could be a useful biomarker for cognitive impairment in MS is unclear. This study included 79 MS patients and 40 healthy controls (HCs). Patients were classified as cognitively impaired (CI) or cognitively preserved (CP). Read More

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Structure supports function: Informing directed and dynamic functional connectivity with anatomical priors.

Netw Neurosci 2022 Jun 1;6(2):401-419. Epub 2022 Jun 1.

Perceptual Networks Group, University of Fribourg, Fribourg, Switzerland.

The dynamic repertoire of functional brain networks is constrained by the underlying topology of structural connections. Despite this intrinsic relationship between structural connectivity (SC) and functional connectivity (FC), integrative and multimodal approaches to combine the two remain limited. Here, we propose a new adaptive filter for estimating dynamic and directed FC using structural connectivity information as priors. Read More

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Sex differences in fronto-limbic white matter tracts in youth with mood disorders.

Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2022 Jun 22. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Thompson Institute, University of the Sunshine Coast, 12 Innovation Parkway, Birtinya, Queensland, 4575, Australia.

Aims: Depression and bipolar disorder patients have previously been shown to have impaired white matter (WM) integrity compared to healthy controls. This study aimed to investigate potential sex differences that may provide further insight into the pathophysiology of these highly debilitating mood disorders.

Methods: Participants (17-30 years of age), N=168 depression (60% females) and N=107 bipolar disorder (74% females) and N=61 controls (64% females), completed clinical assessment, self-report measures and a neuropsychological assessment battery. Read More

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Effects of White-Matter Tract Length in Sport-Related Concussion: A Tractography Study from the NCAA-DoD CARE Consortium.

J Neurotrauma 2022 Jun 21. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

Indiana University School of Medicine, 12250, Radiology and Imaging Sciences, 355 West 16th Street, Indianapolis, Indiana, United States, 46202-5114;

Sport-related concussion (SRC) is an important public health issue. White-matter alterations after SRC are widely studied by neuroimaging approaches, such as diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Although the exact anatomic location of the alterations may differ, significant white-matter alterations are commonly observed in long fiber tracts, but are never proven. Read More

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Mediation of Tremor Control by the Decussating and Nondecussating Part of the Dentato-Rubro-Thalamic Tract in Deep Brain Stimulation in Essential Tremor: Which Part Should Be Stimulated?

Neuromodulation 2022 Jun 14. Epub 2022 Jun 14.

Department of Neurosurgery, University of Regensburg Medical Center, Regensburg, Germany; Center for Deep Brain Stimulation, University of Regensburg Medical Center, Regensburg, Germany.

Objectives: The dentato-rubro-thalamic tract (DRTT) has been found to play a major role in the mechanisms of tremor alleviation by deep brain stimulation (DBS) in essential tremor (ET). Still, the influence of the two different parts of the DRTT, consisting of crossing and nondecussating fibers, is not yet clear with respect to tremor reduction. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of the crossing and the nondecussating part of the DRTT on tremor control in ET. Read More

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Can diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) outperform standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) investigations in post-COVID-19 autoimmune encephalitis?

Ups J Med Sci 2022 10;127. Epub 2022 May 10.

Neurology, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

Background: Neurological and psychiatric manifestations related to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection are widely recognised. Standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) investigations are normal in 40-80% of symptomatic patients, eventually delaying appropriate treatment when MRI is unrevealing any structural changes. The aim of this study is to investigate white matter abnormalities during an early stage of post-COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) encephalitis while conventional MRI was normal. Read More

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Tract-Based Spatial Statistics Analysis of Diffusion Tensor Imaging in Older Adults After the PICMOR Intervention Program: A Pilot Study.

Front Aging Neurosci 2022 3;14:867417. Epub 2022 Jun 3.

RIKEN Center for Advanced Intelligence Project, Tokyo, Japan.

Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) enables the investigation of white matter properties by applying a tensor model to the diffusion of water molecules in the brain. Using DTI metrics including fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD), and radial diffusivity (RD), an attempt has been made to detect age-related alterations in the white matter microstructure in aging research. However, the use of comprehensive DTI measures to examine the effects of cognitive intervention/training on white matter fiber health in older adults remains limited. Read More

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Gradient Patterns of Age-Related Diffusivity Changes in Cerebral White Matter.

Front Neurol 2022 2;13:870909. Epub 2022 Jun 2.

Faculty of Medicine Novi Sad, Department of Radiology, University of Novi Sad, Novi Sad, Serbia.

The current concept of brain aging proposes three gradient patterns of changes in white matter that occur during healthy brain aging: antero-posterior, supero-inferior, and the myelodegeneration-retrogenesis (or the "last-in-first-out") concept. The aim of this study was to correlate white matter diffusivity measures (fractional anisotropy-FA, mean diffusivity-MD, radial diffusivity-RD, and axial diffusivity-AD) in healthy volunteers with chronological age and education level, in order to potentially incorporate the findings with proposed patterns of physiological brain aging. The study was performed on 75 healthy participants of both sexes, with an average age of 37. Read More

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MR Fingerprinting with b-Tensor Encoding for Simultaneous Quantification of Relaxation and Diffusion in a Single Scan.

Magn Reson Med 2022 Jun 17. Epub 2022 Jun 17.

Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.

Purpose: Although both relaxation and diffusion imaging are sensitive to tissue microstructure, studies have reported limited sensitivity and robustness of using relaxation or conventional diffusion alone to characterize tissue microstructure. Recently, it has been shown that tensor-valued diffusion encoding and joint relaxation-diffusion quantification enable more reliable quantification of compartment-specific microstructural properties. However, scan times to acquire such data can be prohibitive. Read More

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Glymphatic dysfunction correlates with severity of small vessel disease and cognitive impairment in cerebral amyloid angiopathy.

Eur J Neurol 2022 Jun 17. Epub 2022 Jun 17.

Department of Neurology, National Center for Neurological Disorders, National Clinical Research Centre for Aging and Medicine, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Background: Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is characterized by β-amyloid deposition in cortical and leptomeningeal arterioles, which might result from glymphatic dysfunction. We aimed to explore glymphatic function in CAA using the non-invasive diffusion tensor image analysis along the perivascular space (DTI-ALPS) method.

Methods: We prospectively recruited 63 patients with CAA, and 70 age- and sex-matched normal controls. Read More

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Fast Univariate Inference for Longitudinal Functional Models.

J Comput Graph Stat 2022 4;31(1):219-230. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Department of Biostatistics, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, USA.

We propose fast univariate inferential approaches for longitudinal Gaussian and non-Gaussian functional data. The approach consists of three steps: (1) fit massively univariate pointwise mixed effects models; (2) apply any smoother along the functional domain; and (3) obtain joint confidence bands using analytic approaches for Gaussian data or a bootstrap of study participants for non-Gaussian data. Methods are motivated by two applications: (1) Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) measured at multiple visits along the corpus callosum of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients; and (2) physical activity data measured by body-worn accelerometers for multiple days. Read More

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Cerebral Microbleeds and Structural White Matter Integrity in Patients With Traumatic Brain Injury-A Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study.

Front Neurol 2022 31;13:888815. Epub 2022 May 31.

Turku Brain Injury Center, Turku University Hospital, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.

Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is a common neuropathological manifestation of traumatic brain injury (TBI), presenting as traumatic alterations in the cerebral white matter (WM) microstructure and often leading to long-term neurocognitive impairment. These WM alterations can be assessed using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) are a common finding on head imaging in TBI and are often considered a visible sign of DAI, although they represent diffuse vascular injury. Read More

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Chronic spinal cord injury repair by NT3-chitosan only occurs after clearance of the lesion scar.

Signal Transduct Target Ther 2022 Jun 17;7(1):184. Epub 2022 Jun 17.

Beijing Key Laboratory for Biomaterials and Neural Regeneration, Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Biomedical Engineering, School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing, 100083, China.

Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a severe damage usually leading to limb dysesthesia, motor dysfunction, and other physiological disability. We have previously shown that NT3-chitosan could trigger an acute SCI repairment in rats and non-human primates. Due to the negative effect of inhibitory molecules in glial scar on axonal regeneration, however, the role of NT3-chitosan in the treatment of chronic SCI remains unclear. Read More

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Microstructural white matter alterations associated with migraine headaches: a systematic review of diffusion tensor imaging studies.

Brain Imaging Behav 2022 Jun 16. Epub 2022 Jun 16.

Department of Neuroscience and Padova Neuroscience Center (PNC), University of Padova, Padua, Italy.

The pathophysiology of migraine as a headache disorder is still undetermined. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has significantly improved our knowledge about brain microstructure in this disease. Here, we aimed to systematically review DTI studies in migraine and survey the sources of heterogeneity by investigating diffusion parameter changes associated with clinical characteristics and migraine subtypes. Read More

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[A study on longitudinal changes in white matter microstructure of parents who have lost their only child based on diffusion tensor imaging and its relationship with symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder].

Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 2022 Jun;102(23):1760-1765

Department of Radiological Diagnosis, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing University School of Medicine/General Hospital of Eastern Theater Command, Nanjing 210002, China.

To investigate the longitudinal changes of white matter microstructural based on diffusion tensor imaging in parents who lost their only child without psychiatric disorders and its relationship with symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Parents who had who lost their only child and without psychiatric disorders in Jiangsu Province, from September 2016 to March 2017, were retrospectively collected (TENP group, 32). MRI scans were performed at baseline and at the end of 5-year follow-up, and the Clinician Administered PTSD Scales (CAPS) were used for assessing the severity of symptoms. Read More

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Acute MRI predictors of chronic motor function and tissue sparing in rat cervical spinal cord Injury.

J Neurotrauma 2022 Jun 16. Epub 2022 Jun 16.

Medical College of Wisconsin, Neurosurgery, 5000 W National Ave, Research 151, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States, 53295;

Predicting functional outcomes from spinal cord injury (SCI) at the acute setting is important for patient management. This work investigated the relationship of early magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) biomarkers in a rat model of cervical contusion SCI with long-term functional outcome and tissue-sparing. Forty rats with contusion injury at C5 at either the spinal cord midline (bilateral) or over the lateral cord (unilateral) were examined using in vivo multimodal quantitative MRI at 1 day post injury. Read More

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Superficial and deep white matter diffusion abnormalities in focal epilepsies.

Epilepsia 2022 Jun 16. Epub 2022 Jun 16.

Department of Neurology, University of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil.

Objective: This study was undertaken to evaluate superficial-white matter (WM) and deep-WM magnetic resonance imaging diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) metrics and identify distinctive patterns of microstructural abnormalities in focal epilepsies of diverse etiology, localization, and response to antiseizure medication (ASM).

Methods: We examined DTI data for 113 healthy controls and 113 patients with focal epilepsies: 51 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and hippocampal sclerosis (HS) refractory to ASM, 27 with pharmacoresponsive TLE-HS, 15 with temporal lobe focal cortical dysplasia (FCD), and 20 with frontal lobe FCD. To assess WM microstructure, we used a multicontrast multiatlas parcellation of DTI. Read More

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Performance Comparison of Different Neuroimaging Methods for Predicting Upper Limb Motor Outcomes in Patients after Stroke.

Neural Plast 2022 6;2022:4203698. Epub 2022 Jun 6.

Department of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine of Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital and Interdisciplinary Institute of Neuroscience and Technology, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029, China.

Several neuroimaging methods have been proposed to assess the integrity of the corticospinal tract (CST) for predicting recovery of motor function after stroke, including conventional structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). In this study, we aimed to compare the predicative performance of these methods using different neuroimaging modalities and optimize the prediction protocol for upper limb motor function after stroke in a clinical environment. We assessed 28 first-ever stroke patients with upper limb motor impairment. Read More

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The Role of Diffusion Tensor Tractography in Assessment of Spondylotic Myelopathy.

Cureus 2022 Jun 9;14(6):e25778. Epub 2022 Jun 9.

Radiology, Saveetha Medical College and Hospital, Chennai, IND.

Introduction Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) describes a neurological deficit related to the spinal cord due to the changes in the facet joints and discs of the cervical spine as a result of degeneration. Diagnosis is mainly dependent on imaging. Diffusion tensor tractography (DTT), being a non-invasive technique, shows better sensitivity when compared to the conventional T2WI sequence in the early detection of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). Read More

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Relationship of Recovery of Contralesional Ankle Weakness With the Corticospinal and Corticoreticular Tracts in Stroke Patients.

Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2022 Jul 23;101(7):659-665. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

From the Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, College of Medicine, Yeungnam University, Daegu, Republic of Korea.

Objective: We investigated the relationship between contralesional ankle weakness recovery and the corticospinal tract and corticoreticular tract in stroke patients with complete injuries of the ipsilesional corticospinal tract and corticoreticular tract.

Design: Thirty-six patients with complete injuries of the ipsilesional corticospinal tract and corticoreticular tract were recruited. Medical Research Council and the Functional Ambulation Category were used to determine motor function of ankle dorsiflexor and gait function. Read More

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Longitudinal changes of white matter microstructure following traumatic brain injury in U.S. military service members.

Brain Commun 2022 27;4(3):fcac132. Epub 2022 May 27.

National Intrepid Center of Excellence, Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, RM1128, Bldg 51, Bethesda, MD, USA.

The purpose of this study was to analyze quantitative diffusion tensor imaging measures across the spectrum of traumatic brain injury severity and evaluate their trajectories in military service members. Participants were 96 U.S. Read More

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An ecological approach to identify distinct neural correlates of disinhibition in frontotemporal dementia.

Neuroimage Clin 2022 Jun 7;35:103079. Epub 2022 Jun 7.

Sorbonne Université, Institut du Cerveau - Paris Brain Institute - ICM, Inserm, CNRS, AP-HP, Hôpital de la Pitié Salpêtrière, Paris, France; AP-HP, Groupe Hospitalier Pitié-Salpêtrière, Department of Neurology, IM2A, Paris, France. Electronic address:

Disinhibition is a core symptom of many neurodegenerative diseases, particularly frontotemporal dementia, and is a major cause of stress for caregivers. While a distinction between behavioural and cognitive disinhibition is common, an operational definition of behavioural disinhibition is still missing. Furthermore, conventional assessment of behavioural disinhibition, based on questionnaires completed by the caregivers, often lacks ecological validity. Read More

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Regularized Asymmetric Susceptibility Tensor Imaging in the Human Brain in vivo.

IEEE J Biomed Health Inform 2022 Jun 14;PP. Epub 2022 Jun 14.

Susceptibility tensor imaging (STI) is a promising tool for studying orientation-dependent tissue magnetic susceptibility and for mapping white matter fiber orientations complementary to diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). However, the limited head rotation range within modern head coils for data acquisition makes in vivo STI reconstruction ill-conditioned. Conventional STI reconstruction method is usually vulnerable to noise and requires sufficiently large head rotations to solve this ill-conditioned inverse problem. Read More

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