796 results match your criteria Diffuse Axonal Injury Imaging


How important is susceptibility-weighted imaging in mild traumatic brain injury?

Ulus Travma Acil Cerrahi Derg 2020 Jun;26(4):574-579

Department of Radiology, Eskişehir Osmangazi University Faculty of Medicine, Eskişehir-Turkey.

Background: Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is a public health problem that is recognized as a 'silent epidemic' in its late stages due to undiagnosed axonal damage rated 13 and above on the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS). Injury-related microhemorrhages often cannot be detected on computed tomography (CT) scans and conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This study aims to investigate whether susceptibility-weighted imaging is feasible in mTBI patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14744/tjtes.2019.35485DOI Listing

Evaluation of M2-like macrophage enrichment after diffuse traumatic brain injury through transient interleukin-4 expression from engineered mesenchymal stromal cells.

J Neuroinflammation 2020 Jun 20;17(1):197. Epub 2020 Jun 20.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA.

Background: Appropriately modulating inflammation after traumatic brain injury (TBI) may prevent disabilities for the millions of those inflicted annually. In TBI, cellular mediators of inflammation, including macrophages and microglia, possess a range of phenotypes relevant for an immunomodulatory therapeutic approach. It is thought that early phenotypic modulation of these cells will have a cascading healing effect. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12974-020-01860-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7306141PMC

The intersection of cerebral fat embolism syndrome and traumatic brain injury: a literature review and case series.

Brain Inj 2020 Jun 16:1-8. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Anschutz Medical Campus, University of Colorado , Aurora, Colorado, USA.

Objective: To review the historical, clinical, radiographic, and outcome characteristics of individuals diagnosed with an acquired brain injury (ABI) due to cerebral fat embolism syndrome (CFES) with and without features of traumatic brain injury (TBI).

Methods: A retrospective chart review of individuals with the diagnosis of CFES admitted to an ABI rehabilitation program. Cases were divided into two cohorts 1) individuals with evidence of classic features of CFES alone, and 2) individuals with evidence of CFES in conjunction with features of TBI. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02699052.2020.1776898DOI Listing

Longitudinal optical imaging technique to visualize progressive axonal damage after brain injury in mice reveals responses to different minocycline treatments.

Sci Rep 2020 May 8;10(1):7815. Epub 2020 May 8.

Center for Biomedical Engineering and Rehabilitation Sciences, Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, LA, USA.

A high-resolution, three-dimensional, optical imaging technique for the murine brain was developed to identify the effects of different therapeutic windows for preclinical brain research. This technique tracks the same cells over several weeks. We conducted a pilot study of a promising drug to treat diffuse axonal injury (DAI) caused by traumatic brain injury, using two different therapeutic windows, as a means to demonstrate the utility of this novel longitudinal imaging technique. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-64783-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7210987PMC
May 2020
5.078 Impact Factor

Advanced neuroimaging in traumatic brain injury: an overview.

Neurosurg Focus 2019 12 1;47(6):E17. Epub 2019 Dec 1.

Department of Neurological Surgery and.

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a common condition with many potential acute and chronic neurological consequences. Standard initial radiographic evaluation includes noncontrast head CT scanning to rapidly evaluate for pathology that might require intervention. The availability of fast, relatively inexpensive CT imaging has fundamentally changed the clinician's ability to noninvasively visualize neuroanatomy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2019.9.FOCUS19652DOI Listing
December 2019

Circulating Brain Injury Exosomal Proteins following Moderate-To-Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: Temporal Profile, Outcome Prediction and Therapy Implications.

Cells 2020 Apr 15;9(4). Epub 2020 Apr 15.

National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Nursing Research, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

Brain injury exosomal proteins are promising blood biomarker candidates in traumatic brain injury (TBI). A better understanding of their role in the diagnosis, characterization, and management of TBI is essential for upcoming clinical implementation. In the current investigation, we aimed to explore longitudinal trajectories of brain injury exosomal proteins in blood of patients with moderate-to-severe TBI, and to evaluate the relation with the free-circulating counterpart and patient imaging and clinical parameters. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells9040977DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7227241PMC

Higher sensitivity for traumatic cerebral microbleeds at 7 T ultra-high field MRI: is it clinically significant for the acute state of the patients and later quality of life?

Ther Adv Neurol Disord 2020 13;13:1756286420911295. Epub 2020 Apr 13.

Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, University Hospital Essen, Essen, Germany.

Background: The present study evaluates the possible prognostic benefits of 7 T susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) of traumatic cerebral microbleeds (TMBs) over 3 T SWI to predict the acute clinical state and subjective impairments, including health-related quality of life (HRQOL), after closed head injury (CHI).

Methods: The study group comprised 10 participants with known TMBs All subjects underwent 3 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and 7 T MRI, respectively. Location and count of TMBs were independently evaluated by two neuroradiologists. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1756286420911295DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7155239PMC

Management of Traumatic Brain Injury: From Present to Future.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2020 Apr 2;9(4). Epub 2020 Apr 2.

Department of Chemical, Biological, Pharmacological and Environmental Sciences, Messina University, Viale F. Stagno D'Alcontres 31, 98166 Messina, Italy.

TBI (traumatic brain injury) is a major cause of death among youth in industrialized societies. Brain damage following traumatic injury is a result of direct and indirect mechanisms; indirect or secondary injury involves the initiation of an acute inflammatory response, including the breakdown of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), brain edema, infiltration of peripheral blood cells, and activation of resident immunocompetent cells, as well as the release of numerous immune mediators such as interleukins and chemotactic factors. TBI can cause changes in molecular signaling and cellular functions and structures, in addition to tissue damage, such as hemorrhage, diffuse axonal damages, and contusions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox9040297DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7222188PMC

Distinct patterns of structural damage underlie working memory and reasoning deficits after traumatic brain injury.

Brain 2020 Apr;143(4):1158-1176

Computational, Cognitive and Clinical Neuroimaging Laboratory, Department of Brain Sciences, Burlington Danes Building, Hammersmith Campus, Imperial College London, Du Cane Road, London W12 ONN, UK.

It is well established that chronic cognitive problems after traumatic brain injury relate to diffuse axonal injury and the consequent widespread disruption of brain connectivity. However, the pattern of diffuse axonal injury varies between patients and they have a correspondingly heterogeneous profile of cognitive deficits. This heterogeneity is poorly understood, presenting a non-trivial challenge for prognostication and treatment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awaa067DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7174032PMC

Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging Predicts Peripheral Nerve Recovery in a Rat Sciatic Nerve Injury Model.

Plast Reconstr Surg 2020 04;145(4):949-956

Nashville, Tenn. From the Departments of Plastic Surgery and Radiology and Radiological Sciences and the Institute of Imaging Science, Vanderbilt University Medical Center; and the Department of Biomedical Engineering, Vanderbilt University.

Background: Nerve regeneration after an injury should occur in a timely fashion for function to be restored. Current methods cannot monitor regeneration prior to muscle reinnervation. Diffusion tensor imaging has been previously shown to provide quantitative indices after nerve recovery. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PRS.0000000000006638DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7270143PMC

Combined Diffusion Tensor Imaging and Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping Discern Discrete Facets of White Matter Pathology Post-injury in the Rodent Brain.

Front Neurol 2020 6;11:153. Epub 2020 Mar 6.

Queensland Brain Institute, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.

Early loss of white matter microstructure integrity is a significant cause of long-term neurological disorders following traumatic brain injury (TBI). White matter abnormalities typically involve axonal loss and demyelination. imaging tools to detect and differentiate such microstructural changes are not well-explored. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2020.00153DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7067826PMC

Characterizing Static and Dynamic Fractional Amplitude of Low-Frequency Fluctuation and its Prediction of Clinical Dysfunction in Patients with Diffuse Axonal Injury.

Acad Radiol 2020 Mar 20. Epub 2020 Mar 20.

Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanchang University, Nanchang, 330006, People's Republic of China; Neuroimaging Lab, Jiangxi Province Medical Imaging Research Institute, Nanchang, 330006, People's Republic of China.

Rationale And Objectives: Recently, advanced magnetic resonance imaging has been widely adopted to investigate altered structure and functional activities in patients with diffuse axonal injury (DAI), this patient presumed to be caused by shearing forces and results in significant neurological effects. However, little is known regarding cerebral temporal dynamics and its predictive ability in the clinical dysfunction of DAI.

Materials And Methods: In this study, static and dynamic fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (fALFF), an improved approach to detect the intensity of intrinsic neural activities, and their temporal variability were applied to examine the alteration between DAI patients (n = 24) and healthy controls (n = 26) at the voxel level. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.acra.2020.02.020DOI Listing

Early computed tomography for acute post-traumatic diffuse axonal injury: a systematic review.

Neuroradiology 2020 Jun 4;62(6):653-660. Epub 2020 Mar 4.

Department of Neurosurgery, Gaffrée e Guinle University Hospital, School of Medicine, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro State, 775 Mariz e Barros Street, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

Purpose: Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is the rupture of multiple axons due to acceleration and deceleration forces during a closed head injury. Most traumatic brain injuries (TBI) have some degree of DAI, especially severe TBI. Computed tomography (CT) remains the first imaging test performed in the acute phase of TBI, but has low sensitivity for detecting DAI, since DAI is a cellular lesion. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00234-020-02383-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7222974PMC

Network diffusion modeling predicts neurodegeneration in traumatic brain injury.

Ann Clin Transl Neurol 2020 Mar 27;7(3):270-279. Epub 2020 Feb 27.

Cognitive Neuroscience Unit, School of Psychology, Deakin University, Burwood, VIC, Australia.

Objective: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a heterogeneous disease with multiple neurological deficits that evolve over time. It is also associated with an increased incidence of neurodegenerative diseases. Accordingly, clinicians need better tools to predict a patient's long-term prognosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/acn3.50984DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7086000PMC

The Role of Blood Biomarkers for Magnetic Resonance Imaging Diagnosis of Traumatic Brain Injury.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2020 Feb 22;56(2). Epub 2020 Feb 22.

Brain Rehabilitation Research Center (BRRC), Malcom Randall Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Gainesville, FL 32608, USA.

: The annual global incidence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) is over 10 million. An estimated 29% of TBI patients with negative computed tomography (CT-) have positive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI+) findings. Judicious use of serum biomarkers with MRI may aid in diagnosis of CT-occult TBI. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/medicina56020087DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7074393PMC
February 2020
0.508 Impact Factor

Diagnostic Problems in Diffuse Axonal Injury.

Authors:
Sung Ho Jang

Diagnostics (Basel) 2020 Feb 21;10(2). Epub 2020 Feb 21.

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, College of Medicine, Yeungnam University 317-1, Daemyungdong, Namku, Taegu 705-717, Korea.

In this study, three problems associated with diagnosing diffuse axonal injury (DAI) in patients with traumatic brain injury are reviewed: the shortage of scientific evidence supporting the 6-hour loss of consciousness (LOC) diagnostic criterion to discriminate concussion and DAI, the low sensitivity of conventional brain MRI in the detection of DAI lesions, and the inappropriateness of the term diffuse in DAI. Pathological study by brain biopsy is required to confirm DAI; however, performing a brain biopsy for the diagnosis of DAI in a living patient is impossible. Therefore, the diagnosis of DAI in a living patient is clinically determined based on the duration of LOC, clinical manifestations, and the results of conventional brain MRI. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics10020117DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7168326PMC
February 2020

Blood biomarkers for assessment of mild traumatic brain injury and chronic traumatic encephalopathy.

Biomarkers 2020 May 12;25(3):213-227. Epub 2020 Mar 12.

School of Health, Medical and Applied Sciences, Central Queensland University, Rockhampton, Australia.

Mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBI) are prevalent and can result in significant debilitation. Current diagnostic methods have implicit limitations, with clinical assessment tools reliant on subjective self-reported symptoms or non-specific clinical observations, and commonly available imaging techniques lacking sufficient sensitivity to detect mTBI. A blood biomarker would provide a readily accessible detector of mTBI to meet the current measurement gap. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1354750X.2020.1735521DOI Listing

[Locked-in Syndrome due to Primary Brainstem Injury:A Case Report].

No Shinkei Geka 2019 Dec;47(12):1255-1259

Department of Neurosurgery, Steel Memorial Hirohata Hospital.

Most cases of the primary brainstem injuries(PBSI)are fatal, and disturbance of consciousness is often prolonged even if lifesaving is obtained. The mechanisms of PBSI are as follows: diffuse axonal injury from acceleration/deceleration, shear strain at the midbrain, direct injury of neurovascular structures by tentorial margin, and lower brainstem injury by hyperextension of the cervical vertebrae. Though we can use both CT and MRI to diagnose, MRI is more helpful than CT in detecting, localizing, and characterizing PBSI. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1436204112DOI Listing
December 2019

Evaluating spatiotemporal microstructural alterations following diffuse traumatic brain injury.

Neuroimage Clin 2020 14;25:102136. Epub 2019 Dec 14.

Queensland Brain Institute, The University of Queensland, Building 79, Upland Road, Saint Lucia, Brisbane, QLD 4072, Australia. Electronic address:

Background: Diffuse traumatic brain injury (TBI) is known to lead to microstructural changes within both white and grey matter detected in vivo with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Numerous studies have shown alterations in fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) within prominent white matter tracts, but few have linked these to changes within the grey matter with confirmation via histological assessment. This is especially important as alterations in the grey matter may be predictive of long-term functional deficits. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nicl.2019.102136DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6931220PMC
December 2019

Does Diffuse Axonal Injury MRI Grade Really Correlate with Functional Outcome?

World Neurosurg 2020 Mar 13;135:e424-e426. Epub 2019 Dec 13.

Department of Radiology, Upendra Devkota Memorial National Institute for Neurological and Allied Sciences, Bansbari, Kathmandu, Nepal.

Objective: Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is a common form of primary head injury. This study was done to see the association of DAI grades with extended Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOSE).

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the charts and radiology reports of a cohort of patients discharged with the diagnosis of diffuse axonal injury. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2019.12.017DOI Listing

Reliability of Magnetic Resonance Tractography in Predicting Early Clinical Improvements in Patients with Diffuse Axonal Injury Grade III.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 ;1251:19-28

Department of Pediatrics, Koshi Zonal Hospital, Biratnagar, Nepal.

Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) grade III forms a distinct subset of traumatic brain injury wherein it is difficult to predict the outcome and the time taken for early recovery in terms of sustained eye opening and standing with minimal assistance. This study seeks to determine differences in the fractional anisotropy (FI) and diffusion-weighted image (DWI) values obtained from the seeds placed at an appropriate region of interest (ROI) within the magnetic resonance (MR) tractography of the brainstem of brain-injured patients. We found that differences in the DWI values along the corticospinal tract were associated with the days required for early recovery. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/5584_2019_445DOI Listing

Biopsy histopathology in the diagnosis of adult-onset leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids and pigmented glia (ALSP).

Neurol Sci 2020 Feb 8;41(2):403-409. Epub 2019 Nov 8.

Department of Neurology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Science/Peking Union Medical College, 1st, Dongcheng District, Beijing, 100730, China.

Aim: Adult-onset leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids and pigmented glia (ALSP) is an inherited rare disease affecting young adults. We present the clinical, imaging, and neuropathological results of our case series, emphasizing biopsy histology combined with clinical information will increase the accuracy of early diagnosis.

Methods: In total, 4 females and 2 male ALSP patients with onset at ages 24-45 years were enrolled. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10072-019-04116-7DOI Listing
February 2020
1.495 Impact Factor

Association of cause of injury and traumatic axonal injury: a clinical MRI study of moderate and severe traumatic brain injury.

J Neurosurg 2019 Oct 11:1-9. Epub 2019 Oct 11.

1Department of Neuromedicine and Movement Science, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim.

Objective: The authors investigated the association between the cause of injury and the occurrence and grade of traumatic axonal injury (TAI) on clinical MRI in patients with moderate or severe traumatic brain injury (TBI).

Methods: Data for a total of 396 consecutive patients, aged 7-70 years, with moderate or severe TBI admitted to a level 1 trauma center were prospectively registered. Data were included for analysis from the 219 patients who had MRI performed within 35 days (median 8, IQR 4-17 days) and for whom cause of injury was known. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2019.6.JNS191040DOI Listing
October 2019
1 Read

[Mechanisms of brain injury of the premature baby].

Medicina (B Aires) 2019 ;79 Suppl 3:10-14

Cátedra de Neuropediatría, Facultad de Medicina, UDELAR, Montevideo, Uruguay.

Preterm birth is one of the main country health indicators. It is associated with high mortality and significant morbidity in preterm newborns with cerebral palsy and potential long-term neurodevelopmental disabilities like cognitive and learning problems. The main lesions could be: a) white matter injuries, generally associated with cortical and other regions of grey matter neuronal-axonal disturbances; b) intracranial hemorrhage that includes germinal matrix, intraventricular and parenchymal, c) cerebellum injuries. Read More

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October 2019
1 Read

Differences in corpus callosum injury between cerebral concussion and diffuse axonal injury.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2019 Oct;98(41):e17467

Department of Physical Therapy, College of Rehabilitation Science, Ulsan College University, Ulsan, Korea.

Background: We investigated differences in corpus callosum (CC) injuries between patients with concussion and those with diffuse axonal injury (DAI) by using diffusion tensor tractography (DTT).

Methods: Twenty-nine patients with concussion, 21 patients with DAI, and 25 control subjects were recruited. We reconstructed the whole CC and 5 regions of the CC after applying Hofer classification (I, II, III, IV, and V). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000017467DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6799815PMC
October 2019
1 Read

When "looks" can be deceiving - Internuclear ophthalmoplegia after mild traumatic brain injury: Case report and literature review.

Int J Surg Case Rep 2019 11;63:19-22. Epub 2019 Sep 11.

Department of Surgery, Kendall Regional Medical Center, Miami, FL, United States; University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, United States.

Introduction: Walled-eyed monocular internuclear ophthalmoplegia (WEMINO) syndrome is a sub-variant of internuclear ophthalmoplegia (INO) and involves the same clinical findings with the addition of exotropia of the ipsilateral eye. Causes typically include multiple sclerosis (MS) and ischemia (hemorrhagic or embolic) but can be secondary to blunt trauma as seen in our presented case.

Presentation Of Case: A 27-year-old man presented with new-onset visual changes, diplopia, and strabismus following a motor vehicle collision. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijscr.2019.08.032DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6796632PMC
September 2019
3 Reads

Difference between injuries of the corticospinal tract and corticoreticulospinal tract in patients with diffuse axonal injury: a diffusion tensor tractography study.

Int J Neurosci 2020 Feb 7;130(2):124-129. Epub 2019 Oct 7.

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, College of Medicine, Yeungnam University, Taegu, Republic of Korea.

No studies have investigated differences in injury of the corticospinal tract (CST) and corticoreticulospinal tract (CRT) following diffuse axonal injury (DAI) to date. Therefore, we investigated differences in injury of the CST and CRT in patients with DAI using diffusion tensor tractography (DTT). Twenty consecutive patients with DAI and 20 control subjects were recruited. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00207454.2019.1667779DOI Listing
February 2020
2 Reads

Brainstem Diffuse Axonal Injury and Consciousness.

J Clin Imaging Sci 2019 28;9:32. Epub 2019 Jun 28.

Neuroradiology, University of Florida Health, Jacksonville, Florida, USA.

Background: Severe traumatic brain injuries (TBI), commonly due to motor vehicle accidents may cause death and long-term disability especially when the acceleration-deceleration force on the brain is massive. This may cause shearing of the axonal connections within the cerebral cortex and brainstem in a process referred to as diffuse axonal injury (DAI). Extensive DAI has been postulated to be a poor prognostic indicator for neurological recovery. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.25259/JCIS-11-2019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6712553PMC
June 2019
2 Reads

Traumatic axonal injury influences the cognitive effect of non-invasive brain stimulation.

Brain 2019 10;142(10):3280-3293

Computational, Cognitive and Clinical Imaging Lab, Division of Brain Sciences, Department of Medicine, Imperial College London, UK.

Non-invasive brain stimulation has been widely investigated as a potential treatment for a range of neurological and psychiatric conditions, including brain injury. However, the behavioural effects of brain stimulation are variable, for reasons that are poorly understood. This is a particular challenge for traumatic brain injury, where patterns of damage and their clinical effects are heterogeneous. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awz252DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6794939PMC
October 2019
5 Reads

Full Recovery From Cocaine-Induced Toxic Leukoencephalopathy: Emphasizing the Role of Neuroinflammation and Brain Edema.

J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep 2019 Jan-Dec;7:2324709619868266

1 Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA, USA.

Toxic leukoencephalopathy (TL) is characterized by white matter disease on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and evidence of exposure to a neurotoxic agent. We describe a case of cocaine-induced TL in which extensive white matter disease did not preclude full recovery. A 57-year-old man with substance abuse disorder presented with a 5-day history of strange behavior. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2324709619868266DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6696843PMC
April 2020
3 Reads

[Diffusion kurtosis imaging in diffuse axonal injury].

Zh Vopr Neirokhir Im N N Burdenko 2019 ;83(3):5-16

Burdenko Neurosurgical Center, Moscow, Russia.

Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is one of the most severe traumatic brain injuries. The availability of neuroimaging biomarkers for monitoring expansion of traumatic brain injury in vivo is a topical issue.

Purpose: To evaluate novel neuroimaging biomarkers for monitoring brain injury using diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) in patients with severe diffuse axonal injury. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.17116/neiro2019830315DOI Listing
October 2019
2 Reads

Diagnostic Approach to Traumatic Axonal Injury of the Optic Radiation in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2019 08;98(8):e92-e96

From the Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, College of Medicine, Yeungnam University, Taegu, Republic of Korea.

We describe a diffusion tensor tractography-based diagnostic approach to traumatic axonal injury of the optic radiation in a patient who showed visual field defect after mild traumatic brain injury. A 43-yr-old female patient experienced head trauma during a motor vehicle accident. After the head trauma, she noticed visual disturbance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PHM.0000000000001078DOI Listing

Patients with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Recruited from Both Hospital and Primary Care Settings: A Controlled Longitudinal Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study.

J Neurotrauma 2019 11 31;36(22):3172-3182. Epub 2019 Jul 31.

Department of Neuromedicine and Movement Science, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.

With an emphasis on traumatic axonal injury (TAI), frequency and evolution of traumatic intracranial lesions on 3T clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were assessed in a combined hospital and community-based study of patients with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). The findings were related to post-concussion symptoms (PCS) at 3 and 12 months. Prospectively, 194 patients (16-60 years of age) were recruited from the emergency departments at a level 1 trauma center and a municipal outpatient clinic into the Trondheim mTBI follow-up study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/neu.2018.6360DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6818486PMC
November 2019
5 Reads

MRI-based measures of intracortical myelin are sensitive to a history of TBI and are associated with functional connectivity.

Neuroimage 2019 10 13;200:199-209. Epub 2019 Jun 13.

VISN 17 Center of Excellence for Research on Returning War Veterans, 4800 Memorial Dr, 151-C, Waco, TX, 76711, USA; Center for Vital Longevity, School of Behavioral and Brain Sciences, University of Texas at Dallas, 1600 Viceroy Dr #800, Dallas, TX, 75235, USA; Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Baylor University, Baylor Sciences Building Suite B.309, Waco, TX, 76706, USA; Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, Texas A&M Health Science Center, College of Medicine, 8441 Riverside Parkway, Bryan, TX, 77807, USA.

Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) induce persistent behavioral and cognitive deficits via diffuse axonal injury. Axonal injuries are often examined in vivo using diffusion MRI, which identifies damaged and demyelinated regions in deep white matter. However, TBI patients can exhibit impairment in the absence of diffusion-measured abnormalities, suggesting that axonal injury and demyelination may occur outside the deep white matter. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2019.06.026DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6703948PMC
October 2019
23 Reads

Time course images of cellular injury and recovery in murine brain with high-resolution GRIN lens system.

Sci Rep 2019 05 28;9(1):7946. Epub 2019 May 28.

Center for Biomedical Engineering and Rehabilitation Sciences, Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, Louisiana, USA.

Time course, in vivo imaging of brain cells is crucial to fully understand the progression of secondary cellular damage and recovery in murine models of injury. We have combined high-resolution gradient index lens technology with a model of diffuse axonal injury in rodents to enable repeated visualization of fine features of individual cells in three-dimensional space over several weeks. For example, we recorded changes in morphology in the same axons in the external capsule numerous times over 30 to 60 days, before and after induced traumatic brain injury. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-44174-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6538613PMC
May 2019
5 Reads
5.078 Impact Factor

Imaging of Brain Trauma.

Authors:
Mariza O Clement

Radiol Clin North Am 2019 Jul 6;57(4):733-744. Epub 2019 Apr 6.

Department of Radiology, Boston Medical Center of Boston University, 820 Harrison Avenue FGH3, Boston, MA 02118, USA. Electronic address:

Conventional imaging in the acute setting of brain trauma, relevant pathophysiology of injury, and advanced imaging techniques that may provide value in understanding the immediate management and long-term sequela of traumatic brain injury are reviewed. Key imaging findings that can guide clinical management related to such injuries as concussions, hematomas, dissections, dural atrioventricular fistula, and diffuse axonal injury are discussed. The role and accuracy of computed tomography, dual-energy computed tomography, computed tomography angiography, and magnetic resonance angiography in the acute setting are evaluated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rcl.2019.02.008DOI Listing
July 2019
11 Reads

Is diffuse axonal injury on susceptibility weighted imaging a biomarker for executive functioning in adolescents with traumatic brain injury?

Eur J Paediatr Neurol 2019 May 16;23(3):525-536. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Ghent University Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Corneel Heymanslaan 10, 9000, Ghent, Belgium. Electronic address:

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a heterogeneous disorder in which diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is an important component contributing to executive dysfunction. During adolescence, developing brain networks are especially vulnerable to acceleration-deceleration forces. We aimed to examine the correlation between DAI (number and localization) and executive functioning in adolescents with TBI. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpn.2019.04.003DOI Listing
May 2019
5 Reads
1.934 Impact Factor

Diffuse white matter response in trauma-injured brain to bone marrow stromal cell treatment detected by diffusional kurtosis imaging.

Brain Res 2019 08 19;1717:127-135. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Department of Neurology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI 48202, USA. Electronic address:

Diffuse white matter (WM) response to traumatic brain injury (TBI) and transplantation of human bone marrow stromal cells (hMSCs) after the injury were non-invasively and dynamically investigated. Male Wistar rats (300-350 g) subjected to TBI were intravenously injected with 1 ml of saline (n = 10) or with hMSCs in suspension (∼3 × 10 hMSCs, n = 10) 1-week post-TBI. MRI measurements of T2-weighted imaging and diffusional kurtosis imaging (DKI) were acquired on all animals at multiple time points up to 3-months post-injury. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00068993193022
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2019.04.020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6571170PMC
August 2019
15 Reads

CXCR2 Blockade Mitigates Neural Cell Injury Following Preclinical Chorioamnionitis.

Front Physiol 2019 2;10:324. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, The University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, United States.

Minimizing central nervous system (CNS) injury from preterm birth depends upon identification of the critical pathways that underlie essential neurodevelopmental and CNS pathophysiology. While chorioamnionitis (CHORIO), is a leading cause of preterm birth, the precise mechanism linking prenatal brain injury and long-term CNS injury is unknown. The chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1) and its cognate receptor, CXCR2, are implicated in a variety of uterine and neuropathologies, however, their role in CNS injury associated with preterm birth is poorly defined. Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fphys.2019.00324
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2019.00324DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6454349PMC
April 2019
41 Reads

Diffuse Traumatic Axonal Injuries of the Neural Tracts After a Head Trauma by a Golf Ball: A Case Report.

Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2019 12;98(12):e147-e148

From the Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, College of Medicine, Yeungnam University, Taegu, South Korea.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PHM.0000000000001196DOI Listing
December 2019

Traumatic brain injury: neuropathological, neurocognitive and neurobehavioral sequelae.

Pituitary 2019 Jun;22(3):270-282

Medical Faculty, University of Belgrade, Dr Subotica 8, Belgrade, 11000, Serbia.

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) causes substantial neurological disabilities and mental distress. Annual TBI incidence is in magnitude of millions, making it a global health challenge. Categorization of TBI into severe, moderate and mild by scores on the Glasgow coma scale (GCS) is based on clinical grounds and standard brain imaging (CT). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11102-019-00957-9DOI Listing
June 2019
23 Reads
2.222 Impact Factor

Myelin water imaging of moderate to severe diffuse traumatic brain injury.

Neuroimage Clin 2019 16;22:101785. Epub 2019 Mar 16.

Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Biomedical Sciences, CUNY School of Medicine, The City College of New York, 160 Convent Avenue, New York, NY 10031, USA. Electronic address:

Traumatic axonal injury (TAI), a signature injury of traumatic brain injury (TBI), is increasingly known to involve myelin damage. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the clinical relevance of myelin water imaging (MWI) by first quantifying changes in myelin water after TAI and then correlating those changes with measures of injury severity and neurocognitive performance. Scanning was performed at 3 months post-injury in 22 adults with moderate to severe diffuse TBI and 30 demographically matched healthy controls using direct visualization of short transverse component (ViSTa) MWI. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nicl.2019.101785DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6444291PMC
January 2020
2 Reads

Tau protein as a diagnostic marker for diffuse axonal injury.

PLoS One 2019 22;14(3):e0214381. Epub 2019 Mar 22.

Department of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba, Japan.

Background: Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is difficult to identify in the early phase of traumatic brain injury (TBI) using common diagnostic methods. Tau protein is localized specifically in nerve axons. We hypothesized that serum level of tau can be a useful biomarker to diagnose DAI in the early phase of TBI. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0214381PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6430386PMC
December 2019
4 Reads

Quantitative multivoxel proton MR spectroscopy for the identification of white matter abnormalities in mild traumatic brain injury: Comparison between regional and global analysis.

J Magn Reson Imaging 2019 11 13;50(5):1424-1432. Epub 2019 Mar 13.

Center for Advanced Imaging Innovation and Research (CAI2R), Bernard and Irene Schwartz Center for Biomedical Imaging, New York University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, New York, New York, USA.

Background: 3D brain proton MR spectroscopic imaging ( H MRSI) facilitates simultaneous metabolic profiling of multiple loci, at higher, sub-1 cm , spatial resolution than single-voxel H MRS with the ability to separate tissue-type partial volume contribution(s).

Purpose: To determine if: 1) white matter (WM) damage in mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is homogeneously diffuse, or if specific regions are more affected; 2) partial-volume-corrected, structure-specific H MRSI voxel averaging is sensitive to regional WM metabolic abnormalities.

Study Type: Retrospective cross-sectional cohort study. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/jmri.26718
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmri.26718DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6744359PMC
November 2019
22 Reads

MRS and DTI evidence of progressive posterior cingulate cortex and corpus callosum injury in the hyper-acute phase after Traumatic Brain Injury.

Brain Inj 2019 8;33(7):854-868. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

a FMRIB Centre, Wellcome Centre for Integrative Neuroimaging, Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences , University of Oxford , Oxford , United Kingdom.

The posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and corpus callosum (CC) are susceptible to trauma, but injury often evades detection. PCC Metabolic disruption may predict CC white matter tract injury and the secondary cascade responsible for progression. While the time frame for the secondary cascade remains unclear in humans, the first 24 h (hyper-acute phase) are crucial for life-saving interventions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02699052.2019.1584332DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6619394PMC
April 2020
5 Reads

Factors Affecting Diffuse Axonal Injury under Blunt Impact and Proposal for a Head Injury Criteria: A Finite Element Analysis.

Crit Rev Biomed Eng 2018 ;46(4):289-310

Department of Aerospace Engineering and Applied Mechanics, Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur, India.

Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is the most common pathological feature of brain injury which accounts for half of the traumatic lesions in the United States. Although direct shear strain measures indicate DAI, it is localized and varies greatly in the brain. It has limitations when correlated with the possibility and severity of DAI in different brain regions along different planes for variable factors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/CritRevBiomedEng.2018027249DOI Listing
July 2019
3 Reads

Axonal water fraction as marker of white matter injury in primary-progressive multiple sclerosis: a longitudinal study.

Eur J Neurol 2019 08 25;26(8):1068-1074. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Department of Neurology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA.

Background And Purpose: Diffuse white matter (WM) injury is prominent in primary-progressive multiple sclerosis (PP-MS) pathology and is a potential biomarker of disease progression. Diffusion kurtosis imaging allows the quantification of non-Gaussian water diffusion, providing metrics with high WM pathological specificity. The aim of this study was to characterize the pathological changes occurring in the normal-appearing WM of patients with PP-MS at baseline and at 1-year follow-up and to assess their impact on disability and short-term disease progression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ene.13937DOI Listing
August 2019
4 Reads

Use of magnetic resonance imaging in severe pediatric traumatic brain injury: assessment of current practice.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2019 02;23(4):471-479

8Pediatrics, Children's National Medical Center, Washington, DC.

Objective: There is no consensus on the optimal timing and specific brain MRI sequences in the evaluation and management of severe pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI), and information on current practices is lacking. The authors performed a survey of MRI practices among sites participating in a multicenter study of severe pediatric TBI to provide information for designing future clinical trials using MRI to assess brain injury after severe pediatric TBI.

Methods: Information on current imaging practices and resources was collected from 27 institutions participating in the Approaches and Decisions after Pediatric TBI Trial. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2018.10.PEDS18374DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6687576PMC
February 2019
8 Reads