841 results match your criteria Diffuse Axonal Injury Imaging

Diffusion-weighted imaging reveals distinct patterns of cytotoxic edema in patients with subdural hematomas.

J Neurotrauma 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

University of Cincinnati, 2514, Neurology and Rehabilitation Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio, United States;

Subdural hematomas (SDHs) are increasingly common and can cause ischemic brain injury. Prior work has suggested that this is driven largely by vascular compression from herniation, although this work was done prior to the era of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We thus sought to study SDH-related ischemic brain injury by looking at patterns of cytotoxic edema on diffusion-weighted MRI. Read More

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Network topology changes in chronic mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI).

Neuroimage Clin 2021 May 5;31:102691. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA; Minneapolis VA Health Care System, Minneapolis, MN, USA; School of Public Health, Department of Biostatistics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

Background: In mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), diffuse axonal injury results in disruption of functional networks in the brain and is thought to be a major contributor to cognitive dysfunction even years after trauma.

Objective: Few studies have assessed longitudinal changes in network topology in chronic mTBI. We utilized a graph theoretical approach to investigate alterations in global network topology based on resting-state functional connectivity in veterans with chronic mTBI. Read More

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Imaging of Neurotrauma in Acute and Chronic Settings.

Curr Neuropharmacol 2021 May 16. Epub 2021 May 16.

Department of Neuroradiology, Barrow Neurological Institute, St. Joseph's Hospital and Medical Center, Phoenix, Arizona. United States.

Traumatic injuries of the brain and spinal cord are a significant source of mortality and long-term disability. A recent systematic study in a rat model of spinal cord injury (SCI) indicates severe, destructive, and very protracted inflammation as the key mechanism initiated by the massive injury involving the white matter. Although the severe inflammation is localized and counteracted by astrogliosis, it has a damaging effect on the blood vessels in the surrounding spinal cord, leading to persistent vasogenic edema. Read More

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Effect of axonal fiber architecture on mechanical heterogeneity of the white matter-a statistical micromechanical model.

Comput Methods Biomech Biomed Engin 2021 May 17:1-13. Epub 2021 May 17.

Mechanical Engineering Department, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.

A diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) -based statistical micromechanical model was developed to study the effect of axonal fiber architecture on the inter- and intra-regional mechanical heterogeneity of the white matter. Three characteristic regions within the white matter, i.e. Read More

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Traumatic brain injury: a comparison of diffusion and volumetric magnetic resonance imaging measures.

Brain Commun 2021 2;3(2):fcab006. Epub 2021 Jan 2.

Division of Brain Sciences, Computational, Cognitive and Clinical Neuroimaging Laboratory, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital, London, UK.

Cognitive impairment after traumatic brain injury remains hard to predict. This is partly because axonal injury, which is of fundamental importance, is difficult to measure clinically. Advances in MRI allow axonal injury to be detected after traumatic brain injury, but the most sensitive approach is unclear. Read More

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January 2021

Contemporary insight into diffuse axonal injury.

Folia Med (Plovdiv) 2021 Apr;63(2):163-170

Medical University of Plovdiv, Plovdiv, Bulgaria.

Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is present in approximately 50% of the cases with severe traumatic brain injury. It is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among children and young individuals worldwide. Generally, DAI occurs as a result of high-velocity accidents. Read More

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Functional plasticity in lateral hypothalamus and its prediction of cognitive impairment in patients with diffuse axonal injury: evidence from a resting-state functional connectivity study.

Neuroreport 2021 May;32(7):588-595

Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanchang University.

Objective: Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is a common pathological process after traumatic brain injury, which may cause survivors severe functional disorders, including cognitive impairment and physical disability. Recent literature indicated lateral hypothalamus and medial hypothalamus damage during DAI. Thus, we aim to investigate whether there is imaging evidence of hypothalamic injury in patients with DAI and its clinical association. Read More

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Repetitive mild traumatic brain injury in mice triggers a slowly developing cascade of long-term and persistent behavioral deficits and pathological changes.

Acta Neuropathol Commun 2021 04 6;9(1):60. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Translational Neuroscience Group, Robarts Research Institute, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, 1151 Richmond Street North, London, ON, N6A 5B7, Canada.

We have previously reported long-term changes in the brains of non-concussed varsity rugby players using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and functional magnetic imaging (fMRI). Others have reported cognitive deficits in contact sport athletes that have not met the diagnostic criteria for concussion. These results suggest that repetitive mild traumatic brain injuries (rmTBIs) that are not severe enough to meet the diagnostic threshold for concussion, produce long-term consequences. Read More

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Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings Are Associated with Long-Term Global Neurological Function or Death after Traumatic Brain Injury in Critically Ill Children.

J Neurotrauma 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Neuroscience and Mental Health Research Program, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

The identification of children with traumatic brain injury (TBI) who are at risk of death or poor global neurological functional outcome remains a challenge. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can detect several brain pathologies that are a result of TBI; however, the types and locations of pathology that are the most predictive remain to be determined. Forty-two critically ill children with TBI were recruited prospectively from pediatric intensive care units at five Canadian children's hospitals. Read More

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Diffuse axonal injury has a characteristic multidimensional MRI signature in the human brain.

Brain 2021 Apr;144(3):800-816

Section on Quantitative Imaging and Tissue Sciences, The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Axonal injury is a major contributor to the clinical symptomatology in patients with traumatic brain injury. Conventional neuroradiological tools, such as CT and MRI, are insensitive to diffuse axonal injury (DAI) caused by trauma. Diffusion tensor MRI parameters may change in DAI lesions; however, the nature of these changes is inconsistent. Read More

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Letter to the editor: Grading of traumatic axonal injury on clinical MRI and functional outcome.

Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2021 05 25;163(5):1443-1444. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Department of Neuromedicine and Movement Science, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway.

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Chronic traumatic encephalopathy.

Neurochirurgie 2021 May 20;67(3):290-294. Epub 2021 Feb 20.

Centre de neurologie cognitive, AP-HP, Hôpital Lariboisière FW, Université de Paris et INSERM U1144, 75010 Paris, France.

Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative disease linked to repeated traumatic brain injury (TBI). This disorder is mainly observed in subjects at risk for brain traumatisms including boxers, American football and European football (soccer) players, as well as war veterans. Neuropathological findings are marked by abnormally phosphorylated tau accumulations at the depth of cerebral sulci, as well as TDP43, Aβ and α-synuclein positive staining. Read More

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MRI studies of traumatic axonal injury: still a long way to go-misuse of the Adams classification.

Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2021 05 13;163(5):1445-1446. Epub 2021 Feb 13.

Department of Neurosurgery, Erasmus MC Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

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Operation Brain Trauma Therapy: An Exploratory Study of Levetiracetam Treatment Following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in the Micro Pig.

Front Neurol 2020 13;11:586958. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Department of Critical Care Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, United States.

Operation brain trauma therapy (OBTT) is a drug- and biomarker-screening consortium intended to improve the quality of preclinical studies and provide a rigorous framework to increase the translational potential of experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI) treatments. Levetiracetam (LEV) is an antiepileptic agent that was the fifth drug tested by OBTT in three independent rodent models of moderate to severe TBI. To date, LEV has been the most promising drug tested by OBTT and was therefore advanced to testing in the pig. Read More

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January 2021

How similar are whiplash and mild traumatic brain injury? A systematic review.

C Gil P Decq

Neurochirurgie 2021 May 30;67(3):238-243. Epub 2021 Jan 30.

Université Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris, France; Department of neurosurgery, Beaujon hospital, AP-HP, Clichy, France; Georges Charpak Human Biomecanics Institute, Arts et Métiers ParisTech, Paris, France.

Introduction: Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and whiplash are two pathologies which appear in the follow-up of a cranio-cervical trauma. The objective of this study is to review their definitions, to discuss each entity.

Methods: Whiplash and mTBI were defined. Read More

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Dynamic changes in white matter following traumatic brain injury and how diffuse axonal injury relates to cognitive domain.

Brain Inj 2021 Feb 28;35(3):275-284. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Department of Radiology, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

: The goal is to evaluate longitudinally with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) the integrity of cerebral white matter in patients with moderate and severe DAI and to correlate the DTI findings with cognitive deficits.: Patients with DAI (n = 20) were scanned at three timepoints (2, 6 and 12 months) after trauma. A healthy control group (n = 20) was evaluated once with the same high-field MRI scanner. Read More

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February 2021

White Matter Tract-Oriented Deformation Is Dependent on Real-Time Axonal Fiber Orientation.

J Neurotrauma 2021 Jun 23;38(12):1730-1745. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA.

Traumatic axonal injury (TAI) is a critical public health issue with its pathogenesis remaining largely elusive. Finite element (FE) head models are promising tools to bridge the gap between mechanical insult, localized brain response, and resultant injury. In particular, the FE-derived deformation along the direction of white matter (WM) tracts (i. Read More

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Imaging biomarkers of vascular and axonal injury are spatially distinct in chronic traumatic brain injury.

J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2021 Jan 14:271678X20985156. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Department of Neurology, University of Pennsylvania, Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is associated with both diffuse axonal injury (DAI) and diffuse vascular injury (DVI), which result from inertial shearing forces. These terms are often used interchangeably, but the spatial relationships between DAI and DVI have not been carefully studied. Multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can help distinguish these injury mechanisms: diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) provides information about axonal integrity, while arterial spin labeling (ASL) can be used to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF), and the reactivity of the Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) signal to a hypercapnia challenge reflects cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR). Read More

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January 2021

Internal carotid artery dissection following blunt head trauma: a pediatric case report and review of the literature.

Turk J Pediatr 2020 ;62(6):1077-1087

Department of Radiology, İstanbul Medeniyet University, Göztepe Training and Education Hospital, İstanbul, Turkey.

Background: Internal carotid artery dissection (ICAD) is a rare but potentially devastating complication after trauma in the pediatric age group. The diagnosis of traumatic dissection is difficult and is usually recognized only when ischemic symptoms appear. We report a pediatric patient with ICAD due to blunt cerebrovascular injury (BCVI). Read More

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January 2020

Long-term coordinated microstructural disruptions of the developing neocortex and subcortical white matter after early postnatal systemic inflammation.

Brain Behav Immun 2021 05 9;94:338-356. Epub 2020 Dec 9.

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, New Zealand. Electronic address:

Severe postnatal systemic infection is highly associated with persistent disturbances in brain development and neurobehavioral outcomes in survivors of preterm birth. However, the contribution of less severe but prolonged postnatal infection and inflammation to such disturbances is unclear. Further, the ability of modern imaging techniques to detect the underlying changes in cellular microstructure of the brain in these infants remains to be validated. Read More

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Detecting axonal injury in individual patients after traumatic brain injury.

Brain 2021 02;144(1):92-113

Clinical, cognitive and computational neuroimaging laboratory (C3NL), Department of Brain Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, W12 0NN, UK.

Poor outcomes after traumatic brain injury (TBI) are common yet remain difficult to predict. Diffuse axonal injury is important for outcomes, but its assessment remains limited in the clinical setting. Currently, axonal injury is diagnosed based on clinical presentation, visible damage to the white matter or via surrogate markers of axonal injury such as microbleeds. Read More

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February 2021

Functional Connectivity Density with Frequency-Dependent Changes in Patients with Diffuse Axonal Injury: A Resting-State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study.

Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2020 12;16:2733-2742. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Jiangxi, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: We explored changes in spontaneous brain connectivity in patients with diffuse axonal injury (DAI), assessed via functional connectivity density (FCD) tests using different frequency bands.

Patients And Methods: In all, 23 patients with DAI (17 males and 6 females) and 23 healthy controls (HCs; 17 males and 6 females) were included. Functional magnetic resonance imaging scans were performed when the participants were in a resting state and the FCD levels in three frequency bands (slow-4: 0. Read More

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November 2020

Spatial Patterns of Amyloid Deposition in Patients with Chronic Focal or Diffuse Traumatic Brain Injury Using F-FPYBF-2 PET.

Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2020 12;16:2719-2732. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

Aim: Amyloid-β (Aβ) accumulation, accelerated by traumatic brain injury (TBI), may play a crucial role in neurodegeneration in chronic-stage TBI. The injury type could influence Aβ dynamics because of TBI's complex, heterogeneous nature. We, therefore, investigated spatial patterns of amyloid deposition according to injury type after TBI using 5-(5-(2-(2-(2-[F]-fluoroethoxy)ethoxy)ethoxy)benzofuran-2-yl)--methylpyridin-2-amine (F-FPYBF-2) positron emission tomography (PET). Read More

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November 2020

Radiological-prognostic correlation of diffusion tensor imaging in a mild traumatic brain injury model.

Exp Ther Med 2020 Dec 27;20(6):256. Epub 2020 Oct 27.

Department of Radiology, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400014, P.R. China.

Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) parameters can detect changes in the brain microstructure in mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Whether these parameter changes can predict neural functional recovery after mTBI is still relatively unknown. The present study aimed to investigate the radiological-prognostic correlation between these radiological parameters and learning and memory deficits using an in-house constructed rat model of mTBI. Read More

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December 2020

Imaging Markers for the Characterization of Gray and White Matter Changes from Acute to Chronic Stages after Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury.

J Neurotrauma 2021 Jun 11;38(12):1642-1653. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Biomedical MR Imaging and Spectroscopy Group, Center for Image Sciences, University Medical Center Utrecht and Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands. ORCID ID: 0000-0002-8185-9209; 0000-0002-4623-4078.

Despite clinical symptoms, a large majority of people with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) have normal computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Therefore, present-day neuroimaging tools are insufficient to diagnose or classify low grades of TBI. Advanced neuroimaging techniques, such as diffusion-weighted and functional MRI, may yield novel biomarkers that may aid in the diagnosis of TBI. Read More

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Subcallosal haemorrhage as a sign of diffuse axonal injury in patients with traumatic brain injury.

Clin Radiol 2021 Mar 5;76(3):237.e15-237.e21. Epub 2020 Nov 5.

Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology, University of Ottawa, The Ottawa Hospital Civic and General Campus, 1053 Carling Avenue, Ottawa, Ontario, K1Y 4E9, Canada. Electronic address:

Aim: To identify the relationship between subcallosal haemorrhage and diffuse axonal injury (DAI) grading.

Materials And Methods: Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images of all patients with traumatic brain injury over the past 5 years were reviewed. Subcallosal haemorrhage was defined as the presence of haemorrhage on admission CT underneath the corpus callosum. Read More

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Diffuse axonal injury predicts neurodegeneration after moderate-severe traumatic brain injury.

Brain 2020 12;143(12):3685-3698

Department of Brain Sciences, Division of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UK.

Traumatic brain injury is associated with elevated rates of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and chronic traumatic encephalopathy. In experimental models, diffuse axonal injury triggers post-traumatic neurodegeneration, with axonal damage leading to Wallerian degeneration and toxic proteinopathies of amyloid and hyperphosphorylated tau. However, in humans the link between diffuse axonal injury and subsequent neurodegeneration has yet to be established. Read More

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December 2020

Traumatic axonal injury on clinical MRI: association with the Glasgow Coma Scale score at scene of injury or at admission and prolonged posttraumatic amnesia.

J Neurosurg 2020 Oct 23:1-12. Epub 2020 Oct 23.

Departments of1Neuromedicine and Movement Science and.

Objective: The aim in this study was to investigate if MRI findings of traumatic axonal injury (TAI) after traumatic brain injury (TBI) are related to the admission Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score and prolonged duration of posttraumatic amnesia (PTA).

Methods: A total of 490 patients with mild to severe TBI underwent brain MRI within 6 weeks of injury (mild TBI: median 2 days; moderate to severe TBI: median 8 days). The location of TAI lesions and measures of total TAI lesion burden (number and volume of lesions on FLAIR and diffusion-weighted imaging and number of lesions on T2*-weighted gradient echo or susceptibility-weighted imaging) were quantified in a blinded manner for clinical information. Read More

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October 2020

Modeling subcortical ischemic white matter injury in rodents: unmet need for a breakthrough in translational research.

Neural Regen Res 2021 Apr;16(4):638-642

Department of Brain Science, Ajou University School of Medicine; Neuroscience Graduate Program, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Ajou University Graduate School of Medicine; Department of Neurology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Korea.

Subcortical ischemic white matter injury (SIWMI), pathological correlate of white matter hyperintensities or leukoaraiosis on magnetic resonance imaging, is a common cause of cognitive decline in elderly. Despite its high prevalence, it remains unknown how various components of the white matter degenerate in response to chronic ischemia.This incomplete knowledge is in part due to a lack of adequate animal model. Read More

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Two Coarse Spatial Patterns of Altered Brain Microstructure Predict Post-traumatic Amnesia in the Subacute Stage of Severe Traumatic Brain Injury.

Front Neurol 2020 4;11:800. Epub 2020 Sep 4.

Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance (DRCMR), Centre for Functional and Diagnostic Imaging Research, Copenhagen University Hospital Hvidovre, Hvidovre, Denmark.

Diffuse traumatic axonal injury (TAI) is one of the key mechanisms leading to impaired consciousness after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). In addition, preferential regional expression of TAI in the brain may also influence clinical outcome. We addressed the question whether the regional expression of microstructural changes as revealed by whole-brain diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in the subacute stage after severe TBI may predict the duration of post-traumatic amnesia (PTA). Read More

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September 2020