Rev Neurol (Paris) 2023 Oct 25;179(7):727-740. Epub 2023 Aug 25.
Sleep-Wake Disorders Unit, Department of Neurology, Gui-de-Chauliac Hospital, CHU de Montpellier, Montpellier, France; National Reference Centre for Orphan Diseases, Narcolepsy, Idiopathic Hypersomnia, and Kleine-Levin Syndrome, Montpellier, France; Institute of Neurosciences of Montpellier, University of Montpellier, Inserm, Montpellier, France. Electronic address:
Narcolepsy type 1 (NT1) and type 2 (NT2), also known as narcolepsy with and without cataplexy, are sleep disorders that benefited from major scientific advances over the last two decades. NT1 is caused by the loss of hypothalamic neurons producing orexin/hypocretin, a neurotransmitter regulating sleep and wake, which can be measured in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). A low CSF level of hypocretin-1/orexin-A is a highly specific and sensitive biomarker, sufficient to diagnose NT1. Read More