769 results match your criteria Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience[Journal]


Dissociation debates: everything you know is wrong.

Dialogues Clin Neurosci 2018 Sep;20(3):229-242

The Trauma Disorders Program, Sheppard Pratt Health System, Maryland, USA; Department of Psychiatry, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Controversy about dissociation and the dissociative disorders (DD) has existed since the beginning of modern psychiatry and psychology. Even among professionals, beliefs about dissociation/DD often are not based on the scientific literature. Multiple lines of evidence support a powerful relationship between dissociation/DD and psychological trauma, especially cumulative and/or early life trauma. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6296396PMC
September 2018
2 Reads

Should antidepressants be used in minor depression?

Dialogues Clin Neurosci 2018 Sep;20(3):223-228

Departement of Medical Psychology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

Minor/subthreshold depression is associated with functional impairment, reduced quality of life, and the risk of developing into major depression. Therefore, it should be treated. Watchful waiting should be an option only for patients who, despite adequate information, are not interested in any kind of treatment. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6296391PMC
September 2018
5 Reads

The debate regarding maintenance treatment with antipsychotic drugs in schizophrenia.

Authors:
Michael Davidson

Dialogues Clin Neurosci 2018 Sep;20(3):215-221

UniSackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv, Israel; Nicosia Medical School, Nicosia, Cyprus.

Several large meta-analyses of maintenance trials have confirmed that patients who suffer from chronic schizophrenia, randomized to placebo, are likely to experience earlier symptomatic worsening than patients randomized to a dopamine (DA)-blocking drug. These findings led expert groups to issue treatment guidelines, which recommend treatment with DA-blocking drugs for periods ranging from several years to indefinitely. The recommendations were accepted by the majority of, but not all, the experts, some of whom proposed a targeted or intermittent therapy approach by which DA-blocking drugs are discontinued upon symptomatic remission, to be renewed in case of symptom re-emergence. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6296388PMC
September 2018
8 Reads

Alternative and complementary approaches in psychiatry: beliefs versus evidence.

Dialogues Clin Neurosci 2018 Sep;20(3):207-214

Mood Disorders Unit, Department of Mental Health and Psychiatry, Geneva University Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland.

While the legitimacy of medical treatments is more and more questioned, one sees a paradoxical increase in nonconventional approaches, notably so in psychiatry. Over time, approaches that were considered valuable by the scientific community were found to be inefficacious, while other approaches, labelled as alternative or complementary, were finally discovered to be useful in a few indications. From this observation, we propose to classify therapies as orthodox (scientifically validated) or heterodox (scientifically not validated). Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6296392PMC
September 2018
7 Reads

Is there a role for reproductive steroids in the etiology and treatment of affective disorders?

Dialogues Clin Neurosci 2018 Sep;20(3):187-196

Behavioral Endocrinology Branch, National Institute of Mental Health, Magnuson Clinical Center, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

A variety of hormones have been shown to play a role in affective disorders. Reproductive steroids are particularly informative in our efforts to understand the pathophysiology of affective dysregulation for several reasons: i) Reproductive endocrine-related mood disorders (premenstrual dysphoric disorder, perinatal depression, perimenopausal depression) are wonderful clinical models for investigating the mechanisms by which affective state changes occur; ii) Reproductive steroids regulate virtually every system that has been implicated as disturbed in the ontogeny of affective disorders; iii) Despite the absence of a reproductive endocrinopathy a triggering role in the affective disturbance of reproductive mood disorders has been shown clearly for changes in reproductive steroids. The existing data, therefore, support a differential sensitivity to reproductive steroids in reproductive mood disorders such that an abnormal affective state is precipitated by normal changes in reproductive steroids. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6296393PMC
September 2018
9 Reads

Forty years of structural brain imaging in mental disorders: is it clinically useful or not?

Dialogues Clin Neurosci 2018 Sep;20(3):179-186

Department of Psychiatry, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, USA.

Structural brain imaging was introduced into routine clinical practice more than 40 years ago with the hope that it would support the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders. It is now widely used to exclude organic brain disease (eg, brain tumors, cardiovascular, and inflammatory processes) in mental disorders. However, questions have been raised about whether structural brain imaging is still needed today and whether it could also be clinically useful to apply new biostatistical methods, such as machine learning. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6296397PMC
September 2018
6 Reads

The role of genetics and genomics in clinical psychiatry.

Dialogues Clin Neurosci 2018 Sep;20(3):169-177

Clinical Genetics and Genomics, Royal Brompton and Harefield NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK, NHLI, Imperial College London, UK.

The enormous successes in the genetics and genomics of many diseases have provided the basis for the advancement of precision medicine. Thus, the detection of genetic variants associated with neuropsychiatric disorders, as well as treatment outcome, has raised growing expectations that these findings could soon be translated into the clinic to improve diagnosis, the prediction of disease risk and individual response to drug therapy. In this article, we will provide an introduction to the search for genes involved in psychiatric illness and summarize the present findings in major psychiatric disorders. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6296395PMC
September 2018
1 Read

Posttraumatic stress disorder as a diagnostic entity - clinical perspectives.

Authors:
César Carvajal

Dialogues Clin Neurosci 2018 Sep;20(3):161-168

Clínica Universidad de los Andes, Santiago de Chile, Chile.

Throughout history the consequences of psychological trauma and characteristic symptoms have involved clinical presentations that have had different names. Since the inclusion of the category of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in the third edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III) with the symptomatic triad of re-experiencing the traumatic event, avoidance behaviors, and hypervigilance, this entity has been a source of controversy. Indeed, some authors have denied its existence, even considering it a diagnostic invention. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6296390PMC
September 2018
8 Reads

Can psychopathology and neuroscience coexist in psychiatric classifications?

Dialogues Clin Neurosci 2018 Sep;20(3):155-160

Centre Hospitalier, Rouffach, France; CAMUHA, Université de Haute-Alsace, Mulhouse, France.

A crisis of confidence was triggered by the disappointment that diagnostic validity, an important goal, was not achieved with the publication of . The Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) project, which provides a framework for neuroscientific research, was initially conceptualized as an alternative to . However, RDoC and are complementary rather than mutually exclusive. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6296387PMC
September 2018
1 Read

Controversies in psychiatry.

Authors:
Florence Thibaut

Dialogues Clin Neurosci 2018 Sep;20(3):151-152

University Hospital Cochin (site Tarnier), Faculty of Medicine Paris Descartes (University Sorbonne-Paris Cité), INSERM U 894, CNP, Paris, France.

Neuroimaging and recent genetics discoveries have raised many questions regarding the current diagnostic criteria of psychiatric diseases and the current classifications used, which are still based on subjective clinical assessment. Despite high-quality research in brain neuroscience and evidence-based guidelines in many psychiatric diseases, some therapeutic issues are still a matter of debate. These controversial issues will be discussed in this 20th anniversary issue. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6296394PMC
September 2018
3 Reads

Evolving a new neuropsychiatry.

Dialogues Clin Neurosci 2018 06;20(2):141-145

Associate Chief of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital; Mind Body Medical Professor of Psychiatry; Harvard Medical School Boston MA, USA.

Clinical neuroscience struggles with poor scientific validity of neuropsychiatric diagnosis and its negative impact on management. Sydenham's ancient conformity of type approach to nosology with its assumption that the symptom cluster and course of a disorder are due to a common etiology, has proven no match for the complicated comorbidities faced in neuropsychiatry. In the absence of accurate pathological biomarkers there is a challenge in finding a solid foundation for modern neuropsychiatry. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6136125PMC
June 2018
1 Read

The frontoparietal network: function, electrophysiology, and importance of individual precision mapping.

Dialogues Clin Neurosci 2018 06;20(2):133-140

Department of Neurology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, USA; Program in Occupational Therapy, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, USA; Department of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, USA.

The frontoparietal network is critical for our ability to coordinate behavior in a rapid, accurate, and flexible goal-driven manner. In this review, we outline support for the framing of the frontoparietal network as a distinct control network, in part functioning to flexibly interact with and alter other functional brain networks. This network coordination likely occurs in a 4 Hz to 73 Hz θ/α rhythm, both during resting state and task state. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6136121PMC
June 2018
2 Reads

Rich-club neurocircuitry: function, evolution, and vulnerability.

Dialogues Clin Neurosci 2018 06;20(2):121-132

Dutch Connectome Lab, Department of Complex Trait Genetics, Center for Neurogenomics and Cognitive Research, Amsterdam Neuroscience, VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Department of Clinical Genetics, Amsterdam Neuroscience, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Over the past decades, network neuroscience has played a fundamental role in the understanding of large-scale brain connectivity architecture. Brains, and more generally nervous systems, can be modeled as sets of elements (neurons, assemblies, or cortical chunks) that dynamically interact through a highly structured and adaptive neurocircuitry. An interesting property of neural networks is that elements rich in connections are central to the network organization and tend to interconnect strongly with each other, forming so-called rich clubs. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6136122PMC
June 2018
1 Read

Graph theory methods: applications in brain networks.

Authors:
Olaf Sporns

Dialogues Clin Neurosci 2018 06;20(2):111-121

Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, USA; IU Network Science Institute, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, USA.

Network neuroscience is a thriving and rapidly expanding field. Empirical data on brain networks, from molecular to behavioral scales, are ever increasing in size and complexity. These developments lead to a strong demand for appropriate tools and methods that model and analyze brain network data, such as those provided by graph theory. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6136126PMC
June 2018
2 Reads

Connectome development and a novel extension to the neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia.

Dialogues Clin Neurosci 2018 06;20(2):101-111

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.

The brain is the ultimate adaptive system, a complex network organized across multiple levels of spatial and temporal resolution that is sculpted over several decades via its interactions with the environment. This review sets out to examine how fundamental biological processes in early and late neurodevelopment, in interaction with environmental inputs, guide the formation of the brain's network and its ongoing reorganization throughout the course of development. Moreover, we explore how disruptions in these processes could lead to abnormal brain network architecture and organization and thereby give rise to schizophrenia. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6136123PMC
June 2018
2 Reads

Data-driven approaches for identifying links between brain structure and function in health and disease.

Authors:
Vincent Calhoun

Dialogues Clin Neurosci 2018 06;20(2):87-99

Mind Research Network, University of New Mexico Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA.

Brain imaging technology provides a powerful tool to visualize the living human brain, provide insights into disease mechanisms, and potentially provide a tool to assist clinical decision-making. The brain has a very specific structural substrate providing a foundation for functional information; however, most studies ignore the very interesting and complex relationships between brain structure and brain function. While a variety of approaches have been used to study how brain structure informs function, the study of such relationships in living humans in most cases is limited to noninvasive approaches at the macroscopic scale. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6136124PMC
June 2018
11 Reads

New ways of understanding brain neurocircuitry.

Authors:
Florence Thibaut

Dialogues Clin Neurosci 2018 06;20(2):83-84

Professor of Psychiatry, University Hospital Cochin (site Tarnier), Faculty of Medicine Paris Descartes (University SorbonneParis Cite), INSERM U 894 Centre Psychiatry-Neurosctences, Paris, France.

Inside the brain, neural regions dynamically interact at multiple spatial and temporal scales through a highly structured and adaptive neurocircuitry. Comprehensive maps of brain connectivity have led to the emerging field of connectomics. Graph theory methods are interesting tools to improve our understanding of the brain as a complex interconnected system. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6136127PMC
June 2018
1 Read

Psychiatric sequelae of cardiac arrest.

Dialogues Clin Neurosci 2018 03;20(1):73-77

Institute of Medical Psychology, University of Hamburg, Germany.

This manuscript summarizes the literature on mental health outcomes after cardiac arrest. Survivors of cardiac arrest show high rates of mental illness with more than 40% suffering from anxiety, 30% from depression, and 25% from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Mental health outcomes may differ depending on the setting in which the cardiac arrest occurred. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6016050PMC
March 2018
2 Reads

Metabolic syndrome in psychiatric patients: overview, mechanisms, and implications.

Dialogues Clin Neurosci 2018 03;20(1):63-73

Department of Psychiatry, VU University Medical Center & GGZ InGeest, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Psychiatric patients have a greater risk of premature mortality, predominantly due to cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Convincing evidence shows that psychiatric conditions are characterized by an increased risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS), a clustering of cardiovascular risk factors including dyslipidemia, abdominal obesity, hypertension, and hyperglycemia. This increased risk is present for a range of psychiatric conditions, including major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder (BD), schizophrenia, anxiety disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6016046PMC
March 2018
20 Reads

Facts and myths pertaining to fibromyalgia.

Dialogues Clin Neurosci 2018 Mar;20(1):53-62

Division of Rheumatology, McGill University Health Centre, Quebec, Canada, Alan Edwards Pain Management Unit, McGill University Health Centre, Quebec, Canada.

Fibromyalgia (FM) is characterized by chronic widespread pain, unrefreshing sleep, physical exhaustion, and cognitive difficulties. It occurs in all populations throughout the world, with prevalence between 2% and 4% in general populations. Definition, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of FM remain points of contention, with some even contesting its existence. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6016048PMC
March 2018
12 Reads

Depression and diabetes.

Authors:
Norman Sartorius

Dialogues Clin Neurosci 2018 Mar;20(1):47-52

Association for the Improvement of Mental Health Programmes (AMH), Switzerland.

The comorbidity of mental and physical disorders is a major challenge for health care worldwide. Its prevalence is increasing and is likely to continue to grow due to the increase in life expectancy and a variety of other reasons. The comorbidity of depression and diabetes can be seen as a prototypical example of mental/physical comorbidity. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6016052PMC
March 2018
2 Reads

The relationship between stress and infertility.

Dialogues Clin Neurosci 2018 Mar;20(1):41-47

Boston IVF, Waltham, Massachusetts USA; Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston Massachusetts, USA.

The relationship between stress and infertility has been debated for years. Women with infertility report elevated levels of anxiety and depression, so it is clear that infertility causes stress. What is less clear, however, is whether or not stress causes infertility. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6016043PMC
March 2018
1 Read

The intriguing relationship between coronary heart disease and mental disorders.

Dialogues Clin Neurosci 2018 03;20(1):31-40

Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, KU Leuven University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium, KU Leuven University of Leuven, Kortenberg, Belgium.

Coronary heart disease (CHD) and mental illness are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Decades of research has revealed several, and sometimes surprising, links between CHD and mental illness, and has even suggested that both may actually cause one another. However, the precise nature of these links has not yet been clearly established. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6016051PMC
March 2018
2 Reads

Management of somatic symptom disorder.

Authors:
Peter Henningsen

Dialogues Clin Neurosci 2018 Mar;20(1):23-31

Department of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, University Hospital, Technical University of Munich, Germany.

This review paper gives an overview of the management of somatic symptom disorder. It starts with a description of the clinical problem of patients with persistent bodily distress, discusses classificatory, epidemiological, and etiological issues and then describes the evidence and practical principles of dealing with these patients who are often seen as "difficult" to treat. It is concluded that the best-suited approach is stepped care with close cooperation of primary care, a somatic specialist, and mental health care professionals operating on the basis of a biopsychosocial model of integrating somatic as well as psychosocial determinants of distress and therapeutic factors. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6016049PMC
March 2018
4 Reads

Psycho-oncology.

Dialogues Clin Neurosci 2018 Mar;20(1):13-22

Psychosomatische Klinik Windach, Windach, Germany.

Medical progress, the improvement of general living conditions, and an increase in life expectancy have led to an increase in the general prevalence of oncologic disease. More importantly, more and more patients survive cancer or live with the disease for long periods of time. While the battle for survivorship is continuously being fought, improving patients' quality of life has come to the fore. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6016045PMC
March 2018
1 Read

Historical epistemology of the body-mind interaction in psychiatry.

Authors:
German E Berrios

Dialogues Clin Neurosci 2018 Mar;20(1):5-13

Emeritus Chair of the Epistemology of Psychiatry, Emeritus Consultant & Head of Neuropsychiatry, Life Fellow, Robinson College, University of Cambridge, UK.

This paper deals with the history of the relationship between the mind-body dualism and the epistemology of madness. Earlier versions of such dualism posed little problem in regard to the manner of their communication. The Cartesian view that mind and body did, in fact, name different substances introduced a problem of incommunicability that is yet to be resolved. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6016044PMC
March 2018
1 Read

The mind-body Cartesian dualism and psychiatry.

Authors:
Florence Thibaut

Dialogues Clin Neurosci 2018 03;20(1)

University Hospital Cochin (site Tarnier), Faculty of Medicine Paris Descartes, INSERM U 894, CNP, Paris, France.

The French philosopher René Descartes (1596-1650) argued that the natures of mind and body are completely different from one another and that each could exist by itself. How can these two structures with different natures causally interact in order to give rise to a human being with voluntary bodily motions and sensations? Even today, the problem of mind-body causal interaction remains a matter of debate. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6016047PMC
March 2018
1 Read

Vaccination as a cause of autism-myths and controversies.

Authors:
Michael Davidson

Dialogues Clin Neurosci 2017 Dec;19(4):403-407

University of Nicosia Medical School, Engomi, Cyprus.

Despite significant progress in the study of the epidemiology and genetics of autism, the etiology and patho-physiology of this condition is far from being elucidated and no curative treatment currently exists. Although solid scientific research continues, in an attempt to find explanations and solutions, a number of nonscientific and pure myths about autism have emerged. Myths that vaccines or mercury are associated with autism have been amplified by misguided scientists; frustrated, but effective parent groups; and politicians. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5789217PMC
December 2017
3 Reads

Pharmacotherapy of emotional and behavioral symptoms associated with autism spectrum disorder in children and adolescents.

Dialogues Clin Neurosci 2017 12;19(4):395-402

Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA; Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by impairment in social communication and restricted patterns of behavior. Although there is no pharmacological treatment approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the core symptoms of ASD, there is mounting support in the literature for the management of behavioral symptoms associated with this developmental disorder, in particular, irritability and hyperactivity. Aripiprazole and risperidone are currently approved by the FDA for the treatment of irritability in youth with ASD. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5789216PMC
December 2017
7 Reads

Sexuality in autism: hypersexual and paraphilic behavior in women and men with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder.

Dialogues Clin Neurosci 2017 Dec;19(4):381-393

Institute for Sex Research and Forensic Psychiatry, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany ; Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Medical Center Mainz, Mainz, Germany.

Like nonaffected adults, individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) show the entire range of sexual behaviors. However, due to the core symptoms of the disorder spectrum, including deficits in social skills, sensory hypo- and hypersensitivities, and repetitive behaviors, some ASD individuals might develop quantitatively above-average or nonnormative sexual behaviors and interests. After reviewing the relevant literature on sexuality in high-functioning ASD individuals, we present novel findings on the frequency of normal sexual behaviors and those about the assessment of hypersexual and paraphilic fantasies and behaviors in ASD individuals from our own study. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5789215PMC
December 2017
10 Reads

Neuropsychological assessment in autism spectrum disorder and related conditions.

Dialogues Clin Neurosci 2017 Dec;19(4):373-379

I.M.Pro Marguerite Sinclair, Lutterbach, France.

Neuropsychological assessment provides a profound analysis of cognitive functioning in people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Individuals on the autistic spectrum often show a high level of anxiety and are frequently affected by comorbidities that influence their quality of life. Yet, they also have cognitive strengths that should be identified in order to develop effective support strategies. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5789214PMC
December 2017
3 Reads

Syndromic autism spectrum disorders: moving from a clinically defined to a molecularly defined approach.

Dialogues Clin Neurosci 2017 12;19(4):353-371

The Center for Applied Genomics and Program in Genetics and Genomic Biology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; McLaughlin Center and Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) encompasses a group of neurodevelopmental conditions diagnosed solely on the basis of behavioral assessments that reveal social deficits. Progress has been made in understanding its genetic underpinnings, but most ASD-associated genetic variants, which include copy number variants (CNVs) and mutations in ASD-risk genes, account for no more than 1 % of ASD cases. This high level of genetic heterogeneity leads to challenges obtaining and interpreting genetic testing in clinical settings. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5789213PMC
December 2017
6 Reads

Autism and talent: the cognitive and neural basis of systemizing.

Dialogues Clin Neurosci 2017 12;19(4):345-353

Department of Psychology, Center for Applied Neuroscience, University of Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus.

In 2003, we proposed the hypersystemizing theory of autism. The theory proposes that the human mind possesses a systemizing mechanism (SM) that helps identify lawful regularities (often causal) that govern the input-operation-output workings of a system. The SM can be tuned to different levels, from low to high, with a normal distribution of individual differences in how strongly people search for such input-operation-out-put regularities in any data that is systemizable. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5789212PMC
December 2017
2 Reads

Translating genetic and preclinical findings into autism therapies.

Dialogues Clin Neurosci 2017 12;19(4):335-343

Institute for Neuroscience, Autism and Neurodevelopmental Disorders Institute, and Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, The George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Washington, DC, USA.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by social deficits and repetitive/restrictive interests. ASD is associated with multiple comorbidities, including intellectual disability, anxiety, and epilepsy. Evidence that ASD is highly heritable has spurred major efforts to unravel its genetics, revealing possible contributions from hundreds of genes through rare and common variation and through copy-number changes. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5789211PMC
December 2017
5 Reads

Brain and behavior development in autism from birth through infancy.

Dialogues Clin Neurosci 2017 12;19(4):325-333

Carolina Institute for Developmental Disabilities and Department of Psychiatry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a heterogeneous condition that affects 1 in 68 children. Diagnosis is based on the presence of characteristic behavioral impairments that emerge in the second year of life and thus is not typically made until 3 to 4 years of age. Recent studies of early brain and behavior development have provided important new insights into the nature of this condition. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5789210PMC
December 2017
3 Reads

New perspectives in autism spectrum disorders.

Authors:
Florence Thibaut

Dialogues Clin Neurosci 2017 Dec;19(4):323

University Hospital Cochin (site Tarnier), Faculty of Medicine Paris Descartes, INSERM U 894, CNP, Paris, France.

Autism spectrum disorder, a complex developmental disorder, has been found to be one of the most heritable neuropsychiatric disorders. The next step will be to translate these findings into successful treatments for this disorder. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5789209PMC
December 2017
3 Reads

Cannabis, cannabinoids, and health.

Dialogues Clin Neurosci 2017 Sep;19(3):309-316

Author affiliations: AP-HP, GH Paris-Sud, Hopital Paul Brousse, Dpt Addictologie, F94800 Villejuif, France; INSERM U1178, F94800 Villejuif, France.

Cannabis (also known as marijuana) is the most frequently used illicit psychoactive substance in the world. Though it was long considered to be a "soft" drug, studies have proven the harmful psychiatric and addictive effects associated with its use. A number of elements are responsible for the increased complications of cannabis use, including the increase in the potency of cannabis and an evolution in the ratio between the two primary components, Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ-THC) and cannabidiol (toward a higher proportion of Δ-THC), Synthetic cannabinoid (SC) use has rapidly progressed over the last few years, primarily among frequent cannabis users, because SCs provide similar psychoactive effects to cannabis. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5741114PMC
September 2017
7 Reads

Treatment of opioid dependence with buprenorphine: current update.

Authors:
Michael Soyka

Dialogues Clin Neurosci 2017 09;19(3):299-308

Medical Park Chiemseeblick, Bernau, Germany; Psychiatric Hospital, University of Munich, Munich, Germany.

Opioid maintenance treatment is the first-line approach in opioid dependence. Both the full opioid agonist methadone (MET) and the partial agonist buprenorphine (BUP) are licensed for the treatment of opioid dependence. BUP differs significantly from MET in its pharmacology, side effects, and safety issues. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5741113PMC
September 2017
5 Reads

Minding the brain: the role of pharmacotherapy in substance-use disorder treatment.

Dialogues Clin Neurosci 2017 Sep;19(3):289-297

New York State Psychiatric institute, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York, USA.

With its medicalization as a brain-based disease, addiction has come to be regarded as amenable to biomedical treatment approaches, most commonly pharmacotherapy. Various vulnerabilities are recognized to contribute to maladaptive substance use, and have been linked to diverse neurobiological alterations that may be targeted with pharmacotherapy: withdrawal, craving and cue reactivity, and aberrant reward processing are the most significant. Here, we summarize current thinking regarding pharmacotherapy for substance-use disorders, grouping medications by the type of vulnerability they propose to address and providing insight into their neurobiological mechanisms. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5741112PMC
September 2017
6 Reads

Clinical neuropsychiatric considerations regarding nonsubstance or behavioral addictions.

Authors:
Marc N Potenza

Dialogues Clin Neurosci 2017 09;19(3):281-291

Department of Psychiatry, Child Study Center, the National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse, Yale University School of Medicine and the Connecticut Mental Health Center, Connecticut, USA.

Over the past several decades, non-substance-use behaviors like gambling, gaming, and sex have received greater consideration as possible foci of addictions. In this article, I will review the recent history and current status of non-substance or behavioral addictions. A main focus will involve gambling and gambling disorder, given that the latter is currently the sole non-substance addictive disorder described in the main text of the current (fifth) edition of the . Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5741111PMC
September 2017
6 Reads

Tobacco use disorder and treatment: new challenges and opportunities.

Dialogues Clin Neurosci 2017 Sep;19(3):271-280

Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts, USA.

Tobacco use remains a global problem, and options for consumers have increased with the development and marketing of e-cigarettes and other new nicotine and tobacco products, such as "heat-not-burn" tobacco and dissolvable tobacco. The increased access to these new products is juxtaposed with expanding public health and clinical intervention options, including mobile technologies and social media. The persistent high rate of tobacco-use disorders among those with psychiatric disorders has gathered increased global attention, including successful approaches to individual treatment and organizational-level interventions. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5741110PMC
September 2017
5 Reads

The prescription opioid epidemic: a review of qualitative studies on the progression from initial use to abuse.

Dialogues Clin Neurosci 2017 Sep;19(3):259-269

Washington University Department of Psychiatry, St Louis, Missouri, USA.

Most research designed to answer the "why" of the prescription opioid epidemic has relied on structured interviews, which rigidly attempt to capture the complex reasons people use opioids. In contrast this systematic literature review focuses on peer-reviewed studies that have used a qualitative approach to examine the development of an opioid-use disorder from the point of initial exposure. Rather than simply providing a "high," opioids reportedly relieve psychological/emotional problems or provide an escape from life stressors. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5741109PMC
September 2017
15 Reads

Animal models of addiction.

Authors:
Rainer Spanagel

Dialogues Clin Neurosci 2017 09;19(3):247-258

Institute of Psychopharmacology, Central Institute of Mental Health, Medical Faculty Mannheim/Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany.

In recent years, animal models in psychiatric research have been criticized for their limited translational value to the clinical situation. Failures in clinical trials have thus often been attributed to the lack of predictive power of preclinical animal models. Here, I argue that animal models of voluntary drug intake-under nonoperant and operant conditions-and addiction models based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders are crucial and informative tools for the identification of pathological mechanisms, target identification, and drug development. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5741108PMC
September 2017
29 Reads

Genetics of addictive behavior: the example of nicotine dependence.

Dialogues Clin Neurosci 2017 Sep;19(3):237-245

INSERM U894, Center of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, Paris, France; University Paris-Descartes.

The majority of addictive disorders have a significant heritability-roughly around 50%. Surprisingly, the most convincing association (a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gene cluster in nicotine dependence), with a unique attributable risk of 14%, was detected through a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on lung cancer, although lung cancer has a low heritability. We propose some explanations of this finding, potentially helping to understand how a GWAS strategy can be successful. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5741107PMC
September 2017
4 Reads

A brief review of the genetics and pharmacogenetics of opioid use disorders.

Authors:
Wade Berrettini

Dialogues Clin Neurosci 2017 09;19(3):229-236

Karl E. Rickels Professor of Psychiatry, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, USA.

Increased physician prescribing of opioids to treat chronic nonprogressive pain has been accompanied by an increase in opioid addiction. Twin studies of opioid addiction are consistent with an inherited component of risk, approximately 50%. Several genome-wide association study (GWAS) reports indicate that genetic risk for opioid addiction is conveyed by many alleles of small effect (odds ratios <1. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5741106PMC
September 2017
5 Reads

Individual differences in the neuropsychopathology of addiction.

Dialogues Clin Neurosci 2017 09;19(3):217-229

National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Rockville, Maryland, USA.

Drug addiction or substance-use disorder is a chronically relapsing disorder that progresses through binge/intoxication, withdrawal/negative affect and preoccupation/anticipation stages. These stages represent diverse neurobiological mechanisms that are differentially involved in the transition from recreational to compulsive drug use and from positive to negative reinforcement. The progression from recreational to compulsive substance use is associated with downregulation of the brain reward systems and upregulation of the brain stress systems. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5741105PMC
September 2017
6 Reads

Addictive behaviors: where do we stand, and where are we going?

Dialogues Clin Neurosci 2017 Sep;19(3):215

Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics, Berlin, Germany.

Tobacco and alcohol use remain the most prevalent addictive behaviors reported and the leading risk factors for global burden of disease, injury, and death. Considering addiction as a chronically relapsing brain disorder has opened up the way for biomedical treatment approaches. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5741104PMC
September 2017
5 Reads

Cognitive-behavioral therapy for generalized anxiety.

Authors:
Lucas Borza

Dialogues Clin Neurosci 2017 06;19(2):203-208

Psychologist in private practice, Eschau, France; Institution La Doctrine Chrétienne, Strasbourg, France; Strasbourg University, Strasbourg, France.

As a form of therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is more than a mere "toolbox." CBT allows us to better understand how the human mind is functioning because it is based on neuroscience and experimental and scientific psychology. At the beginning, the was "nontheoretical," but nowadays (the most recent version being DSM-5), it is increasingly based on CBT paradigms (with the insertion of important notions such as cognitions and behaviors). Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5573564PMC
June 2017
11 Reads

Oxytocin and social functioning.

Dialogues Clin Neurosci 2017 06;19(2):193-201

University of Miami Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Miami, Florida, USA.

Social anxiety is a form of anxiety characterized by continuous fear of one or more social or performance situations. Although multiple treatment modalities (cognitive behavioral therapy, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors/selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, benzodiazepines) exist for social anxiety, they are effective for only 60% to 70% of patients. Thus, researchers have looked for other candidates for social anxiety treatment. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5573563PMC
June 2017
20 Reads