35,486 results match your criteria Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 - A Review


Longitudinal study on the progression of muscle status among community-dwelling ambulatory older multiethnic Asians with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

BMC Geriatr 2022 May 21;22(1):446. Epub 2022 May 21.

SingHealth Polyclinics, 167 Jalan Bukit Merah Connection One Tower 5 #15-10, Singapore, 150167, Singapore.

Background: Muscle health decline with age, but its deterioration in older persons with type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) over time is not well-established. This study aimed to determine the change in muscle mass, handgrip strength and gait speed over time among community-dwelling ambulatory older multi-ethnic Asian patients with T2DM and their associated factors.

Methods: Among 387 eligible patients aged 60-89 years who were recruited at baseline, 348 (89. Read More

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SGLT2 Inhibitors in Hypertension: Role Beyond Diabetes and Heart Failure.

Trends Cardiovasc Med 2022 May 18. Epub 2022 May 18.

Department of Cardiology, Westchester Medical Center and New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY, USA.

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is a pandemic that affects millions of patients worldwide. Diabetes affects multiple organ systems leading to comorbidities including hypertension. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) recently have been approved for the treatment of T2DM and heart failure with reduced and preserved ejection fraction. Read More

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Atypical Diabetes and Management Considerations.

Prim Care 2022 Jun 22;49(2):225-237. Epub 2022 Apr 22.

Department of Family Medicine, Brody School of Medicine, East Carolina University, 101 Heart Drive, Mail Stop 654, Greenville, NC 278347, USA. Electronic address:

Type of diabetes is not always straightforward at presentation. Misdiagnosis is common in all age groups and diagnosis becomes evident over time. Patients with latent autoimmune diabetes in adults constitute up to 12% of all patients with diabetes, and they share immunogenetic and phenotypic features of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Read More

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Role and importance of high fiber in diabetes management in India.

Diabetes Metab Syndr 2022 Apr 22;16(5):102480. Epub 2022 Apr 22.

Nurture Health Solutions, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.

Background & Aims: India is facing a triple burden of pre-diabetes, diabetes, and obesity. Unhealthy eating habits and physical inactivity have been linked to the onset and progression of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Despite dietary recommendations, individuals consume inadequate amounts or unsuitable type of dietary fiber (DF) which needs correction. Read More

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The Clash of Two Epidemics: the Relationship Between Opioids and Glucose Metabolism.

Curr Diab Rep 2022 May 20. Epub 2022 May 20.

Laboratory of Endocrinology, Department of Clinical Chemistry, Amsterdam Neuroscience, Amsterdam Gastroenterology, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Amsterdam University Medical Center, Location AMC, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Purpose Of Review: We are currently in the midst of a global opioid epidemic. Opioids affect many physiological processes, but one side effect that is not often taken into consideration is the opioid-induced alteration in blood glucose levels.

Recent Findings: This review shows that the vast majority of studies report that opioid stimulation increases blood glucose levels. Read More

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Tirzepatide - a dual GIP/GLP-1 receptor agonist - a new antidiabetic drug with potential metabolic activity in the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

Endokrynol Pol 2022 May 20. Epub 2022 May 20.

Department of Internal Medicine, Diabetology and Nephrology, FMS in Zabrze, SUM 41-800 Zabrze , Poland.

The incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are responsible for up to 65% of postprandial insulin secretion. Tirzepatide, developed by Eli Lilly, is a dual GIP/GLP-1 receptor agonist in the form of a synthetic linear peptide; its acylation technology allows it to bind to albumin, thus making it possible to dose the drug once a week. This review summarizes the key characteristics and pharmacokinetics of tirzepatide. Read More

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Long-term prediction models for vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy using medical features from data warehouse.

Sci Rep 2022 May 19;12(1):8476. Epub 2022 May 19.

Department of Ophthalmology, Bucheon St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, #327 Sosa-ro, Wonmi-gu, Bucheon, Gyeonggi-do, 14647, Republic of Korea.

We sought to evaluate the performance of machine learning prediction models for identifying vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy (VTDR) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus using only medical data from data warehouse. This is a multicenter electronic medical records review study. Patients with type 2 diabetes screened for diabetic retinopathy and followed-up for 10 years were included from six referral hospitals sharing same electronic medical record system (n = 9,102). Read More

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Effect of glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists on albuminuria in adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Diabetes Obes Metab 2022 May 19. Epub 2022 May 19.

Translational Research in Endocrinology and Diabetes (TREAD), College of Medicine and Dentistry, James Cook University, Douglas, Queensland, Australia.

Aims: To determine the effect of glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RA) on albuminuria in adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

Methods: Medline Ovid, Scopus, Web of Science, EMCARE, and CINAHL databases from database inception until January 27 , 2022. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they were randomised controlled trials (RCT) that involved treatment with a GLP-1RA in adult patients with T2DM and assessed the effect on albuminuria in each treatment arm. Read More

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Sodium Glucose Cotransporter-2 Inhibition for Acute Myocardial Infarction: JACC Review Topic of the Week.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2022 May;79(20):2058-2068

Baylor Scott and White Research Institute, Dallas, Texas, USA; University of Mississippi, Jackson, Mississippi, USA.

Sodium glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors improve cardiorenal outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, and chronic heart failure. SGLT2 inhibitors also reduce the risk of cardiovascular mortality and hospitalization for heart failure among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and a remote history of myocardial infarction (MI). As a result of the growing body of evidence in diverse disease states, and the hypothesized mechanisms of action, it is reasonable to consider the potential of SGLT2 inhibition to improve outcomes in patients with acute MI as well if initiated early after presentation. Read More

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Nanoformulation of Plant-Based Natural Products for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: From Formulation Design to Therapeutic Applications.

Curr Ther Res Clin Exp 2022 21;96:100672. Epub 2022 Apr 21.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ruhuna, Galle, Sri Lanka.

Background: Herbal remedies are used to manage type 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2 DM) as the sole treatment or as a complementary therapy. Limitations of herbal remedies, such as poor stability and limited absorption, impede their development as therapeutic agents, which could be overcome by nanoformulations.

Objectives: This review attempts to summarize the studies reported between 2009 and 2020 in the development of medicinal plant-based nanoformulations for the management of type 2 DM, discuss formulation methods, mechanisms of action, and identify gaps in the literature to conduct future research on nanoparticle-based herbal treatment options targeting type 2 DM. Read More

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Insulin Management for Type 2 Diabetes During Ramadan: A Narrative Review for Clinicians.

Curr Diabetes Rev 2022 May 17. Epub 2022 May 17.

University of Louisville Department of Family & Geriatric Medicine, U.S.A. Med Center One.

Objective: Muslims with insulin-dependent type 2 diabetes are at high risk for adverse events while fasting during the month of Ramadan. However, advances in pharmacologic therapy coupled with creative strategies of insulin administration can mitigate complications. This narrative literature review investigates which insulin subtypes are likely to prevent hypoglycemic events and reduce hyperglycemia during the Ramadan fasting season for this high-risk population. Read More

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Fresh insights into glucocorticoid-induced diabetes mellitus and new therapeutic directions.

Nat Rev Endocrinol 2022 May 18. Epub 2022 May 18.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Glucocorticoid hormones were discovered to have use as potent anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive therapeutics in the 1940s and their continued use and development have successfully revolutionized the management of acute and chronic inflammatory diseases. However, long-term use of glucocorticoids is severely hampered by undesirable metabolic complications, including the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. These effects occur due to glucocorticoid receptor activation within multiple tissues, which results in inter-organ crosstalk that increases hepatic glucose production and inhibits peripheral glucose uptake. Read More

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Effects of switching from a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor to oral semaglutide on glucose metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes: protocol for a multicentre, prospective, randomised, open-label, parallel-group comparison study (the SWITCH-SEMA 2 study).

BMJ Open 2022 May 18;12(5):e056885. Epub 2022 May 18.

Department of Rheumatology, Endocrinology and Nephrology, Faculty of Medicine and Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan

Introduction: Incretin-based therapies exert antihyperglycaemic effects in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) in a blood glucose concentration-dependent fashion. The first-in-class oral glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist semaglutide has potent effects on glycaemic and weight control, but little evidence has been published for the superiority of semaglutide for glycaemic control in patients after switching from a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor. Therefore, we aim to verify the efficacy of oral semaglutide in patients with T2D being treated with a DPP-4 inhibitor. Read More

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Molecular Mechanism of Polysaccharides Extracted from Chinese Medicine Targeting Gut Microbiota for Promoting Health.

Chin J Integr Med 2022 May 18. Epub 2022 May 18.

Shandong Co-innovation Center of Classic Traditional Chinese Medicine Formula, Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Ji'nan, 250355, China.

The accumulating evidence revealed that gut microbiota plays an important role in pathological process of disease including obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, heart failure, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Polysaccharides extracted from Chinese medicine (CM) can not only alleviate pathological status but also promote health by anti-inflammatory, regulating immunity, lowering blood glucose and lipids, anti-cancer, and anti-oxidation. The alterations of gut microbiota composition and metabolism pathways are the potential mechanisms of CM polysaccharides treatment. Read More

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Cognitive disorder and dementia in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

World J Diabetes 2022 Apr;13(4):319-337

Department of Philosophical and Methodological Disciplines, University Health Sciences Center, University of Guadalajara, Guadalajara 44340, Jalisco, Mexico.

Insulin, a key pleiotropic hormone, regulates metabolism through several signaling pathways in target tissues including skeletal muscle, liver, and brain. In the brain, insulin modulates learning and memory, and impaired insulin signaling is associated with metabolic dysregulation and neurodegenerative diseases. At the receptor level, in aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD) models, the amount of insulin receptors and their functions are decreased. Read More

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Comparative Effects of Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors on Serum Electrolyte Levels in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Pairwise and Network Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

Kidney360 2022 Mar 19;3(3):477-487. Epub 2022 Jan 19.

Department of Epidemiology, Richard M. Fairbanks School of Public Health, Indiana University, Indianapolis, Indiana.

Background: Previous studies have reported that sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors (SGLT2is) affect levels of serum electrolytes, especially magnesium. This study aimed to integrate direct and indirect trial evidence to maximize statistical power to clarify their overall and comparative effects in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D).

Methods: We systematically searched PubMed, EMBASE, CENTRAL, and ClinicalTrials. Read More

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Association of magnitude of weight loss and weight variability with mortality and major cardiovascular events among individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Cardiovasc Diabetol 2022 May 16;21(1):78. Epub 2022 May 16.

Department of Radiology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, 37# Guo Xue Xiang, Chengdu, 610041, Sichuan, China.

Background: Weight management is strongly promoted for overweight or obese patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) by current guidelines. However, the prognostic impact of weight loss achieved without behavioural intervention on the mortality and cardiovascular (CV) outcomes in diabetic patients is still contested.

Methods: We searched the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases for studies that investigated the association of weight loss or weight variability with mortality and CV outcomes. Read More

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Pleiotropic effects of SGLT2 inhibitors and heart failure outcomes.

Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2022 May 14;188:109927. Epub 2022 May 14.

1(st) Cardiology Department, Hippokration General Hospital, University of Athens Medical School, Athens, Greece. Electronic address:

Heart failure (HF) represents a major public health concern with increasing prevalence among aging populations, with multifactorial pathophysiology including inflammation, oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction, and fibrosis, among others. Lately, the use of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, originally destined for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, have revolutionized the treatment of HF. In this review article, we provide the milestones and the latest mechanistic evidence of SGLT2 inhibition in HF. Read More

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Regulation of the intestinal flora: A potential mechanism of natural medicines in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Biomed Pharmacother 2022 May 13;151:113091. Epub 2022 May 13.

Key Laboratory of Characteristic Chinese Medicine Resources in Southwest China, College of Pharmacy, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu 611137, China; College of Medical Technology, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu 611137, China. Electronic address:

Diabetes mellitus comprises a group of heterogeneous disorders, which are usually subdivided into type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Both genetic and environmental factors have been implicated in the onset of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes primarily involves autoimmune insulin deficiency. Read More

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Convergent Molecular Pathways in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Parkinson's Disease: Insights into Mechanisms and Pathological Consequences.

Mol Neurobiol 2022 May 16. Epub 2022 May 16.

Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology, School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, 110067, Delhi, India.

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemic conditions. A higher risk of developing Parkinson's disease (PD) in patients with T2DM has become evident in recent years. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the interplay between T2DM and PD pathogenesis remain unknown. Read More

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Clinical Prediction Models for Heart Failure Hospitalization in Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

J Am Heart Assoc 2022 May 16;11(10):e024833. Epub 2022 May 16.

Centre for Outcomes Research and Evaluation Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre Montreal QC Canada.

Background Clinical prediction models have been developed for hospitalization for heart failure in type 2 diabetes. However, a systematic evaluation of these models' performance, applicability, and clinical impact is absent. Methods and Results We searched Embase, MEDLINE, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and Tufts' clinical prediction registry through February 2021. Read More

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Role of Innate lymphoid Cells in Obesity and Insulin Resistance.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2022 27;13:855197. Epub 2022 Apr 27.

Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, and Key Laboratory of Molecular Cardiovascular Science, Ministry of Education, Peking University, Beijing, China.

Obesity, a growing chronic metabolic disease, greatly increases the risk of metabolic syndrome which includes type 2 diabetes, fatty liver and cardiovascular diseases. Obesity-associated metabolic diseases significantly contribute to mortality and reduce life expectancy. Recently, innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) have emerged as crucial regulators of metabolic homeostasis and tissue inflammation. Read More

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Is There a Role for Diabetes-Specific Nutrition Formulas as Meal Replacements in Type 2 Diabetes?

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2022 29;13:874968. Epub 2022 Apr 29.

Marie-Josée and Henry R. Kravis Center for Cardiovascular Health at Mount Sinai Heart, and Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Bone Disease, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, United States.

Nutrition therapy plays an integral role in the prevention and management of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). A potential strategy is the utilization of diabetes-specific nutrition formulas (DSNFs) as meal replacements. In this article, we distinguish DSNFs from standard nutrition formulas, review the clinical data examining the effectiveness of DSNFs, and propose an evidence-based algorithm for incorporating DSNFs as part of nutrition therapy in T2D. Read More

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Using passive extraction of real-world data from eConsent, electronic patient reported outcomes (ePRO) and electronic health record (EHR) data loaded to an electronic data capture (EDC) system for a multi-center, prospective, observational study in diabetic patients.

Contemp Clin Trials Commun 2022 Aug 5;28:100920. Epub 2022 May 5.

Wilmington Health, 1202 Medical Center Drive, Wilmington, NC, 28401, USA.

As clinical trial complexity has increased over the past decade, using electronic methods to simplify recruitment and data management have been investigated. In this study, the Optum Digital Research Network (DRN) has demonstrated the use of electronic source (eSource) data to ease subject identification, recruitment burden, and used data extracted from electronic health records (EHR) to load to an electronic data capture (EDC) system. This study utilized electronic Informed Consent, electronic patient reported outcomes (SF-12) and included three sites using 3 different EHR systems. Read More

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Effect of Exercise on the Cognitive Function of Older Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Front Hum Neurosci 2022 28;16:876935. Epub 2022 Apr 28.

School of Sports Medicine and Rehabilitation, Beijing Sport University, Beijing, China.

Background: Aging and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are important risk factors for the development of cognitive deterioration and dementia. The objective of this research was to investigate the effects of an exercise intervention on cognitive function in older T2DM patients.

Methods: Eight literature databases (PubMed, EBSCO, Scopus, Embase, The Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Ovid, and ProQuest) were searched from inception to 20 January 2022. Read More

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Pathophysiology associated with Diabetes Induced Tauopathy and Development of Alzheimer's Disease.

Curr Diabetes Rev 2022 May 13. Epub 2022 May 13.

Division of Pharmacology, Guru Nanak College of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, 157/F Nilgunaj Road, Panihati, Kolkata 700114, India.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most widespread dementia subset, affecting elderly populations worldwide. It has been proved that chronic Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is closely related to neurodegeneration, especially AD. T2DM is characterized by the inability of the cell to take up insulin, as well as chronic hyperglycemia. Read More

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American Association of Clinical Endocrinology Clinical Practice Guideline for the Diagnosis and Management of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Primary Care and Endocrinology Clinical Settings: Co-Sponsored by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD).

Endocr Pract 2022 May;28(5):528-562

AASLD Representative, Inova Medicine, Inova Health System, Falls Church, Virginia.

Objective: To provide evidence-based recommendations regarding the diagnosis and management of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) to endocrinologists, primary care clinicians, health care professionals, and other stakeholders.

Methods: The American Association of Clinical Endocrinology conducted literature searches for relevant articles published from January 1, 2010, to November 15, 2021. A task force of medical experts developed evidence-based guideline recommendations based on a review of clinical evidence, expertise, and informal consensus, according to established American Association of Clinical Endocrinology protocol for guideline development. Read More

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Cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus: progress toward personalized management.

Cardiovasc Diabetol 2022 May 14;21(1):74. Epub 2022 May 14.

Department of Endocrinology, The First Hospital of Lanzhou University, No. 1 West Donggang Road, Lanzhou, Gansu, 730000, People's Republic of China.

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the main cause of death among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), particularly in low- and middle-income countries. To effectively prevent the development of CVDs in T2DM, considerable effort has been made to explore novel preventive approaches, individualized glycemic control and cardiovascular risk management (strict blood pressure and lipid control), together with recently developed glucose-lowering agents and lipid-lowering drugs. This review mainly addresses the important issues affecting the choice of antidiabetic agents and lipid, blood pressure and antiplatelet treatments considering the cardiovascular status of the patient. Read More

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Exploring How Self-care Language Is Used for Adults With Type 2 Diabetes in the Canadian and American Literature.

Can J Diabetes 2021 Oct 22. Epub 2021 Oct 22.

Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Nursing, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; Diabetes Care and Research Program, Hamilton Health Sciences, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; McMaster Evidence Review and Synthesis Team, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

Barbara Reigel's theory of self-care has been used to create a Self-Care of Heart Failure Index (SCHFI), which has been adapted by researchers into a Self-Care of Diabetes Inventory (SCODI) for individuals living with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The SCODI measures how an individual is currently caring for their T2DM to identify areas in need of health-care provider support. The SCODI tool appears to have widespread international dissemination, but it is unknown how the SCODI or Reigel's concept of self-care are being utilized in the Canadian or American diabetes literature. Read More

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October 2021

Physical Activity Participation in People With an Active Diabetic Foot Ulceration: A Scoping Review.

Can J Diabetes 2022 Apr 10;46(3):313-327. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

Department of Nursing, Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières, Trois-Rivières, Québec, Canada.

Background: Being physically active on a regular basis has a favourable impact on diabetes-related complications. With the exception of evidence advising individuals with an active diabetic foot ulceration (DFU) to avoid weight-bearing activity, no physical activity (PA) recommendations are currently provided for this population.

Objective: The aim of this scoping review was to examine and map the existing research evidence of PA participation for individuals with an active DFU. Read More

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