29,590 results match your criteria Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 - A Review


Dementia Risk in Type 2 Diabetes Patients: Acarbose Use and Its Joint Effects with Metformin and Pioglitazone.

Authors:
Chin-Hsiao Tseng

Aging Dis 2020 May 9;11(3):658-667. Epub 2020 May 9.

1Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan.

This population-based retrospective cohort study investigated dementia risk associated with acarbose in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus by using Taiwan's National Health Insurance database. A cohort of 15,524 matched pairs of ever and never users of acarbose based on propensity score matching was enrolled from new-onset type 2 diabetes patients from 1999 to 2006. Patients who were alive on January 1, 2007, were followed up for dementia until December 31, 2011. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14336/AD.2019.0621DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7220278PMC

Portuguese-Brazilian evidence-based guideline on the management of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Diabetol Metab Syndr 2020 24;12:45. Epub 2020 May 24.

Internal Medicine Department, School of Medicine, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Rua Ramiro Barcelos, 2350, 4º Andar, Porto Alegre, RS 90035-007 Brazil.

Background: In current management of type 2 diabetes (T2DM), cardiovascular and renal prevention have become important targets to be achieved. In this context, a joint panel of four endocrinology societies from Brazil and Portugal was established to develop an evidence-based guideline for treatment of hyperglycemia in T2DM.

Methods: MEDLINE (via PubMed) was searched for randomized clinical trials, meta-analyses, and observational studies related to diabetes treatment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13098-020-00551-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7245758PMC

Cardiovascular events following pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia with emphasis on the comparison between early and late onset forms: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2020 Jun 2. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Department of Medicine and Surgery, Unit of Surgical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Parma, Italy.

Objective: To elucidate whether preeclampsia (PE) and the gestational age at onset of the disease (early-onset vs late-onset PE) has an impact on the risk of long-term cardiovascular complications.

Methods: MedLine and Scopus databases were searched until April 15, 2020 utilizing combinations of the relevant MeSH terms, key words, and word variants for "pre-eclampsia" "cardiovascular disease" and "outcome". Inclusion criteria were: (a) cohort or case-control design; (b) inclusion of women with a diagnosis of pre-eclampsia at the time of the first pregnancy; (c) enough data to compare each outcome in: (I) women with a diagnosis of pre-eclampsia versus women with normal pregnancies and/or (II) women with early-onset pre-eclampsia versus women with late-onset pre-eclampsia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/uog.22107DOI Listing

Acquired reactive perforating collagenosis: A case report and review of the literature.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 May;99(22):e20391

Division of Endocrinology, Tongji Hospital, Huazhong University of Science and Technology.

Introduction: Acquired reactive perforating collagenosis (ARPC) is a rare skin disorder, which is associated with various internal diseases and even malignant neoplasms. A comprehensive knowledge of the concomitant diseases in ARPC patients is helpful to decrease the misdiagnosis. Although the treatment of ARPC is challenging, systemic assessment of existing regimens is not available. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000020391DOI Listing

Clinical manifestation of non-ketotic hyperglycemia chorea: A case report and literature review.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 May;99(22):e19801

Department of Neurology, Beijing Haidian Hospital, Beijing Haidian Section of Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, P.R. China.

Introduction: Chorea is considered a special complication of diabetes mellitus. Here we report a case of chorea associated with non-ketotic hyperglycemia (NKH).

Patient Concerns: The patient was a 79-year-old Asian woman. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000019801DOI Listing

Treatment of Type 2 diabetes with Tianqi Jiangtang Capsule: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 May;99(21):e19702

Institution of Guang'anmen Hospital, China Academy of Chinese Medical Science, Beijin, China.

Background: Tianqi Jiangtang Capsule is a commonly used Chinese patent medicine for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in China. The purpose of this study is to systematically evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of Tianqi Jiangtang Capsule in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Methods: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of Tianqi Jiangtang Capsule in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus were retrieved. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000019702DOI Listing

Bioactive peptides from beans with the potential to decrease the risk of developing noncommunicable chronic diseases.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2020 Jun 1:1-19. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Department of Food Science and Technology, State University of Londrina - UEL, Londrina, PR, Brazil.

Several studies have demonstrated that peptides obtained from the proteins of different bean species have the potential to act on therapeutic targets of noncommunicable chronic diseases or NCDs. However, peptides with great structural diversity can be obtained from the hydrolysis of proteins present in foods. Therefore, the present review had the objective of identifying, the possibility of obtaining peptides with potential biological activity from the storage globulin proteins of the bean species (L. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2020.1768047DOI Listing

Fundamentals about onset and progressive disease character of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Authors:
Rob Nm Weijers

World J Diabetes 2020 May;11(5):165-181

Teaching Hospital, Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis, Amsterdam 1090, Netherlands.

ResearchGate is a world wide web for scientists and researchers to share papers, ask and answer questions, and find collaborators. As one of the more than 15 million members, the author uploads research output and reads and responds to some of the questions raised, which are related to type 2 diabetes. In that way, he noticed a serious gap of knowledge of this disease among medical professionals over recent decades. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4239/wjd.v11.i5.165DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7243486PMC

Early-life Programming of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Understanding the Association between Epigenetics/Genetics and Environmental Factors.

Curr Genomics 2019 Sep;20(6):453-463

Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, USA.

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is an increasing public health problem that poses a severe social and economic burden affecting both developed and developing countries. Defects in insulin signaling itself are among the earliest indications that an individual is predisposed to the development of insulin resistance and subsequently Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. To date, however, the underlying molecular mechanisms which result in resistance to the actions of insulin are poorly understood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1389202920666191009110724DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7235385PMC
September 2019

Comparing effects of continuous glucose monitoring systems (CGMs) and self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) amongst adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review protocol.

Syst Rev 2020 May 31;9(1):120. Epub 2020 May 31.

School of Health and Rehabilitation, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, 611137, China.

Background: Continuous glucose monitorings (CGMs) have been used to manage diabetes with reasonable glucose control amongst patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) in recent decades. CGMs measure interstitial fluid glucose levels to provide information about glucose levels, which identify fluctuation that would not have been identified with conventional self-monitoring. Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is a classical tool to measure glycaemic changes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13643-020-01386-7DOI Listing

Clinical inertia in the treatment of heart failure: a major issue to tackle.

Heart Fail Rev 2020 May 30. Epub 2020 May 30.

Novartis Pharma nv-sa, Medialaan 40, 1800, Vilvoorde, Belgium.

Despite an enormous improvement in heart failure management during the last decades, the hospitalization and mortality rate of heart failure patients still remain very high. Clinical inertia, defined as the lack of treatment intensification in a patient not at evidence-based goals for care, is an important underlying cause. Clinical inertia is extensively described in hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus, but increasingly recognized in heart failure as well. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10741-020-09979-zDOI Listing

A novel risk factor for predicting anti-tuberculosis drug resistance in patients with tuberculosis complicated with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Int J Infect Dis 2020 May 28. Epub 2020 May 28.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041, China; West China School of Medicine, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041, China. Electronic address:

Objectives: This work aimed to explore the relationship between glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and the risk of anti-tuberculosis (TB) drug resistance for TB-type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients.

Methods: From March 2014 to June 2019, medical records from multi-centers were searched. Logistic regression analyses were performed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2020.05.080DOI Listing

The impact of metformin and aspirin on T-cell mediated inflammation: A systematic review of in vitro and in vivo findings.

Life Sci 2020 May 26:117854. Epub 2020 May 26.

School of Laboratory Medicine and Medical Sciences (SLMMS), College of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa. Electronic address:

Chronic inflammation and hyperglycaemia are now well-established aspects in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), including the progression of its associated complications such as cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). In fact, emerging evidence shows that dysfunctional immune responses due to dysregulated T-cell function aggravates CVD-related complications in T2D. However, the major consequence is lacking specific therapeutic interventions that protect diabetic patients at risk of heart failure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2020.117854DOI Listing

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Drugs for Alzheimer's Disease: Current Evidence and Therapeutic Opportunities.

Trends Mol Med 2020 Jun 23;26(6):597-614. Epub 2020 Mar 23.

Institute of Biomedical Research, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo, Shandong, People's Republic of China; Zibo Key Laboratory of New Drug Development of Neurodegenerative Diseases, Shandong Provincial Research Center for Bioinformatic Engineering and Technique, School of Life Sciences, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo, Shandong, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Alzheimer's disease (AD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) represent two major health burdens with steadily increasing prevalence and accumulating evidence indicates a close relationship between the two disorders. In view of their similar pathogenesis, the potential of T2DM drugs for the treatment of AD has attracted considerable attention in recent years, with inspiring outcomes. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of the effects of a total of 14 individual drugs (among which are seven T2DM drug types) against AD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molmed.2020.02.002DOI Listing

Screening for type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2020 05 29;5:CD005266. Epub 2020 May 29.

Cochrane South Africa, South African Medical Research Council, Cape Town, South Africa.

Background: Diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disorder characterised by hyperglycaemia and associated with a heavy burden of microvascular and macrovascular complications, frequently remains undiagnosed. Screening of apparently healthy individuals may lead to early detection and treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus and may prevent or delay the development of related complications.

Objectives: To assess the effects of screening for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD005266.pub2DOI Listing

[Selenium and zinc: "antioxidants" for healthy aging?]

Z Gerontol Geriatr 2020 May 28. Epub 2020 May 28.

Institut für Ernährungswissenschaften, Nutrigenomik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Dornburger Str. 29, 07743, Jena, Deutschland.

Selenium and zinc are essential trace elements and an inadequate dietary intake has been implicated in the decline of immune and cognitive functions in aged persons and in the pathogenesis of age-related disorders. Both micronutrients are often marketed as "antioxidants" in mineral supplements; however, neither selenium nor zinc are antioxidants per se but they may exert beneficial effects as components of enzymes and other proteins that catalyze redox reactions and/or are involved in the maintenance of redox homeostasis. According to epidemiological data older individuals have an increased risk of developing deficiencies in the selenium and zinc status; however, such statistical correlations in epidemiological studies do not imply a causal association. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00391-020-01735-0DOI Listing

Diabetic‑induced alterations in hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism: The role of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (Review).

Mol Med Rep 2020 May 22. Epub 2020 May 22.

Department of Paediatrics, Paediatric Research Institute, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40202, USA.

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a growing health concern in society. Type 1 and type 2 DM are the two main types of diabetes; both types are chronic diseases that affect glucose metabolism in the body and the impaired regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism promotes the development and progression of DM. During the physiological metabolism process, the liver serves a unique role in glucose and lipid metabolism. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2020.11175DOI Listing

Treatment of Hepatitis C Virus and Long-Term Effect on Glycemic Control.

J Manag Care Spec Pharm 2020 Jun;26(6):775-781

Department of Clinical Sciences, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Background: Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has been linked to worsening glycemic control in patients with diabetes due to insulin resistance. Studies have shown that treating HCV improves glycemic control in this patient population. Most studies assess glycemic control until the patient's sustained viral response at 12 weeks (SVR12). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18553/jmcp.2020.26.6.775DOI Listing

[Physiological effects, mechanisms of action and application of lactulose].

Vopr Pitan 2020;89(2):5-20. Epub 2020 Mar 16.

North-Caucasus Federal University, 355009, Stavropol, Russian Federation.

The discovery of lactulose as a bifidogenic factor became the background for the appearance of the prebiotics concept. Currently, lactulose is the most studied in terms of medical use oligosaccharide with a high prebiotic index. The exact mechanisms of action of lactulose remain largely unknown despite a number of new researches based on modern methods of molecular biology, genetics, and bioinformatics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.24411/0042-8833-2020-10012DOI Listing

The Effect of Natural Antioxidants in the Development of Metabolic Syndrome: Focus on Bergamot Polyphenolic Fraction.

Nutrients 2020 May 21;12(5). Epub 2020 May 21.

Institute of Research for Food Safety & Health IRC-FSH, University Magna Graecia, 88100 Catanzaro, Italy.

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) represents a set of clinical findings that include visceral adiposity, insulin-resistance, high triglycerides (TG), low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and hypertension, which is linked to an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). The pathogenesis of MetS involves both genetic and acquired factors triggering oxidative stress, cellular dysfunction and systemic inflammation process mainly responsible for the pathophysiological mechanism. In recent years, MetS has gained importance due to the exponential increase in obesity worldwide. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12051504DOI Listing

Cardiovascular outcomes, heart failure and mortality in Type 2 diabetic patients treated with glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs): a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational cohort studies.

Int J Clin Pract 2020 May 25:e13553. Epub 2020 May 25.

Fundacio Institut Catala de Farmacologia, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: Cardiovascular outcomes trials (CVOTs) have assessed the effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) on major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and mortality in high cardiovascular (CV) risk populations. Observational research can provide complementary evidence about these effects in unselected populations.

Aim: To systematically review retrospective observational cohort studies conducted in electronic healthcare databases (EHDs) assessing GLP-1 RAs´ effects on MACE and/or hospitalisation for heart failure (HHF) and/or all-cause mortality in Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ijcp.13553DOI Listing

Microvascular and lymphatic dysfunction in HFpEF and its associated comorbidities.

Basic Res Cardiol 2020 May 25;115(4):39. Epub 2020 May 25.

Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (Inserm) UMR1096, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, Normandy University, 22 Boulevard Gambetta, 76183, Rouen, France.

Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a complex heterogeneous disease for which our pathophysiological understanding is still limited and specific prevention and treatment strategies are lacking. HFpEF is characterised by diastolic dysfunction and cardiac remodelling (fibrosis, inflammation, and hypertrophy). Recently, microvascular dysfunction and chronic low-grade inflammation have been proposed to participate in HFpEF development. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00395-020-0798-yDOI Listing

Effects of zinc supplementation on lipid profile in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2020 Mar 28. Epub 2020 Mar 28.

Students' Scientific Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Background And Aim: Findings on the effects of zinc supplementation on the lipid profile in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are conflicting. The current comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to summarize available evidence in this regard.

Methods And Results: After a systematic search in the online databases, we included the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the effect of zinc supplementation on lipid profile [total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglyceride (TG)] in patients with T2DM. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.numecd.2020.03.021DOI Listing

A theoretical framework to guide a study for exploring the impact of established and potential risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Authors:
Joshua Minks

Appl Nurs Res 2020 Jun 19;53:151267. Epub 2020 Apr 19.

Jonas Veterans Health Scholar, University of Missouri, 1 University Blvd, Ste. 40, Saint Louis, MO 63121, United States of America. Electronic address:

Aim: The purpose of this paper is to present the conceptual framework that was used to guide a study on the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

Background: The Stress and Coping Framework for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus was developed in response to a review of the literature that suggests psychological stress, or simply distress, can contribute toward the development of T2DM with the established risk factors of genetic risk for diabetes (GRD), obesity, and advancing age. The literature shows that distress can influence insulin sensitivity and contribute to the development of T2DM; however, much of the literature fails to acknowledge the influence of distress in collaboration with GRD, obesity, and advancing age. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apnr.2020.151267DOI Listing

Consensus document: management of heart failure in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Heart Fail Rev 2020 May 24. Epub 2020 May 24.

Sri Jayadeva Institute of Cardiovascular Sciences and Research, Bangalore, 560 069, India.

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a known predisposing factor for heart failure (HF). The growing burden of these two conditions and their impact on health of the individual and on society in general needs urgent attention from the health care professionals. Availability of multiple treatment choices for managing T2DM and HF may make therapeutic decisions more complex for clinicians. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10741-020-09955-7DOI Listing

Immunomodulation in Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction: Current State and Future Perspectives.

J Cardiovasc Transl Res 2020 May 22. Epub 2020 May 22.

Laboratory of Experimental Cardiology, Cardiology, UMC Utrecht Regenerative Medicine Center, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands.

The heart failure (HF) epidemic is growing and approximately half of the HF patients have heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). HFpEF is a heterogeneous syndrome, characterized by a preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF ≥ 50%) with diastolic dysfunction, and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Underlying comorbidities of HFpEF, i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12265-020-10026-3DOI Listing

Tear Levels of IGFBP-3: A Potential Biomarker for Diabetic Nerve Changes in the Cornea.

Eye Contact Lens 2020 May 14. Epub 2020 May 14.

Department of Ophthalmology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX.

Introduction: Type 2 diabetes mellitus has reached epidemic levels in the United States and worldwide. Ocular complications from this disease include diabetic retinopathy and keratopathy, both of which can lead to significant vision loss. While frequently underappreciated, diabetic keratopathy is associated with painful ocular surface disorders, including corneal erosions and delayed wound healing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ICL.0000000000000700DOI Listing

Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists Cardio-protective effects: an umbrella review.

Curr Diabetes Rev 2020 May 22. Epub 2020 May 22.

College of Pharmacy, Al Ain University, Al Ain. United Arab Emirates.

Background: We thought to delve deeper seven meta-analyses of major clinical trials focusing on GlucagonLike Peptide-One Receptor Agonist (GLP-1 RA) cardio-protective effect.

Aim: We explored the role of GLP-1 RA in cardiovascular risk protection as primary outcome in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Methodology: The current review has explored and critically appraised seven meta-analyses of placebo-controlled randomized clinical trials involving GLP-1 RA used in diabetes that have exhibited major cardiovascular events as primary outcome. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1573399816666200522214554DOI Listing

Role of Gliclazide MR in the Management of Type 2 Diabetes: Report of a Symposium on Real-World Evidence and New Perspectives.

Diabetes Ther 2020 May 21. Epub 2020 May 21.

Life Chatsmed Garden Hospital and Nelson R. Mandela School of Medicine, Durban, South Africa.

In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) who require additional glucose-lowering on top of first-line metformin monotherapy, sulfonylureas are the most common choice for second-line therapy followed by dipeptidyl peptidase inhibitors (DPP-4i). This article summarises presentations at a symposium entitled "Real-World Evidence and New Perspectives with Gliclazide MR" held at the International Diabetes Federation Congress in Busan, South Korea on 4 December 2019. Although guideline recommendations vary between countries, the guidelines with the highest quality ratings include sulfonylureas as one of the preferred choices as second-line therapy for T2DM. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13300-020-00833-xDOI Listing

Remodeling adipose tissue inflammasome for type 2 diabetes mellitus treatment: Current perspective and translational strategies.

Bioeng Transl Med 2020 May 13;5(2):e10150. Epub 2019 Dec 13.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences North Dakota State University Fargo North Dakota.

Obesity-associated type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by low-grade chronic systemic inflammation that arises primarily from the white adipose tissue. The interplay between various adipose tissue-derived chemokines drives insulin resistance in T2DM and has therefore become a subject of rigorous investigation. The adipocytokines strongly associated with glucose homeostasis include tumor necrosis factor-α, various interleukins, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, adiponectin, and leptin, among others. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/btm2.10150DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7237149PMC

Combination gut hormones: prospects and questions for the future of obesity and diabetes therapy.

J Endocrinol 2020 May 1. Epub 2020 May 1.

T Tan, Digestion, Metabolism and Reproduction, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

Obesity represents an important public health challenge for the 21st century: globalised, highly prevalent and increasingly common with time, this condition is likely to reverse some of the hard-won gains in mortality accomplished in previous centuries. In the search for safe and effective therapies for obesity and its companion, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), the gut hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) has emerged as a forerunner and analogues thereof are now widely used in treatment of obesity and T2D, bringing proven benefits in improving glycaemia and weight loss, and, notably, cardiovascular outcomes. However, GLP-1 alone is subject to limitations in terms of efficacy; as a result, investigators are evaluating other gut hormones such as glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), glucagon and peptide YY (PYY) as possible partner hormones that may complement and enhance GLP-1's therapeutic effects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/JOE-20-0119DOI Listing

Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists or sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors as add-on therapy for patients with type 2 diabetes? A systematic review and meta-analysis of surrogate metabolic endpoints.

Diabetes Metab 2020 May 8. Epub 2020 May 8.

Second Propaedeutic Department of Internal Medicine, General Hospital Ippokrateio, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Konstantinoupoleos 49, 54642 Thessaloniki, Greece; VAMC and George Washington University, Washington, DC, USA.

Objective: As sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT-2is) and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) are second-line treatment options in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), our study sought to provide precise effect estimates regarding the role of GLP-1RAs vs SGLT-2is as add-on treatments in patients uncontrolled by metformin monotherapy.

Research Design And Methods: PubMed, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and 'grey literature' were searched from their inception up to December 2019 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with durations≥12weeks to evaluate the safety and efficacy of adding a GLP-1RA vs an SGLT-2i in patients with T2DM.

Results: Three eligible RCTs were identified. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.diabet.2020.04.001DOI Listing

Vascular cognitive impairment and dementia in type 2 diabetes mellitus: An overview.

Life Sci 2020 May 11;254:117771. Epub 2020 May 11.

Department of Anesthesiology, Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100020, China. Electronic address:

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) as well as vascular cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID), are both chronic diseases, severely affecting patients, families, and society. A growing number of studies have found that T2DM may double the incidence of cognitive impairment. To help patients with T2DM prevent cognitive dysfunction more scientifically, as well as providing researchers with clearer research ideas, we summarized the risk factors, mechanisms and prevention methods of VCID which is induced by T2DM. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2020.117771DOI Listing

Obesity Phenotypes, Diabetes, and Cardiovascular Diseases.

Circ Res 2020 May 21;126(11):1477-1500. Epub 2020 May 21.

From the Centre de recherche de l'Institut universitaire de cardiologie et de pneumologie de Québec - Université Laval (M.-E.P., A.T., J.-P.D.), Université Laval, Québec, QC, Canada.

This review addresses the interplay between obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular diseases. It is proposed that obesity, generally defined by an excess of body fat causing prejudice to health, can no longer be evaluated solely by the body mass index (expressed in kg/m) because it represents a heterogeneous entity. For instance, several cardiometabolic imaging studies have shown that some individuals who have a normal weight or who are overweight are at high risk if they have an excess of visceral adipose tissue-a condition often accompanied by accumulation of fat in normally lean tissues (ectopic fat deposition in liver, heart, skeletal muscle, etc). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.120.316101DOI Listing

Metabolic Inflammation and Insulin Resistance in Obesity.

Circ Res 2020 May 21;126(11):1549-1564. Epub 2020 May 21.

From the Department of Medicine (H.W., C.M.B.), Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX.

Obesity is becoming an epidemic in the United States and worldwide and increases risk for many diseases, particularly insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease. The mechanisms linking obesity with these diseases remain incompletely understood. Over the past 2 to 3 decades, it has been recognized that in obesity, inflammation, with increased accumulation and inflammatory polarization of immune cells, takes place in various tissues, including adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, liver, gut, pancreatic islet, and brain and may contribute to obesity-linked metabolic dysfunctions, leading to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.119.315896DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7250139PMC

Evaluation of the safety of SGLT-2 inhibitors for treating patients with type 1 diabetes.

Diabetes Obes Metab 2020 May 21. Epub 2020 May 21.

Department of Endocrinology, Beijing Hospital, National Center of Gerontology, Institute of Geriatric Medicine, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, P.R. China.

Introduction: Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors have been widely used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and have been found to achieve good therapeutic results. There is still controversy about SGLT-2 inhibitors and whether or not they can be effectively used for the treatment of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM).

Materials And Methods: We searched three databases (Pubmed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library) for randomized controlled trials that treated T1DM by using SGLT-2 inhibitors from our study inception through March 5, 2020. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/dom.14092DOI Listing

Neuroprotective Effects of Diabetes Drugs for the Treatment of Neonatal Hypoxia-Ischemia Encephalopathy.

Front Cell Neurosci 2020 6;14:112. Epub 2020 May 6.

UCL School of Pharmacy, University College London, London, United Kingdom.

The perinatal period represents a time of great vulnerability for the developing brain. A variety of injuries can result in death or devastating injury causing profound neurocognitive deficits. Hypoxic-ischemic neonatal encephalopathy (HIE) remains the leading cause of brain injury in term infants during the perinatal period with limited options available to aid in recovery. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fncel.2020.00112DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7218053PMC

Nanotechnology as a tool to overcome the bariatric surgery malabsorption.

Saudi Pharm J 2020 May 19;28(5):565-573. Epub 2020 Mar 19.

Kayyali Chair for Pharmaceutical Industries, Department of Pharmaceutics, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Obesity is a metabolic disease that affects all ages; it is considered life-threatening condition as it leads to fatal complications such as; cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. The therapeutic options include; life-style modifications, pharmacotherapy intervention, and surgical intervention. Bariatric surgery (BS) is considered as the most effective option among the others for its rapid weight loss, maintaining the lost mass, and improving the quality of life of the patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsps.2020.03.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7229319PMC

Oral microbiome-systemic link studies: perspectives on current limitations and future artificial intelligence-based approaches.

Crit Rev Microbiol 2020 May 21:1-12. Epub 2020 May 21.

Department of Preventive Dentistry, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam, University of Amsterdam and Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

In the past decade, there has been a tremendous increase in studies on the link between oral microbiome and systemic diseases. However, variations in study design and confounding variables across studies often lead to inconsistent observations. In this narrative review, we have discussed the potential influence of study design and confounding variables on the current sequencing-based oral microbiome-systemic disease link studies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1040841X.2020.1766414DOI Listing

Applications of Mass Spectrometry in the Onset of Amyloid Fibril Formation: Focus on the Analysis of Early-Stage Oligomers.

Front Chem 2020 5;8:324. Epub 2020 May 5.

Key Laboratory of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, School of Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, China.

Amyloid fibril formation is a hallmark of diverse neurodegenerative and metabolic diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Conventional diagnosis is based on the appearance of fibrils or plaques, while neglects the role of early-stage oligomers in the disease progression. Recent studies have uncovered that it is the early-stage oligomer, rather than the mature fibril, that greatly contributes cytotoxicity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fchem.2020.00324DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7215083PMC

Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Position Statement of the Fatty Liver Research Group of the Korean Diabetes Association.

Diabetes Metab J 2020 May 11. Epub 2020 May 11.

Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Gachon University Gil Medical Center, Gachon University College of Medicine, Incheon, Korea.

This clinical practice position statement, a product of the Fatty Liver Research Group of the Korean Diabetes Association, proposes recommendations for the diagnosis, progression and/or severity assessment, management, and follow-up of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Patients with both T2DM and NAFLD have an increased risk of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and fibrosis and a higher risk of cardiovascular diseases and diabetic complications compared to those without NAFLD. With regards to the evaluation of patients with T2DM and NAFLD, ultrasonography-based stepwise approaches using noninvasive biomarker models such as fibrosis-4 or the NAFLD fibrosis score as well as imaging studies such as vibration-controlled transient elastography with controlled attenuation parameter or magnetic resonance imaging-proton density fat fraction are recommended. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2020.0010DOI Listing

Consequences of Obesity on the Sense of Taste: Taste Buds as Treatment Targets?

Diabetes Metab J 2020 May 11. Epub 2020 May 11.

Helmholtz Institute for Metabolic, Obesity and Vascular Research (HI-MAG) of the Helmholtz Center Munich at the University of Leipzig and University Hospital Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany.

Premature obesity-related mortality is caused by cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases, type 2 diabetes mellitus, physical disabilities, osteoarthritis, and certain types of cancer. Obesity is caused by a positive energy balance due to hyper-caloric nutrition, low physical activity, and energy expenditure. Overeating is partially driven by impaired homeostatic feedback of the peripheral energy status in obesity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2020.0058DOI Listing

Circulating Cardiac Biomarkers in Diabetes Mellitus: A New Dawn for Risk Stratification-A Narrative Review.

Diabetes Ther 2020 Jun 19;11(6):1271-1291. Epub 2020 May 19.

Internal Medicine Department, Medical Academy of Post-Graduate Education, Ministry of Health of Ukraine, Zaporozhye, 69096, Ukraine.

The aim of this narrative review is to update the current knowledge on the differential choice of circulating cardiac biomarkers in patients with prediabetes and established type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). There are numerous circulating biomarkers with unconfirmed abilities to predict clinical outcomes in pre-DM and DM individuals; the prognostication ability of the cardiac biomarkers reported here has been established, and they are still being studied. The conventional cardiac biomarkers, such as natriuretic peptides (NPs), soluble suppressor tumorigenisity-2, high-sensitivity circulating cardiac troponins and galectin-3, were useful to ascertain cardiovascular (CV) risk. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13300-020-00835-9DOI Listing

Current Data Regarding the Relationship between Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Cardiovascular Risk Factors.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2020 May 16;10(5). Epub 2020 May 16.

Department of Preclinical Disciplines, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, University of Oradea, 410073 Oradea, Romania.

Reducing cardiovascular risk (CVR) is the main focus of diabetes mellitus (DM) management nowadays. Complex pathogenic mechanisms that are the subject of this review lead to early and severe atherosclerosis in DM patients. Although it is not a cardiovascular disease equivalent at the moment of diagnosis, DM subjects are affected by numerous cardiovascular complications, such as acute coronary syndrome, stroke, or peripheral artery disease, as the disease duration increases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics10050314DOI Listing

Mitochondrial dysfunction in metabolic syndrome.

Authors:
Pankaj Prasun

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis 2020 May 16;1866(10):165838. Epub 2020 May 16.

Department of Genetics and Genomic Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, USA. Electronic address:

Metabolic syndrome is co-occurrence of obesity, insulin resistance, atherogenic dyslipidemia (high triglyceride, low high density lipoprotein cholesterol), and hypertension. It is a global health problem. An estimated 20%-30% of adults of the world have metabolic syndrome. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbadis.2020.165838DOI Listing

Use of dental practices for the identification of adults with undiagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus or non-diabetic hyperglycaemia: a systematic review.

Diabet Med 2020 May 19. Epub 2020 May 19.

Department of Health Sciences, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK.

Aim: Type 2 diabetes is a growing global challenge. Evidence exists demonstrating the use of primary care (non-hospital based) dental practices to identify, through risk assessments, those who may be at increased risk of type 2 diabetes or who may already unknowingly have the condition. This review aimed to synthesize evidence associated with the use of primary care dental services for the identification of undiagnosed non-diabetic hyperglycaemia or type 2 diabetes in adults, with particular focus on the pick-up rate of new cases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/dme.14324DOI Listing

Emerging Targets for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Diabetes.

Trends Mol Med 2020 May 15. Epub 2020 May 15.

Department of Medicine, Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology and Nutrition, University of Washington Medicine Diabetes Institute, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA 98109, USA; Department of Pathology, University of Washington Medicine Diabetes Institute, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA 98109, USA. Electronic address:

Type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T1DM and T2DM) increase the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD), resulting in acute cardiovascular events, such as heart attack and stroke. Recent clinical trials point toward new treatment and prevention strategies for cardiovascular complications of T2DM. New antidiabetic agents show unexpected cardioprotective benefits. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molmed.2020.03.011DOI Listing

Unravelling the utility of modern sulfonylureas from cardiovascular outcome trials and landmark trials: expert opinion from an international panel.

Indian Heart J 2020 Jan - Feb;72(1):7-13. Epub 2020 Jan 13.

Department of Diabetes, Faculty of Internal Medicine, Royal Oman Police Hospital, Muscat, Oman.

Aim: The primary objective of this review is to develop practice-based expert group opinions on the cardiovascular (CV) safety and utility of modern sulfonylureas (SUs) in cardiovascular outcome trials (CVOTs).

Background: The United States Food and Drug Administration issued new guidance to the pharmaceutical industry in 2008 regarding the development of new antihyperglycemic drugs. The guidance expanded the scope for the approval of novel antihyperglycemic drugs by mandating CVOTs for safety. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ihj.2020.01.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7231843PMC
January 2020

Interlink between insulin resistance and neurodegeneration with an update on current therapeutic approaches.

CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets 2020 May 17. Epub 2020 May 17.

Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, School of Pharmacy, International Medical University, Bukit Jalil 57000, Kuala Lumpur. Malaysia.

Background & Objective: The interlink between diabetes mellitus and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) has been identified by several researchers. Patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are found to be affected with cognitive impairments leading to learning and memory deficit, while patients with type-1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) showed less severe levels of these impairments in the brain. This review aimed to discuss the connection between insulin with the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases (AD and PD) and the current therapeutic approached mediated through insulin for management of neurodegenerative diseases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1871527319666200518102130DOI Listing