31,917 results match your criteria Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 - A Review


Epidemiology and Economic Burden of Cardiovascular Disease in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Spain: A Systematic Review.

Diabetes Ther 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, University of Oviedo, Oviedo, Spain.

Introduction: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The objectives of this systematic literature review were to identify and synthesize published data describing the epidemiology and mortality of CVD in the T2DM population and the associated economic burden.

Methods: We conducted a systematic review searching the PubMed and MEDES databases from 2009 to 2019 using predefined selection criteria. Read More

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The pleiotropic of GLP-1/GLP-1R axis in central nervous system diseases.

Int J Neurosci 2021 May 3:1-38. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Anesthesiology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China.

Glucagon-like peptide-1(GLP-1) is a multifunctional polypeptide throughout the lifespan via activating Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R).GLP-1 can affect food ingestion, enhance the secretion of insulin from pancreatic islets induced by glucose and be utilized to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus(T2DM).But, accumulating evidences from the decades suggest that activation GLP-1R can not only regulate the blood glucose, but also sustain the homeostasis of intracellular environment and protect neuron from various damaged responses such as oxidative stress, inflammation, excitotoxicity, ischemia and so on. Read More

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End-to-end application of model-informed drug development for ertugliflozin, a novel sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor.

CPT Pharmacometrics Syst Pharmacol 2021 May 1. Epub 2021 May 1.

Pfizer Inc, Groton, CT, USA.

Model-informed drug development (MIDD) is critical in all stages of the drug development process and almost all regulatory submissions for new agents incorporate some form of modeling and simulation. This review describes the MIDD approaches used in the end-to-end development of ertugliflozin, a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor approved for the treatment of adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Approaches included (1) quantitative systems pharmacology modeling to predict dose-response relationships, (2) dose-response modeling and model-based meta-analysis for dose selection and efficacy comparisons, (3) population pharmacokinetics (PK) modeling to characterize PK and quantify population variability in PK parameters, (4) regression modeling to evaluate ertugliflozin dose-proportionality and the impact of uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A9 genotype on ertugliflozin PK, and (5) physiologically based PK modeling to assess the risk of UGT-mediated drug-drug interactions. Read More

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The association of dietary energy density and the risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.

Int J Clin Pract 2021 May 1:e14291. Epub 2021 May 1.

Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Tehran, Iran.

Objectives: There is a growing body of evidence linking dietary energy density (DED) with metabolic disorders like obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D) and metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, according to our knowledge, there has been no systematic review and mate-analysis on T2D and MetS with DED. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the association between DED with the risk of obesity, T2D and MetS in a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Read More

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Lifestyle interventions to reduce sedentary behaviour in clinical populations: A systematic review and meta-analysis of different strategies and effects on cardiometabolic health.

Prev Med 2021 Apr 27:106593. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

SMRC - Sports Medical Research Center, BIOMED Biomedical Research Institute, Faculty of Medicine and Life Science, Hasselt University, Hasselt, Belgium.

Cardiometabolic comorbidities are highly prevalent in clinical populations, and have been associated (partly) with their sedentary lifestyle. Although lifestyle interventions targeting sedentary behaviour (SB) have been studied extensively in the general population, the effect of such strategies in clinical populations is not yet clear. Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis evaluated the effect of different lifestyle interventions on SB and cardiometabolic health in clinical populations. Read More

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A Nephrologist Perspective on Obesity: From Kidney Injury to Clinical Management.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 13;8:655871. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Nephrology Department, Vall d'Hebron University Hospital, Barcelona, Spain.

Obesity is one of the epidemics of our era. Its prevalence is higher than 30% in the U.S. Read More

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Heart failure outcomes and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists: A systematic review of observational studies.

Prim Care Diabetes 2021 Apr 26. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Pharmacy Practice, College of Pharmacy, Qassim University, Qassim, Saudi Arabia.

Aim/objective: Recently, the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RA) class showed a significant reduction in heart failure (HF) hospitalization in several meta-analyses of cardiovascular outcome trials (CVOTs). The objective of this systematic review is to summarize the real-world evidence regarding HF outcomes of GLP-1RAs.

Methods: We searched the PubMed and EMBASE databases for observational studies that investigated HF outcomes of GLP-1RAs. Read More

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The Role of Lipid Sensing Nuclear Receptors (PPARs and LXR) and Metabolic Lipases in Obesity, Diabetes and NAFLD.

Genes (Basel) 2021 Apr 26;12(5). Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Hans Popper Laboratory of Molecular Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine III, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Medical University of Vienna, 1090 Wien, Austria.

Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are metabolic disorders characterized by metabolic inflexibility with multiple pathological organ manifestations, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Nuclear receptors are ligand-dependent transcription factors with a multifaceted role in controlling many metabolic activities, such as regulation of genes involved in lipid and glucose metabolism and modulation of inflammatory genes. The activity of nuclear receptors is key in maintaining metabolic flexibility. Read More

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Role of Oral Antioxidant Supplementation in the Current Management of Diabetic Retinopathy.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 13;22(8). Epub 2021 Apr 13.

FISABIO-Oftalmología Médica (FOM), Vitreoretinal Unit, 46015 Valencia, Spain.

Oxidative stress has been postulated as an underlying pathophysiologic mechanism of diabetic retinopathy (DR), the main cause of avoidable blindness in working-aged people. This review addressed the current daily clinical practice of DR and the role of antioxidants in this practice. A systematic review of the studies on antioxidant supplementation in DR patients was presented. Read More

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Cardiovascular Disease in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: Epidemiology and Management of Cardiovascular Risk.

J Clin Med 2021 Apr 20;10(8). Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Endocrinology and Nutrition Department, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau-Hospital Dos de Maig, 08041 Barcelona, Spain.

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of mortality in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) patients, and cardiovascular risk (CVR) remains high even in T1DM patients with good metabolic control. The underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood and known risk factors seem to operate differently in T1DM and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. However, evidence of cardiovascular risk assessment and management in T1DM patients often is extrapolated from studies on T2DM patients or the general population. Read More

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Molecular Mechanisms of Apoptosis Induction and Its Regulation by Fatty Acids in Pancreatic β-Cells.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 20;22(8). Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Biochemistry, Cell and Molecular Biology & Center for Research of Diabetes, Metabolism and Nutrition, Third Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Ruská 87, 100 00 Prague, Czech Republic.

Pancreatic β-cell failure and death contribute significantly to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. One of the main factors responsible for β-cell dysfunction and subsequent cell death is chronic exposure to increased concentrations of FAs (fatty acids). The effect of FAs seems to depend particularly on the degree of their saturation. Read More

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Therapeutic Potential of Alpha-1 Antitrypsin in Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2021 Apr 20;57(4). Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Medicine, State University of New York Downstate Health Sciences University, Brooklyn, NY 11203, USA.

Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) has established anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease but there is increasing evidence of its role in other inflammatory and immune-mediated conditions, like diabetes mellitus (DM). AAT activity is altered in both developing and established type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) as well in established type 2 DM (T2DM). Augmentation therapy with AAT appears to favorably impact T1DM development in mice models and to affect β-cell function and inflammation in humans with T1DM. Read More

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Role of Insulin Resistance in MAFLD.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 16;22(8). Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Toranomon Hospital, Tokyo 105-8470, Japan.

Many studies have reported that metabolic dysfunction is closely involved in the complex mechanism underlying the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which has prompted a movement to consider renaming NAFLD as metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD). Metabolic dysfunction in this context encompasses obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and metabolic syndrome, with insulin resistance as the common underlying pathophysiology. Imbalance between energy intake and expenditure results in insulin resistance in various tissues and alteration of the gut microbiota, resulting in fat accumulation in the liver. Read More

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Adipocyte, Immune Cells, and miRNA Crosstalk: A Novel Regulator of Metabolic Dysfunction and Obesity.

Cells 2021 Apr 24;10(5). Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Tennessee Health Science Center (UTHSC), 881 Madison Avenue, Memphis, TN 38103, USA.

Obesity is characterized as a complex and multifactorial excess accretion of adipose tissue (AT) accompanied with alterations in the immune response that affects virtually all age and socioeconomic groups around the globe. The abnormal accumulation of AT leads to several metabolic diseases, including nonalcoholic fatty liver disorder (NAFLD), low-grade inflammation, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), cardiovascular disorders (CVDs), and cancer. AT is an endocrine organ composed of adipocytes and immune cells, including B-Cells, T-cells and macrophages. Read More

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Use of Anti-Diabetic Agents in Non-Diabetic Kidney Disease: From Bench to Bedside.

Life (Basel) 2021 Apr 25;11(5). Epub 2021 Apr 25.

Department of Internal Medicine, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul 04763, Korea.

New drugs were recently developed to treat hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). However, metformin remains the first-line anti-diabetic agent because of its cost-effectiveness. It has pleiotropic action that produces cardiovascular benefits, and it can be useful in diabetic nephropathy, although metformin-associated lactic acidosis is a hindrance to its use in patients with kidney failure. Read More

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Apolipoprotein Mimetic Peptides: An Emerging Therapy against Diabetic Inflammation and Dyslipidemia.

Biomolecules 2021 Apr 23;11(5). Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB), Birmingham, AL 35294, USA.

Obesity has achieved epidemic status in the United States, resulting in an increase in type 2 diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular disease. Numerous studies have shown that inflammation plays a key role in the development of insulin resistance and diabetic complications. HDL cholesterol levels are inversely associated with coronary heart disease in humans. Read More

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Crosstalk of Magnesium and Serum Lipids in Dyslipidemia and Associated Disorders: A Systematic Review.

Nutrients 2021 Apr 22;13(5). Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Faculty of Medicine, "Carol Davila" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 050474 Bucharest, Romania.

Dyslipidemia is a significant threat to public health worldwide and the identification of its pathogenic mechanisms, as well as novel lipid-lowering agents, are warranted. Magnesium (Mg) is a key element to human health and its deficiency has been linked to the development of lipid abnormalities and related disorders, such as the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, or cardiovascular disease. In this review, we explored the associations of Mg (dietary intake, Mg concentrations in the body) and the lipid profile, as well as the impact of Mg supplementation on serum lipids. Read More

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The Influence of Anti-Diabetic Drugs on Prostate Cancer.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Apr 12;13(8). Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medical Sciences in Katowice, Medical University of Silesia, Medyków 18, 40-752 Katowice, Poland.

The incidences of prostate cancer (PC) and diabetes are increasing, with a sustained trend. The occurrence of PC and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is growing with aging. The correlation between PC occurrence and diabetes is noteworthy, as T2DM is correlated with a reduced risk of incidence of prostate cancer. Read More

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Mediterranean Diet and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Perpetual Inspiration for the Scientific World. A Review.

Nutrients 2021 Apr 15;13(4). Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Faculty of Medicine, Sarajevo University, 71000 Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

For the past 80 years, the effect of the Mediterranean diet on overall health has been a constant topic of interest among medical and scientific researchers. Parallel with the persistent global rise of cases of type 2 diabetes, many studies conducted in the past 20 years have shown the benefits of the Mediterranean lifestyle for people with, or at risk of developing, type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, despite the large body of evidence, concerns exist amongst scientists regarding the reliability of the data related to this topic. Read More

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Diabetes and Cancer: Metabolic Association, Therapeutic Challenges, and the Role of Natural Products.

Molecules 2021 Apr 10;26(8). Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Health Sciences, College of Natural and Health Sciences, Zayed University, Abu Dhabi 144534, United Arab Emirates.

Cancer is considered the second leading cause of death worldwide and in 2018 it was responsible for approximately 9.6 million deaths. Globally, about one in six deaths are caused by cancer. Read More

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Dietary Strategies for Management of Metabolic Syndrome: Role of Gut Microbiota Metabolites.

Nutrients 2021 Apr 21;13(5). Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Experimental Medicine, Tor Vergata University of Rome, 00133 Rome, Italy.

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a complex pathophysiological state with incidence similar to that of a global epidemic and represents a risk factor for the onset of chronic non-communicable degenerative diseases (NCDDs), including cardiovascular disease (CVD), type 2 diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, and some types of cancer. A plethora of literature data suggest the potential role of gut microbiota in interfering with the host metabolism, thus influencing several MetS risk factors. Perturbation of the gut microbiota's composition and activity, a condition known as dysbiosis, is involved in the etiopathogenesis of multiple chronic diseases. Read More

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Lam. Fruits: Their Potential Effects on Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

Molecules 2021 Apr 2;26(7). Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Institute of Nutritional Sciences, Justus-Liebig University, Wilhelmstrasse 20, 35392 Giessen, Germany.

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a complex metabolic disorder of glucose homeostasis associated with a status of insulin resistance, impaired insulin signaling, β-cell dysfunction, impaired glucose and lipid metabolism, sub-clinical inflammation, and increased oxidative stress. Consuming fruits and vegetables rich in phytochemicals with potential antidiabetic effects may prevent T2DM and/or support a conservative T2DM treatment while being safer and more affordable for people from low-income countries. Lam. Read More

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Rational Use of Protein Supplements in the Elderly-Relevance of Gastrointestinal Mechanisms.

Nutrients 2021 Apr 8;13(4). Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Faculty of Health Sciences and Medicine, Bond University, Robina, QLD 4226, Australia.

Protein supplements are increasingly used by older people to maintain nutrition and prevent or treat loss of muscle function. Daily protein requirements in older people are in the range of 1.2 gm/kg/day or higher. Read More

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Whole Alga, Algal Extracts, and Compounds as Ingredients of Functional Foods: Composition and Action Mechanism Relationships in the Prevention and Treatment of Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 7;22(8). Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Nutrition and Food Science Department (Nutrition), Pharmacy School, Complutense University of Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain.

Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a major systemic disease which involves impaired pancreatic function and currently affects half a billion people worldwide. Diet is considered the cornerstone to reduce incidence and prevalence of this disease. Algae contains fiber, polyphenols, ω-3 PUFAs, and bioactive molecules with potential antidiabetic activity. Read More

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Systemic Inflammation and COVID-19 Mortality in Patients with Major Noncommunicable Diseases: Chronic Coronary Syndromes, Diabetes and Obesity.

J Clin Med 2021 Apr 7;10(8). Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Clinical Department of Internal Medicine, George Emil Palade University of Medicine, Pharmacy, Science, and Technology of Târgu Mureş, 540139 Târgu Mureș, Romania.

COVID-19 is currently considered an inflammatory disease affecting the entire organism. In severe forms, an augmented inflammatory response leads to the fulminant "cytokine storm", which may result in severe multisystemic end-organ damage. Apart from the acute inflammatory response, it seems that chronic inflammation also plays a major role in the clinical evolution of COVID-19 patients. Read More

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The Low-Carbohydrate Diet: Short-Term Metabolic Efficacy Versus Longer-Term Limitations.

Nutrients 2021 Apr 3;13(4). Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Warwickshire Institute for the Study of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University Hospitals Coventry and Warwickshire, Clifford Bridge Road, Coventry CV2 2DX, UK.

Background: Diets have been a central component of lifestyle modification for decades. The Low-Carbohydrate Diet (LCD), originally conceived as a treatment strategy for intractable epilepsy (due to its association with ketogenesis), became popular in the 1970s and since then has risen to prominence as a weight loss strategy.

Objective: To explore the efficacy, limitations and potential safety concerns of the LCD. Read More

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Importance of Early Screening and Diagnosis of Chronic Kidney Disease in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

Diabetes Ther 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Abington Family Medicine, Jenkintown, PA, USA.

It is estimated that one in ten people in the USA have diabetes. Approximately 40% of those with diabetes also develop chronic kidney disease (CKD), which in turn increases their risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Evidence-based recommendations for the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and concomitant CKD are provided by several medical societies, including the American Diabetes Association (ADA), but in real life are only carried out in fewer than 50% of individuals for whom they are recommended. Read More

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The association of soluble CD163, a novel biomarker of macrophage activation, with type 2 diabetes mellitus and its underlying physiological disorders: A systematic review.

Obes Rev 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

This systematic review investigates the association of sCD163, a novel biomarker of macrophage activation, with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), insulin resistance, and beta-cell dysfunction. Sixteen studies (seven cross-sectional, two case-control, one nested case-control, three prospective cohort, and three experimental) were identified. Most studies demonstrated that elevated sCD163 concentrations were associated with increased insulin resistance. Read More

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How far along are we in revealing the connection between metformin and colorectal cancer?

World J Gastroenterol 2021 Apr;27(14):1362-1368

Department of Medicine, Merkur University Hospital, School of Medicine, Zagreb 10000, Croatia.

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is among the most prevalent cancers worldwide, and its prevention and reduction of incidence is imperative. The presence of diabetes has been associated with a 30% increased risk of CRC, likely through the mechanism of hyperinsulinemia, which promotes tumorigenesis the insulin receptor in the epithelium or by insulin-like growth factor pathways, inflammation, or adipokines, inducing cancer cell proliferation and cancer spread. Metformin, the first-line agent in treating type 2 diabetes, has a chemopreventive role in CRC development. Read More

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Can sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors be beneficial in patients with acute myocardial infarction?

Kardiol Pol 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

The sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) empagliflozin, dapagliflozin, and canagliflozin have shown impressive beneficial effects in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus in mandatory cardiovascular outcome trials. Retrospective data analysis revealed signals that pointed towards positive effects independent of the antidiabetic effects. This could be confirmed for empagliflozin and dapagliflozin in circumstances of chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction alone, where rates for hospitalization for heart failure and cumulative major adverse cardiovascular events were reduced in a similar extend in patients with and without diabetes mellitus in corresponding outcome trials. Read More

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