16,278 results match your criteria Diabetes[Journal]


Absence of TXNIP in Human Gives Lactic Acidosis and Low Serum Methionine Linked to Deficient Respiration on Pyruvate.

Diabetes 2019 Feb 12. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Division of Biochemistry, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, SE-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden

Thioredoxin Interacting Protein (TXNIP) is an alpha arrestin that can bind to and inhibit the antioxidant protein thioredoxin (TXN). TXNIP expression is induced by glucose, promotes ß-cell apoptosis in the pancreas and deletion of its gene in mouse models protects against diabetes. TXNIP is currently studied as a potential new target for antidiabetic drug therapy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db18-0557DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Takes New Steps to Increase Transparency and Reproducibility.

Authors:
Martin G Myers

Diabetes 2019 Feb 11. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dbi19-0008DOI Listing
February 2019

Comparison of Human and Murine Enteroendocrine Cells by Transcriptomic and Peptidomic Profiling.

Diabetes 2019 Feb 7. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Wellcome Trust-MRC Institute of Metabolic Science, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, U.K.

Enteroendocrine cells (EECs) produce hormones such as glucagon-like peptide 1 and peptide YY that regulate food absorption, insulin secretion, and appetite. Based on the success of glucagon-like peptide 1-based therapies for type 2 diabetes and obesity, EECs are themselves the focus of drug discovery programs to enhance gut hormone secretion. The aim of this study was to identify the transcriptome and peptidome of human EECs and to provide a cross-species comparison between humans and mice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db18-0883DOI Listing
February 2019

Monosodium Urate Contributes to Retinal Inflammation and Progression of Diabetic Retinopathy.

Diabetes 2019 Feb 6. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Department of Ophthalmology, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, University, Augusta, GA 30912

We have investigated the contributing role of monosodium urate (MSU) to the pathological processes associated with the induction of diabetic retinopathy (DR). In human retinas and vitreous from donors with DR, we have found a significant increase in MSU levels which correlated with the presence of inflammatory markers and enhanced expression of xanthine oxidase. Same elevation in MSU levels was also detected in serum and vitreous of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ-rats) analyzed at 8 weeks of hyperglycemia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db18-0912DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read
8.095 Impact Factor

Proximal Tubular Cell-Specific Ablation of Carnitine Acetyl-Transferase Causes Tubular Disease and Secondary Glomerulosclerosis.

Diabetes 2019 Feb 6. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Transgenics Core.

Proximal tubular epithelial cells are highly energy demanding. Their energy need is covered mostly from mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. It is suggested, but not entirely clear whether derailments in fatty acid metabolism and mitochondrial dysfunction are forerunners of tubular damage. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db18-0090DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Beta Cell-Derived Angiopoietin-1 Regulates Insulin Secretion and Glucose Homeostasis by Stabilizing Islet Microenvironment.

Diabetes 2019 Feb 6. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Department of Internal Medicine

Islets are highly vascularized for prompt insulin secretion. Although angiopoietin-1 (Ang1) is a well-known angiogenic factor, its role in glucose homeostasis remains largely unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate whether and how Ang1 contributes to glucose homeostasis in response to metabolic challenge. Read More

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http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/lookup/doi/10.2337/db18
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db18-0864DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Insulin Therapy of Gestational Diabetes Does Not Fully Protect Offspring from Diet-Induced Metabolic Disorders.

Diabetes 2019 Jan 29. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

The Key Laboratory of Reproductive Genetics (Zhejiang University), Ministry of Education, Zhejiang university school of medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with increased risk of metabolic disorders in offspring in later life. Although mounting evidence suggests that therapy for GDM could improve neonatal health, it is not known whether the therapy confers long-term metabolic benefits to offspring in their later adult lives. Here, using a mouse model of diabetes in the latter half of pregnancy to mimic human GDM, we find that the efficient insulin therapy of GDM confers significant protection against glucose intolerance and obesity in offspring fed on normal chow diet. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db18-1151DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

A candidate-Gene Approach Identifies Novel Associations Between Common Variants in/Near Syndromic Obesity Genes and Body-Mass Index in Pediatric and Adult European Populations.

Diabetes 2019 Jan 28. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

Department of Health Research, Methods, Evidence, and Impact, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8S 4K1, Canada

We hypothesized that monogenic syndromic obesity genes are also involved in the polygenic variation of BMI. Single-marker, tag single-nucleotide polymorphism (tagSNP), and gene-based analysis were performed on common variants near 54 syndromic obesity genes. We used publicly available data from meta-analyses of European BMI GWAS conducted by the Genetic Investigation of ANthropometric Traits (GIANT) consortium and the UK Biobank (UKB) (N=681,275 adults). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db18-0986DOI Listing
January 2019

Opposing Effects of Neuropilin-1 and -2 on Sensory Nerve Regeneration in Wounded Corneas: Role of Sema3C in Ameliorating Diabetic Neurotrophic Keratopathy.

Diabetes 2019 Jan 24. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

Departments of Ophthalmology and Anatomy and Cell Biology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201, USA

The diabetic cornea exhibits pathological alterations such as delayed epithelial wound healing and nerve regeneration. We sought to investigate the role of Semaphorin (SEMA) 3C in corneal wound healing and re-innervation in normal and diabetic B6 mice. Wounding induced the expression of SEMA3A, 3C and their receptor Neuropilin (NRP) 2, but not NRP1 in normal corneal epithelial cells (CECs); this upregulation was suppressed for SEMA3C and NRP2 in diabetic corneas. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db18-1172DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Neurovascular Response to Pressure in Patients with Diabetic Foot Ulcer.

Diabetes 2019 Jan 24. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

UMR CNRS 5305, Laboratoire de Biologie Tissulaire et Ingénierie thérapeutique, Lyon, France.

Diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) is a problem worldwide and prevention is crucial. We hypothesized that the inability of the skin to respond to pressure is involved in DFU pathogenesis and could be an important predictive factor to take into account.We included 29 patients with DFU and 30 patients with type 2 diabetes without DFU. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db18-0694DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Potential of Allogeneic Adipose-Derived Stem Cell - Hydrogel Complex for Treating Diabetic Foot Ulcers.

Diabetes 2019 Jan 24. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) may hold great promise for treating diabetic wounds. However, it is difficult for a clinician to use MSCs because they have not been commercialized. Meanwhile, a new commercial drug that contains adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) has been developed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db18-0699DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads

Genetic Determinants of Glycated Hemoglobin in Type 1 Diabetes.

Diabetes 2019 Jan 23. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

Program in Genetics and Genome Biology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, M5G 0A4, Canada.

Glycated hemoglobin (HbA) is an important measure of glycemia in diabetes. HbA is influenced by environmental and genetic factors, both in people with and without diabetes. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for HbA in a Finnish type 1 diabetes cohort, FinnDiane. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db18-0573DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Determining the Effects of Combined Liraglutide and Phentermine on Metabolic Parameters, Blood Pressure and Heart Rate in Lean and Obese Male Mice.

Diabetes 2019 Jan 23. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

Metabolic Disease and Obesity Program, Monash Biomedicine Discovery Institute, & Department of Physiology Monash University, Victoria 3800, Australia

Liraglutide, a GLP-1 receptor agonist, and phentermine, a psychostimulant structurally related to amphetamine, are drugs approved for the treatment of obesity and hyperphagia. There is significant interest in combination use of liraglutide and phentermine for weight loss, however both drugs have been reported to induce systemic haemodynamic changes and as such the therapeutic window for this drug combination needs to be determined. To understand their impact on metabolic and cardiovascular physiology, we tested the effects of these drugs alone and in combination for 21 days in lean and obese male mice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db18-1149DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

The Endoplasmic Reticulum Chaperone Glucose-Regulated Protein 94 is Essential for Proinsulin Handling.

Diabetes 2019 Jan 22. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark

Although endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone binding to mutant proinsulin has been reported, the role of protein chaperones in the handling of wild-type proinsulin is under-investigated. Here, we have explored the importance of glucose regulated protein 94 (GRP94), a prominent ER chaperone known to fold insulin-like growth factors, in proinsulin handling within β-cells. We found that GRP94 co-immunoprecipitated with proinsulin and that inhibition of GRP94 function and/or expression reduced glucose-dependent insulin secretion, shortened proinsulin half-life and lowered intracellular proinsulin and insulin levels. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db18-0671DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

MicroRNA Manipulation to Boost Endothelial Regeneration: Are We Ready for the Next Steps?

Diabetes 2019 Feb;68(2):268-270

Department of Systems Medicine, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dbi18-0044DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

In Pursuit of a Biomarker of Weight Gain Susceptibility-Is FGF21 a Candidate?

Diabetes 2019 Feb;68(2):266-267

Division of Clinical Sciences, Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, LA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dbi18-0038DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Type 1 Diabetes in STAT Protein Family Mutations: Regulating the Th17/Treg Equilibrium and Beyond.

Diabetes 2019 Feb;68(2):258-265

Division of Immunology, Transplantation and Infectious Diseases, Diabetes Research Institute, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy

Improvements in the immunological, molecular, and genetic technologies such as next-generation sequencing have led to an exponential increase in the number of monogenic immune dysregulatory syndromes diagnosed, where type 1 diabetes (T1D) forms part of the autoimmune manifestations. Here, we reviewed the mutations in the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) protein family, namely gain-of-function (GOF) mutations in and as well as deficiency, that show strong association to T1D susceptibility. The equilibrium of T-helper 17 (Th17) and regulatory T cells (Tregs) is often found altered in patients affected by STAT GOF mutations. Read More

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http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/lookup/doi/10.2337/db18
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db18-0627DOI Listing
February 2019
3 Reads

Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibition and Diabetic Kidney Disease.

Diabetes 2019 Feb;68(2):248-257

Providence Health Care, Washington State University, Spokane, WA.

Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is now the principal cause of chronic kidney disease leading to end-stage kidney disease worldwide. As a primary contributor to the excess risk of all-cause and cardiovascular death in diabetes, DKD is a major contributor to the progressively expanding global burden of diabetes-associated morbidity and mortality. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a newer class of antihyperglycemic agents that exert glucose-lowering effects via glycosuric actions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dbi18-0007DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Mitochondrial Stability in Diabetic Retinopathy: Lessons Learned From Epigenetics.

Authors:
Renu A Kowluru

Diabetes 2019 Feb;68(2):241-247

Kresge Eye Institute, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI

Diabetic retinopathy remains the leading cause of acquired blindness in working-age adults. While the cutting-edge research in the field has identified many molecular, functional, and structural abnormalities, the exact molecular mechanism of this devastating disease remains obscure. Diabetic environment drives dysfunction of the power generator of the cell and disturbs the homeostasis of mitochondrial dynamic. Read More

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http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/lookup/doi/10.2337/dbi1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dbi18-0016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6341304PMC
February 2019
3 Reads

In This Issue of .

Authors:

Diabetes 2019 Feb;68(2):237-238

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db19-ti02DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Bromodomain and Extra Terminal Proteins Inhibitors Promote Pancreatic Endocrine Cell Fate.

Diabetes 2019 Jan 17. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

INSERM U1016, Institut Cochin, Université Paris Descartes, Paris, France

Bromodomain and Extra-terminal (BET) proteins are epigenetic readers that interact with acetylated lysines of histone tails. Recent studies have demonstrated their role in cancer progression, as they recruit key components of the transcriptional machinery to modulate gene expression. However, their role during embryonic development of the pancreas has never been studied. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db18-0224DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads

Genetic Contribution to the Divergence in Type 1 Diabetes Risk Between Children From the General Population and Children From Affected Families.

Diabetes 2019 Jan 17. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

Institute of Diabetes Research, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Munich-Neuherberg, Germany.

The risk for autoimmunity and subsequently type 1 diabetes is ten-fold higher in children with a first-degree family history of type 1 diabetes (FDR) than in the general population. We analyzed children with high-risk HLA genotypes (n=4,573) in the longitudinal TEDDY birth cohort to determine how much of the divergent risk is attributable to genetic enrichment in affected families. Enrichment for susceptible genotypes of multiple type 1 diabetes-associated genes and a novel risk gene, , were identified in FDR children as compared to general population children. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db18-0882DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Separate and Combined Gluco-Metabolic Effects of Endogenous Glucose-Dependent Insulinotropic Polypeptide and Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 in Healthy Individuals.

Diabetes 2019 Jan 9. Epub 2019 Jan 9.

Clinical Metabolic Physiology, Steno Diabetes Center Copenhagen, Gentofte Hospital, Hellerup, Denmark

The incretin hormones, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are secreted postprandially and contribute importantly to postprandial glucose tolerance. Here, we assessed the individual and combined contributions of endogenous GIP and GLP-1 to the postprandial changes in glucose and gluco-regulatory hormones using the novel GIP receptor antagonist GIP(3-30)NH and the well-established GLP-1 receptor antagonist exendin(9-39)NHDuring four-hour oral glucose tolerance tests (75 g) combined with an meal test, 18 healthy men received on four separate days in randomized, double-blinded order intravenous infusions of A) GIP(3-30)NH (800 pmol/kg/min)+exendin(9-39)NH (0-20 min: 1,000 pmol/kg/min; 20-240 min: 450 pmol/kg/min), B) GIP(3-30)NH, C) exendin(9-39)NH, and D) saline, respectively.Glucose excursions were significantly higher during A than during B, C, and D while glucose excursions during B were higher than during C and D. Read More

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http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/lookup/doi/10.2337/db18
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db18-1123DOI Listing
January 2019
9 Reads

Endoplasmic Reticulum Associated Degradation (ERAD) Has a Critical Role in Supporting Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion in Pancreatic β-Cells.

Diabetes 2019 Jan 9. Epub 2019 Jan 9.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Neuropsychiatric Diseases and Cam-Su Genomic Resource Center, Medical College of Soochow University, China 215123

The molecular underpinnings of β-cell dysfunction and death leading to diabetes are not fully elucidated. The objective of the present study was to investigate the role of endoplasmic reticulum associated degradation (ERAD) in pancreatic β-cells. Chemically induced ERAD deficiency in the rat insulinoma cell line INS-1 markedly reduced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). Read More

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http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/lookup/doi/10.2337/db18
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db18-0624DOI Listing
January 2019
8 Reads

The Role of Prostaglandins in Disrupted Gastric Motor Activity Associated with Type 2 Diabetes.

Diabetes 2019 Jan 9. Epub 2019 Jan 9.

Department of Physiology and Cell Biology, University of Nevada, Reno School of Medicine

Patients with diabetes mellitus often develop gastrointestinal motor problems, including gastroparesis. Previous studies have suggested this gastric motor disorder was a consequence of an enteric neuropathy. Disruptions in interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) have also been reported. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db18-1064DOI Listing
January 2019
8 Reads

ADAMTS9 Regulates Skeletal Muscle Insulin Sensitivity Through Extracellular Matrix Alterations.

Diabetes 2019 Jan 9. Epub 2019 Jan 9.

Section for Metabolic Receptology, Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

The rs4607103 C allele is one of the few gene variants proposed to increase the risk of type 2 diabetes through an impairment of insulin sensitivity. We show that the variant is associated with increased expression of the secreted ADAMTS9 and decreased insulin sensitivity and signaling in human skeletal muscle. In line with this, mice lacking selectively in skeletal muscle have improved insulin sensitivity. Read More

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http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/lookup/doi/10.2337/db18
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db18-0418DOI Listing
January 2019
13 Reads

Epitope Stealing as Mechanism of Dominant Protection by HLA-DQ6 in Type 1 Diabetes.

Diabetes 2019 Jan 9. Epub 2019 Jan 9.

Department of Immunohematology and Blood Transfusion, Leiden University Medical Center, the Netherlands, The Netherlands

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http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/lookup/doi/10.2337/db18
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db18-0501DOI Listing
January 2019
10 Reads

Perilipin 5 Deletion in Hepatocytes Remodels Lipid Metabolism and Causes Hepatic Insulin Resistance in Mice.

Diabetes 2019 Jan 7. Epub 2019 Jan 7.

Biomedicine Discovery Institute, Metabolism, Diabetes and Obesity Program; and the Department of Physiology, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, 3800, Australia.

Defects in hepatic lipid metabolism cause non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and insulin resistance, and these pathologies are closely linked. Regulation of lipid droplet metabolism is central to the control of intracellular fatty acid fluxes and perilipin (PLIN) 5 is important in this process. We examined the role of PLIN5 on hepatic lipid metabolism and systemic glycemic control using liver-specific deficient mice ( ). Read More

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http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/lookup/doi/10.2337/db18
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db18-0670DOI Listing
January 2019
7 Reads

Structural and Functional Abnormalities of the Primary Somatosensory Cortex in Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy: A Multimodal MRI Study.

Diabetes 2019 Jan 7. Epub 2019 Jan 7.

Diabetes Research Department, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Sheffield, UK.

Diabetic distal symmetrical peripheral polyneuropathy (DSP) results in decreased somatosensory cortical gray matter volume, indicating that the disease process may produce morphological changes in the brains of those affected. However, no study has examined whether changes in brain volume alters the functional organisation of the somatosensory cortex and how this relates to the different painful DSP clinical phenotypes. In this case-controlled, multimodal magnetic resonance brain imaging study of 44 carefully phenotyped subjects, we found significant anatomical and functional changes in the somatosensory cortex. Read More

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http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/lookup/doi/10.2337/db18
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db18-0509DOI Listing
January 2019
4 Reads
8.095 Impact Factor

Increased Fibro-Adipogenic Progenitors and Intramyocellular Lipid Accumulation in Obesity-Related Skeletal Muscle Dysfunction.

Diabetes 2019 Jan;68(1):18-20

Diabetes and Cardiovascular Research Center, University of Missouri School of Medicine, Columbia, MO

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dbi18-0047DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6302534PMC
January 2019
2 Reads

Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 in the Brain: Where Is It Coming From, Where Is It Going?

Diabetes 2019 Jan;68(1):15-17

Center for Ingestive Behavior Research, University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dbi18-0045DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6302532PMC
January 2019
2 Reads

Adipose Tissue, Inter-Organ Communication, and the Path to Type 2 Diabetes: The 2016 Banting Medal for Scientific Achievement Lecture.

Authors:
Barbara B Kahn

Diabetes 2019 Jan;68(1):3-14

Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA

My scientific career has focused on understanding the mechanisms underlying insulin resistance with the goal of developing new strategies to prevent and treat type 2 diabetes. My early studies focused on understanding how insulin promotes glucose transport into adipocytes, a classic model of highly insulin-responsive target cells. When we found changes in adipocyte glucose transport in altered metabolic states, we were highly motivated to understand the consequences of this on whole-body glucose homeostasis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dbi18-0035DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6302542PMC
January 2019
3 Reads

In This Issue of .

Authors:

Diabetes 2019 Jan;68(1):1-2

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db19-ti01DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Circulating Exosomal miR-20b-5p is Elevated in Type 2 Diabetes and Could Impair Insulin Action in Human Skeletal Muscle.

Diabetes 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology Karolinska Institutet, SE-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden,

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are noncoding RNAs representing an important class of gene expression modulators. Extracellular circulating miRNAs are both candidate biomarkers for disease pathogenesis and mediators of cell-to-cell communication. We examined the miRNA expression profile of total serum and serum derived exosome-enriched extracellular vesicles in people with normal glucose tolerance or type 2 diabetes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db18-0470DOI Listing
December 2018
3 Reads

Low Level Insulin Content Within Abundant Non-Beta Islet Endocrine Cells in Long-Standing Type 1 Diabetes.

Diabetes 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

McNair Medical Institute, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, 77030

Although most type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients continue to produce small amounts of insulin decades after disease onset, very few β-cells persist within their pancreata. Consequently, the source of persistent insulin secretion within T1D remains unclear. We hypothesized low-level insulin content within non-β-cells could underlie persistent T1D insulin secretion. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db18-0305DOI Listing
December 2018
3 Reads

Genetic Nicotinamide N-Methyltransferase () Deficiency in Male Mice Improves Insulin Sensitivity in Diet-Induced Obesity but Does Not Affect Glucose Tolerance.

Diabetes 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Sanofi Research and Development, Industriepark Hoechst, H823, D-64926 Frankfurt am Main, Germany.

Antisense oligonucleotide knockdown (ASO-KD) of nicotinamide N-methyltransferase (NNMT) in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice has been reported to reduce weight gain, plasma insulin and improve glucose tolerance. Using NNMT-ASO-KD or NNMT knockout mice (NNMT), we tested the hypothesis that deletion protects against diet-induced obesity and its metabolic consequences in males and females on obesity-inducing diets. We also examined samples from a human weight reduction (WR) study for adipose (a) expression and plasma 1-methylnicotinamide (MNAM) levels. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db18-0780DOI Listing
December 2018
9 Reads

A genome-Wide Association Study Confirming a Strong Effect of HLA and Identifying Variants in on Chromosome 12q13.13 Associated with Susceptibility to Fulminant Type 1 Diabetes.

Diabetes 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes, Kindai University Faculty of Medicine, Osaka, Japan

The first genome-wide association study of fulminant type 1 diabetes mellitus was performed in Japanese individuals. As previously reported using a candidate gene approach, a strong association was observed with multiple SNPs in the HLA region, and the strongest association was observed with rs9268853 in the class II DR region (P=1.56 x 10, odds ratio [OR] 3. Read More

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http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/lookup/doi/10.2337/db18
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db18-0314DOI Listing
December 2018
8 Reads

Extreme Adhesion Activity of Amyloid Fibrils Induces Subcutaneous Insulin Resistance.

Diabetes 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Japan.

Insulin-derived amyloidoma, also called an insulin ball, is a skin-related complication of insulin therapy caused by repeated insulin injections at the same site, where native folded insulin changes into amyloid fibrils and forms a mass with a granulomatous reaction. Insulin-derived amyloidoma is a clinically important condition because of its association with subcutaneous insulin resistance, but the precise effect and mechanism of the insulin absorption impairment have not been clarified. We generated insulin-derived amyloidomas in mouse skin, with the amyloidomas large enough to perform insulin tolerance tests in the mass by repeated injections of highly concentrated insulin amyloid fibrils. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db18-0846DOI Listing
December 2018
11 Reads

A Call for Improved Reporting of Human Islet Characteristics in Research Articles.

Diabetes 2019 Feb 14;68(2):239-240. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Institute of Cellular Medicine, Faculty of Clinical Medical Sciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, U.K.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dbi18-0055DOI Listing
February 2019
3 Reads

Identification of Specific MicroRNAs in Neutrophils of type 2 Diabetic Mice: Overexpression of Accelerates Diabetic Wound Healing.

Diabetes 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Division of Forensic Pathology and Science, Unit of Social Medicine, Course of Medical and Dental Sciences, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University School of Medicine, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523, Japan.

Neutrophils are involved in the first stage of acute inflammation. Following injury, they are mobilized and recruited to the injured tissue. In diabetes, wound healing is delayed and aberrant, leading to excessive recruitment and retention of neutrophils that fail to promote angiogenesis and prolong inflammation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db18-0313DOI Listing
December 2018
9 Reads

Multimodal Imaging of the Initial Stages of Diabetic Retinopathy. Different Disease Pathways in Different Patients.

Diabetes 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

AIBILI - Association for Innovation and Biomedical Research on Light and Image, Coimbra, Portugal

To evaluate the prevalence of different disease pathways (ischemia, neurodegeneration and edema) in the initial stages of diabetic retinopathy (DR).In this retrospective cross-sectional study, eyes were grouped by DR severity using the 7-field ETDRS protocol (levels 10-20, 35 and 43-47). Neurodegeneration was identified by thinning of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and/or ganglion cell layer (GCL). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db18-1077DOI Listing
December 2018
7 Reads

FoxO Transcription Factors are Critical Regulators of Diabetes-Related Muscle Atrophy.

Diabetes 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Section on Integrative Physiology and Metabolism, Joslin Diabetes Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA

Insulin deficiency and uncontrolled diabetes lead to a catabolic state with decreased muscle strength, contributing to disease-related morbidity. FoxO transcription factors are suppressed by insulin and thus are key mediators of insulin action. To study their role in diabetic muscle wasting, we created mice with muscle-specific triple knockout of FoxO1/3/4 and induced diabetes in these M-FoxO-TKO mice with streptozotocin (STZ). Read More

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http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/lookup/doi/10.2337/db18
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db18-0416DOI Listing
December 2018
9 Reads

PDK4 Augments ER-Mitochondria Contact to Dampen Skeletal Muscle Insulin Signaling During Obesity.

Diabetes 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Biomedical Science, Graduate School,

Mitochondria-associated ER membrane (MAM) is a structural link between mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). MAM regulates Ca transport from the ER to mitochondria via an IP3R1-GRP75-VDAC1 complex-dependent mechanism. Excessive MAM formation may cause mitochondrial Ca overload and mitochondrial dysfunction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db18-0363DOI Listing
December 2018
13 Reads

Peripheral Mechanisms Mediating the Sustained Anti-Diabetic Action of FGF1 in the Brain.

Diabetes 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

University of Washington Medicine Diabetes Institute, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA

We recently reported that in rodent models of type 2 diabetes (T2D), a single intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1) induces remission of hyperglycemia that is sustained for weeks. To clarify the peripheral mechanisms underlying this effect, we employed the Zucker diabetic fatty / rat model of T2D, which, like human T2D, is characterized by progressive deterioration of pancreatic β-cell function after hyperglycemia onset. We report that while icv injection of FGF1 delays the onset of β-cell dysfunction in these animals, it has no effect on either glucose-induced insulin secretion or insulin sensitivity. Read More

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http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/lookup/doi/10.2337/db18
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db18-0498DOI Listing
December 2018
10 Reads

Impaired Glucocorticoid Suppression of TGFβ Signaling in Human Omental Adipose Tissues Limits Adipogenesis and May Promote Fibrosis.

Diabetes 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Diabetes Obesity and Metabolism Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York.

Visceral obesity is associated with insulin resistance and higher risk of type 2 diabetes and metabolic diseases. A limited ability of adipose tissues to remodel through the recruitment and differentiation of adipose stem cells (ASCs) is associated with adipose tissue inflammation and fibrosis and the metabolic syndrome. We show that the lower adipogenesis of omental (Om) compared to abdominal subcutaneous (Abdsc) ASCs was associated with higher secretion of TGFβ ligands that acted in an autocrine/paracrine loop to activate SMAD2 and suppress adipogenesis. Read More

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http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/lookup/doi/10.2337/db18
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db18-0955DOI Listing
December 2018
9 Reads

Estrogen Improves Insulin Sensitivity and Suppresses Gluconeogenesis via the Transcription Factor Foxo1.

Diabetes 2019 Feb 28;68(2):291-304. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Nutrition and Food Science, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX

Premenopausal women exhibit enhanced insulin sensitivity and reduced incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) compared with age-matched men, but this advantage disappears after menopause with disrupted glucose homeostasis, in part owing to a reduction in circulating 17β-estradiol (E). Fasting hyperglycemia is a hallmark of T2D derived largely from dysregulation of hepatic glucose production (HGP), in which Foxo1 plays a central role in the regulation of gluconeogenesis. Here, we investigated the action of E on glucose homeostasis in male and ovariectomized (OVX) female control and liver-specific Foxo1 knockout (L-F1KO) mice and sought to understand the mechanism by which E regulates gluconeogenesis via an interaction with hepatic Foxo1. Read More

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http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/lookup/doi/10.2337/db18
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db18-0638DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6341301PMC
February 2019
14 Reads

Noninvasive Imaging of Endothelial Damage in Patients With Different HbA Levels: A Proof-of-Concept Study.

Diabetes 2019 Feb 28;68(2):387-394. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Klinik für Radiologie, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

The aim of this study was to compare endothelial permeability, which is considered a hallmark of coronary artery disease, between patients with different HbA levels using an albumin-binding magnetic resonance (MR) probe. This cross-sectional study included 26 patients with clinical indication for X-ray angiography who were classified into three groups according to HbA level (<5.7% [<39 mmol/mol], 5. Read More

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http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/lookup/doi/10.2337/db18
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db18-0239DOI Listing
February 2019
7 Reads