400,351 results match your criteria Developmental Biology[Journal]


Possible involvement of Fas/FasL-dependent apoptotic pathway in α-bisabolol induced cardiotoxicity in zebrafish embryos.

Chemosphere 2018 Dec 8;219:557-566. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Biology Institute, Qilu University of Technology (Shandong Academy of Sciences), 28789 East Jingshi Road, Jinan, 250103, Shandong Province, PR China; Key Laboratory for Drug Screening Technology of Shandong Academy of Sciences, 28789 East Jingshi Road, Jinan, 250103, Shandong Province, PR China. Electronic address:

α-Bisabolol, an unsaturated monocyclic sesquiterpene alcohol, is a common ingredient in many pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs). Despite being widely used, little is known about its toxic effects on organisms and aquatic environment. In this study, we investigated the developmental toxicity of α-Bisabolol, especially its effects on the cardiac development using zebrafish embryos as a model. Read More

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December 2018

Behavioral, molecular and physiological responses of embryo-larval zebrafish exposed to types I and II pyrethroids.

Chemosphere 2018 Dec 6;219:526-537. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Environmental Toxicology, The Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79416, USA.

Pyrethroids are potent neurotoxicants that may elicit multiple pathways of toxicity in non-target organisms. Comparative studies on the mechanistic and developmental effects of types I and II pyrethroids against non-target aquatic species are limited. This study assessed the effects of the two pyrethroid types against embryo-larval zebrafish (Danio rerio) at environmentally relevant and laboratory concentrations. Read More

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December 2018

Developmental toxicity of kresoxim-methyl during zebrafish (Danio rerio) larval development.

Chemosphere 2018 Dec 8;219:517-525. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Institute of Quality and Standard for Agro-products, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, State Key Laboratory Breeding Base for Zhejiang Sustainable Pest and Disease Control, Hangzhou, 310021, Zhejiang, China. Electronic address:

Kresoxim-methyl (KM) is a broad spectrum strobilurin fungicide that has been used widely on crops around the world. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the toxic effects of KM using various sublethal endpoints during zebrafish (Danio rerio) larval development. Results showed that the LC values of KM to zebrafish at multiple life stages (embryo, larvae, juvenile and adult) were 0. Read More

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December 2018

Relationship between anxiety, depression, sex, obesity, and internet addiction in Chinese adolescents: A short-term longitudinal study.

Addict Behav 2018 Dec 7;90:421-427. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Research Institute on Addictions, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY, United States. Electronic address:

Associations between anxiety, depression and adolescent Internet addiction have been well documented in the literature; however, few published studies have examined these relationships considering the developmental trajectory courses of adolescent Internet addiction as well as the individual differences over time. Using a sample of 1545 Chinese adolescents and 3 waves of data over six months, we examined the longitudinal associations between anxiety and depression and Internet addiction, considering sex and obesity. We used latent growth curve modeling (LGCM) to examine the overall conditions of Internet addiction, and latent class growth modeling (LCGM) to determine adolescent developmental membership for Internet addiction. Read More

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December 2018

Cortisol stress reactivity moderates the effects of parental corporal punishment on Chinese preschoolers' executive function.

Child Abuse Negl 2018 Dec 12;88:288-297. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Research Center for Child Development, College of Elementary Education, Capital Normal University, No.105 Xisan Huan Beilu, Beijing, 100048, China. Electronic address:

Background: To date whether the effects of parental corporal punishment (CP) on executive function (EF) distinct components are different is less clear. Moreover, theory and empirical work suggest that physiological regulation system may help to explain the individual differences in the developmental outcomes associated with parental CP.

Objective: This study examined the effects of parental CP on Chinese preschoolers' EF and whether the cortisol stress reactivity would moderate such effects. Read More

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December 2018

Automatic labeling of cortical sulci for the human fetal brain based on spatio-temporal information of gyrification.

Neuroimage 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Fetal Neonatal Neuroimaging and Developmental Science Center, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, 02115, USA; Division of Newborn Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, 02115, USA. Electronic address:

Accurate parcellation and labeling of primary cortical sulci in the human fetal brain is useful for regional analysis of brain development. However, human fetal brains show large spatio-temporal changes in brain size, cortical folding patterns, and relative position/size of cortical regions, making accurate automatic sulcal labeling challenging. Here, we introduce a novel sulcal labeling method for the fetal brain using spatio-temporal gyrification information from multiple fetal templates. Read More

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December 2018

Biology of preeclampsia: Combined actions of angiogenic factors, their receptors and placental proteins.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Division of Cell Biology, Histology and Embryology, Gottfried Schatz Research Center, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria. Electronic address:

Although massive efforts have been undertaken to elucidate the etiology of the pregnancy syndrome preeclampsia, its developmental origin remains a mystery. Most efforts of the last decade have focused on biomarkers to predict and/or diagnose preeclampsia, including the anti-angiogenic factor sFlt-1 (soluble fms-like tyrosin kinase-1), the angiogenic factor PGF (placental growth factor) and PP13 (placental protein 13). The origins of these marker proteins are still under debate, and so far their actions have only been describe separate from each other. Read More

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December 2018

Immune cells in the retina and choroid: Two different tissue environments that require different defenses and surveillance.

Prog Retin Eye Res 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, Monash Biomedicine Discovery Institute, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia.

In the eye immune defenses must take place in a plethora of differing microenvironments ranging from the corneal and conjunctival epithelia facing the external environment to the pigmented connective tissue of the uveal tract containing smooth muscle, blood vessels and peripheral nerves to the innermost and highly protected neural retina. The extravascular environment of the neural retina, like the brain parenchyma, is stringently controlled to maintain conditions required for neural transmission. The unique physiological nature of the neural retina can be attributed to the blood retinal barriers (BRB) of the retinal vasculature and the retinal pigment epithelium, which both tightly regulate the transport of small molecules and restrict passage of cells and macromolecules from the circulation into the retina in a similar fashion to the blood brain barrier (BBB). Read More

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December 2018

A Potential Mechanistic Role for Neuroinflammation in Reward Processing Impairments in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Biol Psychol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27514, USA; Department of Psychiatry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC 27514, USA; Carolina Institute for Developmental Disabilities, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC 27514, USA. Electronic address:

Accumulating evidence suggests that autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may be conceptualized within a framework of reward processing impairments. The "Social Motivation Theory of Autism" posits that reduced motivation to interact with people and decreased pleasure derived from social interactions may derail typical social development and contribute to the emergence of core social communication deficits in ASD. Neuroinflammation may disrupt the development of mesolimbic dopaminergic systems that are critical for optimal functioning of social reward processing systems. Read More

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December 2018

FGFR1 regulates trophectoderm development and facilitates blastocyst implantation.

Dev Biol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Cell, Developmental, and Regenerative Biology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029. Electronic address:

FGF signaling plays important roles in many aspects of mammalian development. Fgfr1 and Fgfr1Fgfr2 mouse embryos on a 129S4 co-isogenic background fail to survive past the peri-implantation stage, whereas Fgfr2 embryos die at midgestation and show defects in limb and placental development. To investigate the basis for the Fgfr1 and Fgfr1Fgfr2 peri-implantation lethality, we examined the role of FGFR1 and FGFR2 in trophectoderm (TE) development. Read More

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December 2018

Developmental origins of murine γδ T cell subsets.

Immunology 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Blizard Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine, Queen Mary University of London, London, E1 2AT.

Murine γδ T cells display diverse responses to pathogens and tumours through early provision of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-17A (IL-17) and interferon-γ (IFNγ). Although it is now clear that acquisition of these cytokine-secreting effector fates is to a great extent developmentally pre-programmed in the thymus, the stages through which γδ progenitor cells transition, and the underlying mechanistic processes that govern these commitment events, are still largely unclear. Here, we review recent progress in the field, with particular consideration to how TCRγδ signalling impacts on developmental programs initiated prior to TCRγδ expression. Read More

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December 2018

Design and visualization of second generation cyanoisoindole based fluorescent strigolactone analogs.

Plant J 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

SynBioC Research Group, Department of Green Chemistry and Technology, Campus Coupure, Ghent University Coupure Links 653, 9000, Ghent, Belgium.

Strigolactones (SLs) are a family of terpenoid allelochemicals that were recognized as plant hormones only a decade ago. They influence a myriad of both above- and belowground developmental processes, and are an important survival strategy for plants in nutrient-deprived soils. A rapidly emerging approach to gain knowledge on hormone signaling is the use of traceable analogs. Read More

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December 2018

Mosaic modularity: an updated perspective and research agenda for the evolution of vascular cambial growth.

New Phytol 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Pacific Southwest Research Station, USDA Forest Service, Davis, CA, 95618.

Secondary growth from a vascular cambium, present today only in seed plants and isoetalean lycophytes, has a 400-million-year evolutionary history that involves considerably broader taxonomic diversity, most of it hidden in the fossil record. Approaching vascular cambial growth as a complex developmental process, we review data from living plants and fossils that reveal diverse modes of secondary growth. These are consistent with a modular nature of secondary growth, when considered as a tracheophyte-wide structural feature. Read More

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December 2018

Maternal and offspring MTHFR genotypes interact in a mouse model to induce ASD-like behavior.

Genes Brain Behav 2018 Dec 15:e12547. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Department of Physiology and Cell Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel.

Individuals with autism constitute a variable population whose members are spread along the autism spectrum. Sub-populations within that spectrum exhibit other conditions, such as anxiety, intellectual disabilities, hyperactivity and epilepsy, with different severities and co-occurrences. Among the genes associated with the increased risk for autism is the methylenetetrahydrofolate-reductase (MTHFR) 677C>T polymorphism, which impairs one-carbon metabolic pathway efficiency. Read More

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December 2018

Primate neocortex development and evolution - conserved versus evolved folding.

J Comp Neurol 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics, Dresden, Germany.

The neocortex, the seat of higher cognitive functions, exhibits a key feature across mammalian species - a highly variable degree of folding. Within the neocortex, two distinct subtypes of cortical areas can be distinguished, the isocortex and the proisocortex. Here, we have compared specific spatiotemporal aspects of folding between the proisocortex and the isocortex in 13 primates, including human, chimpanzee, and various Old World and New World monkeys. Read More

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December 2018
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Gene expression signatures for HOXA4, HOXA9, and HOXD10 reveal alterations in transcriptional regulatory networks in colon cancer.

J Cell Physiol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Center for Translational Cancer Research, Helen F. Graham Cancer Center and Research Institute, Newark, Delaware.

We previously reported that HOXA4, HOXA9, and HOXD10 are selectively expressed in colonic stem cells (SCs) and their overexpression contributes to colorectal cancer (CRC). Our goals here were to determine how these HOX genes are transcriptionally regulated and whether transcriptional dysregulation of HOX genes occurs in CRC. Accordingly, we used correlation analysis to identify genes that are expression-correlated or anticorrelated with HOXA4, HOXA9, and HOXD10. Read More

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December 2018

Cell-Based Model of the Generation and Maintenance of the Shape and Structure of the Multilayered Shoot Apical Meristem of Arabidopsis thaliana.

Bull Math Biol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Mathematics, University of California, Riverside, USA.

One of the central problems in animal and plant developmental biology is deciphering how chemical and mechanical signals interact within a tissue to produce organs of defined size, shape, and function. Cell walls in plants impose a unique constraint on cell expansion since cells are under turgor pressure and do not move relative to one another. Cell wall extensibility and constantly changing distribution of stress on the wall are mechanical properties that vary between individual cells and contribute to rates of expansion and orientation of cell division. Read More

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December 2018

Barriers and facilitators to understanding of ADHD in primary care: a mixed-method systematic review.

Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Division of Psychiatry & Applied Psychology, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK.

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a developmental disorder affecting up to 5% of children and adults and is underdiagnosed in many European countries. The process of access to care for this disorder is complex and variable across countries. In general, those affected, or their caregiver, will seek help through their primary care practitioners who are then often responsible for referral to other professionals for diagnosis and provision of treatment. Read More

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December 2018

Therapeutic potentials of the Rho kinase inhibitor Fasudil in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and the related mechanisms.

Metab Brain Dis 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Institute of Brain Science, Shanxi Datong University, Datong, China.

Multiple sclerosis (MS), Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), and other neurodegenerative diseases of central nervous system (CNS) disorders are serious human health problems. Rho-kinase (ROCK) is emerging as a potentially important therapeutic target relevant to inflammatory neurodegeneration diseases. This is supported by studies showing the beneficial effects of fasudil, a ROCK inhibitor, in inflammatory neurodegeneration diseases. Read More

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December 2018

The role of recessive inheritance in early-onset epileptic encephalopathies: a combined whole-exome sequencing and copy number study.

Eur J Hum Genet 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Institute of Medical Genetics, University of Zurich, Schlieren-Zurich, 8952, Switzerland.

Early-onset epileptic encephalopathy (EE) and combined developmental and epileptic encephalopathies (DEE) are clinically and genetically heterogeneous severely devastating conditions. Recent studies emphasized de novo variants as major underlying cause suggesting a generally low-recurrence risk. In order to better understand the full genetic landscape of EE and DEE, we performed high-resolution chromosomal microarray analysis in combination with whole-exome sequencing in 63 deeply phenotyped independent patients. Read More

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December 2018

Inappropriate left ventricular mass after preeclampsia: another piece of the puzzle Inappropriate LVM and PE.

Hypertens Res 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Maternal Fetal Medicine Unit, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy.

Excessive left ventricular (LV) mass (LVM) increase results in inefficient LV work with high energy waste and a negative prognostic effect. We aimed to investigate the presence of inappropriate LVM and to calculate the myocardial mechanoenergetic efficiency index (MEEi) in asymptomatic women with a history of early-onset (EO) or late-onset (LO) pre-eclampsia (PE). Among all women diagnosed with PE in the years 2009-2013, after applying inclusion/exclusion criteria and cost-effectiveness analysis, we randomly selected thirty women who experienced EO-PE, thirty with a previous LO-PE and thirty healthy controls to undergo echocardiography from 6 months to 4 years after delivery. Read More

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December 2018

Distinct patterns of transcriptional and epigenetic alterations characterize acute and chronic kidney injury.

Sci Rep 2018 Dec 14;8(1):17870. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

UW Medicine South Lake Union, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, 98109, USA.

Acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are considered early and late phases of a pathologic continuum of interconnected disease states. Although changes in gene expression patterns have recently been elucidated for the transition of AKI to CKD, the epigenetic regulation of key kidney injury related genes remains poorly understood. We used multiplex RT-qPCR, ChIP-qPCR and integrative analysis to compare transcriptional and epigenetic changes at renal disease-associated genes across mouse AKI and CKD models. Read More

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December 2018

Functional genomic analysis identifies miRNA repertoire regulating C. elegans oocyte development.

Nat Commun 2018 Dec 14;9(1):5318. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Program in Developmental Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, 77030, USA.

Oocyte-specific miRNA function remains unclear in mice and worms because loss of Dgcr8 and Dicer from mouse and worm oocytes, respectively, does not yield oogenic defects. These data lead to several models: (a) miRNAs are not generated in oocytes; (b) miRNAs are generated but do not perform an oogenic function; (c) functional oocyte miRNAs are generated in a manner independent of these enzymes. Here, we test these models using a combination of genomic, expression and functional analyses on the C. Read More

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December 2018

Spectrum and time course of epilepsy and the associated cognitive decline in duplication syndrome.

Neurology 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

From the Departments of Neurology (D.M., B.S., R.S., D.G., V.N.P., A.M.G.) and Pediatrics (R.S., D.G.), Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX.

Objective: We characterized the epilepsy features and contribution to cognitive regression in 47 patients with duplication syndrome (MDS) and reviewed these characteristics in over 280 MDS published cases.

Methods: The institutional review board approved this retrospective review of medical records and case histories of patients with MDS.

Results: The average age at enrollment was 10 ± 7 years. Read More

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December 2018

Rationale and design of a single-blind, randomised controlled trial of exercise training for managing learning and memory impairment in persons with multiple sclerosis.

BMJ Open 2018 Dec 14;8(12):e023231. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Kessler Foundation, Neuropsychology and Neuroscience Research, West Orange, New Jersey, USA.

Introduction: This randomised controlled trial (RCT) examines treadmill walking exercise training effects on learning and memory performance, hippocampal volume, and hippocampal resting-state functional connectivity in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) who have objective impairments in learning new information.

Methods And Analysis: Forty fully ambulatory persons with MS who demonstrate objective learning and memory impairments will be randomly assigned into either the intervention or active control study conditions. The intervention condition involves supervised, progressive treadmill walking exercise training three times per week for a 3-month period. Read More

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December 2018

Pancreas Volume Declines During the First Year After Diagnosis of Type 1 Diabetes and Exhibits Altered Diffusion at Disease Onset.

Diabetes Care 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN

Objective: This study investigated the temporal dynamics of pancreas volume and microstructure in children and adolescents with recent-onset type 1 diabetes (T1D) and individuals without diabetes, including a subset expressing autoantibodies associated with the early stages of T1D.

Research Design And Methods: MRI was performed in individuals with recent-onset stage 3 T1D ( = 51; median age 13 years) within 100 days after diagnosis (mean 67 days), 6 months, and 1 year postdiagnosis. Longitudinal MRI measurements were also made in similarly aged control participants ( = 57) and in autoantibody-positive individuals without diabetes ( = 20). Read More

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December 2018

Clonal analysis by tunable CRISPR-mediated excision.

Development 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Institut de Génomique Fonctionnelle de Lyon (IGFL), École Normale Supérieure de Lyon, 32 avenue Tony Garnier, 69007 Lyon, France.

Clonal marking techniques based on the Cre/lox and Flp/FRT systems are widely used in multicellular model organisms to mark individual cells and their progeny, in order to study their morphology, growth properties and developmental fates. The same tools can be adapted to introduce specific genetic changes in a subset of cells within the body, i.e. Read More

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December 2018

A versatile mouse model of epitope-tagged histone H3.3 to study epigenome dynamics.

J Biol Chem 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Nat'l Inst of Child Health & Human Developoment, Division of Developmental Biology, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, United States.

The variant histone H3.3 is incorporated into the genome in a transcription dependent manner. This histone is thus thought to play a role in epigenetic regulation. Read More

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December 2018

Opening the black box: Stem cell-based modeling of human post-implantation development.

J Cell Biol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI

Proper development of the human embryo following its implantation into the uterine wall is critical for the successful continuation of pregnancy. However, the complex cellular and molecular changes that occur during this post-implantation period of human development are not amenable to study in vivo. Recently, several new embryo-like human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-based platforms have emerged, which are beginning to illuminate the current black box state of early human post-implantation biology. Read More

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December 2018

RGS9-2 rescues dopamine D2 receptor levels and signaling in dystonia mouse models.

EMBO Mol Med 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Laboratory of Neurophysiology and Plasticity, IRCCS Fondazione Santa Lucia, Rome, Italy

Dopamine D2 receptor signaling is central for striatal function and movement, while abnormal activity is associated with neurological disorders including the severe early-onset dystonia. Nevertheless, the mechanisms that regulate D2 receptor signaling in health and disease remain poorly understood. Here, we identify a reduced D2 receptor binding, paralleled by an abrupt reduction in receptor protein level, in the striatum of juvenile mice. Read More

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December 2018

White matter organization in developmental coordination disorder: A pilot study exploring the added value of constrained spherical deconvolution.

Neuroimage Clin 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Mary MacKillop Institute for Health Research, Faculty of Health Sciences, Australian Catholic University, Melbourne, Australia.

Previous studies of white matter organization in sensorimotor tracts in developmental coordination disorder (DCD) have adopted diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), a method unable to reconcile pathways with 'crossing fibres'. In response to limitations of the commonly adopted DTI approach, the present study employed a framework that can reconcile the 'crossing fibre' problem (i.e. Read More

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December 2018

Movies in the magnet: Naturalistic paradigms in developmental functional neuroimaging.

Dev Cogn Neurosci 2018 Nov 20. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

The Child Study Center at New York University Langone Medical Center, 1 Park Avenue, New York, NY, 10016, United States; Nathan Kline Institute for Psychiatric Research, 140 Old Orangeburg Road, Orangeburg, NY, 10962, United States.

The use of movie-watching as an acquisition state for functional connectivity (FC) MRI has recently enabled multiple groups to obtain rich data sets in younger children with both substantial sample sizes and scan durations. Using naturalistic paradigms such as movies has also provided analytic flexibility for these developmental studies that extends beyond conventional resting state approaches. This review highlights the advantages and challenges of using movies for developmental neuroimaging and explores some of the methodological issues involved in designing pediatric studies with movies. Read More

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November 2018

Gene editing technologies and applications for insects.

Curr Opin Insect Sci 2018 Aug 22;28:66-72. Epub 2018 May 22.

Division of Biological Sciences, Section of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92092, USA; Tata Institute for Genetics and Society, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA. Electronic address:

Initially discovered in bacteria, CRISPR-based genome editing endonucleases have proven remarkably amenable for adaptation to insects. To date, these endonucleases have been utilized in a plethora of both model and non-model insects including diverse flies, bees, beetles, butterflies, moths, and grasshoppers, to name a few, thereby revolutionizing functional genomics of insects. In addition to basic genome editing, they have also been invaluable for advanced genome engineering and synthetic biology applications. Read More

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Toward an enhanced understanding of psychological resilience for HIV youth populations.

AIDS Care 2018 Dec 14:1-4. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

a SC SmartState Center for Healthcare Quality, Department of Health Promotion, Education, and Behavior, Arnold School of Public Health , University of South Carolina , Columbia , USA.

Though mother-to-child HIV transmission has been dramatically reduced in the past decade, there are currently an estimated 1.8 million children living with HIV across the globe, and over 30% of all new HIV infections occur among youth ages 15-25. While all youth experience developmental challenges, children and adolescents who are living with HIV must navigate these challenges within the context of high HIV stigma and must cope with a host of psychosocial and health-related challenges. Read More

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December 2018

Melatonin Improves Parthenogenetic Development of Vitrified⁻Warmed Mouse Oocytes Potentially by Promoting G1/S Cell Cycle Progression.

Int J Mol Sci 2018 Dec 13;19(12). Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Farm Animal Genetic Resources Exploration and Innovation Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, College of Animal Science and Technology, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu-611130, China.

This study aimed to investigate the effect of melatonin on the cell cycle of parthenogenetic embryos derived from vitrified mouse metaphase II (MII) oocytes. Fresh oocytes were randomly allocated into three groups: untreated (control), or vitrified by the open-pulled straw method without (Vitrification group) or with melatonin (MT) supplementation (Vitrification + MT group). After warming, oocytes were parthenogenetically activated and cultured in vitro, then the percentage of embryos in the G1/S phase, the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and glutathione (GSH), and the mRNA expression of cell cycle-related genes (, and ) in zygotes and their subsequent developmental potential in vitro were evaluated. Read More

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December 2018

Wild edible onions - Allium flavum and Allium carinatum - successfully prevent adverse effects of chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin.

Biomed Pharmacother 2019 Jan 1;109:2482-2491. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

University of Belgrade, Faculty of Biology, Studentski trg 16, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia.

The objective of this study was to evaluate potential of two chemically characterized edible wild onion species, Allium flavum and Allium carinatum, to reduce side effects of cytostatic doxorubicin (Dox). Since Dox application is mainly limited due to its high cardiotoxicity, while there are no approved cardioprotective agents for the prevention of Dox adverse effects, new co-treatments are urgently needed. Here, we showed that methanol extracts expressed high antioxidant activity and synergistically increased Dox anticancer activity against human hepatoma (HepG2) and lung carcinoma (A549) cells, while protected normal human fibroblasts (MRC-5) from Dox cytotoxicity. Read More

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January 2019

Protective and reversal actions of a novel peptidomimetic against a pivotal toxin implicated in Alzheimer's disease.

Biomed Pharmacother 2019 Jan 6;109:1052-1061. Epub 2018 Nov 6.

Neuro-Bio Ltd, Culham Science Centre, Building F5, Abingdon, OX14 3DB, UK.

Despite the many attempts to understand the aetiology of Alzheimer's disease, the basic mechanisms accounting for the progressive cycle of neuronal loss are still unknown. Previous work has suggested that the pivotal molecule mediating neurodegeneration could be an independently acting peptide cleaved from acetylcholinesterase. This previously unidentified agent acts as a signalling molecule in selectively vulnerable groups of cells where erstwhile developmental mechanisms are activated inappropriately to have a toxic effect in the context of the mature brain. Read More

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January 2019

Dysregulation of key microRNAs in pancreatic cancer development.

Biomed Pharmacother 2019 Jan 6;109:1008-1015. Epub 2018 Nov 6.

Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tabriz, 51665-1647, Tabriz, Iran. Electronic address:

Pancreatic cancer (PC) is mentioned as one of the fourth major cause of cancer-related deaths and also is considered as one of the most malignancies worldwide. Sadly, widely metastasis is frequently observed at the time of PC detection and there are, thereby, almost poor prognosis and ineffective treatment in PC patients. microRNAs (miRNAs), a group of short non-coding RNAs, regulate various cellular and developmental mechanisms, such as cell growth, proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation and angiogenesis. Read More

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January 2019
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Associations of specific and multiple types of childhood abuse and neglect with personality pathology among adolescents referred for mental health services.

Psychiatry Res 2018 Dec 8;270:906-914. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Department of Clinical, Neuro and Developmental Psychology, Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

The present study investigated the unique association between five types of childhood abuse and neglect and 18 lower-order dimensions of personality pathology, and using latent classes analysis (LCA) explored patterns of childhood abuse or neglect experiences. Further differences across latent classes on personality pathology traits, personality disorder symptom count and a diagnosis of personality disorder were examined. Participants were 178 adolescents and young adults (12-22 years; M = 16. Read More

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December 2018

The association between schizotypal traits and social functioning in adolescents from the general population.

Psychiatry Res 2018 Dec 5;270:895-900. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Bristol Medical School, Population Health Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.

Difficulties in social functioning have been linked to schizotypy, which may reflect vulnerability to psychotic disorders. We investigated these links in early adolescence, a developmental stage when many mental illnesses first emerge. Using the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire and The Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences, we examined the association of peer-relationship problems and prosocial behavior with positive and negative schizotypy in a sample of 149 school children (70 girls, 79 boys) between 12 and 15 years old. Read More

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December 2018

Comorbidity of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Generalized Anxiety Disorder in children and adolescents.

Psychiatry Res 2018 Dec 31;270:780-785. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

Department of Human Sciences, Roma Tre University, Rome, Italy.

The aim of the study is to explore the impact of Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) comorbidity in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Six hundred children with ADHD (mean age = 9.12 years), recruited from 2013 to 2017, participated in the study. Read More

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December 2018

Problem behaviours and Major Depressive Disorder in adults with intellectual disability and autism.

Psychiatry Res 2018 Dec 15;270:769-774. Epub 2018 Oct 15.

CREA (Research and Clinical Centre), San Sebastiano Foundation, Florence Italy. Electronic address:

The high prevalence of Problem Behaviours (PB) in persons with intellectual disability (ID) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) has been associated by some researchers to a proportionate frequency of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), which have a different presentation in persons with ID and ASD than in the general population, mostly as behavioural changes. Nevertheless, evidence on this behavioural equivalency is still scarce. The present study aims at evaluating the rate of MDD in persons with ID and ASD presenting PB. Read More

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December 2018
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Beyond diagnosis: Mentalization and mental health from a transdiagnostic point of view in adolescents from non-clinical population.

Psychiatry Res 2018 Dec 21;270:755-763. Epub 2018 Oct 21.

Department of Clinical and Health Psychology, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain; Department of Mental Health. Fundació Sanitària Sant Pere Claver, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain; Centre for Biomedical Research Network on Mental Health (CIBERSAM), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.

An increasing volume of evidence suggests that mentalization (MZ) can be an important factor in the transition from mental health to mental illness and vice versa. However, most studies are focused on the role of MZ in specific disorders. This study aims to evaluate the relationship between MZ and mental health as a trans-diagnostic process. Read More

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December 2018

Peritoneal Dialysis Catheter Obstruction by Uterine Tubaric Fimbriae in an Adult Woman with Developmental Abnormalities.

Nephrol Nurs J 2016 Sep-Oct;43(5):439-441

Professor of Nephrology, University of Pavia, Chief of Unit of Nephrology, Dialysis and Transplant, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico, San Matteo, Pavia. Italy.

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December 2018

Three Newly-Discovered Copies of the Manuscript Mayaku Ko, Written by Shutei Nakagawa, with Special Reference to their Appearance and Genealogy.

Authors:
Akitomo Matsuki

Nihon Ishigaku Zasshi 2017 Mar;63(1):61-69

Seishu Hanaoka's greatest achievement was the anesthetic Mafutsusan. He developed it and then used it successfully for various operations, primarily breast cancer tumor excisions. The developmental process can be traced in Mayaku Ko, a memorandum written and edited in 1796 by Hanaoka's close friend Shutei Nakagawa. Read More

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Early-life exposure to the endocrine disruptor 17-α-ethinylestradiol induces delayed effects in adult brain, liver and ovotestis proteomes of a self-fertilizing fish.

J Proteomics 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Laboratory of Evolutionary and Adaptive Physiology - Institute of Life, Earth and Environment - University of Namur, 61 Rue de Bruxelles, B5000 Namur, Belgium.

Early-life represents a critically sensitive window to endocrine disrupting chemicals, potentially leading to long-term repercussions on the phenotype later in life. The mechanisms underlying this phenomenon, referred to as the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD), are still poorly understood. To gain molecular understanding of these effects, we exposed mangrove rivulus (Kryptolebias marmoratus) for 28 days post hatching (dph) to 4 and 120 ng/L 17-α-ethinylestradiol, a model xenoestrogen. Read More

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December 2018

CircRNAs and cancer: biomarkers and master regulators.

Semin Cancer Biol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Molecular Oncology group, Biodonostia Research Institute, Paseo Doctor Begiristain, s/n San Sebastián, 20014, Spain; Radcliffe Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, OX3 9DU, United Kingdom; IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, María Díaz Haroko Kalea, 3, 48013, Bilbao, Spain. Electronic address:

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a novel class of regulatory RNAs that despite being relatively abundant have only recently begun to be explored. There are many thousands of genes that appear capable of producing circRNAs, however the function of all but a handful remain to be determined. What is emerging about these highly conserved molecules is that they play important roles in biology and cancer biology in particular. Read More

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December 2018
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Characterization of locomotor response to psychostimulants in the parthenogenetic marbled crayfish (Procambarus fallax forma virginalis): A promising model for studying the neural and molecular mechanisms of drug addiction.

Behav Brain Res 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

J.P. Scott Center for Neuroscience, Mind & Behavior, and Department of Biological Sciences, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, OH 43403, USA.

Although scientific research using mammalian models has made great strides in uncovering the enigmatic neural and molecular mechanisms orchestrating the state of drug addiction, a complete understanding has thus far eluded researchers. The complexity of the task has led to the use of invertebrate model systems to complement the research of drug-induced reward in mammalian systems. Invertebrates, such as crayfish, offer excellent model systems to help reveal the underlying mechanisms of drug addiction as they retain the ancestral neural reward circuit that is evolutionarily conserved across taxa, and they possess relatively few, large neurons, laid out in an accessible, modularly organized nervous system. Read More

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December 2018

Clinico-pathological characteristics among South African women with breast cancer receiving anti-retroviral therapy for HIV.

Breast 2018 Dec 7;43:123-129. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Non-Communicable Diseases Research Division, Wits Health Consortium (PTY) Ltd, 31 Princess of Wales Building, Johannesburg, 2193, South Africa; Department of Medicine, University of Witwatersrand Faculty of Health Sciences, 7 York Road Johannesburg, South Africa.

Purpose: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women and a leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. South Africa has the largest global burden of HIV infection and the largest anti-retroviral treatment (ART) program. This study aimed to analyse the association of HIV and ART use with breast cancer clinico-pathological characteristics. Read More

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December 2018

Visibility Graph Analysis of Speech Evoked Auditory Brainstem Response in Persistent Developmental Stuttering.

Neurosci Lett 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

The Ohio State University, United States. Electronic address:

In this research, the concept of fractality based on nonlinear science and chaos theory is explored to study and evaluate the complexity of speech-evoked auditory brainstem response (s-ABR) time series in order to capture its intrinsic multiscale dynamics. The visibility graph of the s-ABR series is proposed as a quantitative method to differentiate subjects with persistent developmental stuttering (PDS) from the normal group. Differential complexities between normal and PDS subjects is quantified using Graph index complexity (GIC). Read More

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December 2018