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    Economic Evaluation of Dupilumab for the Treatment of Moderate-to-Severe Atopic Dermatitis in Adults.
    Dermatol Ther (Heidelb) 2017 Sep 20. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    Schools of Pharmacy and Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.
    Introduction: Dupilumab significantly improves signs and symptoms of atopic dermatitis (AD), including pruritus, symptoms of anxiety and depression, and health-related quality of life versus placebo in adults with moderate-to-severe AD. Since the cost-effectiveness of dupilumab has not been evaluated, the objective of this analysis was to estimate a value-based price range in which dupilumab would be considered cost-effective compared with supportive care (SC) for treatment of moderate-to-severe AD in an adult population.

    Methods: A health economic model was developed to evaluate from the US payer perspective the long-term costs and benefits of dupilumab treatment administered every other week (q2w). Read More

    Probiotics for the Treatment of Atopic Dermatitis in Children: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.
    Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2017 6;7:392. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    Department of Dermatology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South UniversityChangsha, China.
    Objective: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a prevalent, burdensome, and psychologically important pediatric concern. Probiotics have been suggested as a treatment for AD. Some reports have explored this topic; however, the utility of probiotics for AD remains to be firmly established. Read More

    Neonatal BCG-vaccination and atopic dermatitis before 13 months of age. A randomised clinical trial.
    Allergy 2017 Sep 20. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    Paediatric Department, Kolding Hospital.
    Studies have suggested that Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination may reduce the risk of allergic diseases, including atopic dermatitis. The Danish Calmette Study was conducted 2012-2015. Within 7 days of birth new-borns were randomised 1:1 to BCG or no BCG. Read More

    GATA3 regulates FLG and FLG2 expression in human primary keratinocytes.
    Sci Rep 2017 Sep 19;7(1):11847. Epub 2017 Sep 19.
    Division of Immunodermatology and Allergy Research, Department for Dermatology, Allergy and Venereology, Hannover Medical School, 30625, Hannover, Germany.
    GATA3 is a transcription factor with an important role in atopic diseases because of its role in the differentiation of Th2 lymphocytes. Moreover, GATA3 is expressed in keratinocytes and has a role in keratinocyte differentiation and the establishment of the epidermal barrier. In this study, we investigated the role of GATA3 in keratinocytes in the context of epidermal barrier integrity under inflammatory skin conditions. Read More

    Tumour-derived PGD2 and NKp30-B7H6 engagement drives an immunosuppressive ILC2-MDSC axis.
    Nat Commun 2017 Sep 19;8(1):593. Epub 2017 Sep 19.
    Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Department of Fundamental Oncology, University of Lausanne, Biopole 3-02DB61, Ch. Des Boveresses 155, CH-1066, Epalinges, Switzerland.
    Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are involved in human diseases, such as allergy, atopic dermatitis and nasal polyposis, but their function in human cancer remains unclear. Here we show that, in acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL), ILC2s are increased and hyper-activated through the interaction of CRTH2 and NKp30 with elevated tumour-derived PGD2 and B7H6, respectively. ILC2s, in turn, activate monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (M-MDSCs) via IL-13 secretion. Read More

    Immortalized N/TERT keratinocytes as an alternative cell source in 3D human epidermal models.
    Sci Rep 2017 Sep 19;7(1):11838. Epub 2017 Sep 19.
    Department of Dermatology, Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences (RIMLS), Radboud University Medical Center (Radboudumc), PO BOX 9101, 6500 HB, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    The strong societal urge to reduce the use of experimental animals, and the biological differences between rodent and human skin, have led to the development of alternative models for healthy and diseased human skin. However, the limited availability of primary keratinocytes to generate such models hampers large-scale implementation of skin models in biomedical, toxicological, and pharmaceutical research. Immortalized cell lines may overcome these issues, however, few immortalized human keratinocyte cell lines are available and most do not form a fully stratified epithelium. Read More

    CD100-Plexin-B2 promotes the inflammation in psoriasis by activating NF-κB and inflammasome in keratinocytes.
    J Invest Dermatol 2017 Sep 16. Epub 2017 Sep 16.
    Department of Dermatology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, 710032, China; Department of Dermatology, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200040, China. Electronic address:
    Plexin-B2 (PlxnB2) and its ligand, CD100 (Semaphorin 4D), are originally identified as axon-guidance molecules that function during neuronal development; however, studies also showed that CD100-Plexins participate in various immune responses. In the present study, we found that the expression of PlxnB2 on keratinocytes was specifically increased in lesional skin of psoriasis patients, but not atopic dermatitis. Levels of soluble CD100 (sCD100) and membrane CD100 (mCD100) were elevated in sera of psoriasis patients and on keratinocytes of psoriatic skin, respectively. Read More

    Epidemiology of eczema herpeticum in hospitalized US children: Analysis of a nationwide cohort.
    J Invest Dermatol 2017 Sep 16. Epub 2017 Sep 16.
    Departments of Dermatology, Preventive Medicine and Medical Social Sciences, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611. Electronic address:
    Eczema herpeticum (EH) is characterized by viral infection of a preexisting inflammatory dermatosis and is associated with considerable morbidity. In this cross-sectional study, we sought to determine the incidence, risk factors, comorbidities, costs of care, length of stay, and mortality in hospitalized US children with EH. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample 2002-2012, containing a 20% sample of all US hospitalizations, was analyzed. Read More

    The Effect of Water Hardness on Surfactant Deposition Following Washing and Subsequent Skin Irritation in Atopic Dermatitis Patients and Healthy Controls.
    J Invest Dermatol 2017 Sep 12. Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    Sheffield Dermatology Research, The University of Sheffield Medical School, Sheffield, UK; The Paediatric Dermatology Clinic, Sheffield Children's Hospital, Sheffield, UK. Electronic address:
    Living in a hard water area is associated with an increased risk of atopic dermatitis (AD). Greater skin barrier impairment following exposure to surfactants in wash products combined with high calcium, and/or chlorine, levels in hard water is a compelling mechanism for this increase. The purpose of this study was to investigate this mechanism in individuals with and without a predisposition to skin barrier impairment. Read More

    Epidermal overexpression of xenobiotic receptor PXR impairs the epidermal barrier and triggers Th2 immune response.
    J Invest Dermatol 2017 Sep 16. Epub 2017 Sep 16.
    Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Allergology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria. Electronic address:
    The skin is in daily contact with environmental pollutants, but the long-term effects of such exposure remain under-investigated. Many of these toxins bind and activate the pregnane x receptor (PXR), a ligand-activated transcription factor that regulates genes central to xenobiotic metabolism. The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of constitutive activation of PXR in the basal layer of the skin to mimic repeated skin exposure to noxious molecules. Read More

    Health-related Quality of Life and Mental Health of Adults With Atopic Dermatitis.
    Arch Psychiatr Nurs 2017 Oct 2;31(5):516-521. Epub 2017 Jun 2.
    Red Cross College of Nursing, Chung-Ang University, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:
    Aim: This cross-sectional study aimed to examine the association between the prevalence of atopic dermatitis in Korean adults and their health-related quality of life and mental health.

    Methods: Data from a nationally representative sample of 11,913 adults who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey V (2010-2012) were analyzed by using SAS version 9.3. Read More

    Preclinical Assessment of Steroidal Nanostructured Lipid Carriers based gels for Atopic Dermatitis: Optimization and Product development.
    Curr Drug Deliv 2017 Sep 18. Epub 2017 Sep 18.
    School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, IFTM University, Moradabad, U.P.. India.
    Background: Betamethasone Valerate (BV) is potent topical corticosteroid. Preparation of nanostructured lipid carreirs (NLC) involves process parameters optimization and formulations were developed. It is available in several conventional formulations like creams and ointments which have well-known problems of frequent dosing and consequently additional side effects. Read More

    Is there an increased risk of cervical neoplasia in atopic dermatitis patients treated with oral immunosuppressive drugs?
    J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2017 Sep 19. Epub 2017 Sep 19.
    Department of Dermatology, University Medical Center Utrecht, the Netherlands.
    Background: Oral immunosuppressive drugs are frequently prescribed in young women with atopic dermatitis (AD). Immunocompromised patients may have a higher risk of developing high risk HPV infections, CIN and cervical carcinoma. Most literature on patients using oral immunosuppressive drugs is available in organ transplant patients. Read More

    Autoimmune diseases involving skin and intestinal mucosa are more frequent in adolescents and young adults suffering from atopic dermatitis.
    J Dermatol 2017 Sep 19. Epub 2017 Sep 19.
    Pediatric Unit, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
    Evidence has emerged about the relationship between atopic dermatitis (AD) and autoimmune diseases, but the underlying mechanism of this association is complex and still unclear. Recent epidemiological data from the published work suggest a positive correlation. The aim of this review is to analyze the frequency of co-occurrence of AD and autoimmune diseases. Read More

    Basophils activated via TLR signaling may contribute to pathophysiology of type 1 autoimmune pancreatitis.
    J Gastroenterol 2017 Sep 18. Epub 2017 Sep 18.
    The Third Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Kansai Medical University, 2-5-1 Shinmachi, Hirakata, Osaka, 573-1010, Japan.
    Background: Pathophysiology of type 1 autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is still unclear. We previously reported that M2 macrophages might play an important role in type 1 AIP. Recently, it has been reported that basophils regulate differentiation to M2 macrophages. Read More

    Periostin in the pathogenesis of skin diseases.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Sep 15. Epub 2017 Sep 15.
    Department of Dermatology, Course of Integrated Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka, 5650871, Japan.
    Skin is an organ that is susceptible to damage by external injury, chronic inflammation, and autoimmunity. Tissue damage causes alterations in both the configuration and type of cells in lesional skin. This phenomenon, called tissue remodeling, is a universal biological response elicited by programmed cell death, inflammation, immune disorders, and tumorigenic, tumor proliferative, and cytoreductive activity. Read More

    Advances in paediatrics in 2016: current practices and challenges in allergy, autoimmune diseases, cardiology, endocrinology, gastroenterology, infectious diseases, neonatology, nephrology, neurology, nutrition, pulmonology.
    Ital J Pediatr 2017 Sep 16;43(1):80. Epub 2017 Sep 16.
    Pediatrics Honorary Member University Faculty, G D'Annunzio University of Chieti-Pescara, Chieti, Italy.
    This review reports main progresses in various pediatric issues published in Italian Journal of Pediatrics and in international journals in 2016. New insights in clinical features or complications of several disorders may be useful for our better understanding. They comprise severe asthma, changing features of lupus erythematosus from birth to adolescence, celiac disease, functional gastrointestinal disorders, Moebius syndrome, recurrent pneumonia. Read More

    Revisiting murine models for atopic dermatitis and psoriasis with multipolar cytokine axes.
    Curr Opin Immunol 2017 Sep 12;48:99-107. Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    Department of Dermatology, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Shogoin-Kawahara, Sakyoku, Kyoto 606-8507, Japan.
    Atopic dermatitis (AD) and psoriasis are one of the common skin diseases. Animal models are a powerful tool to analyze these diseases, which are complicated by multiple cytokine pathways. However, many discrepancies between the human diseases and murine models have been noticed. Read More

    Efficacy and Safety of Desoximetasone 0.25% Spray in Adult Atopic Dermatitis Subjects: Pilot Study.
    J Drugs Dermatol 2017 Sep;16(9):919-922
    Background: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic, relapsing, inflammatory skin disorder. One of the most disturbing symptoms of AD is pruritus. The first line treatment for AD is topical corticosteroids, topical immunomodulators, topical barrier creams, oral antihistamines, and systemic treatments. Read More

    A retrospective cost-analysis of additional homeopathic treatment in Germany: Long-term economic outcomes.
    PLoS One 2017 15;12(9):e0182897. Epub 2017 Sep 15.
    Institute for Social Medicine, Epidemiology and Health Economics, Charité - University Medical Center, Berlin, Germany.
    Objectives: This study aimed to provide a long-term cost comparison of patients using additional homeopathic treatment (homeopathy group) with patients using usual care (control group) over an observation period of 33 months.

    Methods: Health claims data from a large statutory health insurance company were analysed from both the societal perspective (primary outcome) and from the statutory health insurance perspective (secondary outcome). To compare costs between patient groups, homeopathy and control patients were matched in a 1:1 ratio using propensity scores. Read More

    Thiopurine metabolite levels in patients with atopic dermatitis and/or chronic hand/foot eczema treated with azathioprine.
    J Dermatolog Treat 2017 Sep 15:1-31. Epub 2017 Sep 15.
    a Department of Dermatology , University Medical Center Utrecht , Heidelberglaan 100 , 3584 CX Utrecht , The Netherlands.
    Background: Azathioprine is frequently used in severe eczema. It is converted in the liver into active metabolites, including 6-thioguanine nucleotide (6-TGN) and methylated 6-methylmercaptopurine (6-MMP). In the past, the therapeutic potential of azathioprine may have not been fully utilized. Read More

    [Acute skin infections and their imitators in children : A photo quiz].
    Hautarzt 2017 Sep 15. Epub 2017 Sep 15.
    Abteilung pädiatrische Dermatologie, Universitäts-Kinderspital Zürich, Steinwiesstrasse 75, 8032, Zürich, Schweiz.
    Background: Skin infections account for 40% of emergency visits in pediatric dermatology. It is important to promptly recognize skin infections with potential complications and initiate treatment. However some characteristic skin findings may imitate skin infections and are often misdiagnosed. Read More

    Phytomedicines are efficient complementary therapies for the treatment of atopic dermatitis: A review of mechanistic insight and recent updates.
    Curr Drug Targets 2017 Sep 13. Epub 2017 Sep 13.
    Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Puncak Alam Campus, Bandar Puncak Alam 42300, Selangor. Malaysia.
    Background: Phytomedicines have been well-accepted alternative complementary therapies for the treatment of a wide range of acute and chronic skin inflammatory diseases including chronic herpes, prurigo, psoriasis, and atopic dermatitis (AD). Plethora of in vitro and in vivo studies have evidenced the therapeutic viability of phytomedicines, polyherbal formulations, plant-based materials and their decoctions for the treatment of mild-to-severe AD.

    Objective: This review was aimed to summarize and critically discuss the convincing evidence for the therapeutic effectiveness of phytomedicines for the treatment of AD and explore their anti-AD efficacy. Read More

    A novel non-azole topical treatment reduces Malassezia numbers and associated dermatitis: a short term prospective, randomized, blinded and placebocontrolled trial in naturally infected dogs.
    Vet Dermatol 2017 Sep 14. Epub 2017 Sep 14.
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 7054, Uppsala, 750 07, Sweden.
    Background: Malassezia yeast overgrowth on the skin is a common and often recurrent cause of dermatitis in dogs; it can be an exacerbating factor of atopic dermatitis. Anti-fungal drugs have been a standard treatment, but there is some concern that resistance may be evolving in a spectrum of Malassezia species. Safe, efficient and easy-to-use alternatives are needed. Read More

    Epicutaneous allergen application preferentially boosts specific T cell responses in sensitized patients.
    Sci Rep 2017 Sep 14;7(1):11657. Epub 2017 Sep 14.
    Division of Immunopathology, Department of Pathophysiology and Allergy Research, Center of Pathophysiology, Infectiology and Immunology, Vienna General Hospital (AKH), Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
    The effects of epicutaneous allergen administration on systemic immune responses in allergic and non-allergic individuals has not been investigated with defined allergen molecules. We studied the effects of epicutaneous administration of rBet v 1 and rBet v 1 fragments on systemic immune responses in allergic and non-allergic subjects. We conducted a clinical trial in which rBet v 1 and two hypoallergenic rBet v 1 fragments were applied epicutaneously by atopy patch testing (APT) to 15 birch pollen (bp) allergic patients suffering from atopic dermatitis, 5 bp-allergic patients suffering from rhinoconjunctivitis only, 5 patients with respiratory allergy without bp allergy and 5 non-allergic individuals. Read More

    Intestinal Dysbiosis Featuring Abundance of Ruminococcus gnavus Associates With Allergic Diseases in Infants.
    Gastroenterology 2017 Sep 11. Epub 2017 Sep 11.
    Department of Pediatrics, National Taiwan University Hospital, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10041, Taiwan; Medical Microbiota Center, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10051, Taiwan. Electronic address:
    Background & Aims: Dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota has been associated with development of allergies in infants. However, it is not clear what microbes might contribute to this process. We investigated what microbe(s) might be involved in analyses of infant twins and mice. Read More

    Alitretinoin treatment of lichen amyloidosis.
    Dermatol Ther 2017 Sep 14. Epub 2017 Sep 14.
    Department of Dermatology, Hanyang University Hospital, Seoul, South Korea.
    Lichen amyloidosis (LA) is characterized by the deposition of amyloid that may respond to chronic scratching that may be secondary to atopic dermatitis, stasis dermatitis, or interface dermatitis. Despite the development of several therapeutic strategies, including topical steroids, oral antihistamines, cyclosporine, and retinoids, an effective treatment for LA has not been established. A 49-year-old woman who has been treated irregularly for atopic dermatitis for 7 years presented with localized brownish papules on the left forearm and right elbow. Read More

    A blinded, randomized clinical trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of lokivetmab compared to ciclosporin in client-owned dogs with atopic dermatitis.
    Vet Dermatol 2017 Sep 14. Epub 2017 Sep 14.
    VMRD, Zoetis Belgium SA, Mercuriusstraat 20, Zaventem, 1930, Belgium.
    Background: Lokivetmab is an injectable anti-canine-IL-31 monoclonal antibody to treat clinical manifestations of atopic dermatitis (AD) in dogs.

    Hypothesis/objectives: To characterize the efficacy and safety of lokivetmab, and to demonstrate its noninferiority to ciclosporin under field conditions.

    Animals: Dogs with chronic AD (n = 274) were enrolled from 40 practices in Belgium, The Netherlands, France and Germany. Read More

    Validation of patient-reported global severity of atopic dermatitis in adults.
    Allergy 2017 Sep 14. Epub 2017 Sep 14.
    Departments of Dermatology, Preventive Medicine and Medical Social Sciences, Feinberg School of Medicine at Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA.
    Background: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is associated with a heterogeneous presentation and clinical course. There is a lack of simple and validated severity assessments that are feasible for clinical practice and epidemiological research.

    Objectives: We sought to validate patient-reported global AD severity in adults. Read More

    Mast cells and sphingosine-1-phosphate underlie prelesional remodeling in a mouse model of eczema.
    Allergy 2017 Sep 14. Epub 2017 Sep 14.
    Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, University of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia, South Carolina, USA.
    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic skin inflammation that affects children and adults worldwide, but its pathogenesis remains ill-understood. We show that a single application of OVA to mouse skin initiates remodeling and cellular infiltration of the hypodermis measured by a newly developed computer-aided method. Importantly, we demonstrate that skin mast cell (MC) activation and local sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) are significantly augmented after OVA treatment in mice. Read More

    The Prevalence of Ocular Allergy and Comorbidities in Chinese School Children in Shanghai.
    Biomed Res Int 2017 21;2017:7190987. Epub 2017 Aug 21.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Xin Hua Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.
    Objective: To investigate the prevalence and features of ocular allergy (OA) and comorbidities among school children in Shanghai, China.

    Methods: This was a population-based cross-sectional study. Each participant completed an ISAAC-based questionnaire. Read More

    Analysis of Epidemiology and Risk Factors of Atopic Dermatitis in Korean Children and Adolescents from the 2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.
    Biomed Res Int 2017 22;2017:5142754. Epub 2017 Aug 22.
    Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
    Background: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease, but only few studies involved samples of children and adolescents that are representative of the entire Korean population. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and risk factors of AD among children and adolescents in Korea by using nationally representative data.

    Methods: We used data from the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2010 and retrospectively evaluated 2,116 children and adolescents. Read More

    Psychological Health Status and Health-related Quality of Life in Adults with Atopic Dermatitis: A Nationwide Cross-sectional Study in South Korea.
    Acta Derm Venereol 2017 Sep 13. Epub 2017 Sep 13.
    Department of Dermatology, Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, 170 Jomaru-ro, Bucheon 14584, Korea.
    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder. Patients with AD often experience psychological distress and poor health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The aim of this study was to investigate the association of several psychological health statuses and poor HRQoL in an adult population with AD in South Korea. Read More

    EAACI Guidelines on Allergen Immunotherapy: Prevention of allergy.
    Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2017 Sep 13. Epub 2017 Sep 13.
    The Referral Centre for Food Allergy Diagnosis and Treatment Veneto Region, Department of Women and Child Health, University of Padua, Padua, Italy.
    Allergic diseases are common and frequently coexist. Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is a disease-modifying treatment for IgE-mediated allergic disease with effects beyond cessation of AIT that may include important preventive effects. The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) has developed a clinical practice guideline to provide evidence-based recommendations for AIT for prevention of i) development of allergic comorbidities in those with established allergic diseases, ii) development of first allergic condition and iii) allergic sensitization. Read More

    Evaluation of the correlation between Scoring Feline Allergic Dermatitis and Feline Extent and Severity Index and skin hydration in atopic cats.
    Vet Dermatol 2017 Sep 13. Epub 2017 Sep 13.
    Subdepartment of Clinical Diagnostics and Veterinary Dermatology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Głęboka 30, 20-612, Lublin, Poland.
    Background: Evaluation of the severity of clinical signs of cats with allergic skin diseases has used two scoring systems: Scoring Feline Allergic Dermatitis (SCORFAD) and the Feline Extent and Severity Index (FeDESI). The integrity of the cutaneous barrier can also be evaluated by measuring skin hydration. A correlation between the clinical score and skin hydration has been observed in humans and dogs with atopic dermatitis (AD). Read More

    Enhanced expression of genes related to xenobiotic metabolism in the skin of patients with atopic dermatitis but not with ichthyosis vulgaris.
    J Invest Dermatol 2017 Sep 9. Epub 2017 Sep 9.
    Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Allergology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria. Electronic address:
    Previous transcriptome analyses underscored the importance of immunological and skin barrier abnormalities in atopic dermatitis (AD). We sought to identify novel pathogenic pathways involved in AD by comparing the transcriptomes of AD patients stratified for filaggrin (FLG) null mutations to those of both healthy donors and patients with ichthyosis vulgaris (IV). We applied RNA-sequencing to analyze the whole transcriptome of nonlesional skin. Read More

    Lactobacilus Delbrueckii subsp. Bulgaricus Modulates the Secretion of Th1/Th2 and Treg Cell-Related Cytokines by PBMCs from Patients with Atopic Dermatitis.
    Drug Res (Stuttg) 2017 Sep 12. Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    Pegah Khuzestan Pasturized Milk co., Dezful, Iran.
    Background Atopic dermatitis (AD) is an inflammatory skin disease which may be due to the imbalance between Th1-, Th2 and Treg cell-related immune responses. Evidences suggest that appropriate stimulation with probiotics may correct the skewed immune response in children with AD. The aim was to determine the effects of the yogurt culture lactobacillus Bulgaricus on the secretion of Th1/Th2/Treg type cytokines by PBMCs from children with AD. Read More

    Atopic dermatitis: therapeutic care delivery: therapeutic education, shared decision-making, and access to care.
    Semin Cutan Med Surg 2017 Sep;36(3):131-136
    Division of Pediatric and Adolescent Dermatology, Rady Children's Hospital, San Diego, California, USA.
    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic skin condition affecting children and adults, with a significant negative impact on patient and caregiver quality of life (QOL). Although effective treatments for AD are available, outcomes are often limited by poor adherence to treatment plans. Effective patient and caregiver education about the disease and its management is a necessary and important component of AD care. Read More

    Atopic dermatitis: emerging therapies.
    Semin Cutan Med Surg 2017 Sep;36(3):124-130
    Division of Pediatric and Adolescent Dermatology, Rady Children's Hospital, San Diego, California, USA.
    Crisaborole and dupilumab represent the first 2 Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved therapies for atopic dermatitis (AD) in more than 15 years, and there are many promising drugs currently in development. This new wave of therapeutics capitalizes on the large body of work clarifying the pathogenesis of AD over the last several decades. In particular, type 2 cytokine-driven inflammation and skin barrier dysfunction are key processes underlying AD pathogenesis. Read More

    Atopic dermatitis: phototherapy and systemic therapy.
    Semin Cutan Med Surg 2017 Sep;36(3):118-123
    Division of Allergy and Immunology, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia Department of Pediatrics, Perelman School of Medicine at University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.
    The majority of atopic dermatitis (AD) patients respond satisfactorily to gentle bathing, frequent moisturizing, and topical medications. Second-line therapies for AD should be used in recalcitrant cases or in patients with uncontrolled disease despite compliance with first-line measures and avoidance of allergens. Recommended advanced therapies include phototherapy, especially narrowband ultraviolet B, systemic immunosuppressants, and a new biologic agent. Read More

    Atopic dermatitis: addressing allergy, infection, itch and complementary therapies.
    Semin Cutan Med Surg 2017 Sep;36(3):112-117
    Department of Medicine, State University of New York at Stony Brook, NY; Allergy & Immunology Training Program, Winthrop University Hospital, Mineola, New York, USA.
    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a complex condition that results from the dynamic interplay between genetic predisposition, skin barrier defects, environmental factors, and a dysfunctional immune system. As a result, AD can be complicated by irritant and allergic contact dermatitis and imbalances in the skin microbiome, which can subsequently exacerbate the severity and complicate the course of preexisting atopic disease. Itch is an important symptom of AD, as it plays a large role in the quality of life of patients and their families. Read More

    Atopic dermatitis: skin care and topical therapies.
    Semin Cutan Med Surg 2017 Sep;36(3):104-110
    Division of Pediatric and Adolescent Dermatology, Rady Children's Hospital, San Diego, California, USA.
    Atopic dermatitis (AD) pathogenesis is strongly influenced by Type 2 innate lymphoid cell and T-helper cell type 2 lymphocyte-driven inflammation and skin barrier dysfunction. AD therapies attempt to correct this pathology, and guidelines suggest suggest basics of AD therapy, which include repair of the skin barrier through bathing practices and moisturizers, infection control, and further lifestyle modifications to avoid and reduce AD triggers.While some patients' AD may be controlled using these measures, inflammatory eczema including acute flares and maintenance therapy in more severe patients are treated with topical pharmacologic agents such as topical corticosteroids, topical calcineurin inhibitors, and, more recently, topical PDE-4 inhibitors. Read More

    Atopic dermatitis: pathogenesis.
    Semin Cutan Med Surg 2017 Sep;36(3):100-103
    Division of Pediatric and Adolescent Dermatology, Rady Children's Hospital, San Diego, California, USA.
    Atopic Dermatitis (AD) is a complex inflammatory cutaneous disorder characterized by immune mediated inflammation and epidermal barrier dysfunction. Arising from a complex interplay between environmental and genetic factors, the definitive etiology of AD is perplexing and controversial. Advances in molecular medicine are radically transforming our understanding of AD pathogenesis. Read More

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