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    IL-28 and IL-29 as protective markers in subject with dengue fever.
    Med Microbiol Immunol 2017 Feb 25. Epub 2017 Feb 25.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, Republic of China.
    About 400 million people every year are estimated to contract dengue virus infection, which causes prolonged morbidity and sometimes mortality. Interleukin (IL)-28 and IL-29 are relatively newly discovered cytokines and play an important role in our immune defense against pathogens, especially for viral infection. In the present study, we investigated serum IL-28 and IL-29 expression and the relationship to clinical and laboratory parameters in patients with dengue virus infection. Read More

    Differences in Perceived Severity of Zika Virus Infection and Dengue Fever and its Influence on Mosquito Control Practices in Malaysia.
    J Community Health 2017 Feb 25. Epub 2017 Feb 25.
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
    The aims of this study were to explore the differences in (1) the perception of severity towards ZIKV infection and dengue fever, and (2) mosquito control practices before and after the ZIKV outbreak were declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC). Data were collected between February 2015 and May 2016 using a computer-assisted telephone interviewing system. The median scale score for perceived severity of ZIKV was 3 (interquartile range [IQR] 1-5) versus 4 (IQR 3-5) for dengue (P < 0. Read More

    Insights into the coordinated interplay of the sHP hairpin and its co-existing and mutually-exclusive dengue virus terminal RNA elements for viral replication.
    Virology 2017 Feb 18;505:56-70. Epub 2017 Feb 18.
    Institute of Molecular Biology, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China. Electronic address:
    Terminal RNA elements of the dengue virus (DENV) genome are necessary for balanced stability of linear and circular conformations during replication. We examined the small hairpin (sHP) and co-existing and mutually-exclusive terminal RNA elements by mutagenesis analysis, compensatory mutation screening, and by probing with RNA fragments to explore localized RNA folding and long-range RNA interactions. We found that the first base pair of the sHP and the stability of SLB and the 3'SL bottom stem affected circularization; sHPgc/C10631G+G10644C prohibited circularization, sHPuG accelerated and stabilized 5'-to-3' RNA hybridization, while C94A and A97G and C10649 mutations loosened SLB and 3'SL, respectively, for circularization. Read More

    What Came First-the Virus or the Egg?
    Cell 2017 Feb;168(5):755-757
    The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia and the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. Electronic address:
    Three recent studies find that the single-pass transmembrane protein HAP2 mediates gamete fusion and is remarkably similar to class II fusion proteins found in viruses such as dengue and Zika. Read More

    Combining contact tracing with targeted indoor residual spraying significantly reduces dengue transmission.
    Sci Adv 2017 Feb 17;3(2):e1602024. Epub 2017 Feb 17.
    College of Public Health, Medical and Veterinary Sciences, James Cook University, Cairns, Queensland 4878, Australia.; Australian Institute of Tropical Health and Medicine, James Cook University, Cairns 4878, Australia.
    The widespread transmission of dengue viruses (DENV), coupled with the alarming increase of birth defects and neurological disorders associated with Zika virus, has put the world in dire need of more efficacious tools for Aedes aegypti-borne disease mitigation. We quantitatively investigated the epidemiological value of location-based contact tracing (identifying potential out-of-home exposure locations by phone interviews) to infer transmission foci where high-quality insecticide applications can be targeted. Space-time statistical modeling of data from a large epidemic affecting Cairns, Australia, in 2008-2009 revealed a complex pattern of transmission driven primarily by human mobility (Cairns accounted for ~60% of virus transmission to and from residents of satellite towns, and 57% of all potential exposure locations were nonresidential). Read More

    Nanopharmaceuticals as a solution to neglected diseases: Is it possible?
    Acta Trop 2017 Feb 20. Epub 2017 Feb 20.
    NanoBioss, Chemistry Institute, University of Campinas, SP, Brazil; Brazilian Nanotechnology National Laboratory (LNNano-CNPEM), Campinas, SP, Brazil; Biological Chemistry Laboratory, Institute of Chemistry, University of Campinas, Campinas, SP. Brazil. Electronic address:
    The study of neglected diseases has not received much attention, especially from public and private institutions over the last years, in terms of strong support for developing treatment for these diseases. Support in the form of substantial amounts of private and public investment is greatly needed in this area. Due to the lack of novel drugs for these diseases, nanobiotechnology has appeared as an important new breakthrough for the treatment of neglected diseases. Read More

    Microbiota activates IMD pathway and limits Sindbis infection in Aedes aegypti.
    Parasit Vectors 2017 Feb 23;10(1):103. Epub 2017 Feb 23.
    Instituto de Bioquímica Médica Leopoldo de Meis, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.
    Background: Aedes aegypti is the main vector of important arboviruses such as dengue, Zika and chikungunya. During infections mosquitoes can activate the immune pathways Toll, IMD and JAK/STAT to limit pathogen replication.

    Results: Here, we evaluate the immune response profile of Ae. Read More

    Cross reactivity of commercial anti-dengue immunoassays in patients with acute Zika virus infection.
    J Med Virol 2017 Feb 23. Epub 2017 Feb 23.
    Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo, Universidade de São Paulo, LIMHC 52, São Paulo, Brazil.
    Several countries have local transmission of multiple arboviruses, in particular, dengue and Zika viruses, which have recently spread through many American countries. Cross reactivity among Flaviviruses is high and present a challenge for accurate identification of the infecting agent. Thus, we evaluated the level of cross reactivity of anti-dengue IgM/G Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA) from three manufacturers against 122 serum samples obtained at two time-points from 61 patients with non-dengue confirmed Zika virus infection. Read More

    ER protein SCAP inhibits Dengue virus NS2B3 protease by suppressing its K27-linked polyubiquitylation.
    J Virol 2017 Feb 22. Epub 2017 Feb 22.
    State Key Laboratory of Molecular Cell Biology, CAS Center for Excellence in Molecular Cell Science, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031, China
    Dengue viruses (DENVs) are an emerging threat to global public health. The NS2B3 protease complex of DENV has recently been shown to cleave antiviral protein STING and thereby subverting the innate immune signaling to facilitate virus replication. Whether host cells have mechanism to counteract this virus-mediated immunosuppression is unclear. Read More

    Antibody responses to Zika virus infections in flavivirus-endemic environments.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Feb 22. Epub 2017 Feb 22.
    Molecular and Translational Sciences Division, U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Frederick, Maryland 21702, USA.
    Zika virus (ZIKV) infections occur in areas where dengue (DENV), West Nile (WNV), yellow fever (YFV), and other viruses of the genus Flavivirus co-circulate. The envelope protein (E) of these closely related flaviviruses induces specific long-term immunity, yet subsequent infections are associated with cross-reactive antibody responses that may enhance disease susceptibility and severity. To gain a better understanding of ZIKV infections against a background of similar viral diseases, we examined serological immune responses to ZIKV, WNV, DENV and YFV infections of humans and non-human primates (NHP). Read More

    Dengue infection in the nervous system: lessons learned for Zika and Chikungunya.
    Arq Neuropsiquiatr 2017 Feb;75(2):123-126
    Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Instituto de Biologia, Rio de Janeiro RJ, Brasil.
    Dengue, Zika and Chikungunya are emerging arboviruses and important causes of acute febrile disease in tropical areas. Although dengue does not represent a new condition, a geographic expansion over time has occurred with the appearance of severe neurological complications. Neglect has allowed the propagation of the vector (Aedes spp), which is also responsible for the transmission of other infections such as Zika and Chikungunya throughout the world. Read More

    Guillain-Barré syndrome and other neurological manifestations possibly related to Zika virus infection in municipalities from Bahia, Brazil, 2015.
    Epidemiol Serv Saude 2017 Jan-Mar;26(1):9-18
    Ministério da Saúde, Programa de Treinamento em Epidemiologia Aplicada aos Serviços do Sistema Único de Saúde, Brasília-DF, Brasil.
    Objective:: to describe the reported cases of Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) and other neurological manifestations with a history of dengue, chikungunya or Zika virus infections, in the Metropolitan Region of Salvador and in the municipality of Feira de Santana, Brazil.

    Methods:: this is a descriptive study with data of an investigation conducted by the epidemiological surveillance from March to August 2015; to confirm the neurological manifestations, medical diagnosis records were considered, and to prior infection, clinical and laboratory criteria were used.

    Results:: 138 individuals were investigated, 57 reported infectious process up to 31 days before neurological symptoms - 30 possibly due to Zika, 13 to dengue, 8 to chikungunya and 6 were inconclusive -; GBS was the most frequent neurological condition (n=46), with predominance of male sex (n=32) and the median age was 44. Read More

    Analysis of spatial mobility in subjects from a Dengue endemic urban locality in Morelos State, Mexico.
    PLoS One 2017 22;12(2):e0172313. Epub 2017 Feb 22.
    Centro de Investigaciones sobre Enfermedades Infecciosas, Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública, Cuernavaca, Morelos, México.
    Introduction: Mathematical models and field data suggest that human mobility is an important driver for Dengue virus transmission. Nonetheless little is known on this matter due the lack of instruments for precise mobility quantification and study design difficulties.

    Materials And Methods: We carried out a cohort-nested, case-control study with 126 individuals (42 cases, 42 intradomestic controls and 42 population controls) with the goal of describing human mobility patterns of recently Dengue virus-infected subjects, and comparing them with those of non-infected subjects living in an urban endemic locality. Read More

    Dengue-associated hemophagocyticlymphohistiocytosis in an adult: A case report and literature review.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2017 Feb;96(8):e6159
    aDivision of Infectious Disease, Department of Internal Medicine, Korea University Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul bDepartment of Internal Medicine, Konyang University College of Medicine, Daejeon cDepartment of Internal Medicine, Hallym University College of Medicine, Chuncheon, Korea.
    Background: Infection-associated hemophagocytic syndrome (IAHS) is potentially a fatal disease caused by systemic infection complicated by hemophagocyticlymphohistiocytosis (HLH). Here, we report a case of HLH associated with dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) after a trip to Thailand.

    Case Summary: A 33-year-old healthy female patient presented with 3 days of fever, myalgia, and skin rash. Read More

    Coarse-Grained Molecular Modeling of Solution Structure Ensemble of Dengue Virus Non-Structural Protein 5 with Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering Intensity.
    J Phys Chem B 2017 Feb 22. Epub 2017 Feb 22.
    An ensemble modeling scheme incorporating coarse-grained simulations with experimental small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) data is applied to the dengue virus 2 (DENV2) non-structural protein 5 (NS5). NS5 serves a key role in viral replication through its two domains that are connected by a ten-residue polypeptide segment. A set of representative structures are generated from a simulated structure pool using SAXS data fitting by the non-negativity least squares (NNLS) or the standard Ensemble Optimization Method (EOM) based on a genetic algorithm (GA). Read More

    Modified mRNA Vaccines Protect against Zika Virus Infection.
    Cell 2017 Feb 16. Epub 2017 Feb 16.
    Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA; Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA; Department of Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA; The Andrew M. and Jane M. Bursky Center for Human Immunology and Immunotherapy Programs, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA. Electronic address:
    The emergence of ZIKV infection has prompted a global effort to develop safe and effective vaccines. We engineered a lipid nanoparticle (LNP) encapsulated modified mRNA vaccine encoding wild-type or variant ZIKV structural genes and tested immunogenicity and protection in mice. Two doses of modified mRNA LNPs encoding prM-E genes that produced virus-like particles resulted in high neutralizing antibody titers (∼1/100,000) that protected against ZIKV infection and conferred sterilizing immunity. Read More

    Dengue virus antibody database: Systematically linking serotype-specificity with epitope mapping in dengue virus.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Feb 21;11(2):e0005395. Epub 2017 Feb 21.
    Biotechnology HPC Software Applications Institute, Telemedicine and Advanced Technology Research Center, U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command, Fort Detrick, Maryland, United States of America.
    Background: A majority infections caused by dengue virus (DENV) are asymptomatic, but a higher incidence of severe illness, such as dengue hemorrhagic fever, is associated with secondary infections, suggesting that pre-existing immunity plays a central role in dengue pathogenesis. Primary infections are typically associated with a largely serotype-specific antibody response, while secondary infections show a shift to a broadly cross-reactive antibody response.

    Methods/principal Findings: We hypothesized that the basis for the shift in serotype-specificity between primary and secondary infections can be found in a change in the antibody fine-specificity. Read More

    Dengue virus NS1 protein activates immune cells via TLR4 but not TLR2 or TLR6.
    Immunol Cell Biol 2017 Feb 21. Epub 2017 Feb 21.
    School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.
    The secreted hexameric form of the dengue virus (DENV) non-structural protein 1 (NS1) has recently been shown to elicit inflammatory cytokine release and disrupt endothelial cell monolayer integrity. This suggests that circulating NS1 contributes to the vascular leak that plays a major role in the pathology of dengue haemorrhagic fever and shock. Pathways activated by NS1 are thus of great interest as potential therapeutic targets. Read More

    Severe Plasmodium knowlesi with dengue coinfection.
    BMJ Case Rep 2017 Feb 20;2017. Epub 2017 Feb 20.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, 16150, Kelantan, Malaysia.
    We report a case of severe Plasmodium knowlesi and dengue coinfection in a previously healthy 59-year-old Malay man who presented with worsening shortness of breath, high-grade fever with chills and rigors, dry cough, myalgia, arthralgia, chest discomfort and poor appetite of 1 week duration. There was a history mosquito fogging around his neighbourhood in his hometown. Further history revealed that he went to a forest in Jeli (northern part of Kelantan) 3 weeks prior to the event. Read More

    Utility of Japanese encephalitis virus subgenomic replicon-based single-round infectious particles as antigens in neutralization tests for Zika virus and three other flaviviruses.
    J Virol Methods 2017 Feb 17. Epub 2017 Feb 17.
    BIKEN Endowed Department of Dengue Vaccine Development, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University,420/6 Ratchawithi Road, Ratchathewi, Bangkok 10400, Thailand(3); BIKEN Endowed Department of Dengue Vaccine Development, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, 3-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan.
    The introduction of a foreign virus into an area may cause an outbreak, as with the Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak in the Americas. Preparedness for handling a viral outbreak involves the development of tests for the serodiagnosis of foreign virus infections. We previously established a gene-based technology to generate some flaviviral antigens useful for functional antibody assays. Read More

    Outbreak of dengue virus type-3 in Malakand, Pakistan 2015; A laboratory perspective.
    Acta Trop 2017 Feb 17;169:202-206. Epub 2017 Feb 17.
    Department of Virology, National Institute of Health,Park Road, Chak Shahzad, Islamabad, Pakistan. Electronic address:
    An outbreak of dengue fever was reported in Malakand district, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) province of Pakistan during 2015. Detection of viral RNA by real-time PCR confirmed dengue virus serotype-3 (DENV-3) to be the causative agent causing the outbreak. Phylogenetic analysis based on partial E-NS1 gene sequences showed that the DENV-3 viruses belonged to genotype III with maximum homology with the dengue-3 strains previously reported from Pakistan and India. Read More

    ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile: Flaviviridae.
    J Gen Virol 2017 Jan;98(1):2-3
    11​Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA 12​Department of Microbiology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA.
    The Flaviviridae is a family of small enveloped viruses with RNA genomes of 9000-13 000 bases. Most infect mammals and birds. Many flaviviruses are host-specific and pathogenic, such as hepatitis C virus in the genus Hepacivirus. Read More

    Management dilemmas in a rare case of pituitary apoplexy in the setting of dengue hemorrhagic fever.
    Surg Neurol Int 2017 19;8. Epub 2017 Jan 19.
    Department of Neurosurgery, NIMHANS, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.
    Background: Pituitary apoplexy occurs due to infarction or hemorrhage, within a pituitary adenoma or a nontumorous pituitary gland and can have catastrophic consequences. Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) is a severe manifestation of the spectrum of dengue virus infection and is characterized by high-grade fever, thrombocytopenia, hemorrhagic tendencies, and increased vascular permeability. Cases of incidentalomas complicated by DHF and presenting with apoplexy are extremely rare. Read More

    Resveratrol treatment reveals a novel role for HMGB1 in regulation of the type 1 interferon response in dengue virus infection.
    Sci Rep 2017 Feb 20;7:42998. Epub 2017 Feb 20.
    Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan.
    Dengue is one of the most significant mosquito-borne virus diseases worldwide, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions. This study sought to examine the antiviral activity of resveratrol (RESV), a phytoalexin secreted naturally by plants, against dengue virus (DENV) infection. Our data showed that RESV inhibits the translocation of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a DNA binding protein that normally resides in the nucleus, into the cytoplasm and extracellular milieu. Read More

    Discovery of 2-oxopiperazine dengue inhibitors by scaffold morphing of a phenotypic high-throughput screening hit.
    Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2017 Feb 4. Epub 2017 Feb 4.
    Novartis Institute for Tropical Diseases, 10 Biopolis Road, #05-01 Chromos, 138670, Singapore. Electronic address:
    A series of 2-oxopiperazine derivatives were designed from the pyrrolopiperazinone cell-based screening hit 4 as a dengue virus inhibitor. Systematic investigation of the structure-activity relationship (SAR) around the piperazinone ring led to the identification of compound (S)-29, which exhibited potent anti-dengue activity in the cell-based assay across all four dengue serotypes with EC50<0.1μM. Read More

    Complete genome characterization and evolutionary analysis of serotype-4 associated with severe dengue.
    Epidemiol Infect 2017 Feb 20:1-8. Epub 2017 Feb 20.
    Department of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics,School of Life Sciences,University of Hyderabad,Hyderabad, Telangana State,India.
    Dengue virus circulates as four independent serotypes posing a major public health threat around the globe. In the recent years, frequent dengue outbreaks are being reported in many parts of the world including India. Among four serotypes, Den-4 is the least sampled and studied serotype until recent times, but the reported cases with Den-4 infections were mostly known to associate with severe dengue. Read More

    Identifying the Main Mosquito Species in the Taiwan Strait Using DNA Barcoding.
    Comb Chem High Throughput Screen 2017 Feb 17. Epub 2017 Feb 17.
    Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University - Key Laboratory of Plant Virology of Fujian Province Fuzhou, Fujian, China.
    Mosquitoes can transmit many types of viruses such West Nile virus and Zika virus and are responsible for virus-causing diseases including malaria, Dengue fever, yellow fever, lymphatic filariasis, and Japanese B encephalitis. On January 19, 2016, the first case of Zika virus infection was identified in Taiwan, which presents the need for studying the mosquito species in the Taiwan Strait and evaluating the risk of the outbreak of this infection. In this study, we collected a total of 144 specimens from 42 mosquito specimens belonging to 9 genera from both sides of the Taiwan Strait during 2013 and 2014. Read More

    Epidemiological trends of dengue in mainland China, 2005-2015.
    Int J Infect Dis 2017 Feb 15. Epub 2017 Feb 15.
    State Key Laboratory of Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Electronic address:
    Objective: To explore the epidemiological trend of dengue in mainland China.

    Methods: Data on dengue cases from 2005 to 2015 were collected and epidemiological trends including average age, occupation, seasonal distribution and interval from illness onset to confirmation were analyzed using SPSS 19.0 or R 3. Read More

    Improved detection of Zika virus RNA in human and animal specimens by a novel, highly sensitive and specific real-time RT-PCR assay targeting the 5'-untranslated region of Zika virus.
    Trop Med Int Health 2017 Feb 18. Epub 2017 Feb 18.
    State Key Laboratory of Emerging Infectious Diseases, University of Hong Kong, China.
    Objective And Method: We developed and evaluated five novel real-time RT-PCR assays targeting conserved regions in the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR), envelope (E'), non-structural protein 2A (NS2A), NS5, and 3'-UTR of the ZIKV genome.

    Results: The ZIKV-5'-UTR assay exhibited the lowest in-vitro limit of detection (5-10 RNA copies/reaction and 3.0×10(-1) plaque-forming units/ml). Read More

    The inhibiting effect of the transcription factor p53 on dengue virus infection by activating the Type I interferon.
    Oncotarget 2017 Feb 15. Epub 2017 Feb 15.
    Department of Pathogen Biology and Immunology, Chongqing Three Gorges Medical College, Chongqing 404120, China.
    To investigate the role of the transcription factor p53 in the course of the dengue virus (DV) infection. The human hepatocellular carcinoma cell strain HepG2 with a low expression level of p53 was built by using the retroviral-mediated RNA interference technology, and was detected by Western blot. The wild group and the interference group were respectively infected by the type 2 DV. Read More

    Household Dengue Prevention Interventions, Expenditures, and Barriers to Aedes aegypti Control in Machala, Ecuador.
    Int J Environ Res Public Health 2017 Feb 16;14(2). Epub 2017 Feb 16.
    Center for Global Health and Translational Science, State University of New York Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY 13210, USA.
    The Aedes aegypti mosquito is an efficient vector for the transmission of Zika, chikungunya, and dengue viruses, causing major epidemics and a significant social and economic burden throughout the tropics and subtropics. The primary means of preventing these diseases is household-level mosquito control. However, relatively little is known about the economic burden of Ae. Read More

    Consumer Willingness to Pay for Dengue Vaccine (CYD-TDV, Dengvaxia(®)) in Brazil; Implications for Future Pricing Considerations.
    Front Pharmacol 2017 2;8:41. Epub 2017 Feb 2.
    Programa de Pós-graduação em Medicamentos e Assistência Farmacêutica, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade Federal de Minas GeraisBelo Horizonte, Brazil; SUS Collaborating Centre for Technology Assessment and Excellence in Health, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade Federal de Minas GeraisBelo Horizonte, Brazil.
    Introduction and Objective: Dengue virus is a serious global health problem with an estimated 3.97 billion people at risk for infection worldwide. In December 2015, the first vaccine (CYD-TDV) for dengue prevention was approved in Brazil, developed by Sanofi Pasteur. Read More

    Seroprevalence of Common Viral Diseases: A Hospital Based Study from Amritsar, India.
    J Clin Diagn Res 2016 Dec 1;10(12):DC15-DC19. Epub 2016 Dec 1.
    Research Assistant, Department of Viral Research and Diagnostic Laboratory, Government Medical College , Amritsar, Punjab, India .
    Introduction: There is a paucity of published data on epidemiology of the viral infections in Punjab, India. The Viral Research and Diagnostic Laboratory (VRDL) located at Government Medical College (GMC), Amritsar conducts the initial diagnosis of common viruses circulating in the region.

    Aim: To report the seroprevalence of various viral diseases in Amritsar and neighboring districts of Punjab along with the demographic and geographical data of the patients. Read More

    Dengue: An Analysis of Epidemiological Pattern Over a Six Year Period.
    J Clin Diagn Res 2016 Dec 1;10(12):DC12-DC14. Epub 2016 Dec 1.
    Professor and Head, Department of Microbiology, Government Medical College Hospital , Chandigarh, India .
    Introduction: Dengue is an arboviral infection transmitted among humans by Aedes aegypti, the urban vector and Aedes albopictus as a maintenance vector in sub-urban and rural areas. The diagnosis is routinely established by detection of NS1 antigen and/or by IgM antibodies testing. Dengue infects 50-100 million cases per year worldwide with atleast half million serious cases needing hospitalization. Read More

    The role of the unfolded protein response in dengue virus pathogenesis.
    Cell Microbiol 2017 Feb 16. Epub 2017 Feb 16.
    Antiviral Research Unit, Oxford Glycobiology Institute, Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3QU, UK.
    Symptomatic dengue virus (DENV) infections range from mild fever to severe haemorrhagic disease and death. Host-viral interactions play a significant role in deciding the fate of the infection. The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a pro-survival cellular reaction induced in response to DENV mediated ER stress. Read More

    A single mutation in the envelope protein modulates flavivirus antigenicity, stability, and pathogenesis.
    PLoS Pathog 2017 Feb 16;13(2):e1006178. Epub 2017 Feb 16.
    Viral Pathogenesis Section, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States of America.
    The structural flexibility or 'breathing' of the envelope (E) protein of flaviviruses allows virions to sample an ensemble of conformations at equilibrium. The molecular basis and functional consequences of virus conformational dynamics are poorly understood. Here, we identified a single mutation at residue 198 (T198F) of the West Nile virus (WNV) E protein domain I-II hinge that regulates virus breathing. Read More

    Viperin interaction with mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS) limits viperin-mediated inhibition of the interferon response in macrophages.
    PLoS One 2017 16;12(2):e0172236. Epub 2017 Feb 16.
    Department of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America.
    Viperin is an antiviral protein that is upregulated by interferons and by ligands for a variety of innate immune receptors. It possesses diverse capabilities and functions in an array of viral infections. Studies have shown that it appears to be particularly important in defence against RNA viruses, such as West Nile, Dengue, and Chikungunya viruses, although the specific mechanisms involved are not well understood at the molecular level. Read More

    Leaking Containers: Success and Failure in Controlling the Mosquito Aedes aegypti in Brazil.
    Am J Public Health 2017 Feb 16:e1-e8. Epub 2017 Feb 16.
    Ilana Löwy is with CERMES 3 INSERM, CNRS, EHESS, Universite Paris V, France.
    In 1958, the Pan American Health Organization declared that Brazil had successfully eradicated the mosquito Aedes aegypti, responsible for the transmission of yellow fever, dengue fever, chikungunya, and Zika virus. Yet in 2016 the Brazilian minister of health described the situation of dengue fever as "catastrophic." Discussing the recent epidemic of Zika virus, which amplified the crisis produced by the persistence of dengue fever, Brazil's president declared in January 2016 that "we are in the process of losing the war against the mosquito Aedes aegypti. Read More

    Mosquito Vector Biology and Control In Latin America-A 26th Symposium.
    J Am Mosq Control Assoc 2016 Dec;32(4):315-322
    The 26th Annual Latin American Symposium presented by the American Mosquito Control Association (AMCA) was held as part of the 82nd Annual Meeting of the AMCA in Savannah, GA, in February 2016. The principal objective, as for the previous 25 symposia, was to promote participation in the AMCA by vector control specialists, public health workers, and academicians from Latin America. This publication includes summaries of 19 presentations that were given orally in Spanish by participants from Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, and the USA. Read More

    Mosquito Biology and Mosquito-Borne Disease Awareness Among Island Communities In Malaysia.
    J Am Mosq Control Assoc 2016 Dec;32(4):273-281
    Mosquito-borne diseases have been increasing at an alarming rate over the past decades. In Malaysia, one finds several important mosquito-borne diseases such as Japanese encephalitis, dengue, malaria, and chikungunya. Mosquito surveillance and control programs are the most effective way of detecting and controlling mosquito-borne diseases, but these programs are less effective without an aware and well-informed general public. Read More

    Genetic Polymorphism of Aedes albopictus Population Inferred From ND5 Gene Variabilities In Subang Jaya, Malaysia.
    J Am Mosq Control Assoc 2016 Dec;32(4):265-272
    This study was performed to establish the genetic variability of Aedes albopictus within Subang Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia, by using the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase 5 subunit (ND5) mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) marker. A total of 90 samples were collected from 9 localities within an area of the Subang Jaya Municipality. Genetic variability was determined through the amplification and sequencing of a fragment of the ND5 gene. Read More

    The Potential Cost Effectiveness of Different Dengue Vaccination Programmes in Malaysia: A Value-Based Pricing Assessment Using Dynamic Transmission Mathematical Modelling.
    Pharmacoeconomics 2017 Feb 15. Epub 2017 Feb 15.
    Pediatric Department and Clinical Research Center, Hospital Raja Permaisuri Bainun Ipoh, Jalan Hospital, 30990, Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia.
    Background: Dengue disease poses a great economic burden in Malaysia.

    Methods: This study evaluated the cost effectiveness and impact of dengue vaccination in Malaysia from both provider and societal perspectives using a dynamic transmission mathematical model. The model incorporated sensitivity analyses, Malaysia-specific data, evidence from recent phase III studies and pooled efficacy and long-term safety data to refine the estimates from previous published studies. Read More

    A new approach to detect epidemic of DHF by combining ARIMA model and adjusted Tukey's control chart with interpretation rules.
    Interv Med Appl Sci 2016 Sep;8(3):118-120
    Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Burapha University , Chonburi, Thailand.
    The aim of this study was to propose a new method to detect the epidemic of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) using seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average model [ARIMA(1,0,2)(0,1,2)12] with no constant and adjusted Tukey's control chart and the results obtained were interpreted using seventh interpretation rule. Data on the number of DHF cases in Chonburi reported during 2007-2013 were used. The results indicated that this new approach efficiently detected the epidemic of DHF in October 2015 with the forecasted number of DHF (257 cases) and root-mean-squared error (RMSE = 46. Read More

    Repellent effects of the essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus and Tagetes minuta on the sandfly, Phlebotomus duboscqi.
    BMC Res Notes 2017 Feb 15;10(1):98. Epub 2017 Feb 15.
    Center for Biotechnology Research and Development, Kenya Medical Research Institute, P.O. BOX 54840 - 00200, Mbagathi Rd., Nairobi, Kenya.
    Background: The sandfly, Phlebotomus duboscqi is a vector of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) that is an important public health problem in Eastern Africa. Repellents have been used for protection of humans against vectors of ZCL and other vectors that transmit killer diseases including malaria, Rift Valley fever, dengue, and yellow fever. The repellent effects of different doses of the essential oils from the lemon grass, Cymbopogon citratus and Mexican marigold, Tagetes minuta were evaluated in a two-chamber bioassay against 3- to 7-day-old unfed females of P. Read More

    A Large Scale Biorational Approach Using Bacillus thuringiensis israeliensis (Strain AM65-52) for Managing Aedes aegypti Populations to Prevent Dengue, Chikungunya and Zika Transmission.
    PLoS One 2017 15;12(2):e0170079. Epub 2017 Feb 15.
    Florida Keys Mosquito Control District, College Road, Key West, Florida, United States of America.
    Background: Aedes aegypti is a container-inhabiting mosquito and a vector of dengue, chikungunya, and Zika viruses. In 2009 several cases of autochthonous dengue transmission were reported in Key West, Florida, USA prompting a comprehensive response to control A. aegypti. Read More

    Three Decades of Dengue Surveillance in Five Highly Endemic South East Asian Countries.
    Asia Pac J Public Health 2017 Jan 15;29(1):7-16. Epub 2016 Nov 15.
    1 Sanofi Pasteur, Singapore, Singapore.
    We described and quantified epidemiologic trends in dengue disease burden in 5 Asian countries (Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, Philippines, and Vietnam) and identified and estimated outbreaks impact over the last 3 decades. Dengue surveillance data from 1980 to 2010 were retrieved from DengueNet and from World Health Organization sources. Trends in incidence, mortality, and case fatality rate (CFR) were systematically analyzed using annual average percent change (AAPC), and the contribution of epidemic years identified over the observation period was quantified. Read More

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