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    Moonlighting glycolytic enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is required for efficient hepatitis C virus and dengue virus infections in human Huh-7.5.1 cells.
    J Gen Virol 2017 May 26. Epub 2017 May 26.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada.
    Hijacking of cellular biosynthetic pathways by human enveloped viruses is a shared molecular event essential for the viral lifecycle. In this study, the accumulating evidence of the importance of human glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) in the host secretory pathway led us to hypothesize that this moonlighting enzyme could play a key role in the lifecycle steps of two important Flaviviridae members, hepatitis C virus (HCV) and dengue virus (DENV). We used short interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of human GAPDH in Huh-7. Read More

    Infectious uveitis: An enigma.
    Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol 2017 Jan-Mar;24(1):2-10
    Department of Uvea, Sankara Nethralaya, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
    Infectious uveitis accounts for majority of the cases of uveitis in developing countries. It also encompasses an array of various microorganisms and their clinical presentations. Some of these infectious uveitic entities are familiar, while others are newly emerging in the global ophthalmic world. Read More

    Indonesian dengue burden estimates: review of evidence by an expert panel.
    Epidemiol Infect 2017 May 26:1-6. Epub 2017 May 26.
    Center for Health Economics and Policy Studies, Universitas Indonesia,Depok,Indonesia.
    Routine, passive surveillance systems tend to underestimate the burden of communicable diseases such as dengue. When empirical methods are unavailable, complimentary opinion-based or extrapolative methods have been employed. Here, an expert Delphi panel estimated the proportion of dengue captured by the Indonesian surveillance system, and associated health system parameters. Read More

    Neotropical bats that co-habit with humans function as dead-end hosts for dengue virus.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 May 18;11(5):e0005537. Epub 2017 May 18.
    Virology-CIET (Research Center for Tropical Diseases), Microbiology, University of Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica.
    Several studies have shown Dengue Virus (DENV) nucleic acids and/or antibodies present in Neotropical wildlife including bats, suggesting that some bat species may be susceptible to DENV infection. Here we aim to elucidate the role of house-roosting bats in the DENV transmission cycle. Bats were sampled in households located in high and low dengue incidence regions during rainy and dry seasons in Costa Rica. Read More

    Genetic signatures coupled with lineage shift characterize endemic evolution of Dengue virus serotype 2 during 2015 outbreak in Delhi, India.
    Trop Med Int Health 2017 May 23. Epub 2017 May 23.
    Department of Virology, Institute of Liver and Biliary Sciences, New Delhi, India.
    Objective: In 2015 New Delhi witnessed a massive outbreak of Dengue virus (DENV) resulting in high morbidity and mortality. We report the molecular characterization of the dominant circulating DENV strain to understand its evolution and dispersal.

    Materials And Methods: DENV infections were diagnosed by detection of IgM/NS1 antigen and serotyping was performed by C-PrM PCR. Read More

    [Dengue with unusual clinical features in an infant: Case report].
    Rev Chil Pediatr 2017 Apr;88(2):275-279
    Hospital General Dr. Agustín O’Horán, Mérida, Yucatán, México.
    The state of Yucatan, in Mexico, is an endemic area for dengue. During 2015, there was an unpredicted increase in the number of expected cases of dengue fever.

    Objective: To describe and analyse the clinical presentation, progress, and management of a case of dengue infection with non-specific clinical manifestations in an infant which resulted in a dengue shock syndrome. Read More

    Platelet proteome reveals novel pathways of platelet activation and platelet-mediated immunoregulation in dengue.
    PLoS Pathog 2017 May 19;13(5):e1006385. Epub 2017 May 19.
    Laboratório de Toxinologia, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Dengue is the most prevalent human arbovirus disease worldwide. Dengue virus (DENV) infection causes syndromes varying from self-limiting febrile illness to severe dengue. Although dengue pathophysiology is not completely understood, it is widely accepted that increased inflammation plays important roles in dengue pathogenesis. Read More

    A conformational switch high-throughput screening assay and allosteric inhibition of the flavivirus NS2B-NS3 protease.
    PLoS Pathog 2017 May 25;13(5):e1006411. Epub 2017 May 25.
    Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, 120 New Scotland Ave, Albany NY, United States of America.
    The flavivirus genome encodes a single polyprotein precursor requiring multiple cleavages by host and viral proteases in order to produce the individual proteins that constitute an infectious virion. Previous studies have revealed that the NS2B cofactor of the viral NS2B-NS3 heterocomplex protease displays a conformational dynamic between active and inactive states. Here, we developed a conformational switch assay based on split luciferase complementation (SLC) to monitor the conformational change of NS2B and to characterize candidate allosteric inhibitors. Read More

    Elevation as a proxy for mosquito-borne Zika virus transmission in the Americas.
    PLoS One 2017 24;12(5):e0178211. Epub 2017 May 24.
    Division of Global Migration and Quarantine, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America.
    Introduction: When Zika virus (ZIKV) first began its spread from Brazil to other parts of the Americas, national-level travel notices were issued, carrying with them significant economic consequences to affected countries. Although regions of some affected countries were likely unsuitable for mosquito-borne transmission of ZIKV, the absence of high quality, timely surveillance data made it difficult to confidently demarcate infection risk at a sub-national level. In the absence of reliable data on ZIKV activity, a pragmatic approach was needed to identify subnational geographic areas where the risk of ZIKV infection via mosquitoes was expected to be negligible. Read More

    wMel limits zika and chikungunya virus infection in a Singapore Wolbachia-introgressed Ae. aegypti strain, wMel-Sg.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 May 19;11(5):e0005496. Epub 2017 May 19.
    School of Biological Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Background: Zika (ZIKV) and Chikungunya (CHIKV) viruses are emerging Aedes-borne viruses that are spreading outside their known geographic range and causing wide-scale epidemics. It has been reported that these viruses can be transmitted efficiently by Ae. aegypti. Read More

    Natural regulatory anticoagulants proteins among Sudanese patients with dengue virus infection.
    Int J Health Sci (Qassim) 2017 Apr-Jun;11(2):3-8
    Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Gezira, Wad Madani, Sudan.
    The Coagulation System: Abnormalities in natural physiologic anticoagulants are observed in dengue infection. Laboratory values such as protein C (PC), protein S (PS), and antithrombin (AT) indicate this problem on the coagulation system in dengue. Recently, an interrelationship between dengue and the levels of natural anticoagulants has been observed. Read More

    Uncovering the repertoire of endogenous flaviviral elements in Aedes mosquito genomes.
    J Virol 2017 May 24. Epub 2017 May 24.
    Institut Pasteur, Viruses and RNA Interference Unit, CNRS Unité Mixte de Recherche 3569, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France
    Endogenous viral elements derived from non-retroviral RNA viruses were described in various animal genomes. Whether they have a biological function such as host immune protection against related viruses is a field of intense study. Here, we investigated the repertoire of endogenous flaviviral elements (EFVEs) in Aedes mosquitoes, the vectors of arboviruses such as dengue and chikungunya viruses. Read More

    Discovery of novel cyclic peptide inhibitors of dengue virus NS2B-NS3 protease with antiviral activity.
    Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2017 May 10. Epub 2017 May 10.
    Pharmaceutical Research Center, Shionogi & Co., Ltd., 3-1-1, Futaba-cho, Toyonaka, Osaka 561-0825, Japan. Electronic address:
    NS2B-NS3 protease is an essential enzyme for the replication of dengue virus (DENV), which continues to be a serious threat to worldwide public health. We designed and synthesized a series of cyclic peptides mimicking the substrates of this enzyme, and assayed their activity against the DENV-2 NS2B-NS3 protease. The introduction of aromatic residues at the appropriate positions and conformational restriction generated the most promising cyclic peptide with an IC50 of 0. Read More

    Enhanced larvicidal, antibacterial, and photocatalytic efficacy of TiO2 nanohybrids green synthesized using the aqueous leaf extract of Parthenium hysterophorus.
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2017 May 23. Epub 2017 May 23.
    Department of Biotechnology, School of Biosciences, Periyar University, Periyar Palkalai Nagar, Salem, Tamil Nadu, 636011, India.
    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles are emerging as a biocompatible nanomaterial with multipurpose bioactivities. In this study, titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles were effectively synthesized using the aqueous leaf extracts of Parthenium hysterophorus prepared by microwave irradiation. TiO2 nanoparticles were fabricated by treating the P. Read More

    Anti-Idiotypic Antibodies Specific to prM Monoantibody Prevent Antibody Dependent Enhancement of Dengue Virus Infection.
    Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2017 9;7:157. Epub 2017 May 9.
    College of Life Science and Oceanography, Shenzhen UniversityShenzhen, China.
    Dengue virus (DENV) co-circulates as four serotypes (DENV1-4). Primary infection only leads to self-limited dengue fever. But secondary infection with another serotype carries a higher risk of increased disease severity, causing life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS). Read More

    Aetiology of acute meningoencephalitis in Cambodian children, 2010-2013.
    Emerg Microbes Infect 2017 May 24;6(5):e35. Epub 2017 May 24.
    Virology Unit, Institut Pasteur in Cambodia, Phnom Penh 12000, Cambodia.
    Acute meningoencephalitis (AME) is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality in children in developing countries. Clinical specimens were collected from children presenting with AME at two Cambodian paediatric hospitals to determine the major aetiologies associated with AME in the country. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood samples were screened by molecular and cell culture methods for a range of pathogens previously associated with AME in the region. Read More

    Maternal Zika Virus Disease Severity, Virus Load, Prior Dengue Antibodies and their Relationship to Birth Outcomes.
    Clin Infect Dis 2017 May 23. Epub 2017 May 23.
    Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Background: Congenital Zika virus (ZIKV) syndrome is a newly identified condition resulting from infection during pregnancy. We analyzed outcome data from a mother-infant cohort in Rio de Janeiro in order to assess whether clinical severity of maternal ZIKV infection was associated with maternal virus load, prior dengue antibodies or abnormal pregnancy/infant outcomes.

    Methods: A clinical severity assessment tool was developed based on duration of fever, severity of rash, multisystem involvement and duration of symptoms during ZIKV infection. Read More

    Covalently linked dengue virus envelope glycoprotein dimers reduce exposure of the immunodominant fusion loop epitope.
    Nat Commun 2017 May 23;8:15411. Epub 2017 May 23.
    Division of Immunology and Inflammation, Department of Medicine, Hammersmith Hospital Campus, Imperial College London, w12 0NN London, UK.
    A problem in the search for an efficient vaccine against dengue virus is the immunodominance of the fusion loop epitope (FLE), a segment of the envelope protein E that is buried at the interface of the E dimers coating mature viral particles. Anti-FLE antibodies are broadly cross-reactive but poorly neutralizing, displaying a strong infection enhancing potential. FLE exposure takes place via dynamic 'breathing' of E dimers at the virion surface. Read More

    Dengue in Bali: Clinical characteristics and genetic diversity of circulating dengue viruses.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 May 22;11(5):e0005483. Epub 2017 May 22.
    Eijkman Institute for Molecular Biology, Jl. Diponegoro Jakarta, Indonesia.
    A high number of dengue cases are reported annually in Bali. Despite the endemicity, limited data on dengue is available for Bali localities. Molecular surveillance study was conducted to explore the clinical and virological characteristics of dengue patients in urban Denpasar and rural Gianyar areas in Bali during the peak season in 2015. Read More

    Preclinical evaluation of VIS513, a therapeutic antibody against dengue virus, in non-human primates.
    Antiviral Res 2017 May 18;144:44-47. Epub 2017 May 18.
    Program in Emerging Infectious Diseases, Duke-NUS Medical School, Singapore; Department of Microbiology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore; Singapore-MIT Alliance in Research and Technology, Infectious Diseases Interdisciplinary Research Group, Singapore. Electronic address:
    Despite useful in vivo activity, no therapeutic against dengue virus (DENV) has demonstrated efficacy in clinical trials. Herein, we explored dosing and virological endpoints to guide the design of human trials of VIS513, a pan-serotype anti-DENV IgG1 antibody, in non-human primates (NHPs). Dosing VIS513 pre- or post-peak viremia in NHPs neutralized infectious DENV although RNAemia remained detectable post-treatment; differential interaction of human IgGs with macaque Fc-gamma receptors may delay clearance of neutralized DENV. Read More

    Symptomatic dengue infection during pregnancy and livebirth outcomes in Brazil, 2007-13: a retrospective observational cohort study.
    Lancet Infect Dis 2017 May 18. Epub 2017 May 18.
    Institute of Tropical Pathology and Public Health, Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil.
    Background: Dengue is a major public health challenge in Brazil. We assessed the relationship between symptomatic dengue infection during pregnancy and adverse birth outcomes in the country between 2007 and 2013.

    Methods: We did a retrospective observational cohort study using information reported in the Brazilian national reportable disease information system (SINAN) and the livebirth information system (SINASC) databases. Read More

    Dengue vaccine safety signal: Immune enhancement, waning immunity, or chance occurrence?
    Vaccine 2017 May 18. Epub 2017 May 18.
    Institute for Vaccine Safety, Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA.
    A new dengue vaccine was associated with increased risk of hospitalized virologically-confirmed disease during year 3 of follow-up among children age 2-5years. Among hypotheses to explain this finding, we could not distinguish definitively between antibody dependent enhancement, waning immunity, or chance occurrence. However, any theory must account for the following: (a) the signal occurred mainly because of decreased dengue among controls rather than increased dengue among vaccinees; (b) among 48 data points, a statistically significant increase in hospitalization among vaccinated children occurred for only one age group, during one year, and in one region; (c) cumulative risk was similar for vaccinated vs. Read More

    [Polyclonal antibodies against recombinant dengue virus NS3 protein].
    Biomedica 2017 Jan 24;37(1):131-140. Epub 2017 Jan 24.
    Instituto de Biología Molecular, Laboratorio de Parasitología Molecular, Universidad El Bosque, Bogotá, D.C., Colombia.
    Introduction: Dengue is a disease caused by one of four serotypes of the dengue virus (DENV) and is endemic in approximately 130 countries. The incidence of dengue has increased dramatically in recent decades, as well as the frequency and magnitude of outbreaks. Despite all efforts, there are no prophylactic or therapeutic treatments for the disease. Read More

    Seroprevalence of dengue infection in the municipalities of Armenia, Calarcá, La Tebaida and Montenegro in Quindío, 2014.
    Biomedica 2017 Jan 24;37(1):34-41. Epub 2017 Jan 24.
    Eje de Salud Pública, Fundación Santa Fe de Bogotá, Bogotá, D.C., Colombia.
    Introduction: Dengue is a serious public health problem in Colombia; it is prevalent in 90% of the municipalities in Quindío. Studies on its seroprevalence are required to address public health interventions.

    Objective: To establish the seroprevalence of dengue infection in neighborhoods with high incidence in the municipalities of Armenia, Calarcá, La Tebaida and Montenegro, Quindío, in 2014. Read More

    Transovarial transmission of DENV in Aedes aegypti in the Amazon basin: a local model of xenomonitoring.
    Parasit Vectors 2017 May 19;10(1):249. Epub 2017 May 19.
    René Rachou Research Centre, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Laboratory of Medical Entomology, Zip 30190-002, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil.
    Background: Transovarial transmission of dengue virus in Aedes spp. mosquitoes is considered an important mechanism for the maintenance of the virus in nature and may be implicated in the occurrence of outbreaks and epidemics of the disease. However, there are few studies involving transovarial transmission and viral vector monitoring as a surveillance tool and control strategy. Read More

    Zika Virus: Obstetric and Pediatric Anesthesia Considerations.
    Anesth Analg 2017 Jun;124(6):1918-1929
    From *Department of Anesthesiology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida; †Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami, Florida; ‡Department of Radiology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida; §Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida; and ‖UM-JMH Center for Patient Safety, Department of Anesthesiology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida.
    As of November 2016, the Florida Department of Health (FDH) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have confirmed more than 4000 travel-related Zika virus (ZIKV) infections in the United States with >700 of those in Florida. There have been 139 cases of locally acquired infection, all occurring in Miami, Florida. Within the US territories (eg, Puerto Rico, US Virgin Islands), >30,000 cases of ZIKV infection have been reported. Read More

    Impact of simultaneous exposure to arboviruses on infection and transmission by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes.
    Nat Commun 2017 May 19;8:15412. Epub 2017 May 19.
    Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523, USA.
    The recent emergence of both chikungunya and Zika viruses in the Americas has significantly expanded their distribution and has thus increased the possibility that individuals may become infected by more than one Aedes aegypti-borne virus at a time. Recent clinical data support an increase in the frequency of coinfection in human patients, raising the likelihood that mosquitoes could be exposed to multiple arboviruses during one feeding episode. The impact of coinfection on the ability of relevant vector species to transmit any of these viruses (that is, their vector competence) has not been determined. Read More

    Cardiovascular involvement and manifestations of systemic Chikungunya virus infection: A systematic review.
    F1000Res 2017 29;6:390. Epub 2017 Mar 29.
    Public Health and Infection Research Group, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira, Pereira, Risaralda, Colombia.
    Background: In the last three years, chikungunya virus disease has been spreading, affecting particularly the Americas, producing more than two million cases. In this setting, not only new disease-related epidemiological patterns have been found, but also new clinical findings have been reported by different research groups. These include findings on the cardiovascular system, including clinical, electrocardiographic and echocardiographic alterations. Read More

    Ascertaining the impact of catastrophic events on dengue outbreak: The 2014 gas explosions in Kaohsiung, Taiwan.
    PLoS One 2017 17;12(5):e0177422. Epub 2017 May 17.
    Department of Public Health and Center for Infectious Disease Education and Research, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan.
    Infectious disease outbreaks often occur in the aftermath of catastrophic events, either natural or man-made. While natural disasters such as typhoons/hurricanes, flooding and earthquakes have been known to increase the risk of infectious disease outbreak, the impact of anthropogenic disasters is less well-understood. Kaohsiung City is located in southern Taiwan, where most dengue outbreaks had occurred in the past two decades. Read More

    Outdoor spatial spraying against dengue: A false sense of security among inhabitants of Hermosillo, Mexico.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 May 17;11(5):e0005611. Epub 2017 May 17.
    University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, United States of America.
    Background: Government-administered adulticiding is frequently conducted in response to dengue transmission worldwide. Anecdotal evidence suggests that spraying may create a "false sense of security" for residents. Our objective was to determine if there was an association between residents' reporting outdoor spatial insecticide spraying as way to prevent dengue transmission and both their reported frequency of dengue prevention practices and household entomological indices in Hermosillo, Mexico. Read More

    Adult-onset, chronic, cyclic thrombocytopenia in a Rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) after dengue virus vaccination and viral challenge.
    Vet Clin Pathol 2017 May 18. Epub 2017 May 18.
    Division of Comparative Medicine, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA.
    An 8-year-old, male Rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta), previously used for dengue virus (DENV) vaccine research with viral challenge, was presented with adult-onset, chronic, cyclic thrombocytopenia. Platelet number, morphology, and function were evaluated by automated hematology, peripheral blood smears, electron microscopy, flow cytometry, and impedance aggregometry. Bone marrow was evaluated by cytology. Read More

    High Frequency of Mayaro Virus IgM among Febrile Patients, Central Brazil.
    Emerg Infect Dis 2017 Jun;23(6):1025-1026
    Mayaro virus (MAYV), an Aedes mosquito-borne alphavirus, is endemic to Brazil and other South America countries. We investigated dengue- and chikungunya-negative febrile patients visiting rural areas near Goiânia, Goiás, and found a high proportion (55%) of MAYV IgM. Our findings suggest the presence of highly endemic foci of MAYV in central Brazil. Read More

    High-Throughput Sequencing of Transposable Element Insertions Suggests Adaptive Evolution of the Invasive Asian Tiger Mosquito Towards Temperate Environments.
    Mol Ecol 2017 May 18. Epub 2017 May 18.
    Université de Lyon, F-69622, Lyon, France.
    Invasive species represent unique opportunities to evaluate the role of local adaptation during colonization of new environments. Among these species, the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is a threatening vector of several human viral diseases, including dengue and chikungunya, and raises concerns about the Zika fever. Its broad presence in both temperate and tropical environments has been considered the reflection of great "ecological plasticity". Read More

    Implications of guppy (Poecilia reticulata) life-history phenotype for mosquito control.
    Ecol Evol 2017 May 1;7(10):3324-3334. Epub 2017 Apr 1.
    Biology DepartmentUniversity of VictoriaVictoriaBCCanada.
    Guppies (Poecilia reticulata) are frequently introduced to both natural and artificial water bodies as a mosquito control. Laboratory studies have demonstrated that guppies can consume large numbers of larval mosquitoes. Our study investigates how intraspecific variability in guppy phenotype affects their importance as a mosquito biocontrol and how habitat conditions (natural ponds vs. Read More

    Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura in a Case of Dengue Fever: A Rare Presentation.
    Indian J Crit Care Med 2017 Apr;21(4):226-228
    Department of Hematology, Aditya Birla Memorial Hospital, Pune, Maharashtra, India.
    Here, we present an unusual occurrence of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) in a case of dengue fever. Both the conditions are fatal and can result in significant mortality and morbidity if left untreated. In this case, as soon as, we diagnosed the patient as having TTP, we treated her with plasma exchange therapy, steroids, and monoclonal antibodies such as rituximab. Read More

    Transposon mutagenesis of the Zika virus genome highlights regions essential for RNA replication and restricted for immune evasion.
    J Virol 2017 May 17. Epub 2017 May 17.
    Department of Microbiology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, 10029, USA
    The molecular constraints affecting Zika virus (ZIKV) evolution are not well understood. To investigate ZIKV genetic flexibility, we used transposon mutagenesis to add 15-nucleotide insertions throughout the MR766 ZIKV genome and subsequently deep sequenced the viable mutants. Few ZIKV insertion mutants replicated, which likely reflects a high degree of functional constraints on the genome. Read More

    Dengue Antibodies, then Zika: A Fatal Sequence in Mice.
    Immunity 2017 May;46(5):771-773
    Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO 63110, USA; Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO 63110, USA; Department of Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO 63110, USA; Center for Human Immunology and Immunotherapy Programs, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO 63110, USA. Electronic address:
    Anti-Dengue virus (DENV) antibodies can be either protective or pathogenic in humans with prior DENV infection. In a recent issue of Science, Bardina et al. (2017) demonstrated that passive transfer of immune plasma against DENV and West Nile virus (WNV) can enhance Zika virus (ZIKV) infection and pathogenesis in mice. Read More

    Real-Time Evolution of Zika Virus Disease Outbreak, Roatán, Honduras.
    Emerg Infect Dis 2017 Aug 17;23(8). Epub 2017 Aug 17.
    A Zika virus disease outbreak occurred in Roatán, Honduras, during September 2015-July 2016. Blood samples and clinical information were obtained from 183 patients given a clinical diagnosis of suspected dengue virus infection. A total of 79 patients were positive for Zika virus, 13 for chikungunya virus, and 6 for dengue virus. Read More

    [Arboviruses also have an American dream].
    Bull Soc Pathol Exot 2017 May 16. Epub 2017 May 16.
    Institut Pasteur, 25 rue du Docteur-Roux, 75724, Paris cedex 15, France.
    Some arboviruses that originated in the Old World have been introduced by humans into the American continent. The first of them was the yellow fever virus, coming from the West African coast with slaves in the 17th-19th centuries, followed by dengue viruses, which were always prevalent within the Americas. Next was theWest Nile virus, introduced in New York in 1999, that spread in only a few years over the whole continent. Read More

    Reverse Genetics of Zika Virus.
    Methods Mol Biol 2017 ;1602:47-58
    Departments of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology and Pharmacology & Toxicology, and Sealy Center for Structural Biology & Molecular Biophysics, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, 77555, USA.
    We have established a reverse genetic system for Zika virus (ZIKV). Five shuttle plasmids were constructed and assembled into the full-length cDNA clone of ZIKV genome. To ensure the stability of the cDNA clone, we used a low copy vector (pACYC177) and a set of unique restriction enzyme sites on the ZIKV genome to assemble the full-length cDNA clone. Read More

    Medicinal role of papaya seeds on thrombocyte count tested on healthy rabbits.
    J Pak Med Assoc 2017 May;67(5):785-787
    Department of Community Medicines, Baqai Medical University, Karachi, Pakistan.
    The main objective of the current study is to evaluate the medicinal role of Papaya seeds on thrombocyte count and hepatic parameter on healthy rabbits. Experimental and Interventional study, at the Department of pharmacology Baqai Medical University Karachi. Rabbits (18 in number different age and both sex) were included, subsequently subdivided into three group (n=6). Read More

    Antiviral activity of nordihydroguaiaretic acid and its derivative tetra-O-methyl nordihydroguaiaretic acid against West Nile virus and Zika virus.
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2017 May 15. Epub 2017 May 15.
    Department of Biotechnology, Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria (INIA), Madrid, Spain
    Flaviviruses are positive strand RNA viruses distributed all over the world that infect millions of people every year, and for which no specific antiviral agents have been approved. These viruses include the mosquito-borne West Nile virus (WNV) responsible for outbreaks of meningitis and encephalitis. Considering that nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) has been previously shown to inhibit the multiplication of the related dengue virus and hepatitis C virus, we have evaluated the effect of NDGA, and its methylated derivative tetra-O-methyl nordihydroguaiaretic (M4N), on the infection of WNV. Read More

    RIG-I-like Receptor Triggering by Dengue Virus Drives Dendritic Cell Immune Activation and TH1 Differentiation.
    J Immunol 2017 May 15. Epub 2017 May 15.
    Department of Experimental Immunology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, the Netherlands; and
    Dengue virus (DENV) causes 400 million infections annually and is one of several viruses that can cause viral hemorrhagic fever, which is characterized by uncontrolled immune activation resulting in high fever and internal bleeding. Although the underlying mechanisms are unknown, massive cytokine secretion is thought to be involved. Dendritic cells (DCs) are the main target cells of DENV, and we investigated their role in DENV-induced cytokine production and adaptive immune responses. Read More

    Life-shortening Wolbachia infection reduces population growth of Aedes aegypti.
    Acta Trop 2017 May 12;172:232-239. Epub 2017 May 12.
    Department of Entomology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40546, United States.
    Wolbachia bacteria are being introduced into natural populations of vector mosquitoes, with the goal of reducing the transmission of human diseases such as Zika and dengue fever. The successful establishment of Wolbachia infection is largely dependent on the effects of Wolbachia infection to host fitness, but the effects of Wolbachia infection on the individual life-history traits of immature mosquitoes can vary. Here, the effects of life-shortening Wolbachia (wMelPop) on population growth of infected individuals were evaluated by measuring larval survival, developmental time and adult size of Aedes aegypti in intra- (infected or uninfected only) and inter-group (mixed with infected and uninfected) larval competition assays. Read More

    Combined semi-empirical screening and design of experiments (DOE) approach to identify candidate formulations of a lyophilized live attenuated tetravalent viral vaccine candidate.
    Vaccine 2017 May 12. Epub 2017 May 12.
    Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Macromolecule and Vaccine Stabilization Center, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66047, United States. Electronic address:
    A combination experimental approach, utilizing semi-empirical excipient screening followed by statistical modeling using design of experiments (DOE), was undertaken to identify stabilizing candidate formulations for a lyophilized live attenuated Flavivirus vaccine candidate. Various potential pharmaceutical compounds used in either marketed or investigative live attenuated viral vaccine formulations were first identified. The ability of additives from different categories of excipients, either alone or in combination, were then evaluated for their ability to stabilize virus against freeze-thaw, freeze-drying, and accelerated storage (25°C) stresses by measuring infectious virus titer. Read More

    Inhibitors compounds of the flavivirus replication process.
    Virol J 2017 May 15;14(1):95. Epub 2017 May 15.
    Group of Molecular Immunology, Universidad del Quindío, Armenia (Quindío), Colombia.
    Flaviviruses are small viruses with single-stranded RNA, which include the yellow fever virus, dengue virus, West Nile virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus, and Zika virus; and are causal agents of the most important emerging diseases that have no available treatment to date. In recent years, the strategy has focused on the development of replication inhibitors of these viruses designed to act mainly by affecting the activity of enzyme proteins, such as NS3 and NS5, which perform important functions in the viral replication process. This article describes the importance of flaviviruses and the development of molecules used as inhibitors of viral replication in this genus. Read More

    Determinants of felt demand for dengue vaccines in the North Caribbean region of Colombia.
    Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 2017 May 15;16(1):38. Epub 2017 May 15.
    Department of Epidemiology, Faculdade de Saúde Pública, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Dr. Arnaldo, 715, São Paulo, SP, CEP-01246-904, Brazil.
    Background: The increasing burden associated with dengue in Latin America makes it essential to understand the community's interest in acquiring vaccines, as an input to plan its introduction in endemic regions. The objective of this study is to learn the felt demand for dengue vaccines by estimating the willingness to pay and its associated factors in endemic communities of the North Caribbean region of Colombia.

    Methods: A population survey was administered from October to December 2015, including 1037 families in 11 municipalities in Colombia. Read More

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