2,584 results match your criteria Demography[Journal]


Multiple-Partner Fertility in the United States: A Demographic Portrait.

Authors:
Lindsay M Monte

Demography 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Fertility & Family Statistics Branch, U.S. Census Bureau, 4600 Silver Hill Road, Washington, DC, 20233, USA.

Multiple-partner fertility (MPF) occurs when a person has biological children with more than one partner. The 2014 Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP), a nationally representative panel study of individuals and households in the United States, is the first such survey to include a direct question about whether respondents are MPF parents. Understanding the prevalence of such families is important given the known socioeconomic correlates of MPF and the ramifications of entering MPF for both individuals and families. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13524-018-0743-yDOI Listing

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December 2018

Dimensions of Reproductive Attitudes and Knowledge Related to Unintended Childbearing Among U.S. Adolescents and Young Adults.

Demography 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Systems, Populations and Leadership, School of Nursing, University of Michigan, 400 N. Ingalls Street, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, USA.

Measures of attitudes and knowledge predict reproductive behavior, such as unintended fertility among adolescents and young adults. However, there is little consensus as to the underlying dimensions these measures represent, how to compare findings across surveys using different measures, or how to interpret the concepts captured by existing measures. To guide future research on reproductive behavior, we propose an organizing framework for existing measures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13524-018-0747-7DOI Listing

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December 2018
1 Read

Stepfamily Structure and Transfers Between Generations in U.S. Families.

Demography 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

California Center for Population Research and Department of Sociology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, 90095, USA.

Unstable couple relationships and high rates of repartnering have increased the share of U.S. families with stepkin. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s13524-018-0740-1
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December 2018
1 Read

Immigrant Legal Status and Health: Legal Status Disparities in Chronic Conditions and Musculoskeletal Pain Among Mexican-Born Farm Workers in the United States.

Demography 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Sociology, University of California, Davis, 1282 SSH, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA, 95616, USA.

Immigrant legal status determines access to the rights and privileges of U.S. society. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s13524-018-0746-8
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December 2018
3 Reads

Prevalence and Risk Factors for Early Motherhood Among Low-Income, Maltreated, and Foster Youth.

Demography 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

School of Social Work, Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI, 53706, USA.

Early childbearing is associated with a host of educational and economic disruptions for teenage girls and increased risk of adverse outcomes for their children. Low-income, maltreated, and foster youth have a higher risk of teen motherhood than the general population of youth. In this study, we assessed differences in the risk of early motherhood among these groups and investigated whether differences likely reflect selection factors versus effects of involvement with Child Protective Services (CPS) or foster care. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13524-018-0744-xDOI Listing

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December 2018

Lifespan Dispersion in Times of Life Expectancy Fluctuation: The Case of Central and Eastern Europe.

Demography 2018 Dec;55(6):2071-2096

Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany.

Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) have experienced considerable instability in mortality since the 1960s. Long periods of stagnating life expectancy were followed by rapid increases in life expectancy and, in some cases, even more rapid declines, before more recent periods of improvement. These trends have been well documented, but to date, no study has comprehensively explored trends in lifespan variation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13524-018-0729-9DOI Listing

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December 2018

The Impact of Forced Migration on Mortality: Evidence From German Pension Insurance Records.

Demography 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

RWI, Hohenzollernstr. 1-3, 45128, Essen, Germany.

We examine the long-run effects of forced migration for individuals who were displaced from Eastern Europe to Germany in the aftermath of World War II. Evidence suggests that displaced individuals were worse off economically, facing a considerably lower income and a higher unemployment risk than comparable nondisplaced Germans, even 20 years after being expelled. We extend this literature by investigating mortality outcomes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13524-018-0742-zDOI Listing

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November 2018

Income-Related Gaps in Early Child Cognitive Development: Why Are They Larger in the United States Than in the United Kingdom, Australia, and Canada?

Demography 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

School of Education, University of Bristol, Bristol, BS8 1JA, UK.

Previous research has documented significantly larger income-related gaps in children's early cognitive development in the United States than in the United Kingdom, Canada, and Australia. In this study, we investigate the extent to which this is a result of a more unequal income distribution in the United States. We show that although incomes are more unequal in the United States than elsewhere, a given difference in real income is associated with larger gaps in child test scores there than in the three other countries. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13524-018-0738-8DOI Listing

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November 2018

Nonlabor Income and Age at Marriage: Evidence From China's Heating Policy.

Demography 2018 Dec;55(6):2345-2370

NUS Business School, National University of Singapore, 15 Kent Ridge Drive, Singapore, 119245, Singapore.

We exploit China's heating policy to investigate how nonlabor income affects marriage. From the mid-1950s, the policy gave substantial subsidies to urban residents north of the Huai River. Applying geographic regression discontinuity, we find that with the policy, urban men in the north married 15 months earlier than men in the south. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13524-018-0732-1DOI Listing

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December 2018

A Research Note on the Prevalence of Housing Eviction Among Children Born in U.S. Cities.

Demography 2018 Nov 27. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Center for Research on Child Wellbeing and Office of Population Research, Princeton University, 286 Wallace Hall, Princeton, NJ, 08544, USA.

A growing body of research suggests that housing eviction is more common than previously recognized and may play an important role in the reproduction of poverty. The proportion of children affected by housing eviction, however, remains largely unknown. We estimate that one in seven children born in large U. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13524-018-0735-yDOI Listing

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November 2018

Union Transitions and Fertility Within First Premarital Cohabitations in Canada: Diverging Patterns by Education?

Authors:
Laura Wright

Demography 2018 Nov 20. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Department of Sociology, University of Saskatchewan, 1019 Arts Building, 9 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, S7N 5A5, Canada.

Cohabitation has become increasingly accepted and normalized as part of the family system in Canada and has become the most common way to form a first union. The changing role of cohabitation in the family system is often understood as being driven by the ideational changes associated with the second demographic transition, but increasing international evidence indicates that this explanation is incomplete. Using nationally representative retrospective data from Canadians born between 1940 and 1979 from the 2011 General Social Survey, this study examines transitions out of first premarital cohabitation and fertility within these unions as two measures of the changing role of cohabitation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13524-018-0741-0DOI Listing

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November 2018

Parental Origins, Mixed Unions, and the Labor Supply of Second-Generation Women in the United States.

Demography 2018 Nov 19. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Office of Institutional Research, The University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX, 78249, USA.

This study examines the joint impact of parental origins and partner choice on the employment behavior of second-generation women in the United States. We find that endogamy (choosing a first- or second-generation partner from the same national-origin group) is associated with lower labor supply among second-generation women, net of the effects of parental origin culture as proxied using the epidemiological approach to cultural transmission. Parental origin effects are mediated by education, but endogamy curtails economic activity regardless of educational attainment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13524-018-0736-xDOI Listing

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November 2018

From Some to None? Fertility Expectation Dynamics of Permanently Childless Women.

Authors:
Alison Gemmill

Demography 2018 Nov 14. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Department of Family, Population & Preventive Medicine, Program in Public Health, Stony Brook University, 101 Nicolls Road, Health Sciences Center, Level 3, Room 071, Stony Brook, NY, 11794-8338, USA.

Permanent childlessness is increasingly acknowledged as an outcome of a dynamic, context-dependent process, but few studies have integrated a life course framework to investigate the complex pathways leading to childlessness. This study focuses on an understudied yet revealing dimension of why individuals remain childless: stated fertility expectations over the life course. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort, I use a combination of sequence analysis, data-driven clustering techniques, and multivariable regression models to identify and describe groups of permanently childless women who follow similar trajectories of stated fertility expectations. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s13524-018-0739-7
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13524-018-0739-7DOI Listing

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November 2018
2 Reads

Skin Color and Social Mobility: Evidence From Mexico.

Demography 2018 Nov 8. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

El Colegio de México, Centro de Estudios Económicos, Mexico City, Mexico.

In many Latin American countries, census data on race and skin color are scarce or nonexistent. In this study, we contribute to understanding how skin color affects intergenerational social mobility in Mexico. Using a novel data set, we provide evidence of profound social stratification by skin color, even after controlling for specific individual characteristics that previous work has not been able to include, such as individual cognitive and noncognitive abilities, parental education and wealth, and measures of stress and parenting style in the home of origin. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13524-018-0734-zDOI Listing

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November 2018
4 Reads

Separating the Signal From the Noise: Evidence for Deceleration in Old-Age Death Rates.

Authors:
Dennis M Feehan

Demography 2018 Dec;55(6):2025-2044

Department of Demography, University of California, Berkeley, 2232 Piedmont Avenue, MC #2120, Berkeley, CA, 94720-2120, USA.

Widespread population aging has made it critical to understand death rates at old ages. However, studying mortality at old ages is challenging because the data are sparse: numbers of survivors and deaths get smaller and smaller with age. I show how to address this challenge by using principled model selection techniques to empirically evaluate theoretical mortality models. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13524-018-0728-xDOI Listing

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December 2018
1 Read

Revising Infant Mortality Rates for the Early Twentieth Century United States.

Demography 2018 Dec;55(6):2001-2024

National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, MA, 02138, USA.

Accurate vital statistics are required to understand the evolution of racial disparities in infant health and the causes of rapid secular decline in infant mortality during the early twentieth century. Unfortunately, U.S. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s13524-018-0723-2
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13524-018-0723-2DOI Listing

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December 2018
4 Reads

Maternal Age and Child Development.

Demography 2018 Dec;55(6):2229-2255

University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, 60637, USA.

Although the consequences of teen births for both mothers and children have been studied for decades, few studies have taken a broader look at the potential payoffs-and drawbacks-of being born to older mothers. A broader examination is important given the growing gap in maternal ages at birth for children born to mothers with low and high socioeconomic status. Drawing data from the Children of the NLSY79, our examination of this topic distinguishes between the value for children of being born to a mother who delayed her first birth and the value of the additional years between her first birth and the birth of the child whose achievements and behaviors at ages 10-13 are under study. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s13524-018-0730-3
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December 2018
4 Reads

Subjective Well-being and Partnership Dynamics: Are Same-Sex Relationships Different?

Demography 2018 Dec;55(6):2299-2320

Erasmus School of Economics, Postbus 1738, Room H12-10, 3000, DR, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

We analyze Dutch panel data to investigate whether partnership has a causal effect on subjective well-being. As in previous studies, we find that, on average, being in a partnership improves well-being. Well-being gains of marriage are larger than those of cohabitation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13524-018-0725-0DOI Listing

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December 2018

Intergenerational Transmission of Multipartner Fertility.

Demography 2018 Dec;55(6):2205-2228

Demography Unit, Department of Sociology, Stockholm University, 106 91, Stockholm, Sweden.

Using data from administrative registers for the period 1970-2007 in Norway and Sweden, we investigate the intergenerational transmission of multipartner fertility. We find that men and women with half-siblings are more likely to have children with more than one partner. The differences are greater for those with younger versus older half-siblings, consistent with the additional influence of parental separation that may not arise when one has only older half-siblings. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13524-018-0727-yDOI Listing

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December 2018

"His" and "Hers": Meeting the Economic Bar to Marriage.

Demography 2018 Dec;55(6):2321-2343

Sanford School of Public Policy, Duke University, PO Box 90312, Durham, NC, 27708, USA.

Scholars have suggested that low-income parents avoid marriage because they have not met the so-called economic bar to marriage. The economic bar is multidimensional, referring to a bundle of financial achievements that determine whether couples feel ready to wed. Using the Building Strong Families data set of low-income parents (n = 4,444), we operationalized this qualitative concept into a seven-item index and examined whether couples who met the economic bar by achieving the majority of the items were more likely to marry than couples who did not. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s13524-018-0726-z
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December 2018
5 Reads

Patrilocal Residence and Female Labor Supply: Evidence From Kyrgyzstan.

Demography 2018 Dec;55(6):2181-2203

Center for Evaluation and Development (C4ED), O7 3, 68161, Mannheim, Germany.

Many people live in patrilocal societies, which prescribe that women move in with their husbands' parents, relieve their in-laws from housework, and care for them in old age. This arrangement is likely to have labor market consequences, in particular for women. We study the effect of coresidence on female labor supply in Kyrgyzstan, a strongly patrilocal setting. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13524-018-0724-1DOI Listing

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December 2018

From Privilege to Prevalence: Contextual Effects of Women's Schooling on African Marital Timing.

Demography 2018 Dec;55(6):2371-2394

Department of Social Sciences, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, CA, 93407, USA.

In Africa and elsewhere, educated women tend to marry later than their less-educated peers. Beyond being an attribute of individual women, education is also an aggregate phenomenon: the social meaning of a woman's educational attainment depends on the educational attainments of her age-mates. Using data from 30 countries and 246 birth cohorts across sub-Saharan Africa, we investigate the impact of educational context (the percentage of women in a country cohort who ever attended school) on the relationship between a woman's educational attainment and her marital timing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13524-018-0722-3DOI Listing

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December 2018
10 Reads

Has Income Segregation Really Increased? Bias and Bias Correction in Sample-Based Segregation Estimates.

Demography 2018 Dec;55(6):2129-2160

Graduate School of Education, Stanford University, 520 Galvez Mall, CERAS Building, 5th Floor, Stanford, CA, 94305, USA.

Several recent studies have concluded that residential segregation by income in the United States has increased in the decades since 1970, including a significant increase after 2000. Income segregation measures, however, are biased upward when based on sample data. This is a potential concern because the sampling rate of the American Community Survey (ACS)-from which post-2000 income segregation estimates are constructed-was lower than that of the earlier decennial censuses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13524-018-0721-4DOI Listing

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December 2018

Longevity and Lifespan Variation by Educational Attainment in Spain: 1960-2015.

Demography 2018 Dec;55(6):2045-2070

Centre d'Estudis Demogràfics, Carrer de Ca n'Altayó, Edifici E-2, Campus de la UAB, 08193, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Spain.

For a long time, studies of socioeconomic gradients in health have limited their attention to between-group comparisons. Yet, ignoring the differences that might exist within groups and focusing on group-specific life expectancy levels and trends alone, one might arrive at overly simplistic conclusions. Using data from the Spanish Encuesta Sociodemográfica and recently released mortality files by the Spanish Statistical Office (INE), this is the first study to simultaneously document (1) the gradient in life expectancy by educational attainment groups, and (2) the inequality in age-at-death distributions within and across those groups for the period between 1960 and 2015 in Spain. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s13524-018-0718-z
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December 2018
7 Reads

Saving, Sharing, or Spending? The Wealth Consequences of Raising Children.

Authors:
Michelle Maroto

Demography 2018 Dec;55(6):2257-2282

Department of Sociology, University of Alberta, 6-23 Tory Building, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2H4, Canada.

This study uses 1986-2012 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort data to investigate the relationship between raising children and net worth among younger Baby Boomer parents. I combine fixed-effects and unconditional quantile regression models to estimate changes in net worth associated with having children in different age groups across the wealth distribution. This allows me to test whether standard economic models for savings and consumption over the life course hold for families at different wealth levels. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13524-018-0716-1DOI Listing

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December 2018

Interstate Migration and Employer-to-Employer Transitions in the United States: New Evidence From Administrative Records Data.

Demography 2018 Dec;55(6):2161-2180

The Pew Charitable Trusts, 901 E St NW, Washington, DC, 20004, USA.

Declines in migration across labor markets have prompted concerns that the U.S. economy is becoming less dynamic. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13524-018-0720-5DOI Listing

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December 2018

Beyond the Nuclear Family: Trends in Children Living in Shared Households.

Demography 2018 Dec;55(6):2283-2297

Gerald R. Ford School of Public Policy, 734 S. State Street, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, USA.

Using data from the 1996-2008 panels of the Survey of Income and Program Participation and the 2009-2016 American Community Survey, we examine trends in U.S. children living in shared households (living with adults beyond their nuclear (parent/parent's partner/sibling) family). Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s13524-018-0719-y
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December 2018
8 Reads

Promises and Pitfalls of Using Digital Traces for Demographic Research.

Demography 2018 10;55(5):1979-1999

Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany.

The digital traces that we leave online are increasingly fruitful sources of data for social scientists, including those interested in demographic research. The collection and use of digital data also presents numerous statistical, computational, and ethical challenges, motivating the development of new research approaches to address these burgeoning issues. In this article, we argue that researchers with formal training in demography-those who have a history of developing innovative approaches to using challenging data-are well positioned to contribute to this area of work. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13524-018-0715-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6292527PMC

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October 2018

Can Public Housing Decrease Segregation? Lessons and Challenges From Non-European Immigration in France : Can Public Housing Decrease Segregation?

Demography 2018 10;55(5):1803-1828

CREST, ENSAE, Université Paris Saclay, Palaiseau, France.

Recent decades have seen a rapid increase in the share of non-European immigrants in public housing in Europe, which has led to concern regarding the rise of ghettos in large cities. Using French census data over three decades, we examine how this increase in public housing participation has affected segregation. While segregation levels have increased moderately, on average, the number of immigrant enclaves has grown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13524-018-0705-4DOI Listing

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October 2018

The Sources and Diversity of Immigrant Population Change in Australia, 1981-2011.

Demography 2018 10;55(5):1777-1802

Northern Institute, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Australia.

Australia has one of the largest percentages of immigrant populations in the developed world with a highly regulated system of immigration control and regular censuses to track their changes over time. However, the ability to explain the population change through the demographic components of immigration, emigration, and death by age and sex is complicated because of differences in measurement and sources of information. In this article, we explore three methods for reconciling the demographic accounts from 1981 to 2011 for the Australia-born and 18 foreign-born population groups. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s13524-018-0704-5
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October 2018
15 Reads

Poor Health Reporting? Using Anchoring Vignettes to Uncover Health Disparities by Wealth and Race.

Demography 2018 10;55(5):1935-1956

Research on Socio-Economic Policy, Economics Department, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa.

In spite of the wide disparities in wealth and in objective health measures like mortality, observed inequality by wealth in self-reported health appears to be nearly nonexistent in low- to middle-income settings. To determine the extent to which this is driven by reporting tendencies, we use anchoring vignettes to test and correct for reporting heterogeneity in health among elderly South Africans. Significant reporting differences across wealth groups are detected. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13524-018-0709-0DOI Listing

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October 2018
1 Read

Trends in the Motherhood Wage Penalty and Fatherhood Wage Premium for Low, Middle, and High Earners.

Authors:
Rebecca Glauber

Demography 2018 10;55(5):1663-1680

Department of Sociology, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH, 03824, USA.

Many studies have shown that women pay a wage penalty for motherhood, whereas men earn a wage premium for fatherhood. A few recent studies have used quantile regression to explore differences in the penalties across the wage distribution. The current study builds on this research and explores trends in the parenthood penalties and premiums from 1980 to 2014 for those at the bottom, middle, and top of the wage distribution. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13524-018-0712-5DOI Listing

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October 2018

Looking at Population Health Beyond "Male" and "Female": Implications of Transgender Identity and Gender Nonconformity for Population Health.

Authors:
Danya Lagos

Demography 2018 Dec;55(6):2097-2117

Department of Sociology, University of Chicago, 1126 E. 59th Street, Chicago, IL, 60637, USA.

Looking beyond binary measurements of "male" or "female" can illuminate health inequality patterns that correspond to gender identity rather than biological sex. This study examines disparities in overall health among transgender men, transgender women, gender-nonconforming adults, and cisgender (nontransgender) men and women in the U.S. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13524-018-0714-3DOI Listing

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December 2018

Individual Uncertainty About Longevity.

Demography 2018 10;55(5):1829-1854

Department of Economics, KU Leuven, Naamsestraat 69 - bus 3565, 3000, Leuven, Belgium.

This article presents an assessment of individual uncertainty about longevity. A survey performed on 3,331 French people enables us to record several survival probabilities per individual. On this basis, we compute subjective life expectancies (SLE) and subjective uncertainty regarding longevity (SUL), the standard deviation of each individual's subjective distribution of her or his own longevity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13524-018-0713-4DOI Listing

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October 2018

Racial and Ethnic Disparities in the Lifetime Prevalence of Homelessness in the United States.

Demography 2018 Dec;55(6):2119-2128

School of Social Work & Gerald R. Ford School of Public Policy, University of Michigan, 1080 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, USA.

Homelessness in the United States is often examined using cross-sectional, point-in-time samples. Any experience of homelessness is a risk factor for adverse outcomes, so it is also useful to understand the incidence of homelessness over longer periods. We estimate the lifetime prevalence of homelessness among members of the Baby Boom cohort (n = 6,545) using the 2012 and 2014 waves of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), a nationally representative survey of older Americans. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13524-018-0717-0DOI Listing

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December 2018
11 Reads

Cigarette Smoking and All-Cause and Cause-Specific Adult Mortality in the United States.

Demography 2018 10;55(5):1855-1885

Population Program, IBS, and Department of Sociology, University of Colorado-Boulder, 483 UCB, Boulder, CO, 80309, USA.

This study illuminates the association between cigarette smoking and adult mortality in the contemporary United States. Recent studies have estimated smoking-attributable mortality using indirect approaches or with sample data that are not nationally representative and that lack key confounders. We use the 1990-2011 National Health Interview Survey Linked Mortality Files to estimate relative risks of all-cause and cause-specific mortality for current and former smokers compared with never smokers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13524-018-0707-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6219821PMC

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October 2018

Intensive Parenting: Fertility and Breastfeeding Duration in the United States.

Demography 2018 10;55(5):1681-1704

Department of Sociology, Hunter College, New York, NY, 10065, USA.

Using 30 years of longitudinal data from a nationally representative cohort of women, we study the association between breastfeeding duration and completed fertility, fertility expectations, and birth spacing. We find that women who breastfeed their first child for five months or longer are a distinct group. They have more children overall and higher odds of having three or more children rather than two, compared with women who breastfeed for shorter durations or not at all. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13524-018-0710-7DOI Listing

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October 2018
8 Reads

Destroyed by Slavery? Slavery and African American Family Formation Following Emancipation.

Authors:
Melinda C Miller

Demography 2018 Sep 14. Epub 2018 Sep 14.

Department of Economics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, 24061, USA.

This study introduces a new sample that links people and families across 1860, 1880, and 1900 census data to explore the intergenerational impact of slavery on black families in the United States. Slaveholding-the number of slaves owned by a single farmer or planter-is used as a proxy for experiences during slavery. Slave family structures varied systematically with slaveholding sizes. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s13524-018-0711-6
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13524-018-0711-6DOI Listing

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September 2018
17 Reads

Gender-Based Occupational Segregation and Sex Differences in Sensory, Motor, and Spatial Aptitudes.

Demography 2018 Sep 14. Epub 2018 Sep 14.

Department of Economics, University of Notre Dame, 3051 Jenkins Nanovic Hall, Notre Dame, IN, 46556, USA.

Research on sex differences in humans documents gender differences in sensory, motor, and spatial aptitudes. These aptitudes, as captured by Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT) codes, predict the occupational choices of men and women in the directions indicated by this research. We simulate that eliminating selection on these skills reduces the Duncan index of gender-based occupational segregation by 20 % to 23 % in 1970 and 2012, respectively. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s13524-018-0706-3
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13524-018-0706-3DOI Listing

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September 2018
7 Reads

Living on the Edge: Neighborhood Boundaries and the Spatial Dynamics of Violent Crime.

Authors:
Joscha Legewie

Demography 2018 Sep 12. Epub 2018 Sep 12.

Department of Sociology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, 02138, USA.

Neighborhood boundaries are a defining aspect of highly segregated urban areas. Yet, few studies examine the particular challenges and spatial processes that occur at the bordering region between two neighborhoods. Extending the growing literature on spatial interdependence, this article argues that neighborhood boundaries-defined as sharp changes in the racial or socioeconomic composition of neighborhoods-are a salient feature of the spatial structure with implications for violent crime and other outcomes. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s13524-018-0708-1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13524-018-0708-1DOI Listing

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September 2018
5 Reads

Parental Investments in College and Later Cash Transfers.

Demography 2018 10;55(5):1705-1725

Department of Economics, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, 90095-1477, USA.

Parents often provide generous financial transfers to their adult children, perhaps assisting with college expenses, recognizing major life course events, or cushioning against negative financial shocks. Because resources are limited, a transfer made to one child likely affects transfers made to others in the family. Despite such possibilities, data limitations have led previous authors to focus almost exclusively on a single type of transfer made at a single point in time. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13524-018-0703-6DOI Listing

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October 2018

Gender and the Politics of Death: Female Representation, Political and Developmental Context, and Population Health in a Cross-National Panel.

Demography 2018 10;55(5):1905-1934

Department of Gender Studies, London School of Economics and Political Science, London, UK.

There is considerable speculation that female political empowerment could improve population health. Yet, evidence to date is limited, and explanations for why political empowerment would matter and the conditions under which this might be enhanced or muted are not well understood. In this article, we draw on theoretical work on the politics of representation to frame an investigation of whether increases in the percentage of females in a country's parliament influence mortality rates. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13524-018-0697-0DOI Listing

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October 2018
4 Reads

Prenatal Exposure to an Acute Stressor and Children's Cognitive Outcomes.

Authors:
Florencia Torche

Demography 2018 10;55(5):1611-1639

Department of Sociology, Stanford University, 450 Serra Mall, Building 120 McClatchy Hall, Room 244, Stanford, CA, 94305, USA.

Exposure to environmental stressors is highly prevalent and unequally distributed along socioeconomic lines and may have enduring negative consequences, even when experienced before birth. Yet, estimating the consequences of prenatal stress on children's outcomes is complicated by the issue of confounding (i.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13524-018-0700-9DOI Listing

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October 2018
8 Reads

Financially Overextended: College Attendance as a Contributor to Foreclosures During the Great Recession.

Demography 2018 10;55(5):1727-1748

Department of Policy Analysis and Management, Cornell University, 186 Martha van Rensselaer Hall, Ithaca, NY, 14853, USA.

Although subprime mortgage lending and unemployment were largely responsible for the wave of foreclosures during the Great Recession, additional sources of financial risk may have exacerbated the crisis. We hypothesize that many parents sending children to college were financially overextended and vulnerable to foreclosure as the economy contracted. With commuting zone panel data from 2006 to 2011, we show that increasing rates of college attendance across the income distribution in one year predict a foreclosure rate increase in subsequent years, net of fixed characteristics and changes in employment, refinance debt, house prices, and 19-year-old population size. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13524-018-0702-7DOI Listing

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October 2018

How Has the Lower Boundary of Human Mortality Evolved, and Has It Already Stopped Decreasing?

Authors:
Marcus Ebeling

Demography 2018 10;55(5):1887-1903

University of Rostock, Rostock, Germany.

In contrast to the upper boundary of mortality, the lower boundary has so far largely been neglected. Based on the three key features-location, sex-specific difference, and level-I analyze past and present trends in the lower boundary of human mortality. The analysis is based on cohort mortality data for 38 countries, covering all the cohorts born between 1900 and 1993. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13524-018-0698-zDOI Listing

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October 2018

Gender Bias in Parental Attitude: An Experimental Approach.

Demography 2018 10;55(5):1641-1662

Department of Economics, Monash University, PO Box 197, Melbourne, Caulfield Vic, 3145, Australia.

Parental bias toward children of a particular gender has been widely observed in many societies. Such bias could be due to pure gender preference or differences in earning opportunities and concern for old-age support. We conduct a high-stakes allocation task (subjects allocate the equivalent of one day's wages between male and female school-aged students) in rural Bangladesh to examine parental attitudes toward male and female children. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13524-018-0699-yDOI Listing

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October 2018

Bayesian Estimation of Age-Specific Mortality and Life Expectancy for Small Areas With Defective Vital Records.

Demography 2018 08;55(4):1363-1388

Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN, Brazil.

High sampling variability complicates estimation of demographic rates in small areas. In addition, many countries have imperfect vital registration systems, with coverage quality that varies significantly between regions. We develop a Bayesian regression model for small-area mortality schedules that simultaneously addresses the problems of small local samples and underreporting of deaths. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13524-018-0695-2DOI Listing

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Father Absence and Accelerated Reproductive Development in Non-Hispanic White Women in the United States.

Demography 2018 08;55(4):1245-1267

Department of Sociology, Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

Girls who experience father absence in childhood also experience accelerated reproductive development in comparison with peers with present fathers. One hypothesis advanced to explain this empirical pattern is genetic confounding, wherein gene-environment correlation (rGE) causes a spurious relationship between father absence and reproductive timing. We test this hypothesis by constructing polygenic scores for age at menarche and first birth using recently available genome-wide association study results and molecular genetic data on a sample of non-Hispanic white females from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13524-018-0696-1DOI Listing

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Places of Persistence: Slavery and the Geography of Intergenerational Mobility in the United States.

Authors:
Thor Berger

Demography 2018 Aug;55(4):1547-1565

Department of Economic History & Centre for Economic Demography, Lund University, Scheelevägen 15B, 223 63, Lund, Sweden.

Intergenerational mobility has remained stable over recent decades in the United States but varies sharply across the country. In this article, I document that areas with more prevalent slavery by the outbreak of the Civil War exhibit substantially less upward mobility today. I find a negative link between prior slavery and contemporary mobility within states, when controlling for a wide range of historical and contemporary factors including income and inequality, focusing on the historical slave states, using a variety of mobility measures, and when exploiting geographical differences in the suitability for cultivating cotton as an instrument for the prevalence of slavery. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13524-018-0693-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6060959PMC

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Sampling Weights for Analyses of Couple Data: Example of the Demographic and Health Surveys.

Demography 2018 08;55(4):1447-1473

Population Services International, Washington, DC, USA.

In some surveys, women and men are interviewed separately in selected households, allowing matching of partner information and analyses of couples. Although individual sampling weights exist for men and women, sampling weights specific for couples are rarely derived. We present a method of estimating appropriate weights for couples that extends methods currently used in the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) for individual weights. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13524-018-0688-1DOI Listing

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August 2018
4 Reads