361 results match your criteria Demodicosis
Acta Derm Venereol 2018 Sep 18. Epub 2018 Sep 18.
Dermatology Clinic, Université Libre de Bruxelles, 1030 Bruxelles, Belgium.
Papulopustular rosacea and demodicosis are characterized by non-specific symptoms, which can make clinical diagnosis difficult. This retrospective study of 844 patients assessed the diagnostic importance of clinical signs and symptoms that are poorly recognized as being associated with these conditions. In addition to well-known signs (vascular signs (present in 80% of patients), papules (39%), pustules (22%) and ocular involvement (21%)), other signs and symptoms (discreet follicular scales (93%), scalp symptoms (pruritus, dandruff or folliculitis; 38%) and pruritus (15%)) may also suggest a diagnosis not only of demodicosis, but also of papulopustular rosacea. Read More
Parasit Vectors 2018 Sep 10;11(1):506. Epub 2018 Sep 10.
Boehringer Ingelheim Animal Health, 29 avenue Tony Garnier, 69007, Lyon, France.
Background: A multi-centre field trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of afoxolaner based chewables (NexGard® or NexGard Spectra®) for the treatment of generalised demodicosis caused by Demodex canis in dogs under field conditions in France, Italy and Poland.
Methods: Client-owned dogs, diagnosed positive for Demodex mites by pre-treatment skin scrapings and presenting clinical signs of generalised demodicosis were included. Dogs were orally treated with afoxolaner three times at monthly intervals. Read More
Vet Dermatol 2018 Aug 23. Epub 2018 Aug 23.
Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, 300 West Drake Road, Fort Collins, CO, 80525, USA.
Background: Juvenile onset generalized demodicosis (JOGD) is thought to occur due to immunological abnormalities and is over-represented in pit bull terrier-type dogs.
Animals: Twelve pit bull terrier-type dogs with JOGD and 12 age-matched healthy pit bull terrier-type dogs.
Objective: To investigate immunological differences between age-matched healthy and JOGD pit bull terrier-type dogs by flow cytometry, multiplex, molecular and serological assays. Read More
Indian J Ophthalmol 2018 09;66(9):1365-1367
Department of Ophthalmology and Research Institute of Medical Sciences, Chonnam National University Medical School and Hospital, Gwangju, South Korea.
Demodex mite infestation of the palpebral conjunctiva as focal inflammatory nodule has been not reported. A 46-year-old man presented with lower palpebral conjunctival nodules in his left eye. Slit-lamp examination showed focal inflammatory nodules at the inferior palpebral conjunctiva accompanied by conjunctival hyperemia and purulent secretion. Read More
An Bras Dermatol 2018 Jul-Aug;93(4):566-569
Department of Dermatology and Radiotherapy, Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu (SP), Brazil.
Amicrobial pustulosis of the folds is a chronic relapsing neutrophilic dermatosis characterized by sterile pustules compromising skin folds, scalp, face and periorificial regions. It predominantly affects women. Demodicosis is an inflammatory disease associated with cutaneous overpopulation of the mite Demodex spp. Read More
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2018 Jul 1. Epub 2018 Jul 1.
Institut de Recherche Interdisciplinaire en Biologie Humaine et Moléculaire (IRIBHM), Service de Biostatistique et Informatique Médicale (SBIM), Free University of Brussels (ULB), Brussels, Belgium.
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2018 Jun 29. Epub 2018 Jun 29.
N. Paulescu Institute of Diabetes, Bucharest, Romania.
Mikrobiyol Bul 2018 Apr;52(2):214-220
Selçuk University Faculty of Veterinary, Department of Parasitology, Konya, Turkey.
Demodicosis is an ectoparasitic cutaneous infestation of pilosebaceous unit caused by Demodex mites. Demodex spp. are considered to be pathogenic when they increase in number and infect dermis. Read More
Vet Parasitol 2018 Jun 7;257:1-4. Epub 2018 May 7.
Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT), Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária (FAVET), Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Electronic address:
Objectives: To quantify (by qPCR) the density of Demodex canis mites in the skin of dogs with demodicosis and in healthy dogs, as well as measuring the serum concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, and tumour necrosis factor-alfa (TNF-α).
Methods: Fifty-four dogs were divided into three groups: localized demodicosis (LD, n = 16), generalized demodicosis (GD, n = 22), and control group (CG, n = 16). All dogs were subjected to skin scraping, blood collection, and skin biopsy. Read More
Can Vet J 2018 May;59(5):545-547
Animal Dermatology Specialists of Vancouver, Vancouver, British Columbia.
Turkiye Parazitol Derg 2018 Jun;42(2):171-174
Department of Endocrinology, Ankara Yıldırım Beyazıt University, Yenimahalle Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey.
Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease. This type of dermatosis with underlying chronic inflammation significantly affects the quality of life and may be accompanied by many comorbidities. In this case, Demodex spp. Read More
Postepy Dermatol Alergol 2018 Apr 24;35(2):174-181. Epub 2018 Apr 24.
Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey.
Introduction: Acne is a very common skin disease in adolescents and young adults, but it also affects adults. However, its aetiology is not yet fully understood. appears to be associated with multiple skin disorders, but controversy persists. Read More
Parasitol Res 2018 Jul 4;117(7):2139-2148. Epub 2018 May 4.
Departament de Biologia Animal, Biologia Vegetal i Ecologia, Facultat de Biociències, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, 08193, Barcelona, Spain.
Myobia sp. and Demodex sp. are two skin mites that infest mice, particularly immunodeficient or transgenic lab mice. Read More
Parasitology 2018 Oct 18;145(12):1510-1520. Epub 2018 Apr 18.
Department of Pathology,Monash Medical Centre and Department of Medicine,Monash University,Clayton,Victoria,Australia.
Australian tea tree oil (TTO) and its extract terpinen-4-ol (T4O) are found to be effective in moderating demodex-related diseases. Their possible effects are lowering the mite counts, relieving the demodex-related symptoms and modulating the immune system especially the inflammatory response. This review summarizes the topical treatments of TTO and T4O in human demodicosis, their possible mechanism of actions, side-effects and potential resistance in treating this condition. Read More
Arch Med Sci 2018 Mar 17;14(2):353-356. Epub 2016 Jun 17.
Department of Histology and Embryology, Biostructure Center, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.
Introduction: Two human-specific species have been described: and . A medical condition caused by the presence of is called demodicosis.
Material And Methods: The study material comprised eyelashes collected from 1499 patients. Read More
Pediatr Dermatol 2018 Mar;35(2):244-245
Department of Dermatology, Goztepe Research and Training Hospital, Istanbul Medeniyet University, Istanbul, Turkey.
J Vet Med Sci 2018 Apr 8;80(4):672-675. Epub 2018 Mar 8.
Department of Veterinary Nursing, School of Veterinary Nursing and Technology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University, Musashino, Tokyo 180-8602, Japan.
A 12-year-old female Shih-Tzu with hyperadrenocorticism and hypothyroidism developed concurrent refractory generalized demodicosis that did not respond to doramectin treatment. Although amitraz treatment was effective, the dog developed severe diabetes, which resulted in the cessation of amitraz and trilostane. Attempts to control the diabetes were unsuccessful, and its hyperadrenocorticism was left untreated, leading to the recurrence of demodicosis. Read More
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2018 Jun 23;32(6):1011-1016. Epub 2018 Mar 23.
Institut de Recherche Interdisciplinaire en Biologie humaine et moléculaire (IRIBHM) & Service de Biostatistique et Informatique médicale (SBIM), Université libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Brussels, Belgium.
Background: Papulopustular rosacea and rosacea-like demodicosis have numerous similarities, but they are generally considered as two distinct entities, mainly because the causal role of the Demodex mite in the development of rosacea is not yet widely accepted. Several clinical characteristics are traditionally considered to differentiate the two conditions; for example, papulopustular rosacea is typically characterized by central facial papulopustules and persistent erythema, whereas small superficial papulopustules and follicular scales rather suggest rosacea-like demodicosis. However, none of these characteristics is exclusive to either entity. Read More
Rev Argent Microbiol 2018 Feb 6. Epub 2018 Feb 6.
Laboratorio de Parasitología, Hospital Nacional de Clínicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Córdoba, Argentina.
Demodex folliculorum and Demodex brevis are mites that are responsible for human demodicosis affecting skin and frequently linked to ocular diseasess. The aim of this work was to determine the association between Demodex sp. and eyelid and eyelash diseases and to establish the predisposing factors for acquiring this parasitic disease. Read More
Vet Dermatol 2018 Jun 8;29(3):208-e74. Epub 2018 Feb 8.
Asian Veterinary Specialist Referral Center, 1F No.109 Section 4 Xin Yi road, Taipei, Taiwan.
Background: Generalized demodicosis in dogs can be challenging to manage, especially in adult-onset cases.
Hypothesis/objectives: This study evaluated the efficacy of oral fluralaner at the dose of 25-50 mg/kg for the treatment of canine generalized demodicosis.
Animals: Client-owned dogs from Bangkok, Thailand, diagnosed with generalized demodicosis according to published criteria. Read More
Vet Dermatol 2018 Jun 8;29(3):203-e72. Epub 2018 Feb 8.
Zoetis, Veterinary Medicine Research and Development, 333 Portage St., Kalamazoo, MI, 49007, USA.
Background: Treatment of canine demodicosis can be challenging; new treatments are always being sought.
Objective: The efficacy of sarolaner was evaluated in comparison with a moxidectin/imidacloprid topical product against generalized demodicosis in dogs in a randomized, single-masked, multi-centre field study.
Animals: Client-owned dogs were treated monthly with oral sarolaner (n = 53) or with weekly/monthly topical moxidectin/imidacloprid (n = 28). Read More
Vet Rec 2018 04 1;182(15):434. Epub 2018 Feb 1.
Small Animal Medicine Clinic, Centre of Clinical Veterinary Medicine, LMU Munich, Munich, Germany.
Bacterial pyoderma is common in small animal practice. Usually there is an associated underlying disease, but little is known about the prevalence of underlying diseases in dogs with recurrent pyoderma. The aim of this study was to analyse the frequency of the different underlying diseases in dogs with recurrent pyoderma. Read More
Vet Dermatol 2018 Apr 29;29(2):104-e41. Epub 2017 Dec 29.
Medizinische Kleintierklinik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Veterinärstrasse 13, D-80539, München, Germany.
Background: Generalized demodicosis is a common disease in dogs and doramectin has been reported as a successful treatment. Different treatment protocols using doramectin have not been previously evaluated.
Objective: To evaluate whether oral administration of doramectin twice a week is more effective than administration by subcutaneous injection once a week. Read More
Parasite Immunol 2018 Mar 7;40(3). Epub 2018 Jan 7.
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, U.P. Pandit Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Pashu Chikitsa Vigyan Vishwavidyalaya Evam Go Anusandhan Sansthan (DUVASU), Mathura, India.
Widespread incidence of Demodex mites throughout the mammalian class and occasional serious and fatal outcomes in dogs warrant an insight into the host-parasite interface especially. Therefore, this study was aimed to unravel the interplay between innate immune response and canine demodicosis. The dogs diagnosed to have natural clinical demodicosis were allocated into two groups; dogs with localized demodicosis (LD) and with generalized demodicosis (GD). Read More
J Drugs Dermatol 2017 12;16(12):1290-1292
Pityriasis folliculorum has been described as a dry type of rosacea with extensive proliferation of Demodex folliculorum in pilosebaceous follicles of the skin. This skin condition is frequently difficult to manage, with various treatment options showing mixed efficacy. Oral ivermectin, a macrocyclic lactone parasiticide with anti-inflammatory and anti-parasitic effects, is one of the leading treatment modalities for demodicosis. Read More
Med Sci Monit 2017 Dec 10;23:5862-5869. Epub 2017 Dec 10.
Department of Ophthalmology, Uludag University School of Medicine, Bursa, Turkey.
BACKGROUND Demodex may cause chronic and refractory blepharitis with associated ocular surface problems, and its diagnosis and treatment can be quite challenging. In this study, our aim was to assess the efficacy of tea tree oil in Demodex treatment on caucasian patients in an industrialized region of Turkey, and to develop a systematic scoring system for extremely accurate diagnosis in the absence of advanced facilities. MATERIAL AND METHODS Charts of 412 patients with blepharitis were reviewed. Read More
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2018 Mar 28;32(3):347-354. Epub 2017 Dec 28.
Department of Medical Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Warmia and Mazury University, Olsztyn, Poland.
Proposed at the beginning of the twentieth century to explain the origin of eukaryotic organelles from prokaryotes, endosymbiosis is now medically defined by various interaction patterns between microorganisms and their residing hosts, best exemplified by the bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia identified in arthropods and filarial nematodes, which can influence normal development, reproduction, survival and transmission of the hosts. Based on the transmission modes, vertical or horizontal, and the function of the endosymbionts, the host-symbiont dependence can be divided into primary or secondary. In dermatology, the role of endosymbionts in skin ectoparasitosis has aroused great interests in the past years. Read More
Parasit Vectors 2017 Nov 1;10(1):532. Epub 2017 Nov 1.
ClinVet International (pty) Ltd, Uitsigweg, Bainsvlei, 9338, Bloemfontein, Republic of South Africa.
Background: The oral systemic efficacy of lotilaner (Credelio™, Elanco) was evaluated against Demodex spp. in naturally infested dogs with generalized demodicosis.
Methods: In this study, 10 dogs with clinical signs of generalized demodicosis and positive for Demodex spp. Read More
Br J Ophthalmol 2018 Aug 21;102(8):1098-1102. Epub 2017 Oct 21.
Ocular Surface Clinic, Ocular Surface Center, Miami, Florida, USA.
Aims: To report the clinical characteristics and correlation between meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) and keratitis in young patients with ocular demodicosis.
Methods: Observational case series of 60 patients younger than 35 years with ocular demodicosis, of which the diagnosis was based on microscopic counting of and of epilated lashes. Severity of keratitis and MGD was graded by photography and meibography, respectively, in a masked fashion. Read More
Vet Dermatol 2018 04 8;29(2):173. Epub 2017 Oct 8.
Centro Universitario UAEM Amecameca, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Km. 2.5 Carretera Amecameca-Ayapango, 56900, Amecameca de Juárez, Estado de México, México.
Vet Rec 2017 10;181(14):377
21 Wellbrook Way, Girton, Cambridge CB3 0FW.
Pediatr Dermatol 2017 Nov 21;34(6):e299-e301. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
Department of Dermatology, Hospital Sant Joan de Déu, Barcelona, Spain.
Demodex mites are commensal organisms rarely found in healthy children. Human demodicosis can be classified as a primary or a secondary form. The secondary form in children usually affects severely immunodepressed children. Read More
Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi 2017 Sep;53(9):648-652
Zhongshan Ophthalmic Centre, Sun Yat-sen University, State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Guangzhou 510060, China.
Demodex infestation is a common cause of blepharitis and now is drawing more and more attention from clinicians. Demodex mite is the most common age-related ectoparasite of human being and may be detected from asymptomatic normal population. Furthermore, the pathogenesis of demodicosis remains unclear. Read More
Cornea 2017 Nov;36 Suppl 1:S9-S14
*State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Ocular Surface Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China;†Ocular Surface Center, Miami, FL; and‡Tissue Tech Inc, Miami, FL.
Among different species of mites, Demodex folliculorum and Demodex brevis are the only 2 that affect the human eye. Because demodicosis is highly age-dependent and can be found in asymptomatic adults, the pathogenicity of these mites has long been debated. In this study, we summarize our research experience including our most recent study regarding Demodex infestation as a potential cause of ocular inflammatory diseases. Read More
Vet Dermatol 2018 Feb 3;29(1):19-e10. Epub 2017 Sep 3.
Department of Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California Davis, 1 Garrod Drive, Davis, CA, 95616, USA.
Background: Demodex spp. are cutaneous mites that cause clinical disease when present in increased numbers. There is an association in some dogs with underlying systemic disease or immunosuppressive medications. Read More
Skinmed 2017 1;15(4):293-295. Epub 2017 Aug 1.
Clínica Universitária de Dermatologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Lisboa, Clínica Universitária de Dermatologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal.
A 23-year-old white man presented to our dermatology department complaining of pruriginous and erythematous papulopustules on the right cheek that had developed 6 months previously. He had a history of chronic blepharitis, complicated by a recurrent hordeolum that had been treated with warm compresses and topical antibiotic ointment (chloramphenicol) for approximately 2 years. The patient had oily skin and atopy (allergic rhinitis) and did not experience photosensitivity or flushing or have previous exposure to immunosuppressants or topical/systemic corticosteroids. Read More
Iran J Parasitol 2017 Apr-Jun;12(2):224-229
Dept. of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Background: Demodicosis is one of the most prevalent skin diseases resulting from infestation by mites. This parasite usually inhabits in follicular infundibulum or sebaceous duct and transmits through close contact with an infested host.
Methods: This study was carried from September 2014 to January 2016 at Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Read More
Iran J Parasitol 2017 Jan-Mar;12(1):12-21
Dept. of Medical Biology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Warmia and Mazury, Olsztyn, Poland.
Background: is a genus of mites living predominantly in mammalian pilosebaceous units. They are commonly detected in the skin of face, with increasing numbers in inflammatory lesions. Causation between mites and inflammatory diseases, such as rosacea, blepharitis, perioral and seborrhoeic dermatitis or chalazion, is controversially discussed. Read More
Parasitology 2017 Sep 6;144(10):1412-1416. Epub 2017 Jun 6.
Department of Veterinary Medicine,College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, DUVASU,Mathura - 281 001, U.P.,India.
Demodex canis infestation in dogs remains one of the main challenges in veterinary dermatology. The exact pathogenesis of canine demodicosis is unknown but an aberration in immune status is considered very significant. No studies have underpinned the nexus between induction of demodicosis and neural immunosuppressive pathways so far. Read More
J Vet Diagn Invest 2017 Sep 26;29(5):757-762. Epub 2017 May 26.
Institute of Pathology and Forensic Veterinary Medicine (Weissenbacher-Lang, Fuchs-Baumgartinger, Klang, Weissenböck), University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
A 3.5-y-old Whippet mixed-breed dog was presented with a history of respiratory distress, exercise intolerance, and generalized demodicosis. Hematologic alterations included marked leukocytosis and neutrophilia. Read More
Vet Dermatol 2017 Oct 23;28(5):468-e107. Epub 2017 May 23.
Cummings Veterinary Medical Center, Tufts University, 200 Westboro Road, North Grafton, MA, 01536, USA.
Background: Fluralaner and afoxolaner are isoxazolines licensed for the treatment of flea and tick infestations. Isoxazolines have also shown efficacy for treatment of demodicosis. Nothing is known about the impact of these compounds on the populations of Demodex in healthy dogs. Read More
Vet Dermatol 2017 10 21;28(5):528-529. Epub 2017 May 21.
Cummings Veterinary Medical Center at Tufts University, 200 Westboro Road, North Grafton, MA, 01536, USA.
J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2017 Jul;39(5):402-406
*Princess Máxima Center for Pediatric Oncology †Department of Dermatology, University Medical Center-Wilhelmina Children's Hospital, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
Demodicosis is a rare condition that most often occurs in immunocompromised patients. We here describe a boy with T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma who developed a facial papulopustular eruption just before finalizing T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma treatment. He was treated for several infectious diseases without improvement. Read More
J Small Anim Pract 2017 Aug 3;58(8):476-479. Epub 2017 May 3.
Servizi Dermatologici Veterinari, Lovere, 24065, Italy.
There is little agreement on the most effective and safest treatment for feline demodicosis. Protocols generally consist of long-lasting therapy courses based on rinses, subcutaneous injections, oral drug administration or repeated spot-on formulation and the efficacy of most of these is poorly documented. Many of these products have also been associated with adverse effects and may be difficult to administer in cats, leading to poor owner compliance and treatment failure. Read More
Ann Dermatol 2017 Apr 24;29(2):137-142. Epub 2017 Mar 24.
Department of Dermatology, Gachon University School of Medicine, Incheon, Korea.
Background: Demodicosis is a parasitic skin disease caused by mites, and the determination of mite density per square centimeter is important to diagnose demodicosis. Standardized skin surface biopsy (SSSB) and direct microscopic examination (DME) are commonly used to determine mites density (Dd). However, no study has previously compared these two methods with respect to clinical types and distribution patterns of demodicosis. Read More
Clin Dermatol 2017 Mar - Apr;35(2):201-206. Epub 2016 Oct 27.
Department of Dermatology, Andreas Syggros Hospital, University of Athens, 5, Dragoumi str, Athens, 16121, Greece. Electronic address:
Facial erythema (the "red face") is a straightforward clinical finding, and it is evident even to the untrained eye; however, a red face does not represent a single cutaneous entity. It may be due to a plethora of distinct underlying conditions of varying severity, including rosacea, demodicosis, dermatomyositis, lupus erythematosus, allergic contact dermatitis, drug-induced erythema, and emotional blushing. In clinical practice, dermatologists do not encounter only one type of facial erythema but rather a number of different shades of red. Read More
Int J Ophthalmol 2017 18;10(1):122-127. Epub 2017 Jan 18.
Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand; Excellence Center for Emerging Infectious Disease, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Thai Red Cross Society, Bangkok 10330, Thailand.
Aim: To determine the prevalence of ocular demodicosis by both microscopic examination and molecular detection among patients at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Thai Red Cross Society, Bangkok.
Methods: One hundred individuals were enrolled in the study and were divided into five age groups. The meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) score and qualities of cylindrical dandruff (CD) were also determined. Read More
Med Hypotheses 2017 Jan 15;98:6-10. Epub 2016 Sep 15.
Department of General Biology and Parasitology, Medical University of Warsaw, ul. Chałubińskiego 5, 02-004 Warsaw, Poland; W. Stefański Institute of Parasitology, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Twarda 51/55, 00-818 Warsaw, Poland. Electronic address:
Numerous reports point to Demodex mites as the aetiology of certain eye and skin conditions, hence it is highly probable that infestation with these mites may also play a role in the aetiology and pathogenesis of pterygium. Therefore here we present a hypothesis: whether the presence of Demodex mites in eyelash hair follicles significantly correlates with the presence of pterygia, which could point to a potential role of these mites in the development of such lesions. We present preliminary data for supporting this hypothesis. Read More
Turk J Med Sci 2016 Nov 17;46(5):1415-1421. Epub 2016 Nov 17.
Department of Organic Agriculture, Tunceli Vocational School, Tunceli University, Tunceli, Turkey.
Background/aim: Demodex spp. are ectoparasites living in the pilosebaceous units, which feed on the host's sebum and cellular proteins. The protective barrier of the skin consists of sebum secretion, moisture, and the acid mantle. Read More