14,996 results match your criteria Dementia Vascular


Differential protein expression in diverse brain areas of Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease patients.

Sci Rep 2020 Aug 4;10(1):13149. Epub 2020 Aug 4.

CNC-Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Coimbra, Largo Marquês de Pombal, 3004-517, Coimbra, Portugal.

Many hypotheses have been postulated to define the etiology of sporadic Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disorders (PD and AD) but there is no consensus on what causes these devastating age-related diseases. Braak staging of both pathologies helped researchers to better understand the progression and to identify their prodromal and symptomatic phases. Indeed, it is well accepted that Lewy body pathology and neurofibrillary tangles appearance correlates with disease progression and severity of symptoms in PD and AD, respectively. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-70174-zDOI Listing

The contribution of vascular risk factors in neurodegenerative disorders: from mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer's disease.

Alzheimers Res Ther 2020 Aug 4;12(1):91. Epub 2020 Aug 4.

Department of Neurology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, National Taiwan University, No. 7 Chung-Shan South Road, Taipei, 10055, Taiwan.

Background: Optimization of vascular risk factor control is emerging as an alternative approach to improve cognitive outcomes in Alzheimer's disease, although its efficacy is still under debate. We aimed to investigate the contribution of vascular risk factors on Alzheimer's biomarkers and conversion rate to dementia in subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) with low cerebral small vessel disease burden.

Methods: Two hundred ninety-five newly diagnosed MCI subjects were enrolled from March 2005 to May 2017 for a cross-sectional assessment of vascular risk factors and Alzheimer's plasma and imaging biomarkers, followed by a cognitive outcome assessment 24 months after enrollment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13195-020-00658-7DOI Listing

Association between serum NPTX2 and cognitive function in patients with vascular dementia.

Brain Behav 2020 Aug 3:e01779. Epub 2020 Aug 3.

Department of Neurology, Shanxian Central Hospital, Heze, Shandong Province, China.

Objective: Neuronal Pentraxin 2 (NPTX2) has recently been widely reported as a novel biomarker for Alzheimer's disease (AD), but its correlation with vascular dementia (VaD) has not been elucidated. This study aimed to explore the correlation between NPTX2 and the cognitive function of VaD patients.

Methods: 112 VaD patients and 76 healthy controls were included in the study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/brb3.1779DOI Listing

Cognitive and motor correlates of grey and white matter pathology in Parkinson's disease.

Neuroimage Clin 2020 Jul 17;27:102353. Epub 2020 Jul 17.

Department of Medicine, Division of Neurology, University of Alberta, Canada. Electronic address:

Introduction: Previous studies have found associations between grey matter atrophy and white matter hyperintensities (WMH) of vascular origin with cognitive and motor deficits in Parkinson's disease (PD). Here we investigate these relationships in a sample of PD patients and age-matched healthy controls.

Methods: Data included 50 PD patients and 45 age-matched controls with T1-weighted and FLAIR scans at baseline, 18-months, and 36-months follow-up. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nicl.2020.102353DOI Listing

An Insight in Pathophysiological Mechanism of Alzheimer's Disease and its Management using Plant Natural Products.

Mini Rev Med Chem 2020 Jul 30. Epub 2020 Jul 30.

Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi - 221005. India.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-associated nervous system disorder and a leading cause of dementia worldwide. Clinically it is described by cognitive impairment, and pathophysiologically by deposition of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain and neurodegeneration. This article reviews the pathophysiology, course of neuronal degeneration, and the various possible hypothesis of AD progression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1389557520666200730155928DOI Listing

Xanthone-enriched fraction of Garcinia mangostana and α-mangostin improve the spatial learning and memory of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion rats.

J Pharm Pharmacol 2020 Aug 2. Epub 2020 Aug 2.

Centre for Drug Research, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia.

Objectives: Xanthones isolated from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana has been reported to exhibit neuroprotective effect.

Methods: In this study, the effect of xanthone-enriched fraction of Garcinia mangostana (XEFGM) and α-mangostin (α-MG) were investigated on cognitive functions of the chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) rats.

Key Findings: HPLC analysis revealed that XEFGM contained 55. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jphp.13345DOI Listing

Impact of Hypertension on Cognitive Decline and Dementia.

Ann Geriatr Med Res 2020 Mar 18;24(1):15-19. Epub 2020 Mar 18.

Geriatrics and Palliative Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, Raja Isteri Pengiran Anak Saleha (RIPAS) Hospital, Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Darussalam.

Dementia reduces a person's ability to perform their activities of daily living and is the leading cause of morbidity worldwide. While most preventive measures are ineffective in reducing dementia risk, active treatment of hypertension in middle-aged and older adults without dementia may reduce the incidence of dementia. Hypertension is associated with vascular dementia but may also affect the manifestations of Alzheimer disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4235/agmr.19.0048DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7370774PMC

Electric Stimulation of Neurogenesis Improves Behavioral Recovery After Focal Ischemia in Aged Rats.

Front Neurosci 2020 9;14:732. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Center of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Craiova, Craiova, Romania.

The major aim of stroke therapies is to stimulate brain repair and to improve behavioral recuperation after cerebral ischemia. Despite remarkable advances in cell therapy for stroke, stem cell-based tissue replacement has not been achieved yet stimulating the search for alternative strategies for brain self-repair using the neurogenic zones of the brain, the dentate gyrus and the subventricular zone (SVZ). However, during aging, the potential of the hippocampus and the SVZ to generate new neuronal precursors, declines. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2020.00732DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7365235PMC

Electroacupuncture Enhances Cognition by Promoting Brain Glucose Metabolism and Inhibiting Inflammation in the APP/PS1 Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease: A Pilot Study.

J Alzheimers Dis 2020 Jul 27. Epub 2020 Jul 27.

School of Acupuncture-Moxibustion and Tuina, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, China.

Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease, yet there is no effective treatment. Electroacupuncture (EA) is a complementary alternative medicine approach. In clinical and animal studies, EA promotes cognition in AD and vascular dementia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAD-200242DOI Listing

Neuropathological assessment of the Alzheimer spectrum.

Authors:
Kurt A Jellinger

J Neural Transm (Vienna) 2020 Aug 1. Epub 2020 Aug 1.

Institute of Clinical Neurobiology, Alberichgasse 5/13, 1150, Vienna, Austria.

Alzheimer disease (AD), the most common form of dementia globally, classically defined a clinicopathological entity, is a heterogenous disorder with various pathobiological subtypes, currently referred to as Alzheimer continuum. Its morphological hallmarks are extracellular parenchymal β-amyloid (amyloid plaques) and intraneuronal (tau aggregates forming neurofibrillary tangles) lesions accompanied by synaptic loss and vascular amyloid deposits, that are essential for the pathological diagnosis of AD. In addition to "classical" AD, several subtypes with characteristic regional patterns of tau pathology have been described that show distinct clinical features, differences in age, sex distribution, biomarker levels, and patterns of key network destructions responsible for cognitive decline. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00702-020-02232-9DOI Listing

The impact of neurovascular, blood-brain barrier, and glymphatic dysfunction in neurodegenerative and metabolic diseases.

Int Rev Neurobiol 2020 14;154:413-436. Epub 2020 Jul 14.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA, United States; VISN 20 Mental Illness Research, Education and Clinical Center (MIRECC), VA Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle, WA, United States; Department of Neurology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA, United States. Electronic address:

The cerebral vasculature serves as the crossroads of the CNS, supporting exchange of nutrients, metabolic wastes, solutes and cells between the compartments of the brain, including the blood, brain interstitium, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The blood-brain barrier (BBB) regulates the entry and efflux of molecules into brain tissue. The cells of the neurovascular unit regulate cerebral blood flow, matching local metabolic demand to blood supply. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.irn.2020.02.006DOI Listing

Accuracy of death certificates for recording parkinsonian syndromes and associated dementia.

J Neurol 2020 Jul 31. Epub 2020 Jul 31.

Institute of Applied Health Sciences, School of Medicine, Medical Sciences and Nutrition, University of Aberdeen, Polwarth Building, Foresterhill, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZD, UK.

Introduction: Death certification is often used to identify patients with certain diseases in epidemiologic research. There have been few studies looking at the accuracy of recording of parkinsonian diagnoses, any associated dementia and the cause of death on death certificates in people with parkinsonian conditions. This study aimed to assess this. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00415-020-10113-0DOI Listing

Association of years to parent's sporadic onset and risk factors with neural integrity and Alzheimer's biomarkers.

Neurology 2020 Jul 31. Epub 2020 Jul 31.

- Barcelonaβeta Brain Research Center (BBRC), Pasqual Maragall Foundation, Barcelona, Spain.

Objective: To evaluate the hypothesis that proximity to parental age at onset (AAO) in sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with greater AD and neural injury biomarker alterations during midlife and to assess the role of non-modifiable and modifiable factors.

Methods: This observational study included 290 cognitively unimpaired (CU) participants with family history (FH) of (aged 49-73) from the ALFA study. [18F]Flutemetamol-PET SUVRs, CSF Aβ42/40 ratio and p-tau were used as AD biomarkers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000010527DOI Listing

Association of vascular brain injury, neurodegeneration, amyloid and cognitive trajectory.

Neurology 2020 Jul 30. Epub 2020 Jul 30.

Department of Neurology, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA, USA.

Objective: To determine whether vascular and neurodegenerative factors influence cognition before clinically relevant Alzheimer's disease pathology, we analyzed MRI measures and amyloid imaging in an ethnoracially diverse cohort of cognitively normal individuals above 60 years of age.

Methods: Participants (N = 154; mean age 74.15 ± 6. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000010531DOI Listing

No difference in dementia prediction between apolipoprotein E4 and the ischemic score.

Alzheimers Dement 2020 Jul 30. Epub 2020 Jul 30.

Department of Clinical Neurological Sciences, University Hospital, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada.

Introduction: Few biomarkers exist for early detection of vascular cognitive impairment. We examined whether the Hachinski Ischemic Scale (HIS) can predict dementia in elderly.

Methods: We leveraged data of the Canadian Study of Health and Aging. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/alz.12139DOI Listing

Exercise training improves vascular function in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2020 Jul 30. Epub 2020 Jul 30.

Department of Neurosciences, Biomedicine and Movement Sciences, University of Verona, Via Casorati 43, 37131, Verona, Italy.

Purpose: Vascular dysfunction has been demonstrated in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Exercise is known to positively affect vascular function. Thus, the aim of our study was to investigate exercise-induced effects on vascular function in AD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-020-04447-wDOI Listing

The Links between Cardiovascular Diseases and Alzheimer's Disease.

Curr Neuropharmacol 2020 Jul 28. Epub 2020 Jul 28.

I. M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation (Sechenov University), 8/2 Trubetskaya Str., Moscow, 119991. Russian Federation.

The root cause of non-inherited Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains unknown despite hundreds of research studies performed to attempt to solve this problem. Since proper prophylaxis remains the best strategy, many scientists have studied risk factors that may affect AD development. There is robust evidence supporting the hypothesis that cardiovascular diseases (CVD) may contribute to AD progression; the diseases often coexist. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1570159X18666200729093724DOI Listing

Recommendations of the 5th Canadian Consensus Conference on the diagnosis and treatment of dementia.

Alzheimers Dement 2020 Jul 29. Epub 2020 Jul 29.

Alzheimer Disease Research Unit, McGill Center for Studies in Aging, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Since 1989, four Canadian Consensus Conferences on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Dementia (CCCDTD) have provided evidence-based dementia guidelines for Canadian clinicians and researchers. We present the results of the 5th CCCDTD, which convened in October 2019, to address topics chosen by the steering committee to reflect advances in the field, and build on previous guidelines. Topics included: (1) utility of the National Institute on Aging research framework for clinical Alzheimer's disease (AD) diagnosis; (2) updating diagnostic criteria for vascular cognitive impairment, and its management; (3) dementia case finding and detection; (4) neuroimaging and fluid biomarkers in diagnosis; (5) use of non-cognitive markers of dementia for better dementia detection; (6) risk reduction/prevention; (7) psychosocial and non-pharmacological interventions; and (8) deprescription of medications used to treat dementia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/alz.12105DOI Listing

[Young onset dementia].

Nervenarzt 2020 Jul 28. Epub 2020 Jul 28.

Klinik für Neurologie mit Institut für Translationale Neurologie, Universitätsklinikum Münster, Albert-Schweitzer-Campus 1, Gebäude A1, 48149, Münster, Deutschland.

Background: Due to the demographic change dementia is a common and dramatically increasing reason for medical presentations. In approximately 8% of cases dementia occurs before the age of 65 years. The psychosocial and economic consequences are often severe, particularly in younger patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00115-020-00967-0DOI Listing

The Neuropathological Diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease-The Challenges of Pathological Mimics and Concomitant Pathology.

Brain Sci 2020 Jul 24;10(8). Epub 2020 Jul 24.

London Neurodegenerative Diseases Brain Bank, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College, London SE5 8AF, UK.

The definitive diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) rests with post-mortem neuropathology despite the advent of more sensitive scanning and the search for reliable biomarkers. Even though the classic neuropathological features of AD have been known for many years, it was only relatively recently that more sensitive immunohistochemistry for amyloid beta (Aβ) and hyperphosphorylated tau (HP-tau) replaced silver-staining techniques. However, immunohistochemistry against these and other proteins has not only allowed a more scientific evaluation of the pathology of AD but also revealed some mimics of HP-tau pathological patterns of AD, including age-related changes, argyrophilic grain disease and chronic traumatic encephalopathy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10080479DOI Listing

Estrogen Exerts Neuroprotective Effects in Vascular Dementia Rats by Suppressing Autophagy and Activating the Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway.

Neurochem Res 2020 Jul 27. Epub 2020 Jul 27.

Department of Neurology, Hebei General Hospital, Shijiazhuang, 050051, China.

Vascular dementia (VD) is a clinical syndrome of acquired cognitive dysfunction caused by various cerebrovascular factors. Estrogen is a steroid hormone involved in promoting neuronal survival and in regulating many signaling pathways. However, the mechanism by which it confers neuroprotective effects in VD remains unclear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11064-020-03072-5DOI Listing

-Related Cerebral Small Vessel Disease: A Review of the Literature.

Front Neurol 2020 3;11:545. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Department of Neurology, Brain Research Institute, Niigata University, Niigata, Japan.

Cerebral autosomal recessive arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CARASIL) is clinically characterized by early-onset dementia, stroke, spondylosis deformans, and alopecia. In CARASIL cases, brain magnetic resonance imaging reveals severe white matter hyperintensities (WMHs), lacunar infarctions, and microbleeds. CARASIL is caused by a homozygous mutation in (). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2020.00545DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7351529PMC

Microangiopathie cérébrale: du diagnostic à la prise en charge small vessel disease of the brain: Diagnosis and management.

Rev Med Interne 2020 Jul 24. Epub 2020 Jul 24.

Département de Neurologie, CHU Montpellier, Univ Montpellier, Inserm, Montpellier, France.

Small vessel disease of the brain is commonly identified among ageing people. It causes almost 25% of strokes and is associated with cognitive impairment and dementia as well as gait difficulties. Its diagnosis is usually made on MRI in the presence of deep white matter and basal ganglia hyperintensities as well as deep lacunar infarcts (lacunes), microbleeds and enlarged perivascular spaces. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.revmed.2020.04.018DOI Listing

Associations Between Neuroanatomic Patterns of Cerebral Infarctions and Vascular Dementia.

J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 2020 Jul 28:appineuropsych19120356. Epub 2020 Jul 28.

Department of Neurology (Kumral, Ece Bayam, Arslan) and Department of Neuropsychology (Arslan), Ege University Medical School Hospital, Izmir, Turkey; and Department of Administration and Statistics, Ege University, Izmir, Turkey (Orman).

Objective: A history of multiple cerebral infarctions is generally regarded as an important risk factor for vascular dementia. The authors examined the risk of vascular dementia in patients with multiple acute ischemic lesions.

Methods: The authors conducted a hospital-based prospective study of 11,200 patients with first-time stroke who underwent 1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.neuropsych.19120356DOI Listing

Inappropriate use of antiplatelet agents for primary prevention in nursing homes: An Italian multicenter observational study.

Geriatr Gerontol Int 2020 Jul 27. Epub 2020 Jul 27.

Medical Direction, Korian Italy, Milan, Italy.

Aim: The benefits of antiplatelets to prevent cardio- and cerebrovascular disease are recognized and appropriate only for "secondary prevention." This multicenter retrospective study was designed to (i) examine the prevalence of residents receiving antiplatelets for primary and secondary cardio- and cerebrovascular prevention, and (ii) evaluate the predictors of inappropriate antiplatelet prescription.

Methods: This study was conducted in a sample of Italian long-term care nursing homes (NHs). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ggi.13984DOI Listing

Association of Demographic and Early-Life Socioeconomic Factors by Birth Cohort With Dementia Incidence Among US Adults Born Between 1893 and 1949.

JAMA Netw Open 2020 Jul 1;3(7):e2011094. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Kaiser Permanente Washington Health Research Institute, Seattle.

Importance: Early-life factors may be important for later dementia risk. The association between a more advantaged early-life environment, as reflected through an individual's height and socioeconomic status indicators, and decreases in dementia incidence by birth cohort is unknown.

Objectives: To examine the association of birth cohort and early-life environment with dementia incidence among participants in the Adult Changes in Thought study from 1994 to 2015. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.11094DOI Listing

Baseline Prevalence of Polypharmacy in Older Hypertensive Study Subjects with Elevated Dementia Risk: Findings from the Risk Reduction for Alzheimer's Disease Study (rrAD).

J Alzheimers Dis 2020 Jul 20. Epub 2020 Jul 20.

Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, LA, USA.

Background: Little is known about the prevalence of polypharmacy, the taking of five or more medications a day, in older adults with specific dementia risk factors.

Objective: To examine the prevalence of polypharmacy in participants at baseline in a vascular risk reduction focused Alzheimer's disease (rrAD) trial targeting older patients with hypertension and elevated dementia risk.

Methods: We conducted a detailed review of medications in a cross-sectional study of community-dwelling older adults with hypertension and elevated dementia risk. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAD-200122DOI Listing

Can active life mitigate the impact of diabetes on dementia and brain aging?

Alzheimers Dement 2020 Jul 27. Epub 2020 Jul 27.

Department of Neurobiology, Aging Research Center, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.

Introduction: We investigated whether lifelong exposure to stimulating activities (active life, AL) mitigates diabetes-associated dementia risk and brain aging.

Methods: In the Swedish National Study on Aging and Care-Kungsholmen, 2286 dementia-free older adults (407 with MRI volumetric measures) were followed over 12 years to detect incident dementia. AL index (low, moderate, high) combined education, work complexity, leisure activities, and social network. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/alz.12142DOI Listing

A European Academy of Neurology guideline on medical management issues in dementia.

Eur J Neurol 2020 Jul 26. Epub 2020 Jul 26.

Department of Neurology, Danish Dementia Research Center, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Background And Purpose: Dementia is one of the most common disorders and is associated with increased morbidity, mortality and decreased quality of life. The present guideline addresses important medical management issues including systematic medical follow-up, vascular risk factors in dementia, pain in dementia, use of antipsychotics in dementia and epilepsy in dementia.

Methods: A systematic review of the literature was carried out. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ene.14412DOI Listing

A1 reactive astrocytes and a loss of TREM2 are associated with an early stage of pathology in a mouse model of cerebral amyloid angiopathy.

J Neuroinflammation 2020 Jul 25;17(1):223. Epub 2020 Jul 25.

Stark Neurosciences Research Institute, Indiana University School of Medicine, Neurosciences Research Building 214G, 320 West 15th Street, Indianapolis, IN, 46202, USA.

Background: Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is typified by the cerebrovascular deposition of amyloid. The mechanisms underlying the contribution of CAA to neurodegeneration are not currently understood. Although CAA is highly associated with the accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ), other amyloids are known to associate with the vasculature. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12974-020-01900-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7382050PMC

Neurovascular integrative effects of long-term environmental enrichment on chronic cerebral hypoperfusion rat model.

Brain Res Bull 2020 Jul 22. Epub 2020 Jul 22.

College of Nursing Science, Kyung Hee University, East-west Nursing Research Institute, Seoul, 02447, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Vascular dementia (VaD) is one of the most common types of dementia followed by Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent studies showed that approximately 30%-35% of patients with AD at post-mortem exhibited vascular pathologies, which suggested that mixed dementia may be the most common type of dementia. Permanent bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (2VO) is a well-characterized method for investigating cognitive functions and the histopathological consequences of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) in rats. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresbull.2020.07.020DOI Listing

Blood Pressure Variability and Dementia: A State-of-the-art Review.

Am J Hypertens 2020 Jul 25. Epub 2020 Jul 25.

Univ. Bordeaux, Inserm, Bordeaux Population Health Research Center, UMR 1219, CHU Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France.

Accumulating evidence demonstrates that blood pressure variability (BPV) may contribute to target organ damage, causing coronary heart disease, stroke, and renal disease independent of the level of BP. Several lines of evidence have also linked increased BPV to a higher risk of cognitive decline and incident dementia. The estimated number of dementia cases worldwide is nearly 50 million, and this number continues to grow with increasing life expectancy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajh/hpaa119DOI Listing

Long-term effects of experimental carotid stenosis on hippocampal infarct pathology, neurons and glia and amelioration by environmental enrichment.

Brain Res Bull 2020 Jul 21;163:72-83. Epub 2020 Jul 21.

Neurovascular Research Group, Translational and Clinical Research Institute, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK. Electronic address:

Hippocampal atrophy and pathology are common in ageing-related disorders and associated with cognitive impairment and dementia. We explored whether environmental enrichment (EE) ameliorated the pathological sequelae in the hippocampus subsequent to chronic cerebral hypoperfusion induced by bilateral common carotid artery stenosis (BCAS). Seventy-four male C57BL/6 J mice underwent BCAS or sham surgery. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresbull.2020.07.014DOI Listing

Walking in humans: how much brain function is needed?

Authors:
Reto W Kressig

Age Ageing 2020 Jul 22. Epub 2020 Jul 22.

University of Basel & University Department of Geriatric Medicine FELIX PLATTER, Basel, Switzerland.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ageing/afaa126DOI Listing

Loss of Capillary Pericytes and the Blood-Brain Barrier in White Matter in Post-Stroke and Vascular Dementias and Alzheimer's Disease.

Brain Pathol 2020 Jul 23. Epub 2020 Jul 23.

Neurovascular Research Group, Translational and Clinical Research Institute, Newcastle University, Campus for Ageing & Vitality, Newcastle Upon Tyne, UK.

White matter (WM) disease is associated with disruption of the gliovascular unit, which involves breach of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). We quantified pericytes as components of the gliovascular unit and assessed their status in vascular and other common dementias. Immunohistochemical and immunofluorescent methods were developed to assess the distribution and quantification of pericytes connected to the frontal lobe WM capillaries. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bpa.12888DOI Listing

A randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of electro acupuncture and transcranial direct current stimulation with computerized cognitive rehabilitation in patients with vascular cognitive impairment.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 Jul;99(29):e21263

aDepartment of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, Chonnam National University Medical School and Hospital, Gwangju City bDepartment of Acupuncture and Moxibustion Medicine, College of Korean Medicine, Dongshin University, Naju City, Republic of Korea.

Background: Vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) refers to all cognitive disorders caused by cerebrovascular disorders. For the treatment, many types of pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic treatments are used but their underlying mechanisms and effects are unclear. Regarding nonpharmacologic treatment, electroacupuncture (EA), transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), and computerized cognitive rehabilitation treatment (CCRT) are effective. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000021263DOI Listing

Clock-drawing test in vascular mild cognitive impairment: Validity of quantitative and qualitative analyses.

J Clin Exp Neuropsychol 2020 Jul 22:1-12. Epub 2020 Jul 22.

Department of Neurology, Hebei General Hospital , Shijiazhuang, China.

Introduction: The clock-drawing test (CDT) has been used as a screening tool to identify cognitive deficit in patients with dementia. However, it has not been extensively evaluated for categorizing patients with vascular mild cognitive impairment (vMCI). This study aimed to examine the discrimination of vMCI using various CDT scoring methods. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13803395.2020.1793104DOI Listing

Brain angiotensin II and angiotensin IV receptors as potential Alzheimer's disease therapeutic targets.

Geroscience 2020 Jul 22. Epub 2020 Jul 22.

Laboratory of Cerebrovascular Research, Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, 3801 University Street, Montréal, QC, H3A 2B4, Canada.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that is multifactorial in nature. Yet, despite being the most common form of dementia in the elderly, AD's primary cause remains unknown. As such, there is currently little to offer AD patients as the vast majority of recently tested therapies have either failed in well-controlled clinical trials or inadequately treat AD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11357-020-00231-yDOI Listing

Neuroimaging in Dementia: A Brief Review.

Cureus 2020 Jun 18;12(6):e8682. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Internal Medicine, California Institute of Behavioral Neurosciences and Psychology, Fairfield, USA.

Dementia is a clinical syndrome that manifests itself with impairment in cognitive functions owing to various neurodegenerative etiologies causing severe disability in the older population. Although the diagnosis is largely dependent on clinical examination, biomarkers can significantly aid in early diagnosis of dementia, especially in those without any clinical evidence of neurocognitive impairment. These biomarkers can be discovered in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or can be assessed by neuroimaging. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.8682DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7370590PMC

Increased blood COASY DNA methylation levels a potential biomarker for early pathology of Alzheimer's disease.

Sci Rep 2020 Jul 22;10(1):12217. Epub 2020 Jul 22.

Department of Virology, The Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Early diagnosis of dementia including Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an urgent medical and welfare issue. However, to date, no simple biometrics have been available. We reported that blood DNA methylation levels of the COASY gene, which encodes coenzyme A synthase, were increased in individuals with AD and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-69248-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7376092PMC

Aging exacerbates impairments of cerebral blood flow autoregulation and cognition in diabetic rats.

Geroscience 2020 Jul 21. Epub 2020 Jul 21.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, 2500 North State Street, Jackson, MS, 39216, USA.

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a leading risk factor for aging-related dementia; however, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. The present study, utilizing a non-obese T2DN diabetic model, demonstrates that the myogenic response of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) and parenchymal arteriole (PA) and autoregulation of cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the surface and deep cortex were impaired at both young and old ages. The impaired CBF autoregulation was more severe in old than young DM rats, and in the deep than the surface cortex. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11357-020-00233-wDOI Listing

Promoting Alzheimer's Risk-Reduction through Community-Based Lifestyle Education and Exercise in Rural America: A Pilot Intervention.

Kans J Med 2020 10;13:179-185. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

University of Kansas, Alzheimer's Disease Center, Fairway, KS.

Introduction: Rural Americans (RA) have poorer vascular health and physical activity levels than their urban counterparts; all are dementia risk factors. Dementia risk reduction among rural individuals requires a tailored approach. The purpose of this project was to examine preliminary efficacy of a community-based physical exercise and/or dementia risk factor-reduction curriculum among rural adults 50 and older. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7363174PMC

Sleep disorders and risk of dementia in patients with new-onset type 2 diabetes: A nationwide population-based cohort study.

J Diabetes 2020 Jul 18. Epub 2020 Jul 18.

College of Pharmacy, Yonsei Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Yonsei University, Incheon, South Korea.

Background: This study examined the relationship between sleep disorders and the risk of dementia in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes.

Methods: This study used the Korean Health Screening Cohort data and included 39,135 subjects aged ≥40 years with new-onset type 2 diabetes between 2004 and 2007, with follow-up throughout 2013. Sleep disorders were measured by ICD-10 code as primary diagnosis and the adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) and 95% CI of all-cause dementia, Alzheimer disease, vascular dementia, and other dementia were estimated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1753-0407.13092DOI Listing

Nation-wide retrospective, data-linkage, cohort study of epilepsy and incident dementia.

Neurology 2020 Jul 17. Epub 2020 Jul 17.

Muir Maxwell Epilepsy Centre, Centre for Clinical Brain Sciences, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.

Objective: To determine the association of epilepsy with incident dementia we conducted a nation-wide retrospective data-linkage, cohort study, to examine whether the association varies according to dementia subtypes and investigate whether risk factors modify the association.

Methods: We used linked health data from hospitalisation, mortality records and primary care consultations to follow-up 563,151 Welsh residents from their 60 birthday to estimate dementia rate and associated risk factors. Dementia, epilepsy and covariates (medication, smoking, comorbidities) were classified using previously validated code lists. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000010358DOI Listing

The importance of BDNF and RAGE in diabetes-induced dementia.

Pharmacol Res 2020 Jul 15;160:105083. Epub 2020 Jul 15.

The Department of Anatomy, Chonnam National University, Chonnam National University Medical School, Hwasun 58128, Jeollanam-do, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Diabetes-induced dementia is an emerging neurodisorder all over the world. The prevalence rates of dementia and diabetes have been gradually increasing worldwide. Diabetes has been known to lead to oxidative stress, inflammation aggravation, and hyperglycemia conditions in the brain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phrs.2020.105083DOI Listing

Cardiovascular risk factors indirectly affect acute post-stroke cognition through stroke severity and prior cognitive impairment: a moderated mediation analysis.

Alzheimers Res Ther 2020 Jul 16;12(1):85. Epub 2020 Jul 16.

Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.

Background: Cognitive impairment is an important consequence of stroke and transient ischaemic attack, but its determinants are not fully understood. Simple univariable or multivariable models have not shown clinical utility for predicting cognitive impairment. Cardiovascular risk factors may influence cognition through multiple, direct, and indirect pathways, including effects on prior cognition and stroke severity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13195-020-00653-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7367370PMC
July 2020
3.500 Impact Factor

Modeling blood-brain barrier pathology in cerebrovascular disease in vitro: current and future paradigms.

Fluids Barriers CNS 2020 Jul 16;17(1):44. Epub 2020 Jul 16.

Department of Neurosurgery, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

The complexity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and neurovascular unit (NVU) was and still is a challenge to bridge. A highly selective, restrictive and dynamic barrier, formed at the interface of blood and brain, the BBB is a "gatekeeper" and guardian of brain homeostasis and it also acts as a "sensor" of pathological events in blood and brain. The majority of brain and cerebrovascular pathologies are associated with BBB dysfunction, where changes at the BBB can lead to or support disease development. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12987-020-00202-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7367394PMC

Proposed minimal essential co-expression and physical interaction networks involved in the development of cognition impairment in human mid and late life.

Neurol Sci 2020 Jul 16. Epub 2020 Jul 16.

Iranian Research Center on Aging, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Kudakyar Alley, Daneshju Blvd., Evin, Tehran, Iran.

Aim: The aim of this study was to identify the minimal essential co-expression and physical interaction networks involved in the development of cognition impairment in human mid and late life.

Methods: We searched the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database to extract the validated human genes annotated (until March 2020) for five major disorders of pathophysiological overlap and sequential chronological occurrence in human, including multiple sclerosis, type 2 diabetes mellitus, Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, and Lewy body dementia. Gene co-expression and physical interaction networks were subsequently constructed for the overlapping genes across the selected disorders. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10072-020-04594-0DOI Listing

Validity and Reliability of the German Quality of Life-Alzheimer's Disease (QoL-AD) Self-Report Scale.

J Alzheimers Dis 2020 Jul 15. Epub 2020 Jul 15.

Inclusive Education of Children with Communication Needs, University Erfurt, Erfurt, Germany.

Background: The Quality of Life-Alzheimer's Disease (QoL-AD) scale is a widely used measure of quality of life (QoL) in dementia. Although the instrument has been validated in several languages, the psychometric properties of the German self-report version have not yet been analyzed.

Objective: This study examines the internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct validity of the German QoL-AD self-report scale. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAD-200400DOI Listing