17,166 results match your criteria Dementia Vascular

Emergency department visits among people with predementia highly predicts conversion to dementia.

PLoS One 2022 24;17(6):e0270284. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Department of Neurology, Show Chwan Memorial Hospital, Changhua, Taiwan.

Emergency department visits (EDV) are common among older adults with and without dementia. The risk factors and demands of EDVs for people with dementia have been well studied; however, the association between EDVs and conversion to dementia among people with predementia has not been thoroughly explored. To study the predictive value of EDVs in predementia's progression to dementia. Read More

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Differential perivascular microglial activation in the deep white matter in vascular dementia developed post-stroke.

Brain Pathol 2022 Jun 24:e13101. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Translational and Clinical Research Institute, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.

With the hypothesis that perivascular microglia are involved as neuroinflammatory components of the gliovascular unit contributing to white matter hyperintensities on MRI and pathophysiology, we assessed their status in stroke survivors who develop dementia. Immunohistochemical and immunofluorescent methods were used to assess the distribution and quantification of total and perivascular microglial cell densities in 68 brains focusing on the frontal lobe WM and overlying neocortex in post-stroke dementia (PSD), post-stroke non-dementia (PSND) and similar age control subjects. We primarily used CD68 as a marker of phagocytic microglia, as well as other markers of microglia including Iba-1 and TMEM119, and the myeloid cell marker TREM2 to assess dementia-specific changes. Read More

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1,8-Cineole Ameliorates Advanced Glycation End Products-Induced Alzheimer's Disease-like Pathology In Vitro and In Vivo.

Molecules 2022 Jun 18;27(12). Epub 2022 Jun 18.

Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Pharmacology, Inner Mongolia Minzu University, Tongliao 028000, China.

Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are stable products produced by the reaction of macromolecules such as proteins, lipids or nucleic acids with glucose or other reducing monosaccharides, which can be identified by immunohistochemistry in the senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Growing evidence suggests that AGEs are important risk factors for the development and progression of AD. 1,8-cineole (CIN) is a monoterpenoid compound which exists in many plant essential oils and has been proven to have neuroprotective activity, but its specific effect and molecular mechanisms are not clear. Read More

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MicroRNA Networks in Cognition and Dementia.

Cells 2022 Jun 9;11(12). Epub 2022 Jun 9.

Department of Chemistry, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA 30460, USA.

The change from viewing noncoding RNA as "junk" in the genome to seeing it as a critical epigenetic regulator in almost every human condition or disease has forced a paradigm shift in biomedical and clinical research. Small and long noncoding RNA transcripts are now routinely evaluated as putative diagnostic or therapeutic agents. A prominent role for noncoding microRNAs in the central nervous system has uncovered promising new clinical candidates for dementia-related disorders, treatments for which currently remain elusive even as the percentage of diagnosed patients increases significantly. Read More

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Discovering the Effects of Fisetin on NF-κB/NLRP-3/NRF-2 Molecular Pathways in a Mouse Model of Vascular Dementia Induced by Repeated Bilateral Carotid Occlusion.

Biomedicines 2022 Jun 19;10(6). Epub 2022 Jun 19.

Department of Chemical, Biological, Pharmaceutical and Environmental Sciences, University of Messina, Viale Ferdinando Stagno D'Alcontres, 98166 Messina, Italy.

Vascular dementia (VaD) is the second leading cause of dementia. The majority of VaD patients have cognitive abnormalities, which are caused by cerebral hypoperfusion-induced ischemia, endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and neuroinflammation. Natural products are receiving increasing attention for the treatment of neuroinflammatory diseases. Read More

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ROCK and PDE-5 Inhibitors for the Treatment of Dementia: Literature Review and Meta-Analysis.

Biomedicines 2022 Jun 8;10(6). Epub 2022 Jun 8.

Department of Neurosurgery, College of Medicine, Soonchunhyang University, Cheonan Hospital, Cheonan 31151, Korea.

Dementia is a disease in which memory, thought, and behavior-related disorders progress gradually due to brain damage caused by injury or disease. It is mainly caused by Alzheimer's disease or vascular dementia and several other risk factors, including genetic factors. It is difficult to treat as its incidence continues to increase worldwide. Read More

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Associations Between Handgrip Strength and Dementia Risk, Cognition, and Neuroimaging Outcomes in the UK Biobank Cohort Study.

JAMA Netw Open 2022 Jun 1;5(6):e2218314. Epub 2022 Jun 1.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco.

Importance: The associations between muscle strength and cognitive outcomes have sparked interest in interventions that increase muscle strength for prevention of dementia, but the associations between muscle strength and cognitive aging are unclear, particularly among middle-aged adults.

Objective: To evaluate the association between handgrip strength (HGS) and dementia, reduced cognition, and poorer neuroimaging outcomes in a UK population of middle-aged adults.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This cohort study evaluated UK Biobank participants aged 39 to 73 years enrolled from 2006 to 2010 with measured HGS and prospectively followed up for dementia diagnosis. Read More

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Metabolic Syndrome and Vascular-Associated Cognitive Impairment: a Focus on Preclinical Investigations.

Trisha A Jenkins

Curr Diab Rep 2022 Jun 23. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

Human Biosciences, School of Health and Biomedical Sciences, STEM College, RMIT University, Plenty Road, Bundoora, VIC, 3083, Australia.

Purpose Of Review: Metabolic syndrome is associated with an increased risk of vascular cognitive impairment or, in the more extreme, vascular dementia. Animal models are used to investigate the relationship between pathology and behaviour. This review summarizes the latest understanding of the role of the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex in vascular cognitive impairment, the influence of inflammation in this association while also commenting on some of the latest interventions proposed. Read More

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Cognitive Decline in Older People with Multiple Sclerosis-A Narrative Review of the Literature.

Geriatrics (Basel) 2022 Jun 5;7(3). Epub 2022 Jun 5.

Department of Neurology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA.

Several important questions regarding cognitive aging and dementia in older people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) are the focus of this narrative review: Do older PwMS have worse cognitive decline compared to older people without MS? Can older PwMS develop dementia or other neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) that may be accelerated due to MS? Are there any potential biomarkers that can help to determine the etiology of cognitive decline in older PwMS? What are the neural and cellular bases of cognitive aging and neurodegeneration in MS? Current evidence suggests that cognitive impairment in MS is distinguishable from that due to other neurodegenerative diseases, although older PwMS may present with accelerated cognitive decline. While dementia is prevalent in PwMS, there is currently no consensus on defining it. Cerebrospinal fluid and imaging biomarkers have the potential to identify disease processes linked to MS and other comorbidities-such as AD and vascular disease-in older PwMS, although more research is required. Read More

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Loss of glucocorticoid receptor phosphorylation contributes to cognitive and neurocentric damages of the amyloid-β pathway.

Acta Neuropathol Commun 2022 Jun 22;10(1):91. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Institut de Génomiqueénomique Fonctionnelle, Université de Montpellier, INSERM, CNRS, 34090, Montpellier, France.

Aberrant cortisol and activation of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) play an essential role in age-related progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the GR pathways required for influencing the pathobiology of AD dementia remain unknown. To address this, we studied an early phase of AD-like progression in the well-established APP/PS1 mouse model combined with targeted mutations in the BDNF-dependent GR phosphorylation sites (serines 134/267) using molecular, behavioral and neuroimaging approaches. Read More

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An In Vivo Mouse Model to Study Blood-Brain Barrier Destabilization in the Chronic Phase of Stroke.

Methods Mol Biol 2022 ;2492:289-305

Department of Pathology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

Cerebral ischemic injury evokes a complex cascade of pathophysiological events at the blood-vascular-parenchymal interface. These evolve over time and space and result in progressive neurological damage. Emerging evidence suggests that blood-brain barrier (BBB) recovery and reestablishment of BBB impermeability are incomplete and that these could influence stroke injury recovery, increase the risk of new stroke occurrence, and be a solid substrate for developing vascular dementia. Read More

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Associations of vascular risk and amyloid burden with subsequent dementia.

Ann Neurol 2022 Jun 22. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Department of Medicine, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS.

Objective: Midlife vascular risk factors (MVRF) are associated with incident dementia, as are amyloid β(Aβ) deposition and neurodegeneration. Whether vascular and Alzheimer Disease (AD)-associated factors contribute to dementia independently or interact synergistically to reduce cognition is poorly understood.

Methods: Participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC)-PET study were followed from 1987-89(45-64 yo) through 2016-17(74-94 yo), with repeat cognitive assessment and dementia adjudication. Read More

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Routine or selective carotid artery shunting for carotid endarterectomy (and different methods of monitoring in selective shunting).

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2022 06 22;6:CD000190. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Environmental - Occupational Health Sciences and Non Communicable Diseases Research Group, Research Institute for Health Sciences, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

Background: Temporary interruption of cerebral blood flow during carotid endarterectomy can be avoided by using a shunt across the clamped section of the carotid artery. The shunt may improve the outcome. This is an update of a Cochrane review originally published in 1996 and previously updated in 2002, 2009, and 2014. Read More

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Vascular lesions and brain atrophy in Alzheimer's, vascular and mixed dementia: an optimized 3T MRI protocol reveals distinctive radiological profiles.

Curr Alzheimer Res 2022 Jun 20. Epub 2022 Jun 20.

Department of Brain and Behavioral Sciences, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.

Background: Vascular lesions may be a common finding also in Alzheimer's dementia, but their role on cognitive status is uncertain.

Objective: to investigate their distribution in patients with Alzheimer's, vascular or mixed dementia and detect any distinctive neuroradiological profiles Methods: Seventy-six subjects received a diagnosis of Alzheimer's (AD=32), vascular (VD=26) and mixed (MD=18) dementia. Three independent raters assessed the brain images acquired with an optimized 3T MRI protocol (including (including 3D FLAIR, T1, SWI and 2D coronal T2 sequences) using semiquantitative scales for vascular lesions (periventricular lesions (PVL), deep white matter lesions (DWML), deep grey matter lesions (DGML), enlarged perivascular spaces (PVS) and microbleeds (MB)) and brain atrophy (medial temporal atrophy (MTA), posterior atrophy (PA), global cortical atrophy-frontal (GCA-F) and Evans' index). Read More

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Bidirectional influences between seizures and dementia: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2022 Jul;37(7)

Shanghai Garrison Hongkou Third Retired Cadres Rest House, Shanghai, China.

Objectives: Dementia and seizures often co-exist, but the association between these two disorders is not well established. Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to clarify the relationship between seizures and dementia.

Methods: The PubMed, EMBASE, CBM, and CNKI databases were used to search for relevant publications from inception to August 25, 2021. Read More

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Alpha-2-adrenergic receptor agonists for the prevention of delirium and cognitive decline after open heart surgery (ALPHA2PREVENT): protocol for a multicentre randomised controlled trial.

BMJ Open 2022 Jun 20;12(6):e057460. Epub 2022 Jun 20.

Department of Geriatric Medicine, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.

Introduction: Postoperative delirium is common in older cardiac surgery patients and associated with negative short-term and long-term outcomes. The alpha-2-adrenergic receptor agonist dexmedetomidine shows promise as prophylaxis and treatment for delirium in intensive care units (ICU) and postoperative settings. Clonidine has similar pharmacological properties and can be administered both parenterally and orally. Read More

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ATP-sensitive potassium channels: a double-edged sword in neurodegenerative diseases.

Ageing Res Rev 2022 Jun 17:101676. Epub 2022 Jun 17.

Department of Physiology, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Pathogenesis and Prevention of Neurological Disorders and State Key Disciplines: Physiology, School of Basic Medicine, Medical College, Qingdao University, Qingdao, China; 11/30/2021; 4/15/2022; 6/14/2022. Electronic address:

ATP-sensitive potassium channels (K channels), a group of vital channels that link the electrical activity of the cell membrane with cell metabolism, were discovered on the ventricular myocytes of guinea pigs by Noma using the patch-clamp technique in 1983. Subsequently, K channels have been found to be expressed in pancreatic β cells, cardiomyocytes, skeletal muscle cells, and nerve cells in the substantia nigra (SN), hippocampus, cortex, and basal ganglia. K channel openers (KCO) diazoxide, nicorandil, minoxidil, and the K channel inhibitor glibenclamide have been shown to have anti-hypertensive, anti-myocardial ischemia, and insulin-releasing regulatory effects. Read More

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Functional changes in brain oscillations in dementia: a review.

Rev Neurosci 2022 Jun 21. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

IRCCS San Camillo Hospital, via Alberoni 70, 30126 Venice, Italy.

A growing body of evidence indicates that several characteristics of electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) play a functional role in cognition and could be linked to the progression of cognitive decline in some neurological diseases such as dementia. The present paper reviews previous studies investigating changes in brain oscillations associated to the most common types of dementia, namely Alzheimer's disease (AD), frontotemporal degeneration (FTD), and vascular dementia (VaD), with the aim of identifying pathology-specific patterns of alterations and supporting differential diagnosis in clinical practice. The included studies analysed changes in frequency power, functional connectivity, and event-related potentials, as well as the relationship between electrophysiological changes and cognitive deficits. Read More

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Leaf Extract Attenuates Vascular Dementia-Associated Memory Deficits, Neuronal Damages, and Microglial Activation.

Curr Issues Mol Biol 2022 Jan 8;44(1):257-272. Epub 2022 Jan 8.

Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Konyang University, Daejeon 35365, Korea.

Vascular dementia (VaD) is characterized by a time-dependent memory deficit and essentially combined with evidence of neuroinflammation. Thus, polyphenol-rich natural plants, which possess anti-inflammatory properties, have received much scientific attention. This study investigated whether leaf extract (PFL) exerts therapeutic efficacy against VaD. Read More

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January 2022

Behavioral and Neural Activity-Dependent Recanalization of Plugged Capillaries in the Brain of Adult and Aged Mice.

Front Cell Neurosci 2022 26;16:876746. Epub 2022 May 26.

Division of Medical Sciences, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, Canada.

The capillaries of the brain, owing to their small diameter and low perfusion pressure, are vulnerable to interruptions in blood flow. These tiny occlusions can have outsized consequences on angioarchitecture and brain function; especially when exacerbated by disease states or accumulate with aging. A distinctive feature of the brain's microvasculature is the ability for active neurons to recruit local blood flow. Read More

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Electroacupuncture of the Baihui and Shenting acupoints for vascular dementia in rats through the miR-81/IL-16/PSD-95 pathway.

Ann Transl Med 2022 May;10(10):540

Department of Anatomy, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, China.

Background: There is currently no effective treatment for vascular dementia (VaD). Scalp electroacupuncture (EA) has served clinically as an alternative treatment for VaD, but its mechanism is still unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of EA at the Baihui (GV 20) and Shenting (GV 24) acupoints on spatial learning and memory ability, and the expression level of (), (), and postsynaptic density protein-95 (PSD-95) in the frontal cortex of VaD rats. Read More

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Physical Exercise-Induced Astrocytic Neuroprotection and Cognitive Improvement Through Primary Cilia and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases Pathway in Rats With Chronic Cerebral Hypoperfusion.

Front Aging Neurosci 2022 1;14:866336. Epub 2022 Jun 1.

Department of Neurorehabilitation, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) is closely related to vascular cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). The neuroinflammation involving astrocytes is an important pathogenic mechanism. Along with the advancement of the concept and technology of astrocytic biology, the astrocytes have been increasingly regarded as the key contributors to neurological diseases. Read More

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Upregulation of PGC-1 Attenuates Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation-Induced Hippocampal Neuronal Injury.

Neural Plast 2022 9;2022:9682999. Epub 2022 Jun 9.

Department of Neurology, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao 266000, China.

Hippocampal neuronal damage likely underlies cognitive impairment in vascular dementia (VaD). PPAR coactivator-1 (PGC-1) is a master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis. However, the role and the precise mechanism of how PGC-1 alleviates hippocampal neuronal injury remain unknown. Read More

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Association of dementia with in-hospital outcomes in primary heart failure and acute myocardial infarction hospitalizations.

Prog Cardiovasc Dis 2022 Jun 16. Epub 2022 Jun 16.

Division of Cardiology, Lahey Hospital & Medical Center, Beth Israel Lahey Health, Burlington, MA, United States of America. Electronic address:

Background: Dementia and cardiovascular diseases contribute to a significant disability and healthcare utilization in the elderly.

Objective: The in-hospital treatment patterns and outcomes of heart failure (HF) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are not well-studied in this population.

Methods: We used the National Inpatient Sample database to identify AMI and HF hospitalizations in adults ≥65 years between 2016 and 2018. Read More

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Association of Cardiovascular Health Metrics with Dementia in Rural Chinese Older Adults: A Population-Based Study.

Clin Interv Aging 2022 10;17:947-956. Epub 2022 Jun 10.

Department of Neurology, Shandong Provincial Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: We explore the associations of individual and composite cardiovascular health metrics with all-cause dementia, Alzheimer's disease, and vascular dementia among rural-dwelling older adults and the potential age variations in their associations.

Patients And Methods: This community-based cross-sectional study included 4980 older adults (age ≥65 years; 57.23% women) from the baseline examination of MIND-China. Read More

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Neurosyphilis: A Monkey Among Men.

J Community Hosp Intern Med Perspect 2022 2;12(3):57-60. Epub 2022 May 2.

Cape Fear Valley Medical Center, Fayetteville, NC.

Neurosyphilis is the progression of the untreated sexually transmitted infection caused by . When the initial infection is not adequately treated, progression of primary syphilis can lead to a wide variety of serious health sequelae. While neurosyphilis can appear up to 10-30 years after the initial infection, syphilis can invade the nervous systemat any stage of infection and can imitate symptoms of many other diseases. Read More

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Hormone therapy and the decreased risk of dementia in women with depression: a population-based cohort study.

Alzheimers Res Ther 2022 Jun 16;14(1):83. Epub 2022 Jun 16.

Department of Psychiatry, Depression Center, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.

Background: The literature has shown depression to be associated with an increased risk of dementia. In addition, hormone therapy can be a responsive treatment option for a certain type of depression. In this study, we examined the association between hormone therapy, including lifetime oral contraceptive (OC) use, and hormone replacement therapy (HRT) after menopause with the occurrence of dementia among female patients with depression. Read More

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Neuropathology of depression in non-demented older adults: A large postmortem study of 741 individuals.

Neurobiol Aging 2022 May 26;117:107-116. Epub 2022 May 26.

Department of Psychiatry, Faculdade de Medicina FMUSP, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Associations between age-related neuropathological lesions and adult-onset lifetime major depressive disorder (a-MDD), late-life MDD (LLD), or depressive symptoms close to death (DS) were examined in a large community sample of non-demented older adults. Seven hundred forty-one individuals (age at death = 72.2 ± 11. Read More

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Augmented risk of dementia in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: A propensity score matching analysis using the nationwide cohort.

PLoS One 2022 16;17(6):e0269911. Epub 2022 Jun 16.

Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Background: Dementia is a big medical and socioeconomic problem on aging society, and cardiac diseases have already shown a significant contribution to developing dementia. However, the risk of dementia related to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), the most common inherited cardiomyopathy, has never been evaluated.

Methods: In a large-scale longitudinal cohort using National Health Insurance database, 4,645 subjects with HCM aged ≥50 years between 2010 and 2016 were collected and matched with 13,935 controls, based on propensity scores (1:3). Read More

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