189,641 results match your criteria Dementia Frontotemporal Lobe


Effects of vasodilating medications on cerebral haemodynamics in health and disease: systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Hypertens 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Centre for Prevention of Stroke and Dementia, John Radcliffe Hospital, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Objectives: Vasodilating antihypertensives prevent stroke and potentially cerebral small vessel disease but their effects on cerebrovascular haemodynamics beyond blood pressure lowering are unclear.

Methods: We searched PubMed, Medline, Embase, Cinahl, Psychinfo, Health Business Elite and Health Management Information Consortium for randomized studies of vasodilating medications, compared to no treatment or nonvasodilators, that reported effects on cerebral blood flow (CBF), mean blood flow velocity (MFV) or cerebrovascular reactivity. Absolute and standardized mean differences (SMD) were combined by inverse-variance weighted fixed or random-effects meta-analysis stratified by study design, population characteristics and vasodilator class. Read More

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December 2018

Application of palliative care in demented patients: the caregivers' point of view.

Acta Biomed 2018 Dec 7;89(7-S):78-88. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Università di Parma.

Background: The 38/2010 law has widened the supply of palliative care for patients with chronic and degenerative illness. Dementia is a chronic and debilitating illness and it requires specific, complex and constant assistance, involving the health professionals' community and family, and should also benefit from palliative care. But what do the caregivers of these patients think about it?

Aim: To explore the point of view of caregivers accompanying dementia patients regarding palliative care and the accompaniment of the medical team. Read More

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December 2018

decoction extract regulates differentially expressed proteins in the hippocampus after chronic cerebral hypoperfusion.

Neural Regen Res 2019 Mar;14(3):470-479

State Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substance and Function of Natural Medicines; Beijing Key Laboratory of Drug Target Identification and Drug Screening, Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

Xiao-Xu-Ming decoction has been widely used to treat stroke and sequelae of stroke. We have previously shown that the active fractions of Xiao-Xu-Ming decoction attenuate cerebral ischemic injury. However, the global protein profile and signaling conduction pathways regulated by Xiao-Xu-Ming decoction are still unclear. Read More

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Essential oils and functional herbs for healthy aging.

Neural Regen Res 2019 Mar;14(3):441-445

School of Pharmacy and Applied Science, La Trobe Institute for Molecular Sciences, La Trobe University, Bendigo, Australia.

As total life expectancy increases, the prevalence of age-related diseases such as diabetes and Alzheimer's disease is also increasing. Many hypotheses about Alzheimer's disease have been developed, including cholinergic neuron damage, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Acetylcholine is a major neurotransmitter in the brain and cholinergic deficits leads to cognitive dysfunction and decline. Read More

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March 2019
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Functional magnetic resonance imaging with encoding task in patients with mild cognitive impairment and different severity of leukoaraiosis.

Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging 2018 Dec 30;282:126-131. Epub 2018 Jun 30.

Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, Via Roma 67, Pisa 56126, Italy.

Leukoaraiosis is one of the main contributors to mild cognitive impairment due to vascular damage (vascular MCI, VMCI), whose pathophysiology has not been fully elucidated yet. We aimed to shed light on such issue using functional MRI (fMRI). Sixteen patients with VMCI were enrolled and compared with twenty-five patients with MCI but without significant vascular damage (non-vascular MCI, NVMCI) and with fifteen healthy controls (HC). Read More

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December 2018

Pretreatment-Etidronate Alleviates CoCl Induced-SH-SY5Y Cell Apoptosis via Decreased HIF-1α and TRPC5 Channel Proteins.

Neurochem Res 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

College of Medicine, State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials for Ministry of Education, Nankai University, Tianjin, 300071, China.

Chronic hypoxic damage is one of the most common pathogenic factors that can cause neurodegenerative disorder in most cases. Etidronate (Eti) is one of the best-known earlier-generations of bisphosphonate derivatives for the treatment of bone-loss related diseases. Building on the preceding study of our laboratory, we found that Eti showed neuroprotective effects against 2-vessel occlusion induced vascular dementia (VD) in rats. Read More

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December 2018

Toward the Development of SMART Communication Technology: Automating the Analysis of Communicative Trouble and Repair in Dementia.

Innov Aging 2018 Sep 3;2(3):igy034. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.

Background And Objectives: Communication difficulties have been reported as one of the most stress-inducing aspects of caring for people with dementia. Notably, with disease progression comes an increase in the frequency of communication difficulty and a reduction in the effectiveness of attempts to remedy breakdowns in communication. The aim of the current research was to evaluate the utility of an automated discourse analysis tool (i. Read More

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September 2018

Role of viruses, prions and miRNA in neurodegenerative disorders and dementia.

Virusdisease 2018 Dec 29;29(4):419-433. Epub 2018 Sep 29.

Drug Design & Development Section, Translational Gerontology Branch, Intramural Research Program, National, Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Biomedical Research Center, 251 Bayview Boulevard, Baltimore, MD 21224 USA.

Dementia is known as loss of cellular communications in the brain at a region caused by multi-factorial diseases and pathogenic infections. Approximately eighty percent reported cases of Alzheimer's disease are followed by vascular dementia. The common symptoms of dementia include memory loss, concentration problems, thinking, and language solving situations. Read More

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December 2018

Non-motor Symptoms in Patients with Parkinson's Disease: A Cross-sectional Survey.

Cureus 2018 Oct 4;10(10):e3412. Epub 2018 Oct 4.

Neurology, Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad, PAK.

Background In multiple studies around the globe, non-motor symptoms (NMS) have been identified as a source of immense disability in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, there is a scarcity of data from Asia. This is the first study of the Pakistani population to assess the impact of NMS in PD on patients. Read More

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October 2018

The Functions of Prospection - Variations in Health and Disease.

Front Psychol 2018 27;9:2328. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

The University of Sydney, Brain and Mind Centre, School of Psychology, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Much of human life revolves around anticipating and planning for the future. It has become increasingly clear that this capacity for is a core adaptive function of the mind. Here, we review the role of prospection in two key functional domains: goal-directed behavior and flexible decision-making. Read More

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November 2018

Mortality in people with dementia, delirium, and unspecified cognitive impairment in the general hospital: prospective cohort study of 6,724 patients with 2 years follow-up.

Clin Epidemiol 2018 23;10:1743-1753. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Population Health and Genomics, School of Medicine, University of Dundee, Dundee DD2 4BF, UK,

Purpose: Cognitive impairment is common in older people admitted to hospital, but the outcomes are generally poorly understood, and previous research has shown inconsistent associations with mortality depending on the type of cognitive impairment examined and duration of follow-up. This study examines mortality in older people with any cognitive impairment during acute hospital admission.

Patients And Methods: Prospective cohort of 6,724 people aged ≥65 years with a structured cognitive assessment on acute admission were included in this study. Read More

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November 2018

The subjective perception of past, present, and future time in patients with Alzheimer's disease: a qualitative study.

Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2018 22;14:3185-3192. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Division of Neurology, Department of Internal Medicine, Showa University School of Medicine, Tokyo 142-8666, Japan,

Background: The relationship between dementia and time perception impairment is unknown.

Aim: This study aims to explore subjective perception of the passage of time in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD).

Methods: We conducted semi-structured interviews with 11 AD patients. Read More

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November 2018

Body, Brain, Life for Cognitive Decline (BBL-CD): protocol for a multidomain dementia risk reduction randomized controlled trial for subjective cognitive decline and mild cognitive impairment.

Clin Interv Aging 2018 21;13:2397-2406. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Centre for Research on Ageing, Health and Wellbeing, Research School of Population Health, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia,

Background: With no cure for dementia and the number of people living with the condition predicted to rapidly rise, there is an urgent need for dementia risk reduction and prevention interventions. Modifiable lifestyle risk factors have been identified as playing a major role in the development of dementia; hence, interventions addressing these risk factors represent a significant opportunity to reduce the number of people developing dementia. Relatively few interventions have been trialed in older participants with cognitive decline (secondary prevention). Read More

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November 2018

Needs of older adults living in long-term care institutions: an observational study using Camberwell Assessment of Need for the Elderly.

Clin Interv Aging 2018 21;13:2389-2395. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Laboratory of Neuropsychobiology, Department of Psychiatry, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland.

Introduction: No comprehensive needs assessment is performed routinely in Poland.

Purpose: The goal of the study was to investigate the patterns of needs in older individuals living in long-term care institutions (LTCIs) using the Camberwell Assessment of Need for the Elderly (CANE) questionnaire, based on a previously published study protocol.

Participants And Methods: The study included 306 LTCI residents (age: ≥75 years) with the a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score of at least 10 points. Read More

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November 2018

Five-decade trajectories in body mass index in relation to dementia death: follow-up of 33,083 male Harvard University alumni.

Int J Obes (Lond) 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Alzheimer Scotland Dementia Research Centre, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.

Background: In prospective cohort studies, obesity has been linked with a lower risk of subsequent dementia. Reverse causality, whereby neurodegeneration preceding overt dementia symptoms may lower weight, is a possible explanation of these findings. To explore further the weight-dementia association we followed people from early adulthood, an age at which neurodegeneration has typically yet to begin. Read More

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December 2018

Disease-associated tau impairs mitophagy by inhibiting Parkin translocation to mitochondria.

EMBO J 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Clem Jones Centre for Ageing Dementia Research, Queensland Brain Institute, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia

Accumulation of the protein tau characterises Alzheimer's disease and other tauopathies, including familial forms of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) that carry pathogenic tau mutations. Another hallmark feature of these diseases is the accumulation of dysfunctional mitochondria. Although disease-associated tau is known to impair several aspects of mitochondrial function, it is still unclear whether it also directly impinges on mitochondrial quality control, specifically Parkin-dependent mitophagy. Read More

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December 2018

Yoga and Meditation Can Help Improve Cognitive Functioning in Older Adults With Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia.

Authors:
Helen Lavretsky

Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 2018 Nov 22. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles. Electronic address:

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November 2018

MR approaches in neurodegenerative disorders.

Authors:
Andrew M Blamire

Prog Nucl Magn Reson Spectrosc 2018 Oct 3;108:1-16. Epub 2018 Nov 3.

Institute of Cellular Medicine and Centre for In Vivo Imaging, Newcastle University, UK. Electronic address:

Neurodegenerative disease is the umbrella term which refers to a range of clinical conditions causing degeneration of neurons within the central nervous system leading to loss of brain function and eventual death. The most prevalent of these is Alzheimer's disease (AD), which affects approximately 50 million people worldwide and is predicted to reach 75 million by 2030. Neurodegenerative diseases can only be fully diagnosed at post mortem by neuropathological assessment of the type and distribution of protein deposits which characterise each different condition, but there is a clear role for imaging technologies in aiding patient diagnoses in life. Read More

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October 2018

A manual-based intervention for carers of people with dementia and sleep disturbances: an acceptability and feasibility RCT.

Health Technol Assess 2018 Dec;22(71):1-408

Division of Psychiatry, Faculty of Brain Sciences, University College London, London, UK.

Background: It has been estimated that between 25% and 40% of people living with dementia suffer from sleep disturbances, and there are currently no known effective treatments. Sleep disturbances may be the direct result of dementia or due to other comorbidities, such as pain and limited mobility. If carers' sleep is also disturbed, carers too can become tired and stressed, and this sometimes results in the breakdown of care in the home. Read More

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December 2018

Repetitive Behaviors in Frontotemporal Dementia: Compulsions or Impulsions?

J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 2018 Dec 12:appineuropsych18060148. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

From the Departments of Neurology (Moheb, Ashla, Mendez) and Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences (Charuworn, Mendez), David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California at Los Angeles; and the Neurobehavior Unit, VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, Los Angeles (Desarzant, Chavez, Mendez).

Objective:: The presence of repetitive behaviors is one of the core criteria for behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD). Patients with bvFTD often have perseverative, stereotyped, or compulsive-ritualistic behavior as an early aspect of their disorder. It is unclear whether such behaviors are related to compulsions, as in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), or are part of the impulse disorder spectrum. Read More

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December 2018

Muddling along in the city: Framing the cityscape of dementia.

Dementia (London) 2018 Dec 11:1471301218817451. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Emeritus Professor of Primary Care for Older People, Research Department of Primary Care & Population Health, University College London, UK.

There is growing interest in the social geography of dementia, with the development of dementia-friendly communities, localities and cities in the developed world. This paper considers the claims being made for cities to be risky spaces for people with dementia. It debates this through an analysis based on Bacchi's 'representation of problems' framework, evidencing this with policy documents and research findings. Read More

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December 2018

The Effectiveness of a Virtual Reality-Based Tai Chi Exercise on Cognitive and Physical Function in Older Adults with Cognitive Impairment.

Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2018 Dec 11;46(5-6):358-370. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Physical Therapy and Graduate Institute of Rehabilitation Science, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan.

Background: Tai Chi (TC) is a Chinese mind-body exercise with proven physical and psychological benefits. A modified TC via virtual reality (VR) may be suitable for the elderly owing to the immediate guidance and feedback regarding movement accuracy. This study explored the cognitive and physical effects of a VR-based TC (VRTC) exercise program on older adults with cognitive impairment (CI). Read More

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December 2018
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Fluid and PET biomarkers for amyloid pathology in Alzheimer's disease.

Mol Cell Neurosci 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Clinical Neurochemistry Laboratory, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Molndal, Sweden; Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, University College, London, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland; Department of Molecular Neuroscience, UCL Institute of Neurology, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland; UK Dementia Research Institute at UCL, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by amyloid plaques and tau pathology (neurofibrillary tangles and neuropil threads). Amyloid plaques are primarily composed of aggregated and oligomeric β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides ending at position 42 (Aβ42). The development of fluid and PET biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease (AD), has allowed for detection of Aβ pathology in vivo and marks a major advancement in understanding the role of Aβ in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Read More

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December 2018
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Psychosocial interventions for pain management in older adults with dementia: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials.

J Adv Nurs 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

School of Nursing and Midwifery & Menzies Health Institute Queensland, Griffith University, Australia.

Aim: To assess the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions on pain in older adults living with dementia.

Design: A systematic review with meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

Data Sources: Scopus, ProQuest, EBSCO (CINAHL and MEDLINE), PubMed, OVID (PsycINFO), Web of Science and Cochrane Library were searched from their inception up to 2 May 2018. Read More

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December 2018

Tau PET Imaging for Staging of Alzheimer's Disease in Down Syndrome.

Authors:
Michael S Rafii

Dev Neurobiol 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Alzheimer's Therapeutic Research Institute (ATRI), Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology and early-onset dementia develop almost universally in Down syndrome (DS). AD is defined neuropathologically by the presence of extracellular plaques of aggregated amyloid β protein and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) of aggregated hyperphosphorylated tau protein. The development of radiolabeled positron emission tomography (PET) ligands for amyloid plaques and tau tangles enables the longitudinal assessment of the spatial pattern of their accumulation in relation to symptomatology. Read More

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December 2018
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Age-Normative MMSE Data for Older Persons Aged 85 to 93 in a Longitudinal Swedish Cohort.

J Am Geriatr Soc 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Geriatric Medicine, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.

Background/objectives: Normative Mini-mental state examination (MMSE) reference values in elderly are scarce. Therefore, the aim is to present normative MMSE values for 85-93 year olds.

Design: A longitudinal age cohort study. Read More

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December 2018
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Safeguarding older adults with dementia, depression, and delirium in a temporary disaster shelter.

Nurs Forum 2018 Dec 9. Epub 2018 Dec 9.

Center of Innovation in Long-Term Services and Supports, Providence VA Medical Center, Providence, RI.

Natural disasters impact people of every age in the communities where they occur, with older adults being a vulnerable subset of the population. Most disaster shelter volunteer nurses are experienced in addressing common health needs of older adult clients such as diabetes, hypertension, and pulmonary disease. These nurses also have the requisite training to respond to more acute medical events, including the symptoms of a heart attack or stroke. Read More

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December 2018
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Evaluation of salivary acetylcholinesterase and pseudocholinesterase in patients with Alzheimer's disease: A case-control study.

Spec Care Dentist 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Assistant Professor of Linguistics, Department of Persian Literature and English Language, School of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran.

Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and pseudocholinesterase (PChE) in whole saliva in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and in healthy subjects. Saliva has a high potential for keeping track of general health and diseases. AD is a type of dementia with reduction in brain cholinergic markers that causes memory, thinking, and behavior problems. Read More

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December 2018

Association of Informal Caregiver Distress with Health Outcomes of Community-Dwelling Dementia Care Recipients: A Systematic Review.

J Am Geriatr Soc 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Division of Geriatric Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Background: Most dementia care occurs in the community with support from informal caregivers who are often distressed. Dementia caregiver distress is known to be hazardous to the caregiver's health, but the impact on the dementia care recipient is not well known.

Methods: We searched the Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and Cochrane databases from inception until June 2017 for studies investigating the association of informal caregiver distress with health outcomes of community-dwelling dementia care recipients. Read More

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December 2018

Prevalence of Depression, Anxiety and PTSD in People with Dementia: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Neuropsychol Rev 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

School of Psychology, Faculty of Health & Medical Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia, 5005, Australia.

There appears to be a link between depression/anxiety/PTSD and dementia, although the evidence is incomplete and the reason is unclear. Mental illness may cause dementia or may be prodromal or comorbid with dementia, or dementia may trigger a relapse of symptoms in individuals with a history of mental illness. This study examined the link between depression/anxiety/PTSD and dementia by evaluating the prevalence of these disorders in people with dementia, relative to their healthy peers. Read More

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December 2018

Regression-based normative data and equivalent scores for Trail Making Test (TMT): an updated Italian normative study.

Neurol Sci 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Psychology, University of Campania "Luigi Vanvitelli", Viale Ellittico 31, 81100, Caserta, Italy.

Objectives: The Trail Making Test (TMT) is widely used to assess psychomotor speed and attentional set-shifting. Since the regression-based norms and equivalent scores (ESs) for the TMT Italian version trace back to more than 20 years ago, we aimed at providing updated normative data for basic (Part A and Part B) and derived (Score B-A and Score B/A) TMT scores collected in a larger sample with an extended age range.

Methods: Three hundred fifty-five Italian volunteers stratified for sex (166 men), age decades (age range 20-90 years), and educational level (from primary school to university) completed the TMT and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Read More

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December 2018

The complexity of neuroinflammation consequent to traumatic brain injury: from research evidence to potential treatments.

Acta Neuropathol 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Wicking Dementia Research and Education Centre, College of Health and Medicine, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS, Australia.

This review recounts the definitions and research evidence supporting the multifaceted roles of neuroinflammation in the injured brain following trauma. We summarise the literature fluctuating from the protective and detrimental properties that cytokines, leukocytes and glial cells play in the acute and chronic stages of TBI, including the intrinsic factors that influence cytokine responses and microglial functions relative to genetics, sex, and age. We elaborate on the pros and cons that cytokines, chemokines, and microglia play in brain repair, specifically neurogenesis, and how such conflicting roles may be harnessed therapeutically to sustain the survival of new neurons. Read More

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December 2018

Approaches to Deprescribing Psychotropic Medications for Changed Behaviours in Long-Term Care Residents Living with Dementia.

Drugs Aging 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Dementia Centre for Research Collaboration, School of Psychiatry, UNSW Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Psychotropic medications have a high risk of serious adverse events and small effect size for changed behaviours for people with dementia. Non-pharmacological approaches are recommended as first-line treatment for changed behaviours, yet psychotropic medications remain highly prevalent in long-term aged care settings. This narrative review describes the current evidence regarding deprescribing psychotropic medications for people with dementia in long-term care. Read More

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December 2018

Evaluating risk factors following surgery for periprosthetic fractures around hip and knee arthroplasties.

Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Trauma and Orthopaedics, University Hospitals of North Midlands NHS Trust, Royal Stoke Hospital, Newcastle Road, Stoke-on-Trent, ST4 6QG, UK.

Background: The increasing demand for arthroplasty has resulted in an inevitable rise in the number of periprosthetic fractures around implants. Survival factors looking into patient's comorbidities and how they influence outcome are rare. This study aims to identify correlations between survival post-injury and pre-existing comorbidities. Read More

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December 2018

Factors influencing attrition in 35 Alzheimer's Disease Centers across the USA: a longitudinal examination of the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center's Uniform Data Set.

Aging Clin Exp Res 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Wien Center for Alzheimer's Disease and Memory Disorders, Mount Sinai Medical Center, Miami Beach, FL, 33140, USA.

Objective: A lack of understanding of the causes of attrition in longitudinal studies of older adults may lead to higher attrition rates and bias longitudinal study results. In longitudinal epidemiological studies of Alzheimer's disease and related dementias, high rates of attrition may cause a systematic underestimation of dementia prevalence and skew the characterization of the disease. This can compromise the generalizability of the study results and any inferences based on the surviving sample may grossly misrepresent the importance of the risk factors for dementia. Read More

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December 2018

The Alzheimer's Poetry Project.

JAMA 2018 Dec;320(22):2294-2295

School of Social Work, Adelphi University, Garden City, New York.

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December 2018

Bioaccumulation of polystyrene nanoplastics and their effect on the toxicity of Au ions in zebrafish embryos.

Nanoscale 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Hazards Monitoring Bionano Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, 125 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 34141, Republic of Korea. and KRIBB School, University of Science and Technology, 125 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 34141, Republic of Korea.

As nano- and micro-sized plastics accumulate in the environment and the food chain of animals, including humans, it is imperative to assess the effects of nanoplastics in living organisms in a systematic manner, especially because of their ability to adsorb potential toxicants such as pollutants, heavy metals, and organic macromolecules that coexist in the environment. Using the zebrafish embryo as an animal model, we investigated the bioaccumulation and in vivo toxicity of polystyrene (PS) nanoplastics individually or in combination with the Au ion. We showed that smaller PS nanoplastics readily penetrated the chorion and developing embryos and accumulated throughout the whole body, mostly in lipid-rich regions such as in yolk lipids. Read More

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December 2018

Setting matters: Associations of nurses' attitudes towards people with dementia.

Nurs Open 2019 Jan 12;6(1):155-161. Epub 2018 Oct 12.

Institute on Ageing University of Applied Sciences Bern Switzerland.

Aim: Identify associations between attitudes of nurses towards people with dementia and their socio-demographic (age and gender) and work-related characteristics (employment, work experience, nursing degree, care setting).

Design: The study was designed in a cross-sectional way, collecting self-reported questionnaire data.

Methods: Nurses ( = 417) completed the 20-item Dementia Attitude Scale questionnaire, including socio-demographic and work characteristics. Read More

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January 2019

Rare variants in patients with frontotemporal dementia and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in a Chinese cohort.

Transl Neurodegener 2018 4;7:31. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

1Department of Neurology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, 87 Xiangya Rd, Changsha, 410008 China.

Background: The TANK-Binding Kinase 1 () gene has recently been identified as the third or fourth most frequent cause of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The aim of this study was to assess the genetic contribution of in a Chinese cohort.

Methods: A total of 270 cases with ALS, FTD, or their combination were recruited into this study. Read More

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December 2018

Kinetic Modeling of pH-Dependent Oxidation of Dopamine by Iron and Its Relevance to Parkinson's Disease.

Front Neurosci 2018 26;12:859. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Water Research Centre, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Parkinson's disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disease. While age is the most significant risk factor, the exact cause of this disease and the most effective approaches to mitigation remain unclear. It has long been proposed that dopamine may play a role in the pathology of Parkinson's disease in view of its ability to generate both protein-modifying quinones such as aminochrome and reactive oxygen species, especially in the presence of pathological iron accumulation in the primary site of neuron loss. Read More

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November 2018

Prevalence and Predictors of Abuse in Elderly Patients with Depression at a Tertiary Care Centre in Saurashtra, India.

Indian J Psychol Med 2018 Nov-Dec;40(6):528-533

Department of Psychiatry, M. P. Shah Government Medical College, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India.

Context: Elder abuse has devastating consequences such as poor quality of life, psychological distress and loss of property and security. Abuse of elderly patients with depression has not been adequately researched in India.

Aims: To explore the prevalence and predictors of abuse and its relation to various sociodemographic variables in elderly patients with depression. Read More

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December 2018

Non-coding RNA influences in dementia.

Noncoding RNA Res 2018 Dec 29;3(4):188-194. Epub 2018 Sep 29.

Dept. of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, University of Malta, Msida, MSD 2080, Malta.

Dementia is a complex clinical syndrome characterised by progressive decline in cognitive function. It usually presents itself as impairment in memory, loss of judgement, abstract thinking and other disturbances that are severe enough to interfere with activities of daily living. It has long been considered as one of the major challenges at present posing an ever-increasing demand on global health and social care systems. Read More

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December 2018

Non-coding RNA in -related amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia: A perfect storm of dysfunction.

Noncoding RNA Res 2018 Dec 10;3(4):178-187. Epub 2018 Sep 10.

Wessex Clinical Genetics Service, University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation Trust, Southampton, UK.

A hexanucleotide repeat expansion in the first intron/promoter region of is the most common genetic cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Both sense and antisense transcripts exist at the locus but the function of the antisense lncRNA is unknown. RNA toxicity of the transcribed repeat expansion has been implicated in the pathogenesis of -related ALS/FTD, not only through direct sequestration of important RNA binding proteins but also indirectly through non-ATG dependent translation into dipeptide repeats. Read More

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December 2018

Is Alzheimer's Also a Stem Cell Disease? - The Zebrafish Perspective.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2018 23;6:159. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE) Dresden, Helmholtz Association, Dresden, Germany.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease and is the leading form of dementia. AD entails chronic inflammation, impaired synaptic integrity and reduced neurogenesis. The clinical and molecular onsets of the disease do not temporally overlap and the initiation phase of the cellular changes might start with a complex causativeness between chronic inflammation, reduced neural stem cell plasticity and neurogenesis. Read More

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November 2018

MMP-9 inhibitors impair learning in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

PLoS One 2018 11;13(12):e0208357. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Neurology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico, United States of America.

Vascular cognitive impairment dementia (VCID) is a major cause of cognitive loss in the elderly. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of proteases involved in remodeling the extracellular matrix in development, injury and repair. Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption due to inflammation mediated by MMPs is a mechanism of white matter injury. Read More

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December 2018

(L) a Very Potent Antioxidant Attenuates Dementia in Scopolamine Induced Memory Deficit Mice.

Front Pharmacol 2018 23;9:1375. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Department of Pharmacology, Punjab University College of Pharmacy, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan.

The objective of the current project was to explore the pharmacotherapeutic role of (L) for the management of dementia. Dementia is considered a global challenge of current century seeking special attention of pharmacologists to explore its best remedies. Methanolic extract of aerial parts of was tested for phytochemical analysis along with free radical scavenging activity. Read More

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November 2018

TREM2 in Alzheimer's Disease: Microglial Survival and Energy Metabolism.

Front Aging Neurosci 2018 23;10:395. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Neurodegenerative Disease and Aging Research, Institute of Neuroscience, Medical College, Xiamen University, Xiamen, China.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the leading cause of age-related dementia among the elderly population. Recent genetic studies have identified rare variants of the gene encoding the triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-2 (TREM2) as significant genetic risk factors in late-onset AD (LOAD). TREM2 is specifically expressed in brain microglia and modulates microglial functions in response to key AD pathologies such as amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques and tau tangles. Read More

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November 2018

Complexity of the Genetics and Clinical Presentation of Spinocerebellar Ataxia 17.

Front Cell Neurosci 2018 23;12:429. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Ataxia Centre, Department of Clinical and Movement Neurosciences, UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology, London, United Kingdom.

Spinocerebellar ataxia type 17 (SCA17) is a rare autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the TATA-box binding protein gene (). The disease has a varied age at onset and clinical presentation. It is distinct from other SCAs for its association with dementia, psychiatric symptoms, and some patients presenting with chorea. Read More

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November 2018

Thirty-year trends in dementia: a nationwide population study of Swedish inpatient records.

Clin Epidemiol 2018 16;10:1679-1693. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden,

Background: The continuous growth of the current dementia epidemic is contingent on the stability of age- and sex-specific trends over time. However, recent evidence suggests declining or stable trends. The aim of this study was to evaluate the real-world changes in the burden of dementia in older adults in Sweden from 1987 to 2016 by estimating age- and sex-specific incidence of dementia diagnosis in hospital inpatient records (dementia incidence). Read More

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November 2018

Enzymatic and non-enzymatic pathways of kynurenines' dimerization: the molecular factors for oxidative stress development.

PLoS Comput Biol 2018 Dec 10;14(12):e1006672. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Laboratory of Neurogenetics, Pavlov Institute of Physiology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Saint-Petersburg, Russia.

Kynurenines, the products of tryptophan oxidative degradation, are involved in multiple neuropathologies, such as Huntington's chorea, Parkinson's disease, senile dementia, etc. The major cause for hydroxykynurenines's neurotoxicity is the oxidative stress induced by the reactive oxygen species (ROS), the by-products of L-3-hydroxykynurenine (L-3HOK) and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (3HAA) oxidative self-dimerization. 2-aminophenol (2AP), a structural precursor of L-3HOK and 3HAA, undergoes the oxidative conjugation to form 2-aminophenoxazinone. Read More

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December 2018
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