189,824 results match your criteria Dementia Due to HIV Disease


[Subjective memory impairments in early detection of dementia: Relation to acceptability of lumbar puncture in memory clinic patients].

Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Vitos Klinikum Gießen-Marburg, Vitos Klinik für Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie Gießen; Fachbereich Medizin, Philipps-Universität Marburg.

Background: In memory clinics, biomarker-based diagnostic tools for early detection and differential diagnosis of dementia are increasingly important, even if their acceptance by patients is relatively low.

Objective: The aim of study was to examine whether sociodemographic and clinical features of memory clinic patients are associated with acceptance of lumbar puncture (LP). Of particular interest was the patients' self-perception of memory decline (subjective memory impairment, SMI) accompanied by related concerns that might affect decision to consent to LP. Read More

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December 2018

Impairment in complex activities of daily living is related to neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease-specific regions.

Neurobiol Aging 2018 Nov 26;75:109-116. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Alzheimer Center Amsterdam, Department of Neurology, Amsterdam Neuroscience, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Impairment in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) is an early clinical feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The neurobiology underlying IADL disruptions is still unclear. We aimed to investigate the relationship between IADL functioning and cortical atrophy across the AD spectrum. Read More

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November 2018

Cerebrospinal fluid ferritin levels predict brain hypometabolism in people with underlying β-amyloid pathology.

Neurobiol Dis 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Melbourne Dementia Research Centre, The Florey Institute for Neuroscience and Mental Health, The University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; Cooperative Research Center for Mental Health, Victoria, Australia. Electronic address:

β-Amyloid pathology is elevated in ~30% of cognitively normal people over 65, and is associated with accelerated neurodegeneration in the pre-clinical stages of Alzheimer's disease. Recent findings reveal that brain iron might also act to propel neurodegeneration in people with underlying amyloid pathology. Here, repeated PET scans of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) were used as a biomarker for brain hypometabolism and a downstream biomarker of neurodegeneration to investigate whether levels of ferritin in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF; a reporter of brain iron load) are associated with prodromal disease progression of people with high β-amyloid pathology determined by established cut-off values in CSF t-tau/Aβ ratio. Read More

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December 2018

Understanding and predicting the longitudinal course of dementia.

Curr Opin Psychiatry 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Centre for Dementia Prevention, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.

Purpose Of Review: To date, most research in dementia has focused either on the identification of dementia risk prediction or on understanding changes and predictors experienced by individuals before diagnosis. Despite little is known about how individuals change after dementia diagnosis, there is agreement that changes occur over different time scales and are multidomain. In this study, we present an overview of the literature regarding the longitudinal course of dementia. Read More

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December 2018

Effects of Dementia-Specific Education for Nursing Students.

Nurse Educ 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Author Affiliations: Assistant Professor (Dr Kimzey); Lecturer (Ms Seale), College of Nursing, Texas Christian University, Fort Worth; Associate Professor (Dr Mastel-Smith), College of Nursing, The University of Texas at Tyler.

Background: The numbers of people living with dementia are overwhelming. Dementia education is important to prepare nursing students to care for this population.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a virtual dementia experience on nursing students' attitudes and empathy for people with dementia, dementia knowledge, and self-confidence for dementia care. Read More

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December 2018

Cortisol levels among older people with and without depression and dementia.

Int Psychogeriatr 2018 Dec 17:1-5. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Norwegian National Advisory Unit on Ageing and Health,Vestfold Hospital Trust,Tønsberg,Norway.

ABSTRACTCortisol dysregulation has been reported in dementia and depression. Cortisol levels and its associates were investigated among older people living at home and in nursing homes, in a cross-sectional study. A sample of 650 older people, from the community (home and nursing homes) and specialized care (memory clinics and old age psychiatry wards), mean age 76. Read More

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December 2018

Vitamin and mineral supplementation for maintaining cognitive function in cognitively healthy people in mid and late life.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 Dec 17;12:CD011906. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Centre for Systematic Reviews, Fondazione "Università G. D'Annunzio", Via dei Vestini 31, Chieti, Chieti, Italy, 66100.

Background: Vitamins and minerals play multiple functions within the central nervous system which may help to maintain brain health and optimal cognitive functioning. Supplementation of the diet with various vitamins and minerals has been suggested as a means of maintaining cognitive function, or even of preventing dementia, in later life.

Objectives: To evaluate the effects of vitamin and mineral supplementation on cognitive function in cognitively healthy people aged 40 years or more. Read More

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December 2018

Visceral Obesity Relates to Deep White Matter Hyperintensities via Inflammation.

Ann Neurol 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Neurology, Max-Planck-Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Leipzig, Germany.

Objective: White matter hyperintensities (WMH) are linked to vascular risk factors and increase the risk of cognitive decline, dementia and stroke. We here aimed to determine if obesity contributes to regional WMH using a whole-brain approach in a well-characterized population-based cohort.

Methods: Waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), body mass index (BMI), systolic/diastolic blood pressure, hypertension, diabetes and smoking status, blood glucose and inflammatory markers as well as distribution of WMH were assessed in 1825 participants of the LIFE-adult study (age 20-82 years; BMI 18. Read More

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December 2018

Strategies Employing Transition Metal Complexes To Modulate Amyloid-β Aggregation.

Inorg Chem 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Chemistry , Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) , Daejeon 34141 , Republic of Korea.

Aggregation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides is implicated in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common type of dementia. Thus, numerous efforts to identify chemical tactics to control the aggregation pathways of Aβ peptides have been made. Among them, transition metal complexes as a class of chemical modulators against Aβ aggregation have been designed and utilized. Read More

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December 2018

Associations among behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia, care burden, and family-to-work conflict of employed family caregivers.

Geriatr Gerontol Int 2018 Dec 16. Epub 2018 Dec 16.

Department of Family Nursing, Division of Health Sciences & Nursing, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

Aim: The present study aimed to examine the associations among behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) of persons with dementia (PWD), care burden and family-to-work conflict (FWC) of employed family caregivers.

Method: A cross-sectional study was carried out with employed adult daughter or son (or in-law) caregivers for PWD from two rural cities in Japan. FWC, care burden and the degree of BPSD were evaluated by the Survey Work-Home Interaction-NijmeGen, Zarit Burden Scale-Short Version and Dementia Behavior Disturbance Scale, respectively. Read More

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December 2018

Applicability of an elastic band exercise program to wheelchair-bound older adults with and without dementia: A self-rating survey.

Geriatr Gerontol Int 2018 Dec 16. Epub 2018 Dec 16.

Master Program of Long-Term Care in Aging, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

Aim: To investigate the perceptions of wheelchair-bound older adults with and without dementia toward the Wheelchair-bound Senior Elastic Band exercise program, and to compare the differences of their perceptions to the program.

Methods: A descriptive and comparative design was applied. Data were derived from the experimental groups of two cluster-randomized controlled trials. Read More

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December 2018

Caregiver burden and quality of life two years after attendance at a memory clinic.

Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Health Services Research & Policy, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK.

Objectives: We aimed to describe 1) the burden and HRQL of informal caregivers of new patients attending a memory assessment service (MAS), 2) changes in these outcomes over two years and 3) satisfaction with services.

Methods: Informal caregivers of patients attending one of 73 MASs throughout England completed questionnaires at the patient's first appointment, and 6 and 12 months later. Participants from 30 of these MASs were also followed up at 24 months. Read More

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December 2018

Finding fault: Criticism as a care management strategy and its impact on outcomes for dementia caregivers.

Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Distinguished University Professor and Dean, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Background: Despite a large literature on the stress process, little attention has focused on how caregivers for persons living with dementia (PLWDs) provide care and how this may impact care outcomes. Criticism is a management strategy caregivers may use to respond to behavioral symptoms. We consider whether criticism is associated with caregivers' mental health and service utilization. Read More

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December 2018

CSF total tau levels are associated with hippocampal novelty irrespective of hippocampal volume.

Alzheimers Dement (Amst) 2018 2;10:782-790. Epub 2018 Nov 2.

German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE), Bonn, Germany.

Introduction: We examined the association between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease, neural novelty responses, and brain volume in predementia old age.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of the observational, multicentric DZNE-Longitudinal Cognitive Impairment and Dementia Study (DELCODE) study. Seventy-six participants completed task functional magnetic resonance imaging and provided CSF (40 cognitively unimpaired, 21 experiencing subjective cognitive decline, and 15 with mild cognitive impairment). Read More

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November 2018

Compartmental Model Diagrams as Causal Representations in Relation to DAGs.

Epidemiol Methods 2017 Dec 5;6(1). Epub 2017 May 5.

Francis I. Proctor Foundation, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Compartmental model diagrams have been used for nearly a century to depict causal relationships in infectious disease epidemiology. Causal directed acyclic graphs (DAGs) have been used more broadly in epidemiology since the 1990s to guide analyses of a variety of public health problems. Using an example from chronic disease epidemiology, the effect of type 2 diabetes on dementia incidence, we illustrate how compartmental model diagrams can represent the same concepts as causal DAGs, including causation, mediation, confounding, and collider bias. Read More

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December 2017

Association of G/C (rs638405) Polymorphism in Gene with Alzheimer's Disease.

Avicenna J Med Biotechnol 2018 Oct-Dec;10(4):242-247

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medical, Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.

Background: Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder, which is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly. Accumulation of β-amyloid plaques outside neurons is the most important pathological hallmark of AD, which is produced by cleavage of amyloid precursor protein by the Alzheimer's β-secretase (). Since is a key enzyme in the formation of β-amyloid peptides, the purpose of this study was to assess the association between polymorphisms of G/C (rs638405) gene with sporadic AD in Khuzestan, Isfahan and Fars provinces in Iran. Read More

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December 2018

Exploring Potential Biomarkers Underlying Pathogenesis of Alzheimer's Disease by Differential Co-expression Analysis.

Avicenna J Med Biotechnol 2018 Oct-Dec;10(4):233-241

Research Center for Molecular Medicine, Hamedan University of Medical Sciences, Hamedan, Iran.

Background: Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in the elderly. Due to the facts that biological causes of AD are complex in addition to increasing rates of AD worldwide, a deeper understanding of AD etiology is required for AD treatment and diagnosis.

Methods: To identify molecular pathological alterations in AD brains, GSE36980 series containing microarray data samples from temporal cortex, frontal cortex and hippocampus were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database and valid gene symbols were subjected to building a gene co-expression network by a bioinformatics tool known as differential regulation from differential co-expression (DCGL) software package. Read More

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December 2018

The HDAC6 Inhibitor Trichostatin A Acetylates Microtubules and Protects Axons From Excitotoxin-Induced Degeneration in a Compartmented Culture Model.

Front Neurosci 2018 29;12:872. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Wicking Dementia Research and Education Centre, College of Health, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS, Australia.

Axon degeneration has been implicated as a pathological process in several neurodegenerative diseases and acquired forms of neural injury. We have previously shown that stabilizing microtubules can protect axons against excitotoxin-induced fragmentation, however, the alterations of microtubules following excitotoxicity that results in axon degeneration are currently unknown. Hence, this study investigated whether excitotoxicity affects the post-translational modifications of microtubules and microtubule-associated proteins, and whether reversing these changes has the potential to rescue axons from degeneration. Read More

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November 2018

Effects of rising amyloidβ levels on hippocampal synaptic transmission, microglial response and cognition in APP/PSEN1 transgenic mice.

EBioMedicine 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Neuroscience, Physiology & Pharmacology, University College London, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT, UK.. Electronic address:

Background: Progression of Alzheimer's disease is thought initially to depend on rising amyloidβ and its synaptic interactions. Transgenic mice (TASTPM; APP/PSEN1) show altered synaptic transmission, compatible with increased physiological function of amyloidβ, before plaques are detected. Recently, the importance of microglia has become apparent in the human disease. Read More

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December 2018

Subjective cognitive decline and rates of incident Alzheimer's disease and non-Alzheimer's disease dementia.

Alzheimers Dement 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Alzheimer Center Amsterdam, Department of Neurology, Amsterdam Neuroscience, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam UMC, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam UMC, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Introduction: In this multicenter study on subjective cognitive decline (SCD) in community-based and memory clinic settings, we assessed the (1) incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and non-AD dementia and (2) determinants of progression to dementia.

Methods: Eleven cohorts provided 2978 participants with SCD and 1391 controls. We estimated dementia incidence and identified risk factors using Cox proportional hazards models. Read More

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December 2018

Perspectives on ethnic and racial disparities in Alzheimer's disease and related dementias: Update and areas of immediate need.

Alzheimers Dement 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Pharmacology & Neuroscience, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TX, USA. Electronic address:

Alzheimer's disease and related dementias (ADRDs) are a global crisis facing the aging population and society as a whole. With the numbers of people with ADRDs predicted to rise dramatically across the world, the scientific community can no longer neglect the need for research focusing on ADRDs among underrepresented ethnoracial diverse groups. The Alzheimer's Association International Society to Advance Alzheimer's Research and Treatment (ISTAART; alz. Read More

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December 2018

A Policy Autobiography: All Roads Lead to Pragmatic Clinical Trials in Dementia Care.

Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Associate Professor of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, Associate Professor of Medical Science, Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Associate Professor of Health Services, Policy and Practice, Brown University School of Public Health, Visiting Associate Professor of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Medical Director, Center for Memory Health at Hebrew SeniorLife. Electronic address:

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December 2018

Comparing knowledge and attitudes to dementia care in Brazilian and UK GPs to guide future decisions about educational interventions.

Gerontol Geriatr Educ 2018 Dec 15:1-8. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

g Psychiatry Department, Escola Paulista de Medicina (EPM) , Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp) , São Paulo , SP , Brazil.

Background: Dementia training for Brazilian general practitioners (GPs) is underdeveloped. We investigated knowledge and attitudes to dementia management among Brazilian GPs and compared these with previous UK findings to inform future decisions about how training is structured.

Methods: A total of 115 Brazilian GPs were asked to complete a Portuguese translation of a questionnaire previously used in the UK. Read More

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December 2018

Validation of the Rotterdam Elderly Pain Observation Scale (REPOS) in the hospital setting.

Pain Pract 2018 Dec 16. Epub 2018 Dec 16.

Intensive Care and Department of Pediatric surgery, Erasmus MC-Sophia Children's Hospital, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

Background: The Rotterdam Elderly Pain Observation Scale (REPOS) has been proven useful to assess pain in non-communicative and cognitively impaired nursing home residents. We evaluated whether the REPOS is also reliable and valid for pain assessment in the hospital setting.

Methods: In this prospective multicenter observational study, surgical patients were observed perioperatively at bedside and internal medicine patients were filmed during a possible painful moment and in rest. Read More

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December 2018
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Dementia-friendly community initiatives: An integrative review.

J Clin Nurs 2018 Dec 16. Epub 2018 Dec 16.

University of Canberra, 3. Stephen Neville.

Aim: To synthesise international research conducted on dementia-friendly community initiatives.

Background: The number of people living with dementia is increasing as a result of population ageing. Impairments related to neurological changes, together with environmental challenges result in disability for people who have dementia. Read More

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December 2018

Management of Cerebral Microbleeds in Clinical Practice.

Transl Stroke Res 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Stroke Program, Department of Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, T6G 2G3, Canada.

Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) are very frequent diagnoses with MRI imaging in the elderly or in patients with cerebral infarction, intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), and dementia. The mechanisms for CMBs are not fully understood but may be secondary to injury to the vascular wall from long-standing hypertension or amyloid deposition in the tissue. The presence of CMB increases the risk for stroke, dementia, and death. Read More

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December 2018
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Heterogeneous brain FDG-PET metabolic patterns in patients with C9orf72 mutation.

Neurol Sci 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy.

Objective: The hexanucleotide repeat expansion in C9orf72 is an associated genetic cause in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). In the "ALS/FTD" spectrum prevails clinical heterogeneity and an in vivo knowledge of the underling brain dysfunction in patients carrying C9orf72 mutation remain limited and only described at group level. The study aimed to assess the brain metabolic alterations characterizing patients with C9orf72 mutation using FDG-PET in single individuals. Read More

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December 2018
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Administrative healthcare data applied to fracture risk assessment.

Osteoporos Int 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.

Fracture risk scores generated from population-based administrative healthcare data showed comparable or better discrimination than the Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX) scores computed without bone mineral density for predicting incident major osteoporotic fracture. Administrative data may be useful to identify individuals at high fracture risk at the population level.

Purpose: To evaluate the discrimination of fracture risk scores defined using inputs available from administrative data for predicting incident major osteoporotic fracture (MOF) and hip fracture (HF) alone. Read More

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December 2018

Inflammation and neurodegeneration: chronicity matters.

Authors:
Keenan A Walker

Aging (Albany NY) 2018 Dec 16. Epub 2018 Dec 16.

Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA.

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December 2018

Functional, cognitive and physical outcomes 3 years after minor lacunar or cortical ischaemic stroke.

J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Centre for Clinical Brain Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK

Objective: Many studies examining stroke outcomes focus on more severe strokes or have short follow-up periods, so the long-term outcomes post-minor ischaemic stroke are unclear.

Methods: We recruited participants from inpatient and outpatient services with a lacunar or minor cortical ischaemic stroke (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score <8) and assessed current and premorbid cognitive functioning (Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R), National Adult Reading Test (NART)), physical functioning (Timed Get Up and Go (TUG), 9-Hole Peg Test (9HPT)), dependency (modified Rankin Scale (mRS)), depression (Beck's Depression Inventory) in-person and remotely (Stroke Impact Scale).

Results: We followed up 224/264 participants at 3 years (mean age at index stroke=67, 126 (56%) men, 25 non-contactable, 15 declined): 66/151 (44%) had cognitive impairment, mean ACE-R 88 (SD 9, range 54-100/100), 61/156 (39%) had depression and 26/223 (12%) were dependent (mRS=3-5). Read More

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December 2018

Clinical and neuropathologic analysis of intracerebral hemorrhage in patients with cerebral amyloid angiopathy.

Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2018 Nov 29;176:110-115. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Cerebrovascular Surgery, International Medical Center, Saitama Medical University, Hidaka, Saitama, Japan.

Objective: To evaluate the clinical and histopathological features of elderly patients with subcortical intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), and to analyze the presence of cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) type pathologic changes using amyloid beta (Aβ) and tau immunohistochemistry.

Patients And Methods: We retrospectively analyzed cases satisfying the Boston criteria for CAA among patients with subcortical hemorrhage who underwent surgical removal by craniotomy at our hospital. Surgical specimens were subjected to hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining as well as immunostaining. Read More

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November 2018

Differential accumulation of Tau phosphorylated at residues Thr231, Ser262 and Thr205 in hippocampal interneurons and its modulation by Tau mutations (VLW) and amyloid-β peptide.

Neurobiol Dis 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Cell Biology, Physiology and Immunology, Institut de Neurociències, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (CIBERNED, ISCIII), Spain; Vall d'Hebron Institute of Research, Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address:

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the accumulation of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) and hyperphosphorylated Tau protein (P-Tau). Our recent data showed a differential accumulation of Tau protein phosphorylated at Thr231 in distinct hippocampal neurons in VLW mice-an animal model that overexpresses mutated human Tau. Here we demonstrate that, in VLW mice, the accumulation of human P-Tau in the pyramidal cells induces the phosphorylation of murine Tau at Thr231 (pThr231) in hippocampal interneurons. Read More

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December 2018

Prognosis of conversion of mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer's dementia by voxel-wise Cox regression based on FDG PET data.

Neuroimage Clin 2018 Dec 10:101637. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical Center, University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, Freiburg, Germany; Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology Freiburg, Medical Center, University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, Freiburg, Germany.

Aim: The value of F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET for the prognosis of conversion from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer's dementia (AD) is controversial. In the present work, the identification of cerebral metabolic patterns with significant prognostic value for conversion of MCI patients to AD is investigated with voxel-based Cox regression, which in contrast to common categorical comparisons also utilizes time information.

Methods: FDG PET data of 544 MCI patients from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database were randomly split into two equally-sized datasets (training and test). Read More

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December 2018

Surgical repair of aortic aneurysms and reduced incidence of dementia.

Int J Cardiol 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan; Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Graduate Institute of Physiology, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan.. Electronic address:

Background: Dementia and aortic aneurysms share clinical risk factors and molecular signaling pathways. However, the association between dementia and aortic aneurysms has not been examined. The potential effects of open surgical repair (OSR) of aortic aneurysms on future dementia events are unknown. Read More

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December 2018

Disrupted structural and functional brain networks in Alzheimer's disease.

Neurobiol Aging 2018 Nov 16;75:71-82. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Dementia Care & Research Center, Peking University Institute of Mental Health (Sixth Hospital), Beijing, China; Beijing Key Laboratory for Translational Research on Diagnosis and Treatment of Dementia, Beijing, China; National Clinical Research Center for Mental Disorders (Peking University Sixth Hospital), Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Studies have demonstrated that the clinical manifestations of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are associated with abnormal connections in either functional connectivity networks (FCNs) or structural connectivity networks (SCNs). However, the FCN and SCN of AD have usually been examined separately, and the results were inconsistent. In this multimodal study, we collected resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging data from 46 patients with AD and 39 matched healthy controls (HCs). Read More

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November 2018
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Influence of hypertension on brain amyloid deposition and Alzheimer's disease signature neurodegeneration.

Neurobiol Aging 2018 Nov 16;75:62-70. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Department of Neuropsychiatry, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea; Institute of Human Behavioral Medicine, Medical Research Center, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; Department of Psychiatry, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

This study aimed to investigate the relationship of hypertension with beta-amyloid (Aβ) and neurodegeneration biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and the modulating effect of apolipoprotein E-ε4 (APOE4). In total, 259 cognitively normal (CN) and 79 AD dementia older adults received clinical assessments including the evaluation for the presence of hypertension, [C]-Pittsburgh-compound-B-positron emission tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and APOE genotyping. We used a clinical stage-specific approach, separately focusing on CN and AD dementia stages. Read More

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November 2018

Pet robot intervention for people with dementia: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Psychiatry Res 2018 Dec 6;271:516-525. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

School of Nursing, Jilin University, Changchun, China; Department of Pharmacology, college of Basic Medical sciences, Jilin University, Changchun, China. Electronic address:

This study aims to systematically evaluate the efficacy of Pet robot intervention (PRI) for people with dementia. Two waves of electronic searches of the PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane library, IEEE Digital Library and PsycINFO databases were conducted. In total, eight articles from six randomized controlled trials (RCTs) met the eligibility criteria and were included in this systematic review. Read More

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December 2018
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Molecular Mechanisms of Glutaredoxin Enzymes: Versatile Hubs for Thiol-Disulfide Exchange between Protein Thiols and Glutathione.

J Mol Biol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

School of Chemistry and Bio21 Molecular Science and Biotechnology Institute, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010, Australia.

The tripeptide glutathione (GSH) and its oxidized form glutathione disulfide (GSSG) constitute a key redox couple in cells. In particular, they partner protein thiols in reversible thiol-disulfide exchange reactions that act as switches in cell signaling and redox homeostasis. Disruption of these processes may impair cellular redox signal transduction and induce redox misbalances that are linked directly to aging processes and to a range of pathological conditions including cancer, cardiovascular diseases and neurological disorders. Read More

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December 2018

Fastigial nucleus stimulation ameliorates cognitive impairment via modulating autophagy and inflammasomes activation in a rat model of vascular dementia.

J Cell Biochem 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital to Jinzhou Medical University, Jinzhou, China.

Background: It has been reported that the fastigial nucleus (FSN) plays an important role in the development of vascular dementia (VD). Both autophagy and inflammation are functionally involved in the pathogenesis of VD. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effect of electrical cerebellar fastigial nucleus stimulation (FNS) in VD treatment, as well as the effect of FNS on autophagy and inflammation. Read More

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December 2018
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Effect of Levothyroxine Treatment on Incident Dementia in Adults with Atrial Fibrillation and Hypothyroidism.

Clin Drug Investig 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Center for Primary Health Care Research, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.

Background And Objective: The possible adverse or positive effects of levothyroxine treatment among patients with atrial fibrillation have been debated. Atrial fibrillation, levothyroxine treatment, and dementia are common among older adults, yet little is known about the effects of levothyroxine on the development of dementia.

Methods: The study population included all adults (n = 12,057) aged ≥ 45 years with a diagnosis of atrial fibrillation at 75 primary care centers in Sweden during 2001-2007 without an earlier recorded dementia diagnosis. Read More

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December 2018

Hypoglycemic side effects of sulfonylureas and repaglinide in ageing patients - knowledge and self-management.

J Physiol Pharmacol 2018 Aug 9;69(4). Epub 2018 Dec 9.

Thuringia Clinic Saalfeld "Georgius Agricola", Department of Internal Medicine II, Division of Gastroenterology, Teaching Hospital of the University of Jena, Saalfeld/Saale, Germany.

Insulinotropic oral antidiabetics (OAD) such as sulfonylureas and (SU) glinides are among the frequently prescribed OAD. Side effects are the potential to induce hypoglycemias and weight gain. The aim was to assess the self-managing skills in case of a hypoglycemic event in an elderly type 2 diabetic patient population. Read More

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August 2018
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Pro Re Nata Drug Use in Nursing Home Residents: A Systematic Review.

J Am Med Dir Assoc 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Carl von Ossietzky University Oldenburg, Department of Health Services Research, Oldenburg, Germany.

Objectives: In addition to routinely administered long-term medication, complex drug regimens of nursing home residents often include as needed or pro re nata (PRN) medication. However, there has been no systematic evaluation of the frequency and concomitants of PRN medication in nursing homes. The main objective of this systematic review was to provide a current assessment of PRN drug use in nursing homes. Read More

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December 2018

Overview on the Effects of -Acetylcysteine in Neurodegenerative Diseases.

Molecules 2018 Dec 13;23(12). Epub 2018 Dec 13.

IRCCS Centro Neurolesi "Bonino-Pulejo", Via Provinciale Palermo, Contrada Casazza, 98124 Messina, Italy.

-acetylcysteine (NAC), which is an acetylated cysteine compound, has aroused scientific interest for decades due to its important medical applications. It also represents a nutritional supplement in the human diet. NAC is a glutathione precursor and shows antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Read More

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December 2018

Driving Cessation and Cognitive Dysfunction in Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment.

J Clin Med 2018 Dec 13;7(12). Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Neurology, Seoul National University College of Medicine and Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam-si 13620, Korea.

Although driving by adults with cognitive impairment is an important public health concern, little is known about the indicators of driving cessation in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We aimed to investigate the prevalence of driving cessation in patients with MCI and the predictive value of cognitive performances for driving cessation. Patients with MCI were recruited in the Seoul National University Bundang Hospital; they met following inclusion criteria. Read More

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December 2018
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Jowiseungchungtang Inhibits Amyloid-β Aggregation and Amyloid-β-Mediated Pathology in 5XFAD Mice.

Int J Mol Sci 2018 Dec 13;19(12). Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Konyang University, 158, Gwanjeodong-ro, Seo-gu, Daejeon 35365, Korea.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease, which is accompanied by memory loss and cognitive dysfunction. Although a number of trials to treat AD are in progress, there are no drugs available that inhibit the progression of AD. As the aggregation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides in the brain is considered to be the major pathology of AD, inhibition of Aβ aggregation could be an effective strategy for AD treatment. Read More

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December 2018
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Protective effect of Centella asiatica against -galactose and aluminium chloride induced rats: Behavioral and ultrastructural approaches.

Biomed Pharmacother 2019 Jan 5;109:853-864. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia. Electronic address:

Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder and the commonest cause of dementia among the aged people. -galactose (D-gal) is a senescence agent, while aluminium is a known neurotoxin linked to pathogenesis of AD. The combined administration of rats with d-gal and aluminium chloride (AlCl) is considered to be an easy and a cheap method to obtain an animal model of AD. Read More

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January 2019

Neuroprotective effects of 1`δ-1`-acetoxyeugenol acetate on Aβ induced cognitive dysfunction in mice.

Biomed Pharmacother 2019 Jan 13;109:1454-1461. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Department of Pharmacology, University College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kakatiya University, Warangal, Telangana, 506009, India. Electronic address:

The progressive accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide is neurotoxic and leads to Alzheimer's type dementia. Accumulation of Aβ has been associated with dysfunction of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines. In this study, we investigated the effect of 1`δ-1`-acetoxyeugenol acetate (DAEA), isolated from Alpinia galanga (L. Read More

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January 2019

Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy in older patients with and without dementia: survival and ethical considerations.

J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Background And Aim: Notwithstanding multiple recommendations in guidelines, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG)-tube placement is still performed in patients with dementia. In this study we aim to investigate survival in patients with and without dementia after (PEG)-tube placement.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective multicenter study in four different hospitals in The Netherlands. Read More

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December 2018
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Network localization of heterogeneous neuroimaging findings.

Brain 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Berenson-Allen Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation, Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA.

Studies of the same disease often implicate different brain regions, contributing to a perceived reproducibility crisis in neuroimaging. Here, we leverage the normative human brain connectome to test whether seemingly heterogeneous neuroimaging findings localize to connected brain networks. We use neurodegenerative disease, and specifically Alzheimer's disease, as our example as it is one of the diseases that has been studied the most using neuroimaging. Read More

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December 2018

Striking reduction in neurons and glial cells in anterior thalamic nuclei of older patients with Down syndrome.

Neurobiol Aging 2018 Nov 17;75:54-61. Epub 2018 Nov 17.

School of Psychology, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK. Electronic address:

The anterior thalamic nuclei are important for spatial and episodic memory, however, surprisingly little is known about the status of these nuclei in neurological conditions that present with memory impairments, such as Down syndrome. We quantified neurons and glial cells in the anterior thalamic nuclei of four older patients with Down syndrome. There was a striking reduction in the volume of the anterior thalamic nuclei and this appeared to reflect the loss of approximately 70% of neurons. Read More

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November 2018