5,616 results match your criteria Dementia Due to HIV Disease

Effects of App-Based Mobile Interventions for Dementia Family Caregivers: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2022 May 24:1-11. Epub 2022 May 24.

Department of Nursing, Chung Cheong University, Cheongju-si, Republic of Korea.

Background: Dementia was caregivers experience tremendous difficulties both physically and psychologically, leading to high levels of depression and caregiver burden. The advantage of mobile interventions has been recognized due to its freedom from time and space restrictions.

Objectives: A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate effectiveness of app-based mobile interventions for dementia caregivers. Read More

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"A fog that impacts everything": a qualitative study of health-related quality of life in people living with HIV who have cognitive impairment.

Qual Life Res 2022 May 17. Epub 2022 May 17.

Department of Global Health and Infection, Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Brighton, UK.

Background: Cognitive impairment (CI) in people living with HIV (PLWH) is an important health concern in the context of an ageing HIV population. Impacting 14-28% of PLWH, CI is associated with lower health-related quality of life (HRQoL), however, evaluation of the illness-specific factors comprising HRQoL in PLWH with CI have not been assessed.

Objective: We sought to contribute evidence toward an understanding of HRQoL and identify domains of HRQoL in PLWH with CI. Read More

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Frontal lobe microglia, neurodegenerative protein accumulation, and cognitive function in people with HIV.

Acta Neuropathol Commun 2022 05 7;10(1):69. Epub 2022 May 7.

Department of Neurology, The Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Box 1137, Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York City, NY, 10029, USA.

Microglia are implicated in Alzheimer's Disease (AD) pathogenesis. In a middle-aged cohort enriched for neuroinflammation, we asked whether microgliosis was related to neocortical amyloid beta (A[Formula: see text]) deposition and neuronal phosphorylated tau (p-tau), and whether microgliosis predicted cognition. Frontal lobe tissue from 191 individuals autopsied with detectable (HIV-D) and undetectable (HIV-U) HIV infection, and 63 age-matched controls were examined. Read More

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Cross-seeding between Aβ and SEVI indicates a pathogenic link and gender difference between alzheimer diseases and AIDS.

Commun Biol 2022 05 5;5(1):417. Epub 2022 May 5.

Department of Chemical, Biomolecular, and Corrosion Engineering, The University of Akron, 44325, Akron, OH, USA.

Amyloid-β (Aβ) and semen-derived enhancer of viral infection (SEVI) are considered as the two causative proteins for central pathogenic cause of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and HIV/AIDS, respectively. Separately, Aβ-AD and SEVI-HIV/AIDS systems have been studied extensively both in fundamental research and in clinical trials. Despite significant differences between Aβ-AD and SEVI-HIV/AIDS systems, they share some commonalities on amyloid and antimicrobial characteristics between Aβ and SEVI, there are apparent overlaps in dysfunctional neurological symptoms between AD and HIV/AIDS. Read More

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Blood biomarkers for HIV infection with focus on neurologic complications-A review.

Acta Neurol Scand 2022 Apr 26. Epub 2022 Apr 26.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Institute of Biomedicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Although clinical examinations, neuroimaging, and cerebrospinal fluid analyses are the most important ways to evaluate the impact of HIV infection on the brain and in diagnosis of opportunistic infections, several blood biomarkers including HIV RNA concentrations, CD4 +T-cell count, and neurofilament light chain protein (NfL) concentration, along with tests for opportunistic infections can provide important information for clinical decisions. Read More

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Patterns of Cerebrospinal Fluid Alzheimer's Dementia Biomarkers in People Living with HIV: Cross-Sectional Study on Associated Factors According to Viral Control, Neurological Confounders and Neurocognition.

Viruses 2022 04 4;14(4). Epub 2022 Apr 4.

Infectious Disease Unit, Department of Medical Sciences, University of Turin at Amedeo di Savoia Hospital, 10149 Torino, Italy.

People living with HIV (PLWH) age with an excess burden of comorbidities that may increase the incidence of age-related complications. There is controversy surrounding the hypothesis that HIV can accelerate neurodegeneration and Alzheimer's dementia (AD). We performed a retrospective study to analyze the distribution of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) AD biomarkers (beta amyloid 1-42 fragment, tau, and phosphorylated tau) in adult PLWH (on cART with undetectable viremia, = 136, with detectable viremia, = 121, and with central nervous system CNS disorders regardless of viremia, = 72) who underwent a lumbar puncture between 2008 to 2018; HIV-negative controls with AD were included ( = 84). Read More

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Utility of 18F FDG-PET in Parkinsonism in an African population.

eNeurologicalSci 2022 Jun 31;27:100399. Epub 2022 Mar 31.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Inkosi Albert Luthuli Central Hospital, Cato Manor, Durban, South Africa, Head of Nuclear Medicine Department, Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University, Ga-Rankuwa, South Africa.

Parkinson's Disease remains a diagnostic challenge. Misdiagnosis during life is approximately 25%. Diseases that resemble PD clinically, such as the Parkinsonianplus disorders usually have a poorer prognosis. Read More

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Retroviral Elements in Pathophysiology and as Therapeutic Targets for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

Neurotherapeutics 2022 Apr 12. Epub 2022 Apr 12.

Section of Infections of the Nervous System, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Bethesda, MD, USA.

The study of the role of retroviruses in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) dates back to the 1960s shortly after transposable elements themselves were first discovered. It was quickly realized that in wild mice both horizontal and vertical transmissions of retroviral elements were key to the development of an ALS-like syndrome leading to the postulate that endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) contribute significantly to the pathogenicity of this disease. Subsequent studies identified retroviral reverse transcriptase activity in brains of individuals with ALS from Guam. Read More

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Subjective cognitive decline disrupts aspects of prospective memory in older adults with HIV disease.

Neuropsychol Dev Cogn B Aging Neuropsychol Cogn 2022 Apr 12:1-19. Epub 2022 Apr 12.

Department of Psychology, University of Houston, Houston, Tx, USA.

Subjective cognitive decline (SCD) is a risk factor for dementia that may occur at higher rates in people with HIV (PWH). Prospective memory (PM) is an aspect of cognition that may help us better understand how SCD impacts daily life. Paricipants were 62 PWH aged ≥ 50 years and 33 seronegative individuals. Read More

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Neurological soft signs and brain morphology in people living with HIV.

J Neurovirol 2022 Mar 29. Epub 2022 Mar 29.

Department of Psychiatry, Medicine School, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile.

Neurological soft signs (NSS) are a common feature of severe psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia but are also prevalent in organic brain diseases like HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) or Alzheimer's disease. While distinct associations between NSS, neurocognition, and cerebral regions were demonstrated in schizophrenia, these associations still have to be elucidated in HIV. Therefore, we investigated 36 persons with HIV of whom 16 were neurocognitively healthy and 20 were diagnosed with HAND. Read More

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Association of a wide range of chronic diseases and apolipoprotein E4 genotype with subsequent risk of dementia in community-dwelling adults: A retrospective cohort study.

EClinicalMedicine 2022 Mar 13;45:101335. Epub 2022 Mar 13.

Department of Ophthalmology, Guangdong Eye Institute, Guangdong Provincial People's Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, 106 Zhongshan 2nd Rd, Yuexiu District, Guangzhou 510080, China.

Background: Identifying independent and interactive associations of a wide range of diseases and multimorbidity and apolipoprotein E4 (APOE4) with dementia may help promote cognitive health. The main aim of the present study was to investigate associations of such diseases and their multimorbidity with incident dementia.

Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, we included 471,485 individuals of European ancestry from the UK Biobank, aged 38-73 years at baseline (2006-10). Read More

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2022 Alzheimer's disease facts and figures.


Alzheimers Dement 2022 04 14;18(4):700-789. Epub 2022 Mar 14.

This article describes the public health impact of Alzheimer's disease (AD), including incidence and prevalence, mortality and morbidity, use and costs of care, and the overall impact on family caregivers, the dementia workforce and society. The Special Report discusses consumers' and primary care physicians' perspectives on awareness, diagnosis and treatment of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), including MCI due to Alzheimer's disease. An estimated 6. Read More

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A reappraisal on amyloid cascade hypothesis: the role of chronic infection in Alzheimer's disease.

Int J Neurosci 2022 Mar 14:1-19. Epub 2022 Mar 14.

School of Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Taylor's University, Selangor, Malaysia.

Alzheimer disease (AD) is a progressive neurological disorder that accounted for the most common cause of dementia in the elderly population. Lately, 'infection hypothesis' has been proposed where the infection of microbes can lead to the pathogenesis of AD. Among different types of microbes, human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1), herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1), , Spirochetes and are frequently detected in the brain of AD patients. Read More

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A survey of nurses, physiotherapists and occupational therapists in mobility care and gait aid use for hospital patients with dementia.

Geriatr Nurs 2022 Mar-Apr;44:221-228. Epub 2022 Feb 28.

Rehabilitation Ageing and Independent Living (RAIL) Research Centre, Monash University, Frankston, Victoria 3199, Australia; National Centre for Healthy Ageing, Monash University and Peninsula Health, Frankston, Victoria, Australia 3199.

This study described mobility care practice of nurses, physiotherapists and occupational therapists and gait aid use for hospital patients with dementia. Two surveys, tailored to staff mobility care roles were distributed in Australian hospitals. Physiotherapists and occupational therapists were asked additional questions regarding assessments and factors for prescribing gait aids to patients with dementia. Read More

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Promising heterocycle-based scaffolds in recent (2019-2021) anti-Alzheimer's drug design and discovery.

Atukuri Dorababu

Eur J Pharmacol 2022 Apr 23;920:174847. Epub 2022 Feb 23.

SRMPP Government First Grade College, Huvinahadagali, 583219, India. Electronic address:

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the neurodegenerative diseases that led to morbidity and mortality world-wide. It is a complex disease whose etiology is not completely known that leads to difficulty in prevention or cure of the AD. Also, there are only few approved drugs for AD treatment. Read More

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A new susceptibility index to predict the risk of severe herpes zoster-associated pain: A Japanese regional population-based cohort study, the Shizuoka study.

J Dermatol Sci 2022 Mar 8;105(3):170-175. Epub 2022 Feb 8.

Graduate School of Public Health, Shizuoka Graduate University of Public Health, Shizuoka, Japan.

Background: Approximately 7-20% of patients with herpes zoster (HZ) develop zoster-associated pain (ZAP). ZAP not only impairs quality of life and psychological well-being, but also can reduce work effectiveness, which has negative economic effects. Reports of ZAP risk factors are inconsistent. Read More

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Neurological disorders in HIV: Hope despite challenges.

Immun Inflamm Dis 2022 03 10;10(3):e591. Epub 2022 Feb 10.

Oli Health Magazine Organization, Research, and Education, Kigali, Rwanda.

Introduction: Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a virus that causes several diseases by attacking the human immune system. It is transmitted by contact with certain bodily fluids of an infected person, most commonly during unprotected sex, through sharing needles, or from mother to baby during pregnancy, birth or breastfeeding. The central nervous system is not spared from this virus, as HIV has been shown to induce several neurological disorders. Read More

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Kynurenine Metabolism and Alzheimer's Disease: The Potential Targets and Approaches.

Neurochem Res 2022 Jun 8;47(6):1459-1476. Epub 2022 Feb 8.

Chitkara College of Pharmacy, Chitkara University, Rajpura, Punjab, 140401, India.

L-tryptophan, an essential amino acid, regulates protein homeostasis and plays a role in neurotransmitter-mediated physiological events. It also influences age-associated neurological alterations and neurodegenerative changes. The metabolism of tryptophan is carried majorly through the kynurenine route, leading to the production of several pharmacologically active enzymes, substrates, and metabolites. Read More

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Arsenic: a Culpable Element and a Possible Menace for HIV/AIDS Patients.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2022 Feb 7. Epub 2022 Feb 7.

Department of Pharmacy Practice, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER), Bihar, Hajipur, India.

Arsenic contamination has long been recognized as one of the most harmful environmental pollutants resulting from anthropogenic activity. Apart from being an environmental toxicant or pollutant, this culpable heavy metal also has detrimental effects on human health. People throughout the world are exposed to arsenic (As) mostly through polluted drinking water. Read More

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February 2022

HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND): The first longitudinal follow up of a cART-treated cohort of older people in sub-Saharan Africa.

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2022 Feb 3. Epub 2022 Feb 3.

Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom Royal London Hospital, Barts NHS Trust, United Kingdom Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University College, Moshi, Kilimanjaro, Tanzania Department of Neuroscience, Behaviour and Psychology, University of Leicester, Leicester, United Kingdom Cumbria Northumberland Tyne and Wear NHS Foundation Trust, UK Northumbria Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust, North Tyneside General Hospital, North Shields, United Kingdom Mawenzi Regional Referral Hospital, Kilimanjaro Tanzania University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria Gateshead Health NHS Foundation Trust, Gateshead, UK.

Background: HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are a highly prevalent chronic complication in older people living with HIV (PLWH) in high-income countries (HICs). Although Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has a newly emergent population of older cART treated PLWH, HAND have not been studied longitudinally. We assessed longitudinal prevalence of HAND and have identified possible modifiable factors in a population of PLWH aged ≥50, over three years of follow-up. Read More

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February 2022

CSF markers of AD-related pathology relate specifically to memory impairment in older people with HIV: a pilot study.

J Neurovirol 2022 Feb 1;28(1):162-167. Epub 2022 Feb 1.

Department of Psychiatry, University of California, 220 Dickinson St, #B, San Diego, CA, 92103, USA.

Given the co-occurrence of memory impairment in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) and amnestic mild cognitive impairment/Alzheimer's disease (aMCI/AD), biomarkers are needed that can disentangle these conditions among people with HIV (PWH). We assessed whether cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) markers of AD could help in this effort by determining their relationship to learning and memory deficits versus cognitive deficits more characteristic of HAND than aMCI/AD (processing speed and complex visual/motor coordination) among 31 older PWH. CSF amyloid-β phosphorylated-tau, amyloid-β/amyloid-β and phosphorylated-tau/amyloid-β ratio related to learning/memory performance but not HAND-related deficits, suggesting that these biomarkers may have utility in disentangling aMCI/AD from HAND. Read More

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February 2022

The Interplay Between Neuroinfections, the Immune System and Neurological Disorders: A Focus on Africa.

Front Immunol 2021 13;12:803475. Epub 2022 Jan 13.

Brain Research Africa Initiative (BRAIN), Yaoundé, Cameroon.

Neurological disorders related to neuroinfections are highly prevalent in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), constituting a major cause of disability and economic burden for patients and society. These include epilepsy, dementia, motor neuron diseases, headache disorders, sleep disorders, and peripheral neuropathy. The highest prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is in SSA. Read More

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February 2022

Higher Cerebrospinal Fluid Soluble Urokinase-type Plasminogen Activator Receptor, But Not Interferon γ-inducible Protein 10, Correlate With Higher Working Memory Deficits.

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2022 05;90(1):106-114

HIV Neurobehavioral Research Center, University of California, San Diego, CA.

Background: We hypothesized that the induction of monocyte activation biomarkers, especially soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) and interferon γ-inducible protein 10 (IP-10), is lower in HIV-1C than HIV-1B, owing to a defective Tat cysteine dimotif (C30S).

Methods: A total of 68 paired cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood samples from people with HIV (PWH), free of CNS opportunistic infections, from a Southern Brazil outpatient HIV clinic were evaluated such as HIV-1B subtype (n = 27), HIV-1C (n = 26), other (n = 15), and 19 HIV-negative controls. The levels of suPAR, IP-10, neopterin, and β2 microglobulin (β2m) in the CSF and serum were quantified using different immunoassays. Read More

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Prevalent Multimorbidity Combinations Among Middle-Aged and Older Adults Seen in Community Health Centers.

J Gen Intern Med 2022 Jan 28. Epub 2022 Jan 28.

Department of Family Medicine, Oregon Health & Science University, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Road, Mail code: FM, Portland, OR, 97239, USA.

Background: Multimorbidity (≥ 2 chronic diseases) is associated with greater disability and higher treatment burden, as well as difficulty coordinating self-management tasks for adults with complex multimorbidity patterns. Comparatively little work has focused on assessing multimorbidity patterns among patients seeking care in community health centers (CHCs).

Objective: To identify and characterize prevalent multimorbidity patterns in a multi-state network of CHCs over a 5-year period. Read More

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January 2022

Evaluation of a low-resource screening strategy for ophthalmic pathologies and associated neurological morbidity in an older Tanzanian HIV-positive population.

Sci Rep 2022 01 26;12(1):1434. Epub 2022 Jan 26.

Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, Tyne and Wear, UK.

Globally, 43 million people are living with HIV, 90% in developing countries. Increasing life expectancy with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) results in chronic complications, including HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) and eye diseases. HAND screening is currently challenging. Read More

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January 2022

Elevated Cerebrospinal Fluid Anti-CD4 Autoantibody Levels in HIV Associate with Neuroinflammation.

Microbiol Spectr 2022 02 5;10(1):e0197521. Epub 2022 Jan 5.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Medical University of South Carolinagrid.259828.c, Charleston, South Carolina, USA.

The mechanisms of persistent central nervous system (CNS) inflammation in people with HIV (PWH) despite effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) are not fully understood. We have recently shown that plasma anti-CD4 IgGs contribute to poor CD4 T cell recovery during suppressive ART via antibody-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) against CD4 T cells, and that plasma anti-CD4 IgG levels are associated with worse cognitive performance and specific brain area atrophy. However, the role of anti-CD4 IgGs in neuroinflammation remains unclear. Read More

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February 2022

Effect of antiretroviral treatment on blood-brain barrier integrity in HIV-1 infection.

BMC Neurol 2021 Dec 22;21(1):494. Epub 2021 Dec 22.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Institute of Biomedicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, SE-415 50, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Background: Blood-brain barrier (BBB) injury is prevalent in patients with HIV-associated dementia (HAD) and is a frequent feature of HIV encephalitis. Signs of BBB damage are also sometimes found in neuroasymptomatic HIV-infected individuals without antiretroviral therapy (ART). The aim of this study was to investigate the integrity of the BBB before and after initiation of ART in both neuroasymptomatic HIV infection and in patients with HAD. Read More

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December 2021

HIV Encephalopathy in ART-Naïve, Hospitalized Infants in Mozambique.

J Trop Pediatr 2021 12;67(6)

H ospital Central de Maputo, Maputo, Mozambique.

Introduction: The neurodevelopmental impact of HIV infection in older children has been well-described, with characterization of HIV-associated encephalopathy (HIVE) and associated cognitive defects. HIVE is relatively common in older children who were vertically infected. The sparse literature on HIVE in infants suggests that incidence may be up to 10% in the first year of life, but no studies were identified that specifically evaluated hospitalized infants. Read More

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December 2021

Neuropsychological functioning and cognitive reserve in newly HIV diagnosed antiretroviral-naïve South African adults from peri-urban and informal settlements.

PLoS One 2021 7;16(12):e0260260. Epub 2021 Dec 7.

Department of Psychiatry, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa.

Despite lower incidences of HIV-associated dementia due to antiretroviral therapy, neuropsychological impairment (NPI) remains a persistent challenge in sub-Saharan Africa. Improving cognitive reserve (CR) can mitigate NPI, but there are few investigations on neuropsychological (NP) performance, and its association with CR in newly diagnosed ART-naïve HIV-positive individuals to inform early treatment strategies. A comprehensive battery of tests were administered to assess various NP domains (International HIV Dementia Scale [for memory, motor speed, psychomotor speed], Digit Span Test [for attention], Action Fluency Test [for language] and Clock Drawing Test [for executive/visuospatial function]), and CR (using Cognitive Reserve Index Questionnaire) among 211 newly diagnosed ART-naïve HIV-positive participants from two clinics that serve peri-urban and informal settlement communities in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Read More

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January 2022

Correlation between cerebrospinal fluid and plasma neurofilament light protein in treated HIV infection: results from the COBRA study.

J Neurovirol 2022 Feb 7;28(1):54-63. Epub 2021 Dec 7.

Department of Infectious Disease, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UK.

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) neurofilament light protein (NfL) is a marker of central nervous system neuro-axonal injury. A novel, ultra-sensitive assay can determine plasma NfL. In untreated people-with-HIV (PWH), CSF and plasma NfL are strongly correlated. Read More

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February 2022