5,443 results match your criteria Dementia Due to HIV Disease

Recent developments of HDAC inhibitors: Emerging indications and novel molecules.

Br J Clin Pharmacol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

The histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymes, a class of epigenetic regulators, are historically well-established as attractive therapeutic targets. During investigation of trends within clinical trials, we have identified a high number of clinical trials involving HDAC inhibitors, prompting us to further evaluate the current status of this class of therapeutic agents. In total, we have identified 32 agents with HDAC-inhibiting properties, of which 29 were found to interact with the HDAC enzymes as their primary therapeutic target. Read More

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Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in two clinically and virologically controlled Brazilian HIV patients who progressed rapidly to dementia: case reports and literature review.

Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 2021 24;63:e23. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Instituto de Infectologia Emílio Ribas, São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated neurocognitive disorders are the main cause of cognitive decline and dementia in people living with HIV (PLHIV). However, extensive workup should be done in patients with rapidly progressive dementia (RPD) and HIV, especially when secondary infection in the central nervous system (CNS) is ruled out. Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) is the main cause of RPD in non-HIV patients. Read More

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The rise and fall of global health issues: an arenas model applied to the COVID-19 pandemic shock.

Global Health 2021 Mar 29;17(1):33. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Alliance for Health Policy and Systems Research, World Health Organization, Avenue Appia 20, 1211, Geneva, Switzerland.

Background: The global health agenda is ill-defined as an analytical construct, complicating attempts by scholars and proponents to make claims about the agenda status of issues. We draw on Kingdon's definition of the agenda and Hilgartner and Bosk's public arenas model to conceptualize the global health agenda as those subjects or problems to which collectivities of actors operating nationally and globally are paying serious attention at any given time. We propose an arenas model for global health agenda setting and illustrate its potential utility by assessing priority indicators in five arenas, including international aid, pharmaceutical industry, scientific research, news media and civil society. Read More

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Prospects for the Use of Cannabinoids in Psychiatric Disorders.

Front Psychiatry 2021 12;12:620073. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Laboratory of Palliative Medicine, Department of Social Medicine and Public Health, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.

Increasing evidence suggests an essential role of the endocannabinoid system in modulating cognitive abilities, mood, stress, and sleep. The psychoactive effects of cannabis are described as euphoric, calming, anxiolytic, and sleep-inducing and positively affect the mood, but can also adversely affect therapy. The responses to cannabinoid medications depend on the patient's endocannabinoid system activity, the proportion of phytocannabinoids, the terpenoid composition, and the dose used. Read More

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Prevalence and 1-year incidence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) in adults aged ≥50 years attending standard HIV clinical care in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania.

Int Psychogeriatr 2021 Mar 24:1-12. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.

Objectives: HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HANDs) are prevalent in older people living with HIV (PLWH) worldwide. HAND prevalence and incidence studies of the newly emergent population of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART)-treated older PLWH in sub-Saharan Africa are currently lacking. We aimed to estimate HAND prevalence and incidence using robust measures in stable, cART-treated older adults under long-term follow-up in Tanzania and report cognitive comorbidities. Read More

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2021 Alzheimer's disease facts and figures.


Alzheimers Dement 2021 03 23;17(3):327-406. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

This article describes the public health impact of Alzheimer's disease (AD), including incidence and prevalence, mortality and morbidity, use and costs of care, and the overall impact on caregivers and society. The Special Report discusses the challenges of providing equitable health care for people with dementia in the United States. An estimated 6. Read More

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Role of Community Health Workers in Addressing Dementia: A Scoping Review and Global Perspective.

J Appl Gerontol 2021 Mar 19:7334648211001190. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA.

The current increase in global dementia prevalence deserves public health intervention. While limited access to health care and a shortage of health care workers are significant shortcomings, utilizing community health workers (CHWs) could be a promising way to improve dementia care through cost-effective approaches. This scoping review synthesizes existing research on roles of CHWs in dementia-related services. Read More

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HIV in the Brain: From Devastating Dementia to White Matter Hyperintensities.

Neurology 2021 04 26;96(14):645-646. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

From the Department of Neurology (J.R.-P.), Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY; and Department of Neurology (D.S.), Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD.

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Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (4th edition).

Autophagy 2021 Jan 8;17(1):1-382. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

University of Crete, School of Medicine, Laboratory of Clinical Microbiology and Microbial Pathogenesis, Voutes, Heraklion, Crete, Greece; Foundation for Research and Technology, Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology (IMBB), Heraklion, Crete, Greece.

In 2008, we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, this topic has received increasing attention, and many scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Read More

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January 2021

Mini-review: The therapeutic role of cannabinoids in neuroHIV.

Neurosci Lett 2021 04 12;750:135717. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, 27599, USA. Electronic address:

In the era of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is considered a chronic disease with an inflammatory component that specifically targets the brain and causes a high prevalence of HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). The endocannabinoid (eCB) system has attracted interest as a target for treatment of neurodegenerative disorders, due to the potential anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties of cannabinoids, including its potential therapeutic use in HIV-1 neuropathogenesis. In this review, we summarize what is currently known about the structural and functional changes of the eCB system under conditions of HAND. Read More

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Low CD4+ cell count nadir exacerbates the impacts of APOE ε4 on functional connectivity and memory in adults with HIV.

AIDS 2021 04;35(5):727-736

Department of Neuroscience.

Objective: Nearly half of individuals living with HIV in the USA are now 50 or older. This rapidly ageing populace may be at an increasingly greater risk of Alzheimer's disease. However, the potential interaction between HIV-disease and Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis (i. Read More

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Cerebrospinal fluid CXCL10 is associated with the presence of low level CSF HIV during suppressive antiretroviral therapy.

J Neuroimmunol 2021 Apr 21;353:577493. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Department of Psychiatry, University of California at San Diego School of Medicine, 220 Dickinson Street, San Diego, CA 92103-8231, United States of America; Department of Medicine, University of California at San Diego School of Medicine, 220 Dickinson Street, San Diego, CA 92103-8231, United States of America.

Surrogate markers of HIV central nervous system (CNS) persistence are needed because direct HIV measurements from the CNS require specialized protocols and are not always detectable or quantifiable. We analyzed paired plasma and CSF samples from people with HIV (PWH) on suppressive therapy (ART) with a validated HIV single copy RNA assay. Two potential markers of CNS persistence were measured (CXCL10 and sCD30). Read More

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Social-environmental resiliencies protect against loneliness among HIV-Positive and HIV- negative older men who have sex with men: Results from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS).

Soc Sci Med 2021 Mar 23;272:113711. Epub 2021 Jan 23.

Georgetown University Department of Medicine, Washington, DC, USA.

Rationale: Loneliness is associated with negative health outcomes, such as cardiovascular disease, cognitive impairment, dementia, physical functional decline, depression, and increased mortality risk, among HIV- positive and HIV-negative older men who have sex with men (MSM). Given these negative health outcomes, it is imperative to identify factors that minimize loneliness in these vulnerable groups.

Objective: We sought to examine whether social-environmental resiliencies-defined as an individual's level of support, social bonding, and psychological sense of community among gay men-buffer against symptoms of loneliness. Read More

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Longitudinal 5-year prediction of cognitive impairment among men with HIV disease.

AIDS 2021 05;35(6):889-898

Department of Psychiatry.

Background: Although combination antiretroviral therapy reduced the prevalence of HIV-associated dementia, milder syndromes persist. Our goals were to predict cognitive impairment of the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) participants 5 years ahead and from a large pool of factors, select the ones that mostly contributed to our predictions.

Design: Longitudinal, natural and treated history of HIV infection among MSM. Read More

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COVID-19 Hospitalization by Race and Ethnicity: Association with Chronic Conditions Among Medicare Beneficiaries, January 1-September 30, 2020.

J Racial Ethn Health Disparities 2021 Jan 8. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Office of the Director, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 1600 Clifton Rd., NE, Mail Stop US 8-6, Atlanta, GA, 30329-4027, USA.

Objectives: We assessed the association between hospitalization for illness from COVID-19 infection and chronic conditions among Medicare beneficiaries (MBs) with fee-for-service (FFS) claims by race and ethnicity for January 1-September 30, 2020.

Methods: We used 2020 monthly Medicare data from January 1-September 30, 2020, reported to the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services to compute hospitalization rates per 100 COVID-19 MBs with FFS claims who were hospitalized (ICD-10-CM codes: B97.29 before April 1, 2020; ICD-10-CM codes: U07. Read More

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January 2021

Comparison of dementia risk after age 50 between individuals with and without HIV infection.

AIDS 2021 04;35(5):821-828

Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Oakland.

Objective: To compare risk of dementia after age 50 by HIV status among individuals in a primary care setting.

Design: Observational cohort study; participants were identified from 2013 to 2017 and followed through 2019.

Methods: Participants were people with HIV (PWH) on antiretroviral therapy (ART) and demographically similar people without HIV (PWOH), all at least 50 years old and with no prior diagnosis of dementia. Read More

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Cerebral toxoplasmosis and alcohol abuse in AIDS: dementia with multiple etiologies.

Dement Neuropsychol 2020 Dec;14(4):422-429

Postgraduate Program in Psychobiology, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte - Natal, RN, Brazil.

Major neurocognitive disorder due to multiple etiologies, or dementia due to multiple etiologies (DME), is a term coined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders to refer to complex cases when multiple pathologies, such as Alzheimer's disease, Lewy Bodies, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), vascular-related brain damage or frontotemporal lobar degeneration, are identified as contributing to neurocognitive impairment and/or behavioral alterations, based on patient's neuroimaging tests, laboratorial exams, associated symptomatology and medical history. In this study, we report the case of a 63-year-old male patient who presented with parkinsonism symptoms, aphasia and cognitive impairment on multiple domains after cerebral toxoplasmosis related to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, vascular damage and a history of alcohol abuse. We discuss the neurocognitive and neurobehavioral variables that characterized this diagnosis, as well as the importance of the differential diagnosis of DME on the field of neuropsychology of aging and, especially, for individuals living with HIV infection. Read More

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December 2020

Alzheimer's disease-like perturbations in HIV-mediated neuronal dysfunctions: understanding mechanisms and developing therapeutic strategies.

Open Biol 2020 12 23;10(12):200286. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Department of Biomedical Research, Centre of Biomedical Research, SGPGI Campus, Lucknow 226014, UP, India.

Excessive exposure to toxic substances or chemicals in the environment and various pathogens, including viruses and bacteria, is associated with the onset of numerous brain abnormalities. Among them, pathogens, specifically viruses, elicit persistent inflammation that plays a major role in Alzheimer's disease (AD) as well as dementia. AD is the most common brain disorder that affects thought, speech, memory and ability to execute daily routines. Read More

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December 2020

Cerebrospinal fluid and plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS) levels in HIV-1 infection and associations with inflammation, blood-brain barrier permeability and neuronal injury.

J Infect Dis 2020 Dec 15. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

Department of Neurology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco General Hospital, San Francisco, CA, USA.

HIV infection is associated with increased systemic microbial translocation, neuro-inflammation and occasionally neuronal injury. Whether systemic LPS penetrates into the brain and contributes to neuro-inflammation remain unknown in HIV. Here, we measured plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) LPS levels along with biomarkers of neuro-inflammation (white blood cell counts and 40 soluble markers) and neurofilament light chain (NfL). Read More

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December 2020

The Attitudes of Physicians and the General Public toward Prognostic Disclosure of Different Serious Illnesses: a Korean Nationwide Study.

J Korean Med Sci 2020 Dec 7;35(47):e401. Epub 2020 Dec 7.

Department of Family Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Korea.

Background: Although international guidelines recommend palliative care approaches for many serious illnesses, the palliative needs of patients with serious illnesses other than cancer are often unmet, mainly due to insufficient prognosis-related discussion. We investigated physicians' and the general public's respective attitudes toward prognostic disclosure for several serious illnesses.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 928 physicians, sourced from 12 hospitals and the Korean Medical Association, and 1,005 members of the general public, sourced from all 17 administrative divisions in Korea. Read More

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December 2020

The utility of olfactory function in distinguishing early-stage Alzheimer's disease from HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders.

AIDS 2021 03;35(3):429-437

Department of Psychiatry.

Objectives: Given the rising number of older people with HIV (PWH) and the overlap in cognitive dysfunction profiles in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) and Alzheimer's disease and its precursor, amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), methods are needed to distinguish aMCI/Alzheimer's disease from HAND. As an early indicator of Alzheimer's disease, we examined whether olfactory dysfunction could help to distinguish between aMCI/Alzheimer's disease and HAND among PWH.

Design: An observational cohort study. Read More

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Mechanisms and therapeutic potential of interactions between human amyloids and viruses.

Cell Mol Life Sci 2021 Mar 26;78(6):2485-2501. Epub 2020 Nov 26.

VIB Center for Brain and Disease Research, Leuven, Belgium.

The aggregation of specific proteins and their amyloid deposition in affected tissue in disease has been studied for decades assuming a sole pathogenic role of amyloids. It is now clear that amyloids can also encode important cellular functions, one of which involves the interaction potential of amyloids with microbial pathogens, including viruses. Human expressed amyloids have been shown to act both as innate restriction molecules against viruses as well as promoting agents for viral infectivity. Read More

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Intra-cerebral haemorrhage but not neurodegenerative disease appears over-represented in deaths of Australian cadaveric pituitary hormone recipients.

J Clin Neurosci 2020 Nov 29;81:78-82. Epub 2020 Sep 29.

Australian National Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Registry (ANCJDR), The Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, The University of Melbourne, Parkville 3010, Australia; Department of Medicine, Royal Melbourne Hospital, The University of Melbourne, Parkville 3010, Australia. Electronic address:

Background And Purpose: Recent scientific reports and epidemiological studies have engendered mounting concerns regarding the potential human-to-human transmissibility of non-prion neurodegenerative and related diseases. This study investigated whether recipients of cadaveric pituitary hormone treatments are at increased risk of death from non-prion neurodegenerative and related diseases.

Methods: A retrospective national cohort study based on death certificates of recipients of the cadaveric pituitary hormone treatments (n = 184) as part of the Australian Human Pituitary Hormone Program (AHPHP; n = 2940) 1967-1985. Read More

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November 2020

Modeling HIV-1 infection in the brain.

PLoS Comput Biol 2020 11 19;16(11):e1008305. Epub 2020 Nov 19.

Department of Mathematics and Statistics, San Diego State University, San Diego, California, USA.

While highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is successful in controlling the replication of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV-1) in many patients, currently there is no cure for HIV-1, presumably due to the presence of reservoirs of the virus. One of the least studied viral reservoirs is the brain, which the virus enters by crossing the blood-brain barrier (BBB) via macrophages, which are considered as conduits between the blood and the brain. The presence of HIV-1 in the brain often leads to HIV associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), such as encephalitis and early-onset dementia. Read More

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November 2020

The Longitudinal Association Between Cardiovascular Risk and Cognitive Function in Middle-Aged and Older Adults in China: A Nationally Representative Cohort Study.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2020 19;7:560947. Epub 2020 Oct 19.

Center for Infectious Diseases, Beijing Youan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

China has the largest population living with dementia, causing a tremendous burden on the aging society. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) may trigger a cascade of pathologies associated with cognitive aging. We aim to investigate the association between cardiovascular risk (CVR) factors and cognitive function in the nationally representative cohort in China. Read More

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October 2020

Partial contributions and temporal trends of leading causes of death during the last four decades in Spain.

Public Health 2020 Dec 11;189:81-90. Epub 2020 Nov 11.

IMIB-Arrixaca, Murcia, Spain; Department of Health & Social Sciences, Murcia University, Campus de Espinardo, 30100, Murcia, Spain; CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:

Objectives: The study was conducted to assess time trend shifts of leading causes of death and their partial contributions over the years 1975-2016 in Spain.

Study Design: A longitudinal ecological epidemiologic design was conducted to analyse linear trend period shifts using joinpoint regression as the annual percentage of change (APC) in the period 1975-2016. The partial contributions were illustrated as the rate ratio of a singular-cause to their major-cause shift periods. Read More

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December 2020

Construct Validity Supports Use of a Novel, Tablet-Based Neurocognitive Assessment for Adolescents and Young Adults Affected by Perinatal HIV from Vulnerable Communities in the United States.

AIDS Behav 2021 Apr 12;25(4):1185-1191. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

HIV Center for Clinical and Behavioral Studies, Columbia University and New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York, NY, USA.

Construct validity of novel tablet-based neurocognitive tests (in the NeuroScreen app) measuring processing speed, working memory, and executive functioning in adolescents and young adults (AYA) living with perinatally-acquired HIV (PHIV) and perinatal HIV-exposure without infection (PHEU) was examined. Sixty-two AYA (33 PHIV, 29 PHEU) were recruited from an ongoing longitudinal study (CASAH) in New York City. Medium to large and statistically significant correlations were found between NeuroScreen and gold standard, paper-and-pencil tests of processing speed, working memory, and executive functioning. Read More

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Comorbidity patterns among people living with HIV: a hierarchical clustering approach through integrated electronic health records data in South Carolina.

AIDS Care 2021 05 10;33(5):594-606. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

South Carolina SmartState Center for Healthcare Quality, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USA.

Comorbidity among people living with HIV (PLWH) is understudied although identifying its patterns and socio-demographic predictors would be beneficial for comorbidity management. Using electronic health records (EHR) data, 8,490 PLWH diagnosed between January 2005 and December 2016 in South Carolina were included in the current study. An initial list of 86 individual diagnoses of chronic conditions was extracted in the EHR data. Read More

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Psycho-behavioral factors associated with neurocognitive performance among people living with HIV on antiretroviral therapy in Accra, Ghana.

Afr Health Sci 2020 Jun;20(2):487-596

University of Ghana College of Health Sciences, Social and Behavioural Sciences, School of Public Health.

Background: It is estimated that almost half of all people living with HIV have some form of neurocognitive impairment, but few studies have looked at the risk of neurocognitive impairment and its associated factors in Ghana, due in part to limited resources for such testing.

Objectives: To examine neurocognitive performance in a group of Ghanaians living with HIV and possible factors that contribute to their performance.

Methods: One hundred and four patients were assessed using a selection of brief non-invasive neuropsychological assessments as well as the International HIV Dementia Scale. Read More

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