556 results match your criteria Dementia: Overview of Pharmacotherapy

Hypertension and cognitive function: a review of life-course factors and disparities.

Curr Opin Cardiol 2022 Jul;37(4):326-333

Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine.

Purpose Of Review: Dementia is a life-course condition with modifiable risk factors many from cardiovascular (CV) origin, and disproportionally affects some race/ethnic groups and underserved communities in the USA. Hypertension (HTN) is the most common preventable and treatable condition that increases the risk for dementia and exacerbates dementia pathology. Epidemiological studies beginning in midlife provide strong evidence for this association. Read More

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Overview of therapeutic targets in management of dementia.

Biomed Pharmacother 2022 Aug 11;152:113168. Epub 2022 Jun 11.

School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Science, Ulster University, Coleraine, UK. Electronic address:

Dementia is defined as a gradual cognitive impairment that interferes with everyday tasks, and is a leading cause of dependency, disability, and mortality. According to the current scenario, millions of individuals worldwide have dementia. This review provides with an overview of dementia before moving on to its subtypes (neurodegenerative and non-neurodegenerative) and pathophysiology. Read More

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Effects of Linkers and Substitutions on Multitarget Directed Ligands for Alzheimer's Diseases: Emerging Paradigms and Strategies.

Int J Mol Sci 2022 May 29;23(11). Epub 2022 May 29.

Department of Biopharmacy, Medical University of Lublin, Chodzki 4a, 20-093 Lublin, Poland.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is multifactorial, progressive and the most predominant cause of cognitive impairment and dementia worldwide. The current "one-drug, one-target" approach provides only symptomatic relief to the condition but is unable to cure the disease completely. The conventional single-target therapeutic approach might not always induce the desired effect due to the multifactorial nature of AD. Read More

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Pathophysiological Role and Medicinal Chemistry of A Adenosine Receptor Antagonists in Alzheimer's Disease.

Molecules 2022 Apr 21;27(9). Epub 2022 Apr 21.

Department of Translational Medicine and for Romagna, University of Ferrara, 44121 Ferrara, Italy.

The A adenosine receptor is a protein belonging to a family of four GPCR adenosine receptors. It is involved in the regulation of several pathophysiological conditions in both the central nervous system and periphery. In the brain, its localization at pre- and postsynaptic level in striatum, cortex, hippocampus and its effects on glutamate release, microglia and astrocyte activation account for a crucial role in neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Read More

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Treating neurodegenerative diseases with multitarget drugs: an interview with Maria João Matos.

Future Med Chem 2022 Jun 6;14(12):847-850. Epub 2022 May 6.

Centro de Investigação em Química da Universidade do Porto/Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry, University of Porto, Porto, 4169-007, Portugal.

Neurodegenerative diseases are one of the leading causes of death, disability and dependency worldwide. Since the etiology of these complex pathologies is not completely known, the available therapeutic options can only cause temporary relief of the symptoms, but cannot cure them. Life-changing therapeutic solutions are urgently needed, as the number of people suffering from these pathologies has been increasing quickly over the last few decades. Read More

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Targeting brain Renin-Angiotensin System for the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's disease: Past, present and future.

Ageing Res Rev 2022 May 26;77:101612. Epub 2022 Mar 26.

Laboratory of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal; CIBIT/ICNAS - Coimbra Institute for Biomedical Imaging and Translational Research, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal. Electronic address:

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a well-known neurodegenerative disease characterized by the presence of two main hallmarks - Tau hyperphosphorylation and Aβ deposits. Notwithstanding, in the last few years the scientific evidence about the drivers of AD have been changing and nowadays age-related vascular alterations and several cardiovascular risk factors have been shown to trigger the development of AD. In this context, drugs targeting the Renin Angiotensin System (RAS), commonly used for the treatment of hypertension, are evidencing a high potential to delay AD development due to their action on brain RAS. Read More

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Leukotriene Signaling as a Target in α-Synucleinopathies.

Biomolecules 2022 02 23;12(3). Epub 2022 Feb 23.

Institute of Molecular Regenerative Medicine, Paracelsus Medical University, 5020 Salzburg, Austria.

Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) are two common types of α-synucleinopathies and represent a high unmet medical need. Despite diverging clinical manifestations, both neurodegenerative diseases share several facets of their complex pathophysiology. Apart from α-synuclein aggregation, an impairment of mitochondrial functions, defective protein clearance systems and excessive inflammatory responses are consistently observed in the brains of PD as well as DLB patients. Read More

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February 2022

Pharmacotherapy for mild traumatic brain injury: an overview of the current treatment options.

Expert Opin Pharmacother 2022 May 20;23(7):805-813. Epub 2022 Mar 20.

Department of Neurosurgery, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Heping, Tianjin China.

Introduction: Accounting for 90% of all traumatic brain injuries (TBIs), mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is currently the most frequently seen type of TBI. Although most patients can recover from mTBI, some may suffer from prolonged symptoms for months to years after injury. Growing evidence indicates that mTBI is associated with neurodegenerative diseases, including dementia and Parkinson's disease (PD). Read More

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Role of HSV-1 in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis: A challenge for novel preventive/therapeutic strategies.

Curr Opin Pharmacol 2022 04 8;63:102200. Epub 2022 Mar 8.

Institute of Translational Pharmacology, National Research Council (CNR), 00133 Rome, Italy. Electronic address:

Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) is a ubiquitous DNA virus able to establish a life-long latent infection in host sensory ganglia. Following periodic reactivations, the neovirions usually target the site of primary infection causing recurrent diseases in susceptible individuals. However, reactivated HSV-1 may also reach the brain resulting in severe herpetic encephalitis or in asymptomatic infections. Read More

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Phage display derived peptides for Alzheimer's disease therapy and diagnosis.

Theranostics 2022 31;12(5):2041-2062. Epub 2022 Jan 31.

Key Laboratory of Separation Science for Analytical Chemistry, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116023, P. R. China.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an incurable and fatal progressive neurodegenerative disorder associated with memory and cognition impairment. AD is one of the top medical care concerns across the world with a projected economic burden of $2 trillion by 2030. To date, however, there remains no effective disease-modifying therapy available. Read More

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Versatile nanomaterials for Alzheimer's disease: Pathogenesis inspired disease-modifying therapy.

J Control Release 2022 05 4;345:38-61. Epub 2022 Mar 4.

Key Laboratory of Drug Quality Control and Pharmacovigilance (Ministry of Education), State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, Department of Pharmaceutics, NMPA Key Laboratory for Research and Evaluation of Pharmaceutical Preparations and Excipients, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009, China. Electronic address:

Current therapeutic strategies for Alzheimer's disease (AD) face the dilemma of no effective drugs that can delay the onset or slow the disease progression. Despite tremendous effort being involved, several anti-AD drugs come into clinical trials but with a moderate-to-poor success rate due to the complex AD pathogenesis and the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Insight into the complex AD pathogenesis is enabling new inspiration that have the potential to help improve our understanding and design of anti-AD nanomedicine. Read More

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Slowing dementia symptoms - a qualitative study on attitudes and experiences of general practitioners in Germany.

Eur J Gen Pract 2022 Dec;28(1):32-39

Centre for General and Geriatric Medicine, University Medical Centre Mainz, Mainz, Germany.

Background: There is currently no cure for dementia but general practitioners (GPs) have therapeutic options available to counteract the progression of mild cognitive impairment, including drug and non-drug treatment. So far, few studies have investigated treatment strategies preferred by GPs.

Objectives: This study aimed to gain an overview of GPs' attitudes towards influencing the progression of dementia, their involvement regarding dementia prevention and perceived effective approaches. Read More

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December 2022

Cognition and serotonin in Parkinson's disease.

Prog Brain Res 2022 4;269(1):373-403. Epub 2022 Feb 4.

Neurodegenerative Disease Group, Montreal Neurological Institute-Hospital (The Neuro), Montreal, Canada; Département de Pharmacologie et Physiologie, Université de Montréal, Montreal, Canada; Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, McGill University, Montreal, Canada; Movement Disorder Clinic, Division of Neurology, Department of Neurosciences, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Canada. Electronic address:

Cognitive impairment affects up to 80% of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and is associated with poor quality of life. PD cognitive dysfunction includes poor working memory, impairments in executive function and difficulty in set-shifting. The pathophysiology underlying cognitive impairment in PD is still poorly understood, but there is evidence to support involvements of the cholinergic, dopaminergic, and noradrenergic systems. Read More

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Therapeutic strategies for tauopathies and drug repurposing as a potential approach.

Biochem Pharmacol 2022 04 24;198:114979. Epub 2022 Feb 24.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL 33431, United States. Electronic address:

Tauopathies are neurodegenerative diseases characterized by the deposition of abnormal tau in the brain. To date, there are no disease-modifying therapies approved by the U.S. Read More

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Metformin in Alzheimer's disease: An overview of potential mechanisms, preclinical and clinical findings.

Biochem Pharmacol 2022 03 5;197:114945. Epub 2022 Feb 5.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran; Neurophysiology Research Center, Cellular and Molecular Medicine Institute, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran; Experimental and Applied Pharmaceutical Research Center, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran. Electronic address:

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder worldwide. The association between AD and other diseases such as diabetes is well-studied. In parallel, potential disease-modifying effects of therapeutic agents used for diabetes have been investigated in the context AD of. Read More

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Brain-derived neurotrophic factor in Alzheimer's disease and its pharmaceutical potential.

Transl Neurodegener 2022 01 28;11(1). Epub 2022 Jan 28.

Shandong Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis, Treatment and Behavioral Interventions of Mental Disorders, Institute of Mental Health, College of Pharmacy, Jining Medical University, Jining, 272067, Shandong, China.

Synaptic abnormalities are a cardinal feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) that are known to arise as the disease progresses. A growing body of evidence suggests that pathological alterations to neuronal circuits and synapses may provide a mechanistic link between amyloid β (Aβ) and tau pathology and thus may serve as an obligatory relay of the cognitive impairment in AD. Brain-derived neurotrophic factors (BDNFs) play an important role in maintaining synaptic plasticity in learning and memory. Read More

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January 2022

PDE1 inhibitors: a review of the recent patent literature (2008-present).

Expert Opin Ther Pat 2022 Apr 31;32(4):423-439. Epub 2022 Jan 31.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, P. R. China.

Introduction: PDE1 has been demonstrated to be a potential drug target for a variety of diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease and cardiovascular disease. In the past decades, numerous PDE1 inhibitors with structural diversities have been developed and patented by pharmaceutical companies, providing drug candidates for exploring novel disease indications of PDE1.

Area Covered: This review aims to provide an overview of PDE1 inhibitors reported in patents from 2008 to present. Read More

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An Overview of Combination Treatment with Citicoline in Dementia.

Rev Recent Clin Trials 2022 ;17(1):4-8

Department of Geriatrics, Maria Vittoria Hospital, ASL City of Turin, Italy.

Introduction: The present article reports an overview of the studies about combination treatment with citicoline of Alzheimer's (AD) and mixed dementia (MD).

Methods: A Medline search was carried out by using the keywords Alzheimer's dementia, mixed dementia, older people, treatment with citicoline, memantine, and acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AchEIs).

Results: Six studies were found to match the combination treatment of citicoline with AcheIs and/or memantine. Read More

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Targeting tau only extracellularly is likely to be less efficacious than targeting it both intra- and extracellularly.

Semin Cell Dev Biol 2022 Jun 9;126:125-137. Epub 2021 Dec 9.

Department of Neuroscience and Physiology, Neuroscience Institute, New York University Grossman School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, United States; Department of Psychiatry, New York University Grossman School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, United States. Electronic address:

Aggregation of the tau protein is thought to be responsible for the neurodegeneration and subsequent functional impairments in diseases that are collectively named tauopathies. Alzheimer's disease is the most common tauopathy, but the group consists of over 20 different diseases, many of which have tau pathology as their primary feature. The development of tau therapies has mainly focused on preventing the formation of and/or clearing these aggregates. Read More

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HIV-associated neurotoxicity and cognitive decline: Therapeutic implications.

David R Wallace

Pharmacol Ther 2022 06 27;234:108047. Epub 2021 Nov 27.

Oklahoma State University Center for Health Sciences, School of Biomedical Science, 1111 West 17(th) Street, Tulsa, OK 74107-1898, USA. Electronic address:

As our understanding of changes to the neurological system has improved, it has become clear that patients who have contracted human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) can potentially suffer from a cascade of neurological issues, including neuropathy, dementia, and declining cognitive function. The progression from mild to severe symptoms tends to affect motor function, followed by cognitive changes. Central nervous system deficits that are observed as the disease progresses have been reported as most severe in later-stage HIV infection. Read More

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Theranostic Applications of Nanomaterials in Alzheimer's Disease: A Multifunctional Approach.

Curr Pharm Des 2022 ;28(2):116-132

Department of Physiology, University of Kentucky, Lexington KY 40536, United States.

The blood-brain barrier (BBB) prevents the transfer of many therapeutic drugs across the brain. Therefore, the leading treatment strategies of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are often unsuccessful. Another challenge is to achieve specific targetability across BBB and diagnosis. Read More

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Huperzine A and Its Neuroprotective Molecular Signaling in Alzheimer's Disease.

Molecules 2021 Oct 29;26(21). Epub 2021 Oct 29.

Centro de Excelencia en Biomedicina de Magallanes (CEBIMA), Universidad de Magallanes, Punta Arenas 6210427, Chile.

Huperzine A (HupA), an alkaloid found in the club moss , has been used for centuries in Chinese folk medicine to treat dementia. The effects of this alkaloid have been attributed to its ability to inhibit the cholinergic enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE), acting as an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (AChEI). The biological functions of HupA have been studied both in vitro and in vivo, and its role in neuroprotection appears to be a good therapeutic candidate for Alzheimer´s disease (AD). Read More

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October 2021

The Alzheimer's disease drug development landscape.

Alzheimers Res Ther 2021 11 11;13(1):186. Epub 2021 Nov 11.

Alzheimer Center Amsterdam, Department of Neurology, Amsterdam Neuroscience, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam UMC, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disease leading to dementia. The field has made significant progress over the last 15 years. AD diagnosis has shifted from syndromal, based on signs and symptoms, to a biomarker construct based on the pathological hallmarks of the disease: amyloid β deposition, pathologic tau, and neurodegeneration. Read More

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November 2021

Patient-Derived Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Models for Phenotypic Screening in the Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinoses.

Molecules 2021 Oct 15;26(20). Epub 2021 Oct 15.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68106, USA.

Batten disease or neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL) is a group of rare, fatal, inherited neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorders. Numerous genes (CLN1-CLN8, CLN10-CLN14) were identified in which mutations can lead to NCL; however, the underlying pathophysiology remains elusive. Despite this, the NCLs share some of the same features and symptoms but vary in respect to severity and onset of symptoms by age. Read More

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October 2021

A Proteomic View of Cellular and Molecular Effects of Cannabis.

Biomolecules 2021 09 27;11(10). Epub 2021 Sep 27.

Macquarie Medical School, Faculty of Medicine, Health and Human Sciences, Macquarie University, North Ryde, Sydney, NSW 2109, Australia.

Cannabis (), popularly known as marijuana, is the most commonly used psychoactive substance and is considered illicit in most countries worldwide. However, a growing body of research has provided evidence of the therapeutic properties of chemical components of cannabis known as cannabinoids against several diseases including Alzheimer's disease (AD), multiple sclerosis (MS), Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia and glaucoma; these have prompted changes in medicinal cannabis legislation. The relaxation of legal restrictions and increased socio-cultural acceptance has led to its increase in both medicinal and recreational usage. Read More

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September 2021

[Neuroprotective treatment of tauopathies].

Nervenarzt 2021 Dec 15;92(12):1227-1238. Epub 2021 Oct 15.

Klinik für Neurologie, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (MHH), Carl-Neuberg-Str. 1, 30625, Hannover, Deutschland.

Tau pathology is now considered to be the main cause of a wide spectrum of neurodegenerative diseases, which are collectively referred to as tauopathies. These include primary tauopathies, in which tau plays the main role in the pathogenesis as well as secondary tauopathies, such as Alzheimer's disease, in which amyloid beta also plays a substantial role in the disease process in addition to the tau pathology. Primary tauopathies include progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration, Pick's disease and rare hereditary tauopathies, which are referred to as frontotemporal lobar degeneration with microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) mutation. Read More

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December 2021

Nano-Derived Therapeutic Formulations with Curcumin in Inflammation-Related Diseases.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 15;2021:3149223. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Clinical Oncology, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Kowloon, Hong Kong.

Due to its vast therapeutic potential, the plant-derived polyphenol curcumin is utilized in an ever-growing number of health-related applications. Here, we report the extraction methodologies, therapeutic properties, advantages and disadvantages linked to curcumin employment, and the new strategies addressed to improve its effectiveness by employing advanced nanocarriers. The emerging nanotechnology applications used to enhance CUR bioavailability and its targeted delivery in specific pathological conditions are collected and discussed. Read More

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January 2022

Impact of Pharmacotherapy on Insomnia in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease.

Drugs Aging 2021 11 27;38(11):951-966. Epub 2021 Sep 27.

Department of Neurology, Emory University School of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Insomnia is a pervasive sleep disorder affecting numerous patients across diverse demographical populations and comorbid disease states. Contributing factors are often a complex interaction of biological, psychological, and social components, requiring a multifaceted approach in terms of both diagnosis and management. In the setting of Alzheimer's disease, insomnia is an even more complicated issue, with a higher overall prevalence than in the general population, greater complexity of contributing etiologies, and differences in diagnosis (at times based on caregiver observation of sleep disruption rather than subjective complaints by the individual with the disorder), and requiring more discretion in terms of treatment, particularly in regard to adverse effect profile concerns. Read More

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November 2021

GLP-1 and Underlying Beneficial Actions in Alzheimer's Disease, Hypertension, and NASH.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 6;12:721198. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

GLP-1 is derived from intestinal L cells, which takes effect through binding to GLP-1R and is inactivated by the enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4). Since its discovery, GLP-1 has emerged as an incretin hormone for its facilitation in insulin release and reduction of insulin resistance (IR). However, GLP-1 possesses broader pharmacological effects including anti-inflammation, neuro-protection, regulating blood pressure (BP), and reducing lipotoxicity. Read More

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February 2022

Nanotherapeutics for Alzheimer's Disease with Preclinical Evaluation and Clinical Trials: Challenges, Promises and Limitations.

Curr Drug Deliv 2022 ;19(1):17-31

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, Jouf University, Aljouf, Sakaka, 2014, Saudi Arabia.

Alzheimer's Disease (AD), a progressive and irreversible neurodegenerative disorder, is the most common form of dementia worldwide. Currently, there is no disease-modifying AD drug, and the development of effective treatments is made even harder by the highly selective nature of the Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB) that allows the passage only of molecules with specific chemicalphysical properties. In this context, nanomedicine and its Nanoparticles (NPs) offer potential solutions to the challenge of AD therapy, in particular, the requirements for i) BBB crossing, ii) multitarget therapy iii) enhancement of pharmacokinetics; and iv) more precise delivery. Read More

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