488 results match your criteria Dementia: Overview of Pharmacotherapy


An Overview of β-Amyloid Cleaving Enzyme 1 (Bace1) in Alzheimer's Disease Therapy Elucidating its Exosite-Binding Antibody and Allosteric Inhibitor.

Curr Med Chem 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Discipline of Medical Biochemistry, School of Laboratory Medicine and Medical Science, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4001, South Africa.

Over decades of its identification, numerous past and ongoing researches have focused on the therapeutic roles of β-amyloid cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) as a target in treating Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although the initial BACE1 inhibitors at phase-3 clinical trials tremendously reduced β-amyloid-associated plaques in patients with AD, the researchers eventually discontinued the tests due to the lack of potency. This discontinuation has resulted in limited drug development and discovery targeted at BACE1, despite the high demand for dementia and AD therapies. Read More

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Personalizing the Care and Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease: An Overview.

Pharmgenomics Pers Med 2021 28;14:631-653. Epub 2021 May 28.

Laboratory for Molecular Neuropsychiatry, Division of Molecular Medicine, Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Zagreb, Croatia.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive, complex, and multifactorial neurodegenerative disorder, still without effective and stable therapeutic strategies. Currently, available medications for AD are based on symptomatic therapy, which include acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist. Additionally, medications such as antipsychotic drugs, antidepressants, sedative, and hypnotic agents, and mood stabilizers are used for the management of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). Read More

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Advances in Applying Computer-Aided Drug Design for Neurodegenerative Diseases.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 28;22(9). Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QX, UK.

Neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Huntington's disease are incurable and affect millions of people worldwide. The development of treatments for this unmet clinical need is a major global research challenge. Computer-aided drug design (CADD) methods minimize the huge number of ligands that could be screened in biological assays, reducing the cost, time, and effort required to develop new drugs. Read More

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Recent Developments in New Therapeutic Agents against Alzheimer and Parkinson Diseases: In-Silico Approaches.

Molecules 2021 Apr 11;26(8). Epub 2021 Apr 11.

CICS-UBI, Health Sciences Research Centre, University of Beira Interior, 6201-001 Covilhã, Portugal.

Neurodegenerative diseases (ND), including Alzheimer's (AD) and Parkinson's Disease (PD), are becoming increasingly more common and are recognized as a social problem in modern societies. These disorders are characterized by a progressive neurodegeneration and are considered one of the main causes of disability and mortality worldwide. Currently, there is no existing cure for AD nor PD and the clinically used drugs aim only at symptomatic relief, and are not capable of stopping neurodegeneration. Read More

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Prospects of Marine Sterols against Pathobiology of Alzheimer's Disease: Pharmacological Insights and Technological Advances.

Mar Drugs 2021 Mar 20;19(3). Epub 2021 Mar 20.

ABEx Bio-Research Center, East Azampur, Dhaka 1230, Bangladesh.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a degenerative brain disorder characterized by a progressive decline in memory and cognition, mostly affecting the elderly. Numerous functional bioactives have been reported in marine organisms, and anti-Alzheimer's agents derived from marine resources have gained attention as a promising approach to treat AD pathogenesis. Marine sterols have been investigated for several health benefits, including anti-cancer, anti-obesity, anti-diabetes, anti-aging, and anti-Alzheimer's activities, owing to their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Read More

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Overactive Bladder Prescribing Considerations: The Role of Polypharmacy, Anticholinergic Burden, and CYP2D6 Drug‒Drug Interactions.

Clin Drug Investig 2021 Apr 12;41(4):293-302. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Jefferson College of Population Health, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Overactive bladder (OAB) is a common disorder in the general population, and the prevalence increases with age. Adults with OAB typically have a greater number of comorbid conditions, such as hypertension, depression, and dementia, compared with adults without OAB. Subsequent to an increased number of comorbidities, adults with OAB take a greater number of concomitant medications, which may increase the risk of potentially harmful drug‒drug interactions. Read More

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Pyrazole Scaffold Synthesis, Functionalization, and Applications in Alzheimer's Disease and Parkinson's Disease Treatment (2011-2020).

Molecules 2021 Feb 24;26(5). Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Department of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, 510 S. Kingshighway Boulevard St. Louis, MO, 63110, USA.

The remarkable prevalence of pyrazole scaffolds in a versatile array of bioactive molecules ranging from apixaban, an anticoagulant used to treat and prevent blood clots and stroke, to bixafen, a pyrazole-carboxamide fungicide used to control diseases of rapeseed and cereal plants, has encouraged both medicinal and organic chemists to explore new methods in developing pyrazole-containing compounds for different applications. Although numerous synthetic strategies have been developed in the last 10 years, there has not been a comprehensive overview of synthesis and the implication of recent advances for treating neurodegenerative disease. This review first presents the advances in pyrazole scaffold synthesis and their functionalization that have been published during the last decade (2011-2020). Read More

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February 2021

The bile acid TUDCA and neurodegenerative disorders: An overview.

Life Sci 2021 May 23;272:119252. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Obesity and Comorbidities Research Center, Department of Structural and Functional Biology, University of Campinas, UNICAMP, Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

Bear bile has been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine for thousands of years due to its therapeutic potential and clinical applications. The tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), one of the acids found in bear bile, is a hydrophilic bile acid and naturally produced in the liver by conjugation of taurine to ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). Several studies have shown that TUDCA has neuroprotective action in several models of neurodegenerative disorders (ND), including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease, based on its potent ability to inhibit apoptosis, attenuate oxidative stress, and reduce endoplasmic reticulum stress in different experimental models of these illnesses. Read More

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Rheumatoid arthritis: Extra-articular manifestations and comorbidities.

Autoimmun Rev 2021 Apr 17;20(4):102776. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Academic Rheumatology Centre, MFRU and Dipartimento Scienze Cliniche e Biologiche, Università degli Studi di Torino, Torino, Italy. Electronic address:

Although synovitis is the pathological hallmark of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), many extra-articular manifestations (EMs) and comorbidities likely occur due to the complex, chronic, inflammatory, and autoimmune features of RA. Cardiovascular (CV) disease is the most common cause of death in patients with RA. Compared to the general population, patients with RA have twice the risk of myocardial infarction and up to 50% increased CV mortality risk. Read More

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The pleiotropic neuroprotective effects of resveratrol in cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease pathology: From antioxidant to epigenetic therapy.

Ageing Res Rev 2021 05 8;67:101271. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Pharmacology Section, Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Therapeutic Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy and Food Sciences, Institute of Neuroscience, University of Barcelona (NeuroUB), Av Joan XXIII 27-31, 08028, Barcelona, Spain.

While the elderly segment of the population continues growing in importance, neurodegenerative diseases increase exponentially. Lifestyle factors such as nutrition, exercise, and education, among others, influence ageing progression, throughout life. Notably, the Central Nervous System (CNS) can benefit from nutritional strategies and dietary interventions that prevent signs of senescence, such as cognitive decline or neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's Disease. Read More

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PET Agents in Dementia: An Overview.

Semin Nucl Med 2021 May 23;51(3):196-229. Epub 2021 Jan 23.

University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Groningen, the Netherlands; Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.

This article presents an overview of imaging agents for PET that have been applied for research and diagnostic purposes in patients affected by dementia. Classified by the target which the agents visualize, seven groups of tracers can be distinguished, namely radiopharmaceuticals for: (1) Misfolded proteins (ß-amyloid, tau, α-synuclein), (2) Neuroinflammation (overexpression of translocator protein), (3) Elements of the cholinergic system, (4) Elements of monoamine neurotransmitter systems, (5) Synaptic density, (6) Cerebral energy metabolism (glucose transport/ hexokinase), and (7) Various other proteins. This last category contains proteins involved in mechanisms underlying neuroinflammation or cognitive impairment, which may also be potential therapeutic targets. Read More

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Myricetin as a Promising Molecule for the Treatment of Post-Ischemic Brain Neurodegeneration.

Nutrients 2021 Jan 24;13(2). Epub 2021 Jan 24.

Department of Pathophysiology, Medical University of Lublin, 20-090 Lublin, Poland.

The available drug therapy for post-ischemic neurodegeneration of the brain is symptomatic. This review provides an evaluation of possible dietary therapy for post-ischemic neurodegeneration with myricetin. The purpose of this review was to provide a comprehensive overview of what scientists have done regarding the benefits of myricetin in post-ischemic neurodegeneration. Read More

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January 2021

Protective Effect of Natural Products against Huntington's Disease: An Overview of Scientific Evidence and Understanding Their Mechanism of Action.

ACS Chem Neurosci 2021 02 21;12(3):391-418. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Neuropharmacology Research Strength, Jeffrey Cheah School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Monash University Malaysia, Bandar Sunway, 47500 Selangor, Malaysia.

Huntington's disease (HD), a neurodegenerative disease, normally starts in the prime of adult life, followed by a gradual occurrence of characteristic psychiatric disturbances and cognitive and motor dysfunction. To the best of our knowledge, there is no treatment available to completely mitigate the progression of HD. Among various therapeutic approaches, exhaustive literature reports have confirmed the medicinal benefits of natural products in HD experimental models. Read More

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February 2021

A critical review of the pharmacological treatment of REM sleep behavior disorder in adults: time for more and larger randomized placebo-controlled trials.

J Neurol 2021 Jan 7. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Forefront Parkinson's Disease Research Clinic, Brain and Mind Centre, School of Medical Sciences, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.

Rapid Eye Movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia causing sufferers to physically act out their dreams. These behaviors can disrupt sleep and sometimes lead to injuries in patients and their bed-partners. Clonazepam and melatonin are the first-line pharmacological treatment options for RBD based on direct uncontrolled clinical observations and very limited double-blind placebo-controlled trials. Read More

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January 2021

Sirtuins and Their Implications in Neurodegenerative Diseases from a Drug Discovery Perspective.

ACS Chem Neurosci 2020 12 5;11(24):4073-4091. Epub 2020 Dec 5.

Faculty of Applied Sciences, Tunku Abdul Rahman University College (TARUC), Jalan Genting Kelang, 53300 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Sirtuins are class III histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymes that target both histone and non-histone substrates. They are linked to different brain functions and the regulation of different isoforms of these enzymes is touted to be an emerging therapy for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases (NDs), including Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The level of sirtuins affects brain health as many sirtuin-regulated pathways are responsible for the progression of NDs. Read More

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December 2020

CD36 in Alzheimer's Disease: An Overview of Molecular Mechanisms and Therapeutic Targeting.

Neuroscience 2021 01 17;453:301-311. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

"Victor Babes" National Institute of Pathology, 99-101 Splaiul Independentei, 050096 Bucharest, Romania; "Carol Davila" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 5 Eroilor Sanitari Blvd, 050047 Bucharest, Romania.

CD36 is a membrane protein with wide distribution in the human body, is enriched in the monocyte-macrophage system and endothelial cells, and is involved in the cellular uptake of long chain fatty acids (LCFA) and oxidized low-density lipoproteins. It is also a scavenger receptor, binding hydrophobic amyloid fibrils found in the Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain. In neurobiology research, it has been mostly studied in relationship with chronic ischemia and stroke, but it was also related to amyloid clearance by microglial phagocytosis. Read More

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January 2021

Small molecule therapeutics for tauopathy in Alzheimer's disease: Walking on the path of most resistance.

Eur J Med Chem 2021 Jan 15;209:112915. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

Dept. of Neuroscience Care and Society, Div. of Neurogeriatrics, Karolinska Institutet, 17164, Solna, Sweden; Memory Clinic, Theme Aging, Karolinska University Hospital, 14186, Huddinge, Sweden. Electronic address:

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia characterized by presence of extracellular amyloid plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles composed of tau protein. Currently there are close to 50 million people living with dementia and this figure is expected to increase to 75 million by 2030 putting a huge burden on the economy due to the health care cost. Considering the effects on quality of life of patients and the increasing burden on the economy, there is an enormous need of new disease modifying therapies to tackle this disease. Read More

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January 2021

Alterations in drug disposition in older adults: a focus on geriatric syndromes.

Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol 2021 Jan 2;17(1):41-52. Epub 2020 Nov 2.

Quality Use of Medicines and Pharmacy Research Centre, UniSA: Clinical and Health Sciences, University of South Australia , Australia.

Introduction: Age-associated physiological changes can alter the disposition of drugs, however, pathophysiological changes associated with geriatric syndromes in older adults may lead to even greater heterogeneity in pharmacokinetics. Geriatric syndromes are common health problems in older adults which have multifactorial causes and do not fit into distinct organ-based disease categories. With older adults being the greatest users of medications, understanding both age- and geriatric syndrome-related changes is important clinically to ensure safe and effective medication use. Read More

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January 2021

Scope of β-Secretase (BACE1)-Targeted Therapy in Alzheimer's Disease: Emphasizing the Flavonoid Based Natural Scaffold for BACE1 Inhibition.

ACS Chem Neurosci 2020 11 19;11(21):3510-3522. Epub 2020 Oct 19.

Amity Institute of Biotechnology, Amity University, Kolkata 700135, India.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease and the most common form of dementia in the world. Studies report the presence of extracellular amyloid plaques consisting of β-amyloid peptide and intracellular tangles consisting of hyperphosphorylated tau proteins as the histopathological indicators of AD. The process of β-amyloid peptide generation by sequential cleavage of amyloid precursor protein by β-secretase (BACE1) and γ-secretase, followed by its aggregation to form amyloid plaques, is the mechanistic basis of the amyloid hypothesis. Read More

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November 2020

Small-molecule BACE1 inhibitors: a patent literature review (2011 to 2020).

Expert Opin Ther Pat 2021 Jan 17;31(1):25-52. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Medicinal Chemistry, Janssen Research & Development , Beerse, Belgium.

Introduction: Inhibition of β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) has been extensively pursued as potential disease-modifying treatment for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Clinical failures with BACE inhibitors have progressively raised the bar forever cleaner candidates with reduced cardiovascular liability, toxicity risk, and increased selectivity over cathepsin D (CatD) and BACE2.

Areas Covered: This review provides an overview of patented BACE1 inhibitors between 2011 and 2020 per pharmaceutical company or research group and highlights the progress that was made in dialing out toxicity liabilities. Read More

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January 2021

Unwinding Complexities of Diabetic Alzheimer by Potent Novel Molecules.

Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen 2020 Jan-Dec;35:1533317520937542

Department of Pharmacy, Oman Medical College, Muscat, Oman.

Diabetes mellitus is one of the aggressive disorders in global society. No pharmacotherapy is available for permanent diabetes cure, although management is possible with drugs and physical activities. One of the recent complications noticed in type 2 diabetes mellitus includes diabetes-induced Alzheimer. Read More

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February 2021

Therapeutic potentials of neural stem cells in Alzheimer's disease.

Malays J Pathol 2020 Aug;42(2):157-170

SEGi University, Faculty of Medicine, No. 9, Jalan Teknologi, Taman Sains Selangor, Kota Damansara, PJU 5, 47810 Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia.

The commonest cause of dementia among the elderly population is Alzheimer's disease (AD). It is a health concern globally as the number of people affected by dementia worldwide is rapidly increasing. Several genes have been linked to AD and the pathogenesis of the disease has been extensively and vigorously examined. Read More

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The Endosomal Recycling Pathway-At the Crossroads of the Cell.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Aug 23;21(17). Epub 2020 Aug 23.

Membrane Trafficking and Disease Laboratory, School of Biochemistry & Cell Biology, Biosciences Institute, University College Cork, T12 YT20 Cork, Ireland.

The endosomal recycling pathway lies at the heart of the membrane trafficking machinery in the cell. It plays a central role in determining the composition of the plasma membrane and is thus critical for normal cellular homeostasis. However, defective endosomal recycling has been linked to a wide range of diseases, including cancer and some of the most common neurological disorders. Read More

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[Alzheimer's disease: experimental and clinical researches of Chinese herbal medicine neurobiological effects (a review).]

Adv Gerontol 2020 ;33(2):273-281

V.I.Razumovsky Saratov State Medical University, 112 Bol'shaya Kazach'ya str., Saratov 410012, Russian Federation, e-mail:

The analysis of experiments and clinical data about research of neurobiological effects of chinese herbal medicine, which is used by Alzheimer`s disease treatment, was presented in given overview. The rats with injection of Aβ1-42 or Aβ25-35 peptides, or ibotenic acid, or streptozotocin as well as the natural line of mice SAMP8 with the phenotype of accelerated aging and other were used as the experimental models of Alzheimer`s disease. Various neurobiological effects of various herbal decoctions in the cells of hippocampus were demonstrated - the inhibition of amyloid β peptides aggregation, increasing of neurons quantity with normal morphology and decreasing of apoptotic cells, decreasing of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) production, decreasing of reactive expression level of RAGE and increasing reactive expression level of LRP-1, decreasing of tau protein phosphorylation at Thr231 and Ser422, inhibition of expression of GSK-3β and CDK-5, decreasing of activation and inflammation of microglia, production of 15 types of N-glycans in the cerebral cortex layers, which are absent in experimental animals. Read More

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September 2020

Impact of COVID-19 on mental health in a Low and Middle-Income Country.

Cien Saude Colet 2020 Jun 25;25(suppl 1):2457-2460. Epub 2020 Apr 25.

Rede CoVida - Ciência, Informação e Solidariedade, Center of Data and Knowledge Integration for Health (CIDACS). R. Mundo 121/Parque Tecnológico do Edf. Tecnocentro/315, Trobogy. 41745-715 BA Salvador Brazil.

Mental disorders (MD) are commonly comorbid with cardiovascular, metabolic, and some infectious diseases. Since the current SARS-CoV-2 epidemic is affecting the most multimorbid individuals, we might expect that the epidemic will be particularly problematic for people with MD. Understanding the burden of an outbreak on mental health is fundamental to effective action towards containing the spread of the disease, as psychopathology might reduce endurance during the lockdown. Read More

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Overview of sleep disturbances and their management in Parkinson plus disorders.

J Neurol Sci 2020 Aug 8;415:116891. Epub 2020 May 8.

Department of Neurology, National Institute of Mental Health & Neurosciences (NIMHANS), Hosur Road, Bangalore, Karnataka 560029, India. Electronic address:

Sleep disturbance is one of the commonly reported non-motor symptoms in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) as well as in Parkinson plus disorders such as multiple system atrophy (MSA), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), and corticobasal syndrome (CBS). Although there is a wealth of literature on sleep disturbances in PD, the same is not robust on the Parkinson plus disorders. This article aims to comprehensively review the sleep disturbances in Parkinson plus disorders. Read More

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Cannabis for Symptom Management in Older Adults.

Med Clin North Am 2020 May;104(3):471-489

Research, Rocky Mountain Regional Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Denver-Seattle Center of Innovation, 1700 North Wheeling Street, Aurora, CO 80045, USA. Electronic address: https://twitter.com/Katie_Magid.

The purpose of this article is to present evidence on the efficacy and safety of medical cannabis as a therapy for symptom management in palliative care. This article provides an overview of the evidence on the risks and benefits of using medical cannabis for the indications of chronic pain, cancer-related pain, cancer cachexia, dementia, and Alzheimer's disease. Currently, there is insufficient evidence to determine the effectiveness and safety of cannabinoids for most reviewed indications, with the exception of chronic pain. Read More

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[Gene-selective treatment approaches for Huntington's disease].

Nervenarzt 2020 Apr;91(4):303-311

Abteilung Neurologie, Universitätsklinikum Ulm, Oberer Eselsberg 45/1, 89081, Ulm, Deutschland.

In Germany at least 8000 and probably up to ca. 14,000 people currently suffer from clinically manifest Huntington's disease (HD). In addition, an estimated 24,000 Germans carry the HD mutation in the huntingtin (HTT) gene and will develop HD during their lifetime. Read More

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Brain insulin resistance: role in neurodegenerative disease and potential for targeting.

Expert Opin Investig Drugs 2020 Apr 16;29(4):333-348. Epub 2020 Mar 16.

Second Hospital, Neurology Department, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, Shanxi, PR China.

: This review evaluates the novel strategy of treating Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease (AD and PD) withdrugs that initially have been developed to treat type 2 diabetes. As insulin signalling has been found to be de-sensitized in the brains of patients, drugs that can re-sensitize insulin signalling have been tested to evaluate if this strategy can alter disease progression.: The review will give an overview of preclinical and clinical tests in AD and PD of drugs activating insulin receptors, glucagon-like peptide -1 (GLP-1) receptors, and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) receptors. Read More

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Effectiveness of Pharmacological Interventions for Symptoms of Behavioral Variant Frontotemporal Dementia: A Systematic Review.

Cogn Behav Neurol 2020 03;33(1):1-15

Department of Old Age Psychiatry, GGZinGeest, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Clinical guidance on the symptomatic treatment of behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) is limited.

Objective: To provide a systematic review of pharmacological interventions for symptomatic treatment of bvFTD, based on the International bvFTD Criteria Consortium clinical diagnostic criteria: apathy, disinhibition, lack of empathy or sympathy, hyperorality, stereotypical behavior, and executive dysfunction.

Methods: We systematically searched the PubMed, Embase, and PsycINFO databases for reports on pharmacological interventions for individuals with bvFTD, published between 1970 and 2018, using key indicators and relevant terms. Read More

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