Background: Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is infrequently performed in patients with mild to moderate thrombocytopenia.
Objective: To determine whether preoperative thrombocytopenia is associated with a higher rate of complications after CEA.
Methods: We analyzed patient characteristics, comorbid conditions, operative details, and 30-day postoperative outcomes for patients who underwent CEA in the CEA-targeted American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Registry. Read More
Purpose: Varicose veins with great saphenous vein (GSV) insufficiency is prevalent. Among various surgical treatments for varicose veins, cryosurgery of GSV is an alternative minimally invasive technique that could leave fewer scars and replace conventional stripping with ambulatory phlebectomy. This study sought to assess outcomes including efficacy and safety of cryosurgery for varicose veins. Read More
A previously healthy 5-week-old female was admitted for sepsis secondary to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia. After several days of hospitalization, she experienced acute decompensation in mental status despite having received targeted antibiotic therapy. Imaging revealed left peritonsillar/parapharyngeal space abscess, left venous thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein, and septic emboli of the lungs and brain consistent with Lemierre syndrome. Read More
Cancer is frequently associated with a hypercoagulable state. Almost 15% of patients with cancer will suffer a thromboembolic event during their clinical course. The aetiology of this hypercoagulable state is multifactorial and includes procoagulant factors associated with malignancy as well as the host's inflammatory response. Read More
From the Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic Arizona, Phoenix, Ariz (R.S.P., C.O.M.); Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Mo (C.J.N., C.A.R., V.M.M., S.B.); Department of Radiology, NYU Winthrop Hospital, Mineola, NY (D.S.K.); Stony Brook University School of Medicine, Stony Brook, NY (D.S.K.); and Neuroradiology Section, Department of Radiology, Phoenix Children's Hospital, Phoenix, Ariz (P.C.).
Pregnancy results in substantial hemodynamic and prothrombotic changes that form the foundation for downstream vascular complications, both during pregnancy and in the postpartum period. In addition, several important risk factors, including older patient age, diabetes, and smoking, can increase the risk for vascular-related pregnancy complications. Because radiologists often play an important role in evaluation of the pregnant patient, understanding the pathophysiology of vascular-related complications in pregnancy and their imaging appearances is essential for diagnostic accuracy. Read More
Pylephlebitis or infective suppurative thrombosis of the portal mesenteric venous system is an uncommon condition that can potentially be deadly if not recognized and treated early. Although most commonly associated with pancreatitis and diverticulitis, any intra-abdominal or pelvic infection occurring in the region drained by the portal venous system can cause this rare entity. We report a case of a 75-year-old woman who developed post polypectomy pylephlebitis following colonoscopy, a condition rarely reported in the literature. Read More
Persistent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia is associated with significant risk of mortality, especially when it occurs while on appropriate antimicrobial therapy. We herein describe an unusual case of a patient with prosthetic aortic tissue valve, who suffered from central venous catheter related MRSA bacteremia with septic thrombus formation in the superior vena cava. MRSA bacteremia persisted despite removal of the catheter and appropriate antimicrobial therapy including vancomycin, rifampin, and daptomycin. Read More
Acute venous diseases, especially deep leg and pelvic vein thrombosis, present an angiological emergency and can lead to acute life-threatening events such as pulmonary embolism. Long-term consequences may be postthrombotic syndromes. In addition to stroke and myocardial infarction, deep leg and pelvic vein thrombosis are one of the most common cardiovascular diseases. Read More
An 18-year-old gentleman with a history of recurrent tonsillitis presented to the emergency room complaining of worsening sore throat. He was found to have a peritonisillar abscess, and imaging revealed a non-occlusive left internal jugular vein thrombosis. Lemierre's syndrome is a rare, potentially fatal condition characterized by internal jugular vein thrombosis with septicemia following an acute oropharyngeal infection. Read More
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) has a wide range of clinical presentations. Deep venous thrombosis may occur in upper or lower extremities or in visceral veins. Extremity deep venous thrombosis usually manifests with unilateral painful swelling in the limb, while visceral deep venous thrombosis manifestations vary on the basis of the involved organ. Read More
Introduction: Hyperosmolar therapy with hypertonic saline (HTS) is a cornerstone in the management of intracranial hypertension and hyponatremia in the neurological intensive care unit. Theoretical safety concerns remain for infiltration, thrombophlebitis, tissue ischemia, and venous thrombosis associated with continuous 3% HTS administered via peripheral intravenous (pIV) catheters. It is common practice at many institutions to allow only central venous catheter infusion of 3% HTS. Read More
From the Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1400 Pressler St, Houston, TX 77030 (K.M.E., S.J.); Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah (A.M.S.); Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging, McGovern Medical School at the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, Tex (S.M.R.); Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Miami Health System, Miami, Fla (B.L.M., R.P.C., V.J.C.); and Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, Ariz (C.O.M.).
The liver has a complex vascular supply, which involves the inflow of oxygenated blood through the hepatic artery (systemic circulation) and deoxygenated blood through the portal vein (portal circulation), as well as the outflow of deoxygenated blood through the hepatic veins to the inferior vena cava. A spectrum of vascular variants can involve the liver. Some of these variants may result in areas of enhancement that can mimic more serious pathologic conditions. Read More
A 59-year-old man presented to the emergency department with complaints of dysphagia, right-sided neck swelling, fever and chills. Physical examination was remarkable for fever and tender swelling over the right side of the neck. Laboratory investigations revealed leucocytosis with neutrophilia. Read More
From the *Urgences pédiatriques, CHU Nantes, Hôpital Mère-Enfant, 44093 Nantes, France; †ACTIV, Association Clinique et Thérapeutique Infantile du Val de Marne, 94100 Saint-Maur des Fossés, France; ‡Université Paris Est, IMRB-GRC GEMINI, 94000 Créteil, France; §Unité Court Séjour, Petits Nourrissons, Service de Néonatologie, Centre Hospitalier Intercommunal de Créteil, 94000 Créteil, France; ¶Laboratoire de génétique humaine des maladies infectieuses, institut national de la santé et de la recherche médicale, UMR1163, Institut IMAGINE, 75015 Paris, France; ‖Faculté de médecine de Necker, Université Paris V René-Descartes, 75015 Paris, France; **Centre d'études des déficits immunitaires (CEDI), AP-HP, hôpital Necker-Enfants-Malades, 75015 Paris, France; ††Centre National de Référence des Pneumocoques, AP-HP, HEGP (Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou), Université Paris V, 75006 Paris, France; and ‡‡Pédiatrie générale, CHU Nantes, Hôpital Mère-Enfant, 44093 Nantes, France.
Background: The occurrence of meningitis in children >5 years old may be associated with specific predisposing factors that can be anatomic, such as cerebrospinal fluid fistula or breach, or related to genetic susceptibility or N inborn or acquired immunologic defect. This study aimed to assess the anatomical and immunologic risk factors in children >5 years old with pneumococcal meningitis and prospectively enrolled in the French national meningitis network.
Methods: We analyzed all data for children who were 5-15 years old with a diagnosis of pneumococcal meningitis between 2001 and 2013. Read More
Essentials Long-term risk of recurrence of isolated superficial vein thrombosis (SVT) is under-studied. We analyzed data from a cohort of first SVT and proximal deep vein thrombosis (DVT) without cancer. The risk of recurrence as DVT or pulmonary embolism is twice lower in SVT patients. Read More
Cerebral thrombophlebites are rare but life-threatening conditions (1/5000 births). Pregnancy and postpartum are predisposing factors: clinical presentation vary and may be misleading, dominated by headaches, convulsions and neurological deficits but showing no specific features. Physical examination often generates informations unavailable and misleading because cerebral thrombophlebites share symptoms with other affections. Read More
Hepatic vena cava syndrome, also known as membranous obstruction of inferior vena cava (IVC), was considered a rare congenital disease and classified under Budd-Chiari syndrome. It is now recognized as a bacterial infection-induced disease related to poor hygiene. Localized thrombophlebitis of the IVC at the site close to hepatic vein outlets is the initial lesion which converts on resolution into stenosis or complete obstruction, the circulatory equilibrium being maintained by development of cavo-caval collateral anastomosis. Read More
Purpose: To investigate and compare the relative efficacy, recurrence and complications of endovenous laser ablation (EVLA) and radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for the treatment of varicose veins patients.
Methods: Searches were applied to the Cochrane Library as well as MEDLINE, EMBASE, BIOSIS databases. 12 articles published in English (10 randomized controlled trials and 2 cohort study) were identified from specialized trails. Read More
For a long time superficial thrombophlebitis has been thought to be a rather benign condition. Recently, when duplex ultrasound technique is used for the diagnosis more and more often, the disease is proved to be more dangerous than anticipated. Thrombosis propagates to the deep veins in 6-44% and pulmonary embolism was observed on the patients in 1,5-33%. Read More
Lemierre syndrome (LS) is a multisystemic infection beginning in the oropharynx and leading to thrombosis of the internal jugular vein (IJV) with septic emboli and potential thrombotic extension to the central nervous system. Although patient outcomes have improved with early initiation of antimicrobial therapies, there is no consensus regarding the role of anticoagulation in LS. To better define the role of anticoagulation therapy in LS and determine whether anticoagulation improves thrombosis outcomes, we conducted a retrospective chart review of pediatric and adult patients diagnosed with LS and managed at our institution from January 1998 to December 2014. Read More
Objectives:: This study compared radiofrequency ablation versus conventional surgery in patients who had not undergone previous treatment for bilateral great saphenous vein insufficiency, with each patient serving as his own control.
Method:: This was a randomized controlled trial that included 18 patients and was carried out between November 2013 and May 2015. Each of the lower limbs of each patient was randomly assigned to undergo either radiofrequency ablation or conventional surgery. Read More
Lemierre's syndrome (LS) or jugular vein suppurative thrombophlebitis is well described in literature. The organisms most often responsible are Fusobacterium necrophorum or anaerobic flora. We present a case of LS with an atypical microbiologic cause, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Read More
Reasons for trends in venous thromboembolism (VTE) incidence are uncertain. It was our objective to determine VTE incidence trends and risk factor prevalence, and estimate population-attributable risk (PAR) trends for each risk factor. In a population-based cohort study of all residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota from 1981-2010, annual incidence rates were calculated using incident VTE cases as the numerator and age- and sex-specific Olmsted County population estimates as the denominator. Read More
Viridans group streptococcus is an infrequent cause of osteomyelitis that is found in association with infective endocarditis. Only a few studies report viridans osteomyelitis in the absence of endocarditis. Vertebral pyogenic osteomyelitis can sometimes be complicated by psoas or paraspinal abscesses. Read More
Peripheral venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a known complication of oral contraceptive drugs (OCs), yet its association with visceral VTE is rarely reported. We describe a 21-year-old female patient who presented with sudden left loin pain. Plain computed tomography (CT) urography did not show kidney lesion but was suspicious of left renal vein thrombosis. Read More
Background: Patients with germ cell tumours (GCT) receiving cisplatin-based chemotherapy are at high risk of thromboembolic events (TEE). Previously, we identified serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and body surface area (BSA) as independent predictive factors for TEE. The aim of this study was to validate these predictive factors and to assess the impact of thromboembolism prophylaxis in patients at risk of deep venous thrombosis (DVT). Read More
Fusobacterium necrophorum is a gram-negative anaerobic bacterium that is the causative agent of the invasive disease Lemierre's syndrome. In addition, it is also associated with peritonsillar abscess formation and otitis media in small children. Recent research has shown that F. Read More
We present a case of Lemierre's disease complicated by pulmonary artery pseudoaneurysm. A previously well woman aged 43 years presented with a history of a sore throat and worsening dyspnoea. She was diagnosed with a severe cavitating bilateral pneumonia complicated by internal jugular vein thrombosis consistent with a diagnosis of Lemierre's disease. Read More
*Department of Medical Education, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY †Department of Neurosurgery, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY ‡Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY.
Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is a form of venous thrombosis that usually presents in chronic form without any sequalae in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) or liver cirrhosis. Accurate differential diagnosis of bland PVT from neoplastic PVT is an important step for planning treatment options, but the acute form can be challenging. Here we present a case of acute hepatic infarction caused by acute bland PVT combined with pylephlebitis, which was misdiagnosed as infiltrative hepatic malignancy with neoplastic PVT owing to the perplexing imaging results and elevated tumor markers. Read More
Introduction: Hughes-Stovin syndrome is a life-threatening disorder of unknown etiology. This condition is characterized by vasculitis, deep venous thrombosis and aneurysms that mainly involve the pulmonary arteries resulting in hemoptysis. It has been described in literature less than 40 times. Read More
Objective: To review the thrombotic complications of head and neck infections, including Lemierre's syndrome, and their management.
Methods: A retrospective review of pediatric patients presenting to McMaster Children's Hospital from 2009 to 2013 was undertaken. The literature was reviewed for evidence regarding the use of anticoagulation therapy in this population. Read More
Lemierre's syndrome is a rare life-threatening condition characterized by internal jugular vein thrombosis and is typically associated with a gram-negative infection with septic metastasis secondary to a retropharyngeal abscess that involves the vasculature of the head and neck. We report a case of Lemierre's syndrome in an 18-year-old female adolescent who developed an internal carotid artery occlusion and ipsilateral external carotid artery (ECA) mycotic aneurysm complicated by fulminant pseudomonal sepsis. The patient was managed with open ligation of the ECA with essentially complete recovery. Read More
There are not only patients with leg edema provoked by venous disorders who come to consult a phlebologist, but patients with a wide range of leg edemas of different origin. Therefore it demands great skills to take into consideration the different pattern of leg edema. This overview presents the characteristics of leg edema and the most frequently underlying disorders. Read More
Background: Wegener's Granulomatosis (WG) is classically characterized by the triad of sinonasal, pulmonary, and renal manifestations. However, a growing body of research has demonstrated that atypical head and neck pathologies including retropharyngeal and parapharyngeal lesions are often the presenting feature of patients found to have WG.
Case: This report describes the hospital course of a patient who presented with a parapharyngeal mass with secondary superior cervical chain compression and Lemierre's Syndrome. Read More
Objective: To determine whether the incidence of pneumonia, peritonsillar abscess, mastoiditis, empyema, meningitis, intracranial abscess, and Lemierre's syndrome is higher in general practices that prescribe fewer antibiotics for self limiting respiratory tract infections (RTIs).
Design: Cohort study.
Setting: 610 UK general practices from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink. Read More
Splenectomy is attended by medical complications, principally infectious and thromboembolic; the frequency of complications varies with the conditions that led to splenectomy (hematologic splenectomy, trauma, presence of portal hypertension). Most infectious complications are caused by encapsulated bacteria (Meningococcus, Pneumococcus, Hemophilus). These occur mainly in children and somewhat less commonly in adults within the first two years following splenectomy. Read More
Although superficial thrombophlebitis (SVTE) is generally considered a benign, self-limited disease, accumulating evidence suggests that it often leads to more serious forms of venous thromboembolism. We reviewed the medical charts of 329 subjects with SVTE from the Cardiovascular Research Network Venous Thromboembolism cohort study to collect information on the acute treatment of SVTE and subsequent diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis within 1 year. All participants received care within Kaiser Permanente Northern California, a large, integrated healthcare delivery system. Read More
Deep venous thrombosis (DVT), thrombosis of the inferior vena cava, and pulmonary embolism (PE) constitute a continuum that includes venous thromboembolic (VTE) disease. VTE is the third most common cardiovascular disorder that affects all races, ethnicities, gender, and ages. VTE predominantly affects the elderly population, exponentially increasing in incidence with increasing age. Read More
Acute compartment syndrome requires urgent fasciotomies to prevent irreversible muscle damage. We present a case of massive iliofemoral deep vein thrombosis (DVT) presenting as acute compartment syndrome. A healthy 21-year-old man presented with a 2-day history of worsening left leg pain with swelling and bluish discolouration. Read More