4,067 results match your criteria Decompression Sickness


Evidence of a hormonal reshuffle in the cecal metabolome fingerprint of a strain of rats resistant to decompression sickness.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 15;11(1):8317. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Univ Brest, ORPHY, IBSAM, 29200, Brest, France.

On one side, decompression sickness (DCS) with neurological disorders lead to a reshuffle of the fecal metabolome from rat caecum. On the other side, there is high inter-individual variability in terms of occurrence of DCS. One could wonder whether the fecal metabolome could be linked to the DCS-susceptibility. Read More

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The role of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in inflammatory bowel disease: a narrative review.

Med Gas Res 2021 Apr-Jun;11(2):66-71

Department of Neurosurgery & Brain and Nerve Research Laboratory, the First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, China.

Inflammatory bowel disease is a group of chronic recurrent diseases in the digestive tract, including ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Over the past few decades, the treatment of IBD has made great progress but there is still a lot of room for improvement. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) was defined as the therapeutic effect of inhaling 100% oxygen higher than one atmosphere and reported to be used in stroke, decompression sickness and wound healing. Read More

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Plasma gelsolin modulates the production and fate of IL-1β-containing microparticles following high-pressure exposure and decompression.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2021 Mar 25. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Emergency Medicine, University of Maryland Medical Center, United States.

Plasma gelsolin (pGSN) levels fall in association with diverse inflammatory conditions. We hypothesized pGSN would decrease due to the stresses imposed by high pressure and subsequent decompression, and repletion would ameliorate injuries in a murine decompression sickness (DCS) model. Research subjects were found to exhibit a modest decrease in pGSN level while at high pressure and a profound decrease after decompression. Read More

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Commentary on "Fatal air embolism in a breath-hold diver" and the implied dangers of technical freediving.

Diving Hyperb Med 2021 Mar;51(1):124

Department of Anesthesiology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville FL, USA.

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Decompression sickness after a highly conservative dive in a diver with known persistent foramen ovale: Case report.

Diving Hyperb Med 2021 Mar;51(1):111-115

Tritonia Scientific Ltd., Oban, Scotland.

A diver returned to diving, 15 months after an episode of neuro-spinal decompression sickness (DCS) with relapse, after which she had been found to have a moderate to large provoked shunt across a persistent (patent) foramen ovale (PFO), which was not closed. She performed a single highly conservative dive in line with the recommendations contained in the 2015 position statement on PFO and diving published jointly by the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society and the United Kingdom Sports Diving Medical Committee. An accidental Valsalva manoeuvre shortly after surfacing may have provoked initial symptoms which later progressed to DCS. Read More

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Spinal cord decompression sickness in an inside attendant after a standard hyperbaric oxygen treatment session.

Diving Hyperb Med 2021 Mar;51(1):103-106

Department of Hyperbaric Medicine and Sea Rescue, University Centre for Maritime and Tropical Medicine in Gdynia, Poland.

Medical personnel in hyperbaric treatment centres are at occupational risk for decompression sickness (DCS) while attending patients inside the multiplace hyperbaric chamber (MHC). A 51-year-old male hyperbaric physician, also an experienced diver, was working as an inside attendant during a standard hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) session (70 minutes at 253.3 kPa [2. Read More

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Echocardiography - techniques and pitfalls whilst diagnosing persistent (patent) foramen ovale as a risk factor in divers with a history of decompression sickness.

Diving Hyperb Med 2021 Mar;51(1):98-102

Mater Dei Hospital, Malta.

The case of a diver with a history of decompression sickness (DCS) after recreational scuba diving is presented. Cutis marmorata, a subtype of cutaneous DCS, has been consistently associated with the presence of a persistent (patent) foramen ovale (PFO) as a risk factor. Diagnostic uncertainty arose when transthoracic echocardiography with antecubital injection of agitated saline bubbles (ASBs) did not show any significant shunt, but the presence of a large Eustachian valve was counteracted by intra-femoral injection of ASBs, showing a large PFO with spontaneous shunting. Read More

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Investigation of a cluster of decompression sickness cases following a high-altitude chamber flight.

Diving Hyperb Med 2021 Mar;51(1):82-85

Aeromedical Research and Training Center, Eskisehir, Turkey.

Although relatively safe, hypoxia exposure is a mandatory training requirement for aircrew that carries the risk of decompression sickness (DCS). Usually DCS affects only one individual at a time. Here, a cluster of three simultaneous cases is reported. Read More

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Does persistent (patent) foramen ovale closure reduce the risk of recurrent decompression sickness in scuba divers?

Diving Hyperb Med 2021 Mar;51(1):63-67

Department of Cardiology, Department of Clinical Science, Skåne University Hospital, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.

Introduction: Interatrial communication is associated with an increased risk of decompression sickness (DCS) in scuba diving. It has been proposed that there would be a decreased risk of DCS after closure of the interatrial communication, i.e. Read More

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Decompression Sickness Risk Assessment and Awareness in General Aviation.

Aerosp Med Hum Perform 2021 Mar;92(3):138-145

Decompression sickness (DCS) can occur during unpressurized flight to altitudes >18,000 ft (FL180; 5486 m). To our knowledge, this has not been studied in general aviation (GA). This knowledge gap may have public health and safety implications because the most popular models of GA aircraft by sales volume are capable of flying >FL180. Read More

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Hyperoxic Effects on Decompression Strain During Alternating High and Moderate Altitude Exposures.

Aerosp Med Hum Perform 2021 04;92(4):223-230

In fighter aircraft, long-duration high-altitude sorties are typically interrupted by refueling excursions to lower altitude. In normoxia, excursions to moderate cabin altitude may increase the occurrence of venous gas emboli (VGE) at high cabin altitude. The aim was to investigate the effect of hyperoxia on VGE and decompression sickness (DCS) during alternating high and moderate altitude exposure. Read More

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A fully automated method for late ventricular diastole frame selection in post-dive echocardiography without ECG gating.

Undersea Hyperb Med 2021 First Quarter;48(1):73-80

Joint Department of Biomedical Engineering, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and North Carolina State University, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, U.S.

Venous gas emboli (VGE) are often quantified as a marker of decompression stress on echocardiograms. Bubble-counting has been proposed as an easy to learn method, but remains time-consuming, rendering large dataset analysis impractical. Computer automation of VGE counting following this method has therefore been suggested as a means to eliminate rater bias and save time. Read More

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Ultrasound in decompression research: fundamentals, considerations, and future technologies.

Undersea Hyperb Med 2021 First Quarter;48(1):59-72

Joint Department of Biomedical Engineering, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and North Carolina State University, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, U.S.

It is widely accepted that bubbles are a necessary but insufficient condition for the development of decompression sickness. However, open questions remain regarding the precise formation and behavior of these bubbles after an ambient pressure reduction (decompression), primarily due to the inherent difficulty of directly observing this phenomenon in vivo. In decompression research, information about these bubbles after a decompression is gathered via means of ultrasound acquisitions. Read More

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An echo from the past: Building a Doppler repository for big data in diving research.

Undersea Hyperb Med 2021 First Quarter;48(1):57-58

Department of Emergency Medicine, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California, U.S.S.

Decompression sickness (DCS) remains a major operational concern for diving operations, submarine escape and high-altitude jumps. Aside from DCS symptoms, venous gas emboli (VGE) detected with ultrasound post-dive are often used as a marker of decompression stress in humans, with a specificity of 100% even though the sensitivity is poor [1]. Being non-invasive, portable and non-ionizing, ultrasound is particularly suited to regular and repeated monitoring. Read More

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The effect of the perfluorocarbon emulsion Oxycyte™ in an ovine model of severe decompression illness.

Undersea Hyperb Med 2021 First Quarter;48(1):25-31

Undersea Medicine Department, Naval Medical Research Center, Silver Spring, Maryland U.S.

Background: The treatment of decompression sickness (DCS) with hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) serves to decrease intravascular bubble size, increase oxygen (O2) delivery to tissue and enhance the elimination of inert gas. Emulsified perfluorocarbons (PFC) combined with breathing O2 have been shown to have similar effects animal models. We studied an ovine model of severe DCS treated with the intravenous PFC Oxycyte™ while breathing O2 compared to saline control also breathing O2. Read More

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Therapeutic effects of hyperbaric oxygen: integrated review.

Med Gas Res 2021 Jan-Mar;11(1):30-33

Department of Pediatric Nursing, Sumandeep Nursing College, Sumandeep University, Vadodara, Gujarat, India.

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy refers to inhalation of pure oxygen in a closed chamber. Hyperbaric oxygen has a therapeutic effect in numerous pathological conditions, such as decompression sickness, arterial gas embolism, carbon monoxide poisoning and smoke inhalation, osteomylitis, osteoradionecrosis and wound healing. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is used for treating underlying hypoxia. Read More

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Patent foramen ovale closure for secondary prevention of cryptogenic stroke.

Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther 2021 Mar 19;19(3):211-220. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Cardiology Division, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

: A patent foramen ovale (PFO) is highly prevalent among the adult population. It allows shunting of blood through the inter-atrial septum and has been associated with cryptogenic stroke, transient ischemic attack, platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome, decompression sickness (e.g. Read More

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Long-term benefits and risks in patients after persistent foramen ovale closure: a contemporary approach to guide clinical decision making.

Kardiol Pol 2021 Mar 17;79(3):248-254. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Persistent foramen ovale (PFO) is a congenital heart disease which represents 80% of atrial septal defects. It is a remnant of fetal circulation that functions in postnatal conditions as a transient interatrial right‑to‑‑left shunt of variable magnitude. Persistent foramen ovale may be implicated in the pathogenesis of several medical conditions, such as cryptogenic stroke, cryptogenic left circulation thromboembolism, migraine syndromes, and decompression sickness. Read More

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Effect of Long-Term Diving Exposure on Sleep of Male Occupational Divers in Southern Taiwan: A Cross-Sectional Study.

Ann Work Expo Health 2021 Jan 29. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Department of Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine, Zuoying Branch of Kaohsiung Armed Forces General Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

Objective: Divers with a history of decompression sickness may be at high risk for sleep problems. However, limited studies have investigated the relationship between diving exposure and sleep problems of occupational divers. This study investigated the association between diving exposure and sleep quality and quantity among male occupational divers in southern Taiwan. Read More

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January 2021

European position paper on the management of patients with patent foramen ovale. Part II - Decompression sickness, migraine, arterial deoxygenation syndromes and select high-risk clinical conditions.

Eur Heart J 2021 Apr;42(16):1545-1553

Ospedale San Giovanni Bosco, Turin, Italy.

Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of medical conditions but to date only one official position paper related to left circulation thromboembolism has been published. This interdisciplinary paper, prepared with the involvement of eight European scientific societies, reviews the available evidence and proposes a rationale for decision making for other PFO-related clinical conditions. In order to guarantee a strict evidence-based process, we used a modified grading of recommendations, assessment, development, and evaluation (GRADE) methodology. Read More

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European position paper on the management of patients with patent foramen ovale. Part II - Decompression sickness, migraine, arterial deoxygenation syndromes and select high-risk clinical conditions.

EuroIntervention 2021 01 28. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

S. Filippo Neri Hospital ASL Roma 1, Rome, Italy.

Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of medical conditions but to date only one official position paper related to left circulation thromboembolism has been published. This interdisciplinary paper, prepared with the involvement of eight European scientific societies, reviews the available evidence and proposes a rationale for decision making for other PFO-related clinical conditions. In order to guarantee a strict evidence-based process, we used a modified grading of recommendations, assessment, development, and evaluation (GRADE) methodology. Read More

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January 2021

Ultrasound in the diagnosis of acute-phase decompression sickness.

Radiol Case Rep 2021 Mar 9;16(3):698-700. Epub 2021 Jan 9.

Shizuoka Saiseikai General Hospital.

A 53-year-old man, who performed a 44-minute dive to a depth of 21 meters, felt severe abdominal pain with dyspnea after surfacing. An ultrasound study showed a marked snowstorm pattern in the portal vein of the liver and right ventricle, and whole body computed tomography revealed multiple gas bubbles in the right ventricle, inferior vena cava, portal, mesenteric and femoral vein. He was thus diagnosed to have decompression sickness and was therefore transported to another hospital to undergo hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Read More

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The largest of August Krogh animals: Physiology and biomechanics of the blue whale revisited.

Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 2021 Apr 5;254:110894. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Zoophysiology, Department of Biology, Aarhus University, Denmark.

The blue whale is the largest animal ever. This gigantism probably evolved to exploit seasonal krill blooms, where massive feasts allow for accumulation of large blubber reserves that can fuel their low mass specific metabolism during prolonged periods of fasting. Until recently, the physiology and biomechanics of blue whales could only be inferred from anatomical inspections, but the recent development of biologging tags now provide unique insights into how these ocean giants function and interact with their environment. Read More

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Growth of gas-filled penny-shaped cracks in decompressed hydrogels.

Soft Matter 2021 Jan 7;17(4):815-825. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA, UK.

We report that the decompression of soft brittle materials can lead to the growth of internal gas-filled cracks. These cracks are oblate spheroids ('penny shape'), whose major radius grows linearly in time, irreversibly fracturing the surrounding material. Our optical measurements in hydrogels characterise and quantify the three-dimensional crack geometry and growth rate. Read More

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January 2021

Retroperitoneal extensive free air bubbles due to decompression illness.

Ulus Travma Acil Cerrahi Derg 2021 01;27(1):151-153

Department of Radiology, Dokuz Eylül University Faculty of Medicine, İzmir-Turkey.

Decompression illness (DCI) is a rare condition caused by air bubbles that arise because of a rapid decrease in ambient pressure. These air bubbles exert both physical and chemical effects associated with a range of findings from asymptomatic clinical presentation to death. In the literature, changes in consciousness, severe musculoskeletal and abdominal pain, respiratory distress, and skin changes have been described. Read More

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January 2021

Definitive Treatment of Neurological Decompression Sickness in a Resource Limited Location.

Aerosp Med Hum Perform 2021 Jan;92(1):47-49

While Fairbanks, AK, USA, is a remote location with significant constraints on medical resources and specialty care, a small U.S. Air Force clinic was able to provide a pilot with definitive care for neurological decompression sickness. Read More

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January 2021

Hypobaric Decompression and White Matter Hyperintensities: An Evaluation of the NATO Standard.

Aerosp Med Hum Perform 2021 Jan;92(1):39-42

In their seminal work, McGuire and colleagues reported an increased incidence of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) in a cohort of U2 pilots and hypobaric chamber personnel. WMH burden was higher in U2 pilots with previous reports of decompression sickness (DCS), and McGuire's reports have raised concerns regarding adverse outcomes in the aftermath of hypobaric exposures. Accordingly, a NATO working group has recently revised its standard recommendations regarding hypobaric exposures, including measures to mitigate the risk of WMH. Read More

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January 2021

Convulsions in a Young Scuba Diver.

Ann Emerg Med 2021 01;77(1):124-137

Emergency Medicine Department, University Hospital San Martino, Genoa, Italy.

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January 2021

Gas embolism and massive blunt force trauma to sea turtles entrained in hopper dredges in North and South Carolina, USA.

Dis Aquat Organ 2020 Dec 17;142:189-196. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

North Carolina State University, College of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, and Center for Marine Sciences and Technology, Morehead City, North Carolina 28557, USA.

Decompression sickness (DCS) has been described mainly in loggerhead turtles Caretta caretta bycaught in trawls and gillnets. Here we present cases of gas emboli (GE) in 8 green turtles Chelonia mydas and 2 Kemp's ridleys Lepidochelys kempii entrained in hopper dredges that were working at 8.8-15. Read More

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December 2020