3,981 results match your criteria Decompression Sickness


Combined methazolamide and theophylline improves oxygen saturation but not exercise performance or altitude illness in acute hypobaric hypoxia.

Exp Physiol 2020 May 4. Epub 2020 May 4.

Altitude Research Center, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, USA.

New Findings: What is the central question of this study? Does the combination of methazolamide and theophylline reduce symptoms of acute mountain sickness (AMS) and improve aerobic performance in acute hypobaric hypoxia? What is the main finding and its importance? The oral combination of methazolamide (100 BID) and theophylline (300 BID) improved arterial oxygen saturation but did not reduce symptoms of AMS and impaired aerobic performance. We do not recommend this combination of drugs for prophylaxis against the acute negative effects of hypobaric hypoxia.

Abstract: A limited number of small studies have suggested that methazolamide and theophylline can independently reduce symptoms of acute mountain sickness (AMS) and, if taken together, can improve aerobic exercise performance in normobaric hypoxia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP088461DOI Listing

Massive gas embolisms in diving fatalities visualized by radiology and neuropathology.

Clin Neuropathol 2020 Apr 17. Epub 2020 Apr 17.

Massive vascular gas embolism is a feared and often lethal symptom of decompression illness, resulting from diving accidents. The aim of this case report was to correlate post-mortem computed tomography scan (PMCT) findings with autopsy in cases of massive vascular gas embolism. Two cases of fatal diving accidents were retrospectively selected from a forensic radiological pathological database. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5414/NP301258DOI Listing

Treatment of children with Hyperbaric Oxygenation (HBOT): an Europe-wide survey.

Minerva Pediatr 2020 Apr 9. Epub 2020 Apr 9.

Department for Intensive Care Medicine, Medical Faculty, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.

Background: Hyperbaric oxygenation therapy (HBOT) is used as emergency treatment for decompression sickness, gas embolism, carbon monoxide intoxication, necrotizing fasciitis. There is low evidence and little clinical knowledge about treating children with HBOT.

Methods: We sent an internet-based questionnaire to HBO centers in Europe to gain information about their experience with children and HBOT. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0026-4946.20.05741-2DOI Listing

Ulinastatin: A Potential Alternative to Glucocorticoid in the Treatment of Severe Decompression Sickness.

Front Physiol 2020 26;11:273. Epub 2020 Mar 26.

Department of Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine, Naval Special Medicine Center, Naval Medical University, Shanghai, China.

Inflammatory reaction is the crux in various clinical critical diseases including decompression sickness (DCS). Ulinastatin (UTI), a potent anti-inflammatory agent, has been used clinically, including as a substitution for steroids. This study aimed to explore the potential effects of UTI upon DCS in a rabbit model. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2020.00273DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7113395PMC

Prevention of Decompression Sickness by Novel Artificial Oxygen Carriers.

Med Sci Sports Exerc 2020 Apr 1. Epub 2020 Apr 1.

University Duisburg-Essen, University Hospital Essen, Institute of Physiology, CENIDE, Essen, Germany.

For three decades, studies have demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of perfluorocarbons (PFCs) in reducing the onset of decompression trauma. However, none of these emulsion-based preparations are accepted for therapeutic use in the western world, mainly because of severe side-effects and a long organ retention time. A new development to guarantee a stable dispersion without these disadvantages is the encapsulation of PFCs in nanocapsules with an albumin shell. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000002354DOI Listing

Evidence of Microbubbles on Kidney Stones in Humans.

Ultrasound Med Biol 2020 Mar 31. Epub 2020 Mar 31.

Center for Industrial and Medical Ultrasound, Applied Physics Laboratory, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.

The color Doppler ultrasound twinkling artifact has been found to improve detection of kidney stones with ultrasound; however, it appears on only ∼60% of stones. Evidence from ex vivo kidney stones suggests twinkling arises from microbubbles stabilized in crevices on the stone surface. Yet it is unknown whether these bubbles are present on stones in humans. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2020.02.010DOI Listing

On-board study of gas embolism in marine turtles caught in bottom trawl fisheries in the Atlantic Ocean.

Sci Rep 2020 Mar 27;10(1):5561. Epub 2020 Mar 27.

Aquatic, Amphibian, and Reptile Pathology Program, Department of Comparative, Diagnostic, and Population Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA.

Decompression sickness (DCS) was first diagnosed in marine turtles in 2014. After capture in net fisheries, animals typically start showing clinical evidence of DCS hours after being hauled on-board, often dying if untreated. These turtles are normally immediately released without any understanding of subsequent clinical problems or outcome. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-62355-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7101392PMC

Temporary and permanent unfitness of occupational divers. Brest Cohort 2002-2019 from the French National Network for Occupational Disease Vigilance and Prevention (RNV3P).

Int Marit Health 2020 ;71(1):71-77

Centre for Professional and Environmental Pathologies (Centre de Ressource en Pathologie Professionnelle et Environnementale CRPPE), Brest University Hospital (CHRU), Brest, France.

Background: In France, the monitoring of professional divers is regulated. Several learned societies (French Occupational Medicine Society, French Hyperbaric Medicine Society and French Maritime Medicine Society) have issued follow-up recommendations for professional divers, including medical follow-up. Medical decisions could be temporary unfitness for diving, temporary fitness with monitoring, a restriction of fitness, or permanent unfitness. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/IMH.2020.0014DOI Listing
January 2020

Safety behaviour and healthy diving: a qualitative study in the traditional diverse fishermen.

Int Marit Health 2020 ;71(1):56-61

Master of Nursing Study Programme, Faculty of Nursing, Universitas Airlangga, Kampus C, Mulyorejo, 60124 Surabaya, Indonesia.

Background: Traditional divers from the Maluku Province of Indonesia have not received formal education and training related to standard diving tools. They only become accomplished at diving generation by generation. The use of non-standard diving tools increases the risk of injury and illness. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/IMH.2020.0012DOI Listing
January 2020

Lessons from a historic example of diving safety rules violation: the case of Greek sponge divers.

Int Marit Health 2020 ;71(1):28-33

Deratment of Microbiology, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.

This study presents a historical example of systematic safety rules violations by professional sponge divers in Greece during the early 20th century. In light of absolute unaccountability in favour of economic competition and in the absence of state oversight, the profession of sponge diving had developed into a deadly undertaking. The study is based on a report compiled by Professor of Hygiene and Microbiology Konstantinos Savvas, which was addressed to the Ministry of Marine Affairs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/IMH.2020.0008DOI Listing
January 2020

Manned validation of a US Navy Diving Manual, Revision 7, VVal-79 schedule for short bottom time, deep air decompression diving.

Diving Hyperb Med 2020 Mar;50(1):43-48

Navy Experimental Diving Unit, Panama City Beach, Florida, USA.

Introduction: The US Navy air decompression table was promulgated in 2008, and a revised version, calculated with the VVal-79 Thalmann algorithm, was promulgated in 2016. The Swedish Armed Forces conducted a laboratory dive trial using the 2008 air decompression table and 32 dives to 40 metres' seawater for 20 minutes bottom time resulted in two cases of decompression sickness (DCS) and high venous gas emboli (VGE) grades. These results motivated an examination of current US Navy air decompression schedules. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.28920/dhm50.1.43-48DOI Listing

Comparison of tissue oxygenation achieved breathing oxygen using different delivery devices and flow rates.

Diving Hyperb Med 2020 Mar;50(1):34-42

Department of Kinesiology, Faculty of Medicine, Université Laval, Québec, Canada.

Introduction: Divers with suspected decompression illness require high concentration oxygen (O₂). There are many different O₂ delivery devices, with few data comparing their performance. This study evaluated O₂ delivery, using tissue O₂ partial pressure (PO₂), in healthy divers breathing O₂ via three different delivery devices. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.28920/dhm50.1.34-42DOI Listing

Factors influencing the severity of long-term sequelae in fishermen-divers with neurological decompression sickness.

Diving Hyperb Med 2020 Mar;50(1):9-16

Program of Assistance to Vietnamese Fishermen Divers, Association Francophone d'Entraide et de Promotion des Sciences de la Vie, Section Paris, Ile de France, Maison des Associations du XIe, France.

Introduction: Numerous studies have been conducted to identify the factors influencing the short-term prognosis for neurological decompression sickness (DCS). However, the long-term sequelae are rarely assessed. The purpose of this study to investigate the factors likely to influence the long-term prognosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.28920/dhm50.1.9-16DOI Listing

A study of decompression sickness using recorded depth-time profiles.

Undersea Hyperb Med 2020 First Quarter;47(1):75-91

AN America, Durham, North Carolina U.S.

Introduction: 122,129 dives by 10,358 recreational divers were recorded by dive computers from 11 manufacturers in an exploratory study of how dive profile, breathing gas (air or nitrox [N2/O2] mixes), repetitive diving, gender, age, and dive site conditions influenced observed decompression sickness (DCSobs). Thirty-eight reports were judged as DCS. Overall DCSobs was 3. Read More

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Microvessel density, lipid chemistry and N2 solubility in human and pig adipose tissue.

Undersea Hyperb Med 2020 First Quarter;47(1):1-12

Biology and Marine Biology Department, University of North Carolina Wilmington - Wilmington, North Carolina U.S.

Decompression sickness (DCS) occurs when nitrogen gas (N2) comes out of solution too quickly, forming bubbles in the blood and tissues. These bubbles can be a serious condition; thus it is of extreme interest in the dive community to model DCS risk. Diving models use tissue compartments to calculate tissue partial pressures, often using data obtained from other mammalian species (i. Read More

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Trinomial decompression sickness model using full, marginal, and non-event outcomes.

Comput Biol Med 2020 Mar 30;118:103640. Epub 2020 Jan 30.

Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA; Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA; Division of Marine Science and Conservation, Duke University Marine Laboratory, Beaufort, NC, USA; BelleQuant Engineering, PLLC, Mebane, NC, USA. Electronic address:

Decompression sickness (DCS) is a condition associated with reductions in ambient pressure during underwater diving and altitude exposure. Determining the risk of DCS from a dive exposure remains an active area of research, with the goal of developing safe decompression schedules to mitigate the occurrence of DCS. This work develops a probabilistic model for the trinomial outcome of full, marginal, and no DCS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compbiomed.2020.103640DOI Listing

Itchy Erythematous Plaques after Scuba Diving: A Quiz.

Acta Derm Venereol 2020 May 11;100(10):adv00130. Epub 2020 May 11.

Department of Dermatology, University of Montpellier and Montpellier University Hospital, FR-34090 Montpellier, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2340/00015555-3451DOI Listing

The Blockade of Store-Operated Calcium Channels Improves Decompression Sickness in Rats.

Front Physiol 2019 31;10:1616. Epub 2020 Jan 31.

Department of Internal Medicine, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan.

Background: Previous investigations reveal that BTP2, a store-operated calcium channel blocker, has protective and anti-inflammatory properties in multiple inflammatory diseases. This study investigates whether BTP2 can protect against decompression sickness (DCS) in a rat model.

Methods: BTP2 (2 mg/kg) was administered to male Sprague-Dawley rats 30 min before subjecting them to hyperbaric pressure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2019.01616DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7005134PMC
January 2020

Hyperbaric tracheobronchial compression in cetaceans and pinnipeds.

J Exp Biol 2020 Mar 3;223(Pt 5). Epub 2020 Mar 3.

Biology Department, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543, USA.

Assessment of the compressibility of marine mammal airways at depth is crucial to understanding vital physiological processes such as gas exchange during diving. Very few studies have directly assessed changes in cetacean and pinniped tracheobronchial shape, and none have quantified changes in volume with increasing pressure. A harbor seal, gray seal, harp seal, harbor porpoise and common dolphin were imaged promptly post mortem via computed tomography in a radiolucent hyperbaric chamber. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jeb.217885DOI Listing

Fatty acid composition and N solubility in triacylglycerol-rich adipose tissue: the likely importance of intact molecular structure.

J Exp Biol 2020 Mar 3;223(Pt 5). Epub 2020 Mar 3.

University of North Carolina Wilmington, 601 S. College Road, Wilmington, NC 28403, USA.

Diving tetrapods (sea turtles, seabirds and marine mammals) are a biologically diverse group, yet all are under similar constraints: oxygen limitation and increased hydrostatic pressure at depth. Adipose tissue is important in the context of diving because nitrogen gas (N) is five times more soluble in fat than in blood, creating a potential N sink in diving animals. Previous research demonstrates that unusual lipid composition [waxes and short-chained fatty acids (FA)] in adipose tissue of some whales leads to increased N solubility. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jeb.216770DOI Listing

High-Altitude Decompression Sickness Treated with Hyperbaric Therapy and Extracorporeal Oxygenation.

Aerosp Med Hum Perform 2020 Feb;91(2):106-109

High-altitude decompression sickness (HADCS) is a rare condition that has been associated with aircraft accidents. To the best of our knowledge, the present paper is the first case report of a patient treated for severe HADCS using recompression therapy and veno-venous extracorporeal oxygenation (VV-ECMO) with a complete recovery. After depressurization of a cabin, the 51-yr-old jet pilot was admitted to the Military Institute of Medicine with a life-threatening HADCS approximately 6 h after landing from a high-altitude flight, in a dynamically deteriorating condition, with progressing dyspnea and edema, reporting increasing limb paresthesia, fluctuating consciousness, and right-sided paresis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3357/AMHP.5457.2020DOI Listing
February 2020

Mesenteric venous thrombosis as a rare complication of decompression sickness.

Surg Case Rep 2020 Jan 16;6(1):24. Epub 2020 Jan 16.

Department of Surgery, Nakatsu Municipal Hospital, 173 Shimoikenaga, Nakatsu, Oita, 871-8511, Japan.

Background: Decompression sickness (DCS) induced by extravascular and intravascular gas bubbles during decompression can present with varying manifestations, such as joint pain, numbness, cutaneous symptoms, and cardiopulmonary dysfunction. However, mesenteric venous thrombosis (MVT) is a rare complication of DCS. To the best of our knowledge, only a few cases have been reported, and surgical cases of MVT secondary to DCS have not yet been reported. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40792-020-0780-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6965534PMC
January 2020

Gas micronuclei that underlie decompression bubbles and decompression sickness have most probably been identified - in response to the Letter to the Editor from Dr David Doolette.

Authors:
Ran Arieli

Diving Hyperb Med 2019 12;49(4):311-312

The Israel Naval Medical Institute, Israel Defence Forces Medical Corps, Haifa, Israel; Eliachar Research Laboratory, Western Galilee Medical Centre, Nahariya, Israel.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.28920/dhm49.4.311-312DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7039774PMC
December 2019

A case of Löfgren's syndrome confused with decompression sickness.

Diving Hyperb Med 2019 Dec;49(4):306-310

Department of Kinesiology, Faculty of Medicine, Université Laval, Québec, Canada.

A broad differential diagnosis is important to provide appropriate care. This may be challenging for conditions like decompression sickness (DCS) which can be easily confused with other conditions. In suspected DCS, treatment may be an important part of the diagnosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.28920/dhm49.4.306-310DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7039773PMC
December 2019

Decompression illness (DCI) in Finland 1999-2018: Special emphasis on technical diving.

Diving Hyperb Med 2019 Dec;49(4):259-265

Helsinki University, Helsinki, Finland.

Introduction: This is the first published study on decompression illness (DCI) and its treatment in Finland. Diving conditions are demanding, as even in the summer the water temperature below 20 meters' sea/fresh water (msw/mfw) is 4-10°C. Technical diving has become more popular over the years, so the emphasis of this study was to describe DCI in technical divers and compare it with non-technical recreational divers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.28920/dhm49.4.259-265DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7039777PMC
December 2019

Rehabilitation of a patient with spinal cord decompression sickness: First case report from Saudi Arabia.

Clin Case Rep 2019 Nov 11;7(11):2231-2234. Epub 2019 Oct 11.

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation King Fahad Hospital Dammam Saudi Arabia.

This case brings attention to development of rehabilitation protocols for patients with decompression sickness (DCS). A lack of data regarding DCS renders the need of conducting multicenter studies to document the epidemiology and outcomes of spinal cord DCS in Saudi Arabia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccr3.2453DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6878043PMC
November 2019

Finnish Trial on Practices of Anterior Cervical Decompression and Fusion (FACADE): a protocol for a prospective randomised non-inferiority trial comparing outpatient versus inpatient care.

BMJ Open 2019 11 26;9(11):e032575. Epub 2019 Nov 26.

Finnish Centre for Evidence-Based Orthopedics (FICEBO), University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

Introduction: Although a great majority of patients with cervical radiculopathy syndrome can successfully be treated non-operatively, a considerable proportion experience persistent symptoms, severe enough to require neurosurgical intervention. During the past decade, cervical spine procedures have increasingly been performed on an outpatient basis and retrospective database analyses have shown this to be feasible and safe. However, there are no randomised controlled studies comparing outpatient care with inpatient care, particularly with emphasis on the patients' perception of symptom relief and their ability to return to normal daily activities and work. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2019-032575DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6886918PMC
November 2019

Doppler ultrasound dataset for the development of automatic emboli detection algorithms.

Data Brief 2019 Dec 4;27:104739. Epub 2019 Nov 4.

Department of Information Engineering, Università Politecnica Delle Marche, Via Brecce Bianche 12, 60131, Ancona, Italy.

The article describes a dataset of doppler ultrasound audio tracks taken on a sample of 30 divers according to the acquisition protocol defined by the Divers Alert Network. The audio tracks are accompanied by a medical evaluation for the decompression sickness risk according to the Spencer's scale levels. During the acquisition campaign, each diver in the post-dive phase was subjected to a double doppler ultrasound examination of approximately 45 seconds each one in the precordial area using a Huntleigh FD1 Fetal doppler probe. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2019.104739DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6864345PMC
December 2019

Risks from Breathing Elevated Oxygen.

Aerosp Med Hum Perform 2019 Dec;90(12):1041-1049

Effects of breathing gas with elevated oxygen partial pressure (Po₂) and/or elevated inspired oxygen fraction (Fo₂) at sea level or higher is discussed. High Fo₂ is associated with absorption problems in the lungs, middle ear, and paranasal sinuses, particularly if Fo₂ > 80% and small airways, Eustachian tubes, or sinus passages are blocked. Absorption becomes faster as cabin altitude increases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3357/AMHP.5393.2019DOI Listing
December 2019

Occupational Safety and Health in a Community of Shellfish Divers: A Community-Based Participatory Approach.

J Community Health 2020 Jun;45(3):569-578

CIHLMU Center for International Health, Hospital of the Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Munich, Germany.

In artisanal fishing communities in Chile, the access to occupational safety and health (OSH) is limited by factors such as the informality of employment. Our objective was to analyze the working and health conditions of workers in a coastal town in Southern Chile, under a community-based participatory approach. We carried out two independent social dialogue workshops within the community. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10900-019-00777-9DOI Listing

A new form of admissible pressure for Haldanian decompression models.

Comput Biol Med 2019 12 22;115:103518. Epub 2019 Oct 22.

Tek Diving SAS, Brest, France; ORPHY laboratory, University of Western Brittany, IBSAM, Brest, France.

In this article, we propose and study a new form of admissible pressure in the Haldanian framework. We then use it to study the surjectivity of the Gradient Factors on the space of the reachable decompression profiles, and investigate a particular case. This case leads to the proposition of a decompression strategy, whose crucial parameter is the ascent rate. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compbiomed.2019.103518DOI Listing
December 2019

Decompression sickness: a guide for emergency nurses.

Emerg Nurse 2019 Nov 5. Epub 2019 Nov 5.

Scholars Department, Baptist Health, Florida, United States.

Decompression sickness (DCS) is commonly associated with diving or occupational exposure to compressed air, and is a life-threatening condition if left untreated. This article provides an overview of the pathophysiology and types of DCS. It also explains the principles of care for people presenting to the emergency department with DCS that emergency nurses must be familiar with, including the recognition of its signs and symptoms and the initial management required. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7748/en.2019.e1989DOI Listing
November 2019

Perfluorocarbons for the treatment of decompression illness: how to bridge the gap between theory and practice.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2019 Dec 4;119(11-12):2421-2433. Epub 2019 Nov 4.

Institute of Physiology, CENIDE, University of Duisburg-Essen, University Hospital Essen, Hufelandstr. 55, 45122, Essen, Germany.

Decompression illness (DCI) is a complex clinical syndrome caused by supersaturation of respiratory gases in blood and tissues after abrupt reduction in ambient pressure. The resulting formation of gas bubbles combined with pulmonary barotrauma leads to venous and arterial gas embolism. Severity of DCI depends on the degree of direct tissue damage caused by growing bubbles or indirect cell injury by impaired oxygen transport, coagulopathy, endothelial dysfunction, and subsequent inflammatory processes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-019-04252-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6858394PMC
December 2019

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for perioperative posterior ischemic optic neuropathy: a case report.

Undersea Hyperb Med 2019 Sep - Dec - Fourth Quarter;46(5):701-707

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland U.S.

Purpose: To report the successful treatment of postoperative posterior ischemic optic neuropathy (PION) with hyperbaric oxygen therapy and to review the current literature on the pathogenesis and treatment of PION.

Observations: During an angiographic procedure at a community hospital, an elderly woman had a transient drop in blood pressure after receiving an intravenous dose of hydralazine. During recovery, the patient experienced bilateral vision loss. Read More

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November 2019
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Hyperbaric treatment for decompression sickness: current recommendations.

Undersea Hyperb Med 2019 Sep - Dec - Fourth Quarter;46(5):685-693

Department of Anaesthesia and Perioperative Medicine, Auckland City Hospital, Auckland, New Zealand.

Decompression sickness (DCS, "bends") is caused by formation of bubbles in tissues and/or blood when the sum of dissolved gas pressures exceeds ambient pressure (supersaturation). This may occur when ambient pressure is reduced during any of the following: ascent from a dive; depressurization of a hyperbaric chamber; rapid ascent to altitude in an unpressurised aircraft or hypobaric chamber; loss of cabin pressure in an aircraft [2] and during space walks. Read More

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November 2019

Hyperbaric treatment of air or gas embolism: current recommendations.

Authors:
Richard E Moon

Undersea Hyperb Med 2019 Sep - Dec - Fourth Quarter;46(5):673-683

Depts. of Anesthesiology and Medicine, Center for Hyperbaric Medicine and Environmental Physiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina U.S.

Gas can enter arteries (arterial gas embolism, AGE) due to alveolar-capillary disruption (caused by pulmonary over-pressurization, e.g. breath-hold ascent by divers) or veins (venous gas embolism, VGE) as a result of tissue bubble formation due to decompression (diving, altitude exposure) or during certain surgical procedures where capillary hydrostatic pressure at the incision site is subatmospheric. Read More

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November 2019
1 Read

Gas in coronary artery: A case of fatal decompression sickness evaluated by computed tomography.

Undersea Hyperb Med 2019 Sep - Dec - Fourth Quarter;46(5):633-634

Department of Acute Critical Care Medicine, Shizuoka Hospital, Juntendo University, Izunokuni City, Shizuoka, Japan.

A 54-year-old man suffered a leg cramp while diving in the ocean at a depth of 20 meters. He began to surface, with his ascent based on a decompression table. He lost consciousness at the surface and was rescued by a nearby boat. Read More

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November 2019
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Percutaneous closure of patent foramen ovale for the secondary prevention of decompression illness in sports divers: mind the gap.

Undersea Hyperb Med 2019 Sep - Dec - Fourth Quarter;46(5):625-632

Centre for Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy, Military Hospital, Brussels, Belgium.

Objective: To evaluate the efficiency of percutaneous patent foramen ovale (PFO) closure on the recurrence of decompression illness (DCI).

Design: Retrospective, observational study with interview and questionnaire.

Setting: Tertiary referral center. Read More

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November 2019

An alternative mechanism underlying the protection against decompression illness by helium preconditioning.

Authors:
Ran Arieli

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 10;127(4):1175

The Israel Naval Medical Institute, Israel Defense Forces Medical Corps, Haifa, Israel.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00323.2019DOI Listing
October 2019

Spinal Decompression Sickness in an Experienced Scuba Diver: A Case Report and Review of Literature.

Neurohospitalist 2019 Oct 14;9(4):235-238. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.

Decompression sickness from diving is a rare but potentially reversible cause of spinal injury. Early treatment with hyperbaric oxygen is associated with a better neurologic outcome, making prompt recognition and management clinically important. We describe a case of a 65-year-old diver who presented with thoracic back pain and bilateral leg weakness after a 70 feet of sea water (fsw) (21 meters of sea water [msw]) dive, with no acute abnormality on spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1941874419828895DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6739671PMC
October 2019
4 Reads

Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy and Radiation-Induced Injuries.

Authors:
John P Kirby

Mo Med 2019 May-Jun;116(3):198-200

John P. Kirby MD, FACS, is the Director of Wound Healing Programs, Associate Professor of Surgery, Section of Acute and Critical Care Surgery, at Washington University School of Medicine, Barnes-Jewish Hospital, in St. Louis, Missouri.

Initial clinical uses of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) capitalized upon physical effects to drive offending gases back into solution and deliver more oxygen to tissues in early treatments of decompression sickness. HBO has a myriad of other effects, including stimulating angiogenesis and new cellular in growth for healing. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6690284PMC
February 2020
1 Read

The Diagnosis of Decompression Sickness in Sport Divers.

Authors:
John P Kirby

Mo Med 2019 May-Jun;116(3):195-197

John P. Kirby MD, FACS, is the Director of Wound Healing Programs, Associate Professor of Surgery, Section of Acute and Critical Care Surgery, at Washington University School of Medicine, Barnes-Jewish Hospital, in St. Louis, Missouri.

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO) remains the primary treatment for decompression sickness (DCS)-which can be obviously serious or infrequently more minor and can get missed outside of centers that routinely handling diving medicine. This review will point out the salient items for how sport or amateur divers might present for HBO. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6690281PMC
February 2020
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Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy as an Elective Treatment.

Authors:
John P Kirby

Mo Med 2019 May-Jun;116(3):184-187

John P. Kirby MD, FACS, is the Director of Wound Healing Programs, Associate Professor of Surgery, Section of Acute and Critical Care Surgery, at Washington University School of Medicine, Barnes-Jewish Hospital, in St. Louis, Missouri.

Hyperbaric oxygen therapies may have grown out of emergencies such as those for Decompression Sickness (DCS), but more commonly in the U.S., hyperbaric oxygen is used for much more elective problems. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6690302PMC
February 2020
3 Reads

Microparticle and interleukin-1β production with human simulated compressed air diving.

Sci Rep 2019 09 16;9(1):13320. Epub 2019 Sep 16.

University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, USA.

Production of blood-borne microparticles (MPs), 0.1-1 µm diameter vesicles, and interleukin (IL)-1β in response to high pressure is reported in lab animals and associated with pathological changes. It is unknown whether the responses occur in humans, and whether they are due to exposure to high pressure or to the process of decompression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-49924-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6746808PMC
September 2019
1 Read

Descriptive study of diving injuries in the Canary Islands from 2008 to 2017.

Diving Hyperb Med 2019 Sep;49(3):204-208

Department of Surgery, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad de la Laguna, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain.

Introduction: This research reports the epidemiology of diving injuries managed in the Hyperbaric Medicine Unit of the Canary Islands University Hospital.

Methods: Data were extracted from the clinical records of all divers injured and admitted to the unit for treatment of dysbaric diving injuries between 2008 and 2017, inclusive.

Results: One-hundred and thirty diving injuries were recorded. Read More

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http://www.dhmjournal.com/index.php/journals?id=58
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http://dx.doi.org/10.28920/dhm49.3.204-208DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6884094PMC
September 2019
5 Reads

Increasing prevalence of vestibulo-cochlear decompression illness in Malta - an analysis of hyperbaric treatment data from 1987-2017.

Diving Hyperb Med 2019 Sep;49(3):161-166

Department of Interdisciplinary Health Sciences, University of Stellenbosch, South Africa.

Introduction: Scuba diving is a big part of the tourism sector in Malta, and all the cases of decompression illness (DCI)are treated within the single hyperbaric referral centre in the country.

Methods: This retrospective analysis reviews all the medical records of divers with DCI in Malta within the 30-year period between 1987 to 2017 who required recompression therapy with hyperbaric oxygen.

Results: There were 437 discrete cases of DCI managed with recompression therapy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.28920/dhm49.3.161-166DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6881197PMC
September 2019
4 Reads

DCS or DCI? The difference and why it matters.

Authors:
Simon J Mitchell

Diving Hyperb Med 2019 Sep;49(3):152-153

Editor, Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine Journal.

There are few issues that generate as much confusion in diving medicine as the nomenclature of bubble-induced dysbaric disease. Prior to the late 1980s, the diagnosis 'decompression sickness' (DCS) was invoked for symptoms presumed to arise as a consequence of bubble formation from dissolved inert gas during or after decompression. These bubbles were known to form within tissues, and also to appear in the venous blood (presumably after forming in tissue capillaries). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.28920/dhm49.3.152-153DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6881199PMC
September 2019
12 Reads

Biphasic effects of autophagy on decompression bubble-induced endothelial injury.

J Cell Mol Med 2019 12 12;23(12):8058-8066. Epub 2019 Sep 12.

Department of Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine, Naval Medical University, Shanghai, China.

Endothelial dysfunction induced by bubbles plays an important role in decompression sickness (DCS), but the mechanism of which has not been clear. The present study was to investigate the role of autophagy in bubble-induced endothelial injury. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were treated with bubbles, autophagy markers and endothelial injury indices were determined, and relationship strengths were quantified. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.14672DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6850936PMC
December 2019

Hyperoxia and lack of ascorbic acid deplete tetrahydrobiopterin without affecting NO generation in endothelial cells.

Undersea Hyperb Med 2019 Jun-Jul-Aug - Third Quarter;46(4):509-519

Norwegian Centre for Maritime and Diving Medicine, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway.

Nitric oxide (NO) may protect against gas bubble formation and risk of decompression sickness. We have previously shown that the crucial co-factor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is oxidized in a dose-dependent manner when exposed to hyperoxia similar to diving conditions but with minor effects on the NO production by nitric oxide synthase. By manipulating the intracellular redox state, we further investigated the relationship between BH4 levels and production of NO in human endothelial cells (HUVECs). Read More

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November 2019
2 Reads

Is it safe to SCUBA dive with asthma?

Expert Rev Respir Med 2019 11 11;13(11):1069-1077. Epub 2019 Sep 11.

Great Western Hospital NHS Foundation Trust , Swindon , UK.

: Internationally it is estimated that six million people participate in self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (SCUBA) diving each year. Registries suggest a significant proportion of divers have a current or historical diagnosis of asthma. Previously individuals with asthma were prohibited from diving, however, several contemporary guidelines suggest a select population of patients with asthma may be able to dive with an acceptable degree of risk. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17476348.2019.1666003DOI Listing
November 2019
18 Reads