1,575,724 results match your criteria DNA and Cell Biology [Journal]


Centrifugation affects the purity of liquid biopsy-based tumor biomarkers.

Cytometry A 2018 Dec;93(12):1207-1212

Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Laboratory of Experimental Clinical Chemistry, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Biomarkers in the blood of cancer patients include circulating tumor cells (CTCs), tumor-educated platelets (TEPs), tumor-derived extracellular vesicles (tdEVs), EV-associated miRNA (EV-miRNA), and circulating cell-free DNA (ccfDNA). Because the size and density of biomarkers differ, blood is centrifuged to isolate or concentrate the biomarker of interest. Here, we applied a model to estimate the effect of centrifugation on the purity of a biomarker according to published protocols. Read More

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December 2018

Structure of a (3+1) hybrid G-quadruplex in the PARP1 promoter.

Nucleic Acids Res 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637371, Singapore.

Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) has emerged as an attractive target for cancer therapy due to its key role in DNA repair processes. Inhibition of PARP1 in BRCA-mutated cancers has been observed to be clinically beneficial. Recent genome-mapping experiments have identified a non-canonical G-quadruplex-forming sequence containing bulges within the PARP1 promoter. Read More

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December 2018

CRISPR-C: circularization of genes and chromosome by CRISPR in human cells.

Nucleic Acids Res 2018 Dec;46(22):e131

Department of Biomedicine, Aarhus University, Denmark.

Extrachromosomal circular DNA (eccDNA) and ring chromosomes are genetic alterations found in humans with genetic disorders. However, there is a lack of genetic engineering tools to recapitulate and study the biogenesis of eccDNAs. Here, we created a dual-fluorescence biosensor cassette, which upon the delivery of pairs of CRISPR/Cas9 guide RNAs, CRISPR-C, allows us to study the biogenesis of a specific fluorophore expressing eccDNA in human cells. Read More

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December 2018

Cytological and molecular aspects of the ageing sperm.

Hum Reprod 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Laboratory of Seminology - Sperm Bank 'Loredana Gandini' Department of Experimental Medicine, 'Sapienza' University of Rome, Italy.

Study Question: Is ageing associated with a decline in semen quality and molecular changes to human sperm?

Summary Answer: Semen quality declines with advancing age and characteristic molecular changes take place during the ageing process, including increased sperm DNA damage, altered sperm protamination and altered seminal plasma miRNA profile.

What Is Known Already: During ageing, the reproductive system is exposed to physiological changes and potentially damaging factors that may impair testicular function. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can induce errors during DNA replication, transcription or post-transcriptional events (fragmentation, chromatin condensation abnormalities and protamine expression defects). Read More

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December 2018

Effects of a single transient transfection of Ten-eleven translocation 1 catalytic domain on hepatocellular carcinoma.

PLoS One 2018 14;13(12):e0207139. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

College of Pharmacy, Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi, P.R. China.

Tumor suppressor genes (TSGs), including Ten-eleven translocation 1 (TET1), are hypermethylated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). TET1 catalytic domain (TET1-CD) induces genome-wide DNA demethylation to activate TSGs, but so far, anticancer effects of TET1-CD are unclear. Here we showed that after HCC cells were transiently transfected with TET1-CD, the methylation levels of TSGs, namely APC, p16, RASSF1A, SOCS1 and TET1, were distinctly reduced, and their mRNA levels were significantly increased and HCC cells proliferation, migration and invasion were suppressed, but the methylation and mRNA levels of oncogenes, namely C-myc, Bmi1, EMS1, Kpna2 and c-fos, were not significantly change. Read More

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December 2018

Significant inhibition of photosynthesis and respiration in leaves of Cucumis sativus L. by oxybenzone, an active ingredient in sunscreen.

Chemosphere 2018 Dec 3;219:456-462. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology, China; College of Life Sciences, Shandong Agricultural University, China. Electronic address:

Oxybenzone (OBZ), an active ingredient in most sunscreens, was recently shown to be toxic to humans, corals and other animals. This study is the first to demonstrate that OBZ can significantly inhibit photosynthesis and respiration in the leaves of a higher plant, cucumber. An OBZ suspension content as low as 0. Read More

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December 2018
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Detection of Mg-dependent, coaxial stacking rearrangements in a bulged three-way DNA junction by single-molecule FRET.

Biophys Chem 2018 Dec 5;245:25-33. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Physics, Loyola University Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA. Electronic address:

Three-way helical junctions (3WJs) arise in genetic processing, and they have architectural and functional roles in structured nucleic acids. An internal bulge at the junction core allows the helical domains to become oriented into two possible, coaxially stacked conformers. Here, the helical stacking arrangements for a series of bulged, DNA 3WJs were examined using ensemble fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and single-molecule FRET (smFRET) approaches. Read More

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December 2018

A new class of diamide scaffold: Design, synthesis and biological evaluation as potent antimitotic agents, tubulin polymerization inhibition and apoptosis inducing activity studies.

Bioorg Chem 2018 Dec 5;84:399-409. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Pharmaceutical Organic Chemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

A new series of diamide functional compounds has been designed, synthesized and confirmed by spectroscopic methods and elemental analyses. All the synthesized compounds were evaluated for their antiproliferative activity on HepG2 cell line. Compounds 3k and 3l were proved to have potent anticancer activity equipotent or more potent than reference compound Combretastatin A-4. Read More

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December 2018

Synthesis of a new disulfide Fmoc monomer for creating biologically susceptible linkages in peptide nucleic acid oligomers.

Bioorg Chem 2018 Dec 1;84:394-398. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Georgia Southern University, Savannah, GA, USA. Electronic address:

Peptide nucleic acids (PNA) are one of many synthetic mimics of DNA and RNA that have found applications as biological probes, as nano-scaffold components, and in diagnostics. In an effort to use PNA as constructs for cellular delivery we investigated the possibility of installing a biologically susceptible disulfide bond in the backbone of a PNA oligomer. Here we report the synthesis of a new abasic Fmoc monomer containing a disulfide bond that can be incorporated into a PNA oligomer (DS-PNA) using standard solid phase peptide synthesis. Read More

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December 2018

Ostrich egg yolk improves post thaw quality and in vivo fertility of Nili Ravi buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bull spermatozoa.

Theriogenology 2018 Dec 6;126:140-144. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Semen Production Unit Qadirabad, Sahiwal, Pakistan. Electronic address:

Egg yolk containing higher ratio of phospholipids and cholesterol may have better cryoprotective effect to buffalo spermatozoa during cryopreservation. Our objectives were to ascertain the comparison of Ostrich and chicken egg yolk in semen extender on post thaw quality, motion dynamics and in vivo fertility of Nili Ravi buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bull spermatozoa. Semen samples (n = 45) from five bulls were collected once a week for a period of nine weeks and diluted in Triladyl extender having different concentrations of Ostrich egg yolk (10%, 15%, 20%) and 20% chicken egg yolk as control at 37 °C. Read More

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December 2018

Risk of Chlamydia abortus transmission via embryo transfer using in vitro produced early bovine embryos.

Theriogenology 2018 Dec 1;126:114-120. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

LUNAM University, Oniris, Nantes-Atlantic National College of Veterinary Medicine, Food Science and Engineering, Sanitary Security of Reproduction Biotechnology Unit, Nantes, France. Electronic address:

The objectives of this study were to determine (i) whether Chlamydia (C.) abortus would adhere to the intact zona pellucida (ZP-intact) of early in vitro produced bovine embryos; (ii) whether the bacteria would adhere to the embryos (ZP-free) after in vitro infection; and (iii) the efficacy of the International Embryo Transfer Society (IETS) washing protocol. The experimentation was made twice. Read More

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December 2018

Fish antiviral tripartite motif (TRIM) proteins.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

INRA, Virologie et Immunologie Moléculaires, Université Paris-Saclay, Jouy-en-Josas, France. Electronic address:

Tripartite motif (TRIM) family or RBCC proteins comprises characteristic zinc-binding domains (a RING (R), a B-box type 1 (B1) and a B-box type 2 (B2)) and coiled-coil (CC) domain followed by a C-terminus variable domain. There are about 80 different TRIM proteins in human, but more than 200 in zebrafish with several large gene expansions (ftr >70 genes; btr >30 genes; trim35 > 30 genes). Repertoires of trim genes in fish are variable across fishes, but they have been remarkably diversified independently in a number of species. Read More

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December 2018

Early-life exposure to the endocrine disruptor 17-α-ethinylestradiol induces delayed effects in adult brain, liver and ovotestis proteomes of a self-fertilizing fish.

J Proteomics 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Laboratory of Evolutionary and Adaptive Physiology - Institute of Life, Earth and Environment - University of Namur, 61 Rue de Bruxelles, B5000 Namur, Belgium.

Early-life represents a critically sensitive window to endocrine disrupting chemicals, potentially leading to long-term repercussions on the phenotype later in life. The mechanisms underlying this phenomenon, referred to as the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD), are still poorly understood. To gain molecular understanding of these effects, we exposed mangrove rivulus (Kryptolebias marmoratus) for 28 days post hatching (dph) to 4 and 120 ng/L 17-α-ethinylestradiol, a model xenoestrogen. Read More

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December 2018

Diversification of the genus Apogon (Lacepède, 1801) (Apogonidae: Perciformes) in the tropical eastern Pacific.

Mol Phylogenet Evol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Laboratorio de Biología Acuática, Facultad de Biología, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Edificio "R" planta baja, Ciudad Universitaria, Morelia, Michoacán, 58030, México; Laboratorio Nacional de Análisis y Síntesis Ecológica para la Conservación de Recursos Genéticos de México, Escuela Nacional de Estudios Superiores, Unidad Morelia, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 27-3 (Xangari), 58089, Morelia, Michoacán, México.

We examined the role of geographic barriers and historical processes on the diversification of Apogon species within the tropical eastern Pacific (TEP). Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences were used in Bayesian and Maximum likelihood analyses to generate a phylogenetic hypothesis for Apogon species. Bayesian inferences were used to date the cladogenetic events. Read More

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December 2018

A plastid phylogeny of the fern genus Arachniodes (Dryopteridaceae).

Mol Phylogenet Evol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

CAS Key Laboratory of Mountain Ecological Restoration and Bioresource Utilization, Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 416, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041, China; Missouri Botanical Garden,4344 Shaw Blvd., St. Louis, Missouri 63110, U.S.A. Electronic address:

Arachniodes (Dryopteridaceae) is one of the most confusing and controversial fern genera in terms of its circumscription, nomenclature, and taxonomy. Estimates of species number range from 40 to 200. Previous molecular works included only 2-17 accessions representing 2-12 species of Arachniodes and allied genera, leaving most of the Asian species remain unsampled and the infragneric relationships unclear. Read More

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December 2018

Integrating multilocus DNA data and 3D geometric morphometrics to elucidate species boundaries in the case of Pyrenaearia (Pulmonata: Hygromiidae).

Mol Phylogenet Evol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Zoology and Animal Cell Biology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of the Basque Country, EHU/UPV, Paseo de la Universidad 7, 01006 Vitoria-Gasteiz, Araba, Spain; Biodiversity Research Group CIEA Lucio Lascaray, Avda. Miguel de Unamuno 3, 01006, Araba, Spain. Electronic address:

To accurately delimit species the use of multiple character types is essential as all speciation processes are not equally reflected in different data (e.g. morphological, molecular or ecological characters). Read More

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December 2018

Human DNA degradation assessment and male DNA detection by quantitative-PCR followed by high-resolution melting analysis.

Forensic Sci Int 2018 Nov 29;295:1-7. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Centro de Referencia en Identificación Genética Humana de la Universidad de Buenos Aires, Cátedra de Genética Forense y Servicio de Huellas Digitales Genéticas, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junin 956, CP 1113, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina; Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas-CONICET, Godoy Cruz 2290, CP 1425, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina.

We developed a q-PCR technique that simultaneously evaluates the extent of degradation and determines the gender of a human DNA donor. QYDEG HRM is a triplex real-time PCR whose products are analysed by high-resolution melting (HRM). The system produces three amplicons: (1) transducin (beta)-like 1, Y-linked (TBL1Y) (84bp); (2) large-target sequence (DGlt) (244bp); and (3) small-target sequence (DGst) (152bp). Read More

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November 2018

ER stress promotes antitumor effects in BRAFi/MEKi resistant human melanoma induced by natural compound 4-nerolidylcathecol (4-NC).

Pharmacol Res 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Skin Biology Group, Clinical Chemistry and Toxicology Department, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

Melanoma accounts for only 4% of malignant neoplasms of the skin, but is considered the most serious because it is highly deadly. Mutations in the MAPK (Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK) pathway is closely linked to the lack of control of cell proliferation. Especially in melanoma, this pathway has become a target for the development of oncogene-targeted therapies, such as the potent inhibitors of v-Raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B (BRAFi) and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEKi). Read More

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December 2018
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Evaluation of three advanced methodologies, COLD-PCR, microarray and ddPCR, for identifying the mutational status by liquid biopsies in metastatic colorectal cancer patients.

Clin Chim Acta 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Unit of Genomic for the Diagnosis of Human Pathologies, Division of Genetics and Cell Biology, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Via Olgettina 60, Milan 20132, Italy; Laboratory of Clinical Molecular Biology, IRCCS Ospedale San Raffaele, Milan, Italy; Università Vita-Salute San Raffaele, Milano, Italy.

A major effort has been focused on the detection of oncogenes' mutations in diverse types of clinical specimens including formalin-fixed and paraffin embedded tissues, presently the gold-standard samples, up to plasma, that constitute a noninvasive alternative source of tumor DNA. The reliable detection of mutations in circulating tumor DNA requires a high analytical sensitivity. Here, we applied three different highly sensitive methodologies (COLD-PCR, a microarray-based approach and the droplet digital PCR, ddPCR) to identify mutations in the plasma of 30 metastatic colorectal cancer patients previously genotyped on tissue biopsy. Read More

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December 2018

Role of the androgen receptor gene CAG repeat polymorphism on the sequence of pubertal events and adiposity in girls with high dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate.

J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Institute of Maternal and Child Research, School of Medicine, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile. Electronic address:

Study Objective: The Androgen Receptor (AR) harbors a variable repeat of a variable number of glutamine residues [(CAG)n] which seems to affect inversely AR transcriptional activity. We assessed whether (CAG)n affect the sequence of the androgen-sensitive pubertal events and body composition in prepubertal girls.

Design: and participants: Nested case-control study within the Growth and Obesity Cohort Study of 1196 low-middle income children (≈50% girls) from Santiago, Chile. Read More

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December 2018

Oncogene addiction as a foundation of targeted cancer therapy: the paradigm of the MET receptor tyrosine kinase.

Cancer Lett 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, University of Bern, 3008, Bern, Switzerland; Department for BioMedical Research, Radiation Oncology, University of Bern, 3008, Bern, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Following nearly two decades of its conception, the phenomenon of oncogene addiction still represents a key concept of how progresses in basic research can translate to unprecedented translational breakthroughs. Coined by Bernard Weinstein, this term refers to the phenomenon by which cancer cells can exhibit dependence on a single oncogenic protein or signaling pathway for sustaining proliferation and survival, despite the wide burden of genetic lesions characterizing their genomic background, revealing thus a promising Achilles' heel of cancer. Importantly, this concept aided the design and clinical implementation of molecularly targeted anticancer therapies, further supporting the paradigm shift witnessed in clinical oncology towards an individual-based, personalized era. Read More

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December 2018

Neutrophils Restrict Tumor-Associated Microbiota to Reduce Growth and Invasion of Colon Tumors in Mice.

Gastroenterology 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Molecular & Integrative Physiology, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor MI; Internal Medicine Division of Gastroenterology, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor MI; Rogel Cancer Center. University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor MI. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Neutrophils are among the most prevalent immune cells in the microenvironment of colon tumors, are believed to promote growth of colon tumors, and their numbers correlate with outcomes of patients with colon cancer. Trials of inhibitors of neutrophil trafficking are under way in patients with cancer, but it is not clear how neutrophils contribute to colon tumorigenesis.

Methods: Colitis-associated colon cancer was induced mice with conditional deletion of neutrophils (LysMCre;Mcl1) and wild-type littermates (LysMCre;Mcl1, control mice) by administration of azoxythmethane and/or dextran sulfate sodium. Read More

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December 2018

Phase Separation, Protein Disorder, and Enhancer Function.

Authors:
Steven Hahn

Cell 2018 Dec;175(7):1723-1725

Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA, USA. Electronic address:

New findings suggest that transcription enhancers work by recruitment of a large dynamic network of coactivators and other factors responsible for gene activation. Formation of these condensates is driven by DNA-bound transcription factors, their intrinsically disordered activation domains, and dynamic low-specificity interactions within the complex. Read More

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December 2018

Cancer Neoantigens.

Annu Rev Immunol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Division of Molecular Oncology and Immunology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, 1066 CX Amsterdam, The Netherlands; email: ,

Malignant transformation of cells depends on accumulation of DNA damage. Over the past years we have learned that the T cell-based immune system frequently responds to the neoantigens that arise as a consequence of this DNA damage. Furthermore, recognition of neoantigens appears an important driver of the clinical activity of both T cell checkpoint blockade and adoptive T cell therapy as cancer immunotherapies. Read More

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December 2018

Evaluating the Efficiency of Primer Extension Capture as a Method to Enrich DNA Extractions.

J Forensic Sci 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Laboratories of Molecular Anthropology and Microbiome Research, Norman, OK, 73019.

In this study, we sought to document the efficiency of primer extension capture (PEC) as a method to enrich DNA eluates of targeted DNA molecules and remove nontarget molecules from pools containing both. Efficiency of the method was estimated by comparing number of "copies in" to "copies out" by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. PEC retention of DNA targets ranging 109-288 base pairs (bps) in length was 15. Read More

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December 2018

A multigene typing system for human adenoviruses reveals a new genotype in a collection of Swedish clinical isolates.

PLoS One 2018 14;13(12):e0209038. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology, and Laboratory for Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS), Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.

Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) are common pathogens that can cause respiratory, gastrointestinal, urogenital, and ocular infections. They are divided into seven species containing 85 genotypes. Straightforward typing systems might help epidemiological investigations. Read More

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December 2018

Determining diet from faeces: Selection of metabarcoding primers for the insectivore Pyrenean desman (Galemys pyrenaicus).

PLoS One 2018 14;13(12):e0208986. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Zoology and Animal Cell Biology, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, Leioa, Basque Country, Spain.

Molecular techniques allow non-invasive dietary studies from faeces, providing an invaluable tool to unveil ecological requirements of endangered or elusive species. They contribute to progress on important issues such as genomics, population genetics, dietary studies or reproductive analyses, essential knowledge for conservation biology. Nevertheless, these techniques require general methods to be tailored to the specific research objectives, as well as to substrate- and species-specific constraints. Read More

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December 2018

Ex vivo assays to predict enhanced chemosensitization by hyperthermia in urothelial cancer of the bladder.

PLoS One 2018 14;13(12):e0209101. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Molecular Genetics, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Introduction: Bladder cancer (urothelial carcinoma) is a common malignancy characterized by high recurrence rates and intense clinical follow-up, indicating the necessity for more effective therapies. Current treatment regimens include intra-vesical administration of mitomycin C (MMC) for non-muscle invasive disease and systemic cisplatin for muscle-invasive or metastatic disease. Hyperthermia, heating a tumor to 40-44°C, enhances the efficacy of these chemotherapeutics by various modes of action, one of which is inhibition of DNA repair via homologous recombination. Read More

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December 2018

Influence of pathway topology and functional class on the molecular evolution of human metabolic genes.

PLoS One 2018 14;13(12):e0208782. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Institute of Systems Biology, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.

Metabolic networks comprise thousands of enzymatic reactions functioning in a controlled manner and have been shaped by natural selection. Thanks to the genome data, the footprints of adaptive (positive) selection are detectable, and the strength of purifying selection can be measured. This has made possible to know where, in the metabolic network, adaptive selection has acted and where purifying selection is more or less strong and efficient. Read More

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December 2018

High-grade Endometrial Carcinomas: Morphologic and Immunohistochemical Features, Diagnostic Challenges and Recommendations.

Int J Gynecol Pathol 2019 Jan;38 Suppl 1:S40-S63

Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (R.M., R.A.S.) New York University Medical Center and School of Medicine, Tisch Hospital (K.M.), New York Department of Pathology, University Hospital, Stony Brook School of Medicine, Stony Brook (C.T.), New York Department of Pathology, Oslo University Hospital, Norwegian Radium Hospital; Faculty of Medicine, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway (B.D.) Department of Pathology, University of California San Diego, San Diego (O.F.) Department of Pathology, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (J.K.L.R.), California Department of Pathology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden (J.A.C.) Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School (C.P.C.) Department of Pathology, Massachussetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School (E.O.), Boston, Massachussetts Department of Pathology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver (C.B.G., J.A.I.) Department of Laboratory Medicine, Pathology and Medical Genetics, Royal Jubilee Hospital, Victoria (J.A.I.), BC, Canada Department of Pathology, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (A.M.) Department of Pathology, Hospital University Arnau de Vilanova; and Department of Pathology, Hospital University de Bellvitge, IRBLLEIDA, IDIBELL, University of Lleida, CIBERONC, Barcelona, Spain (X.M.-G.) Department of Pathology, Belfast Health and Social Care Trust, Belfast, UK (W.G.M.) Department of Pathology and Obstetrics and Gynecology, Yale School of Medicine and Yale School of Publich Health, New Haven, Connecticut (V.P.) Department of Pathology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (P.N.S.) Department of Pathology, KEMH and School for Women's and Infants' Health, University of Western Australia, Perth, WA, Australia (C.J.R.S.).

This review of challenging diagnostic issues concerning high-grade endometrial carcinomas is derived from the authors' review of the literature followed by discussions at the Endometrial Cancer Workshop sponsored by the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists in 2016. Recommendations presented are evidence-based, insofar as this is possible, given that the levels of evidence are weak or moderate due to small sample sizes and nonuniform diagnostic criteria used in many studies. High-grade endometrioid carcinomas include FIGO grade 3 endometrioid carcinomas, serous carcinomas, clear cell carcinomas, undifferentiated carcinomas, and carcinosarcomas. Read More

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January 2019

Combination of ω-3 fatty acids and cisplatin as a potential alternative strategy for personalized therapy of metastatic melanoma: an in-vitro study.

Melanoma Res 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Institute of General Pathology, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore.

The recently developed therapeutic strategies have led to unprecedented improvements in the control of metastatic melanoma and in the survival of specific subgroups of patients. However, drug resistance, low response rates, and undesired side effects make these treatments not suitable or tolerable for all the patients, and chemotherapeutic treatments appear still indispensable, at least for subgroups of patients. New combinatory strategies are also under investigation as tailored treatments or salvage therapies, including combined treatments of immunotherapy with conventional chemotherapy. Read More

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December 2018

Alcohol and gastrointestinal cancers.

Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Pancreato-Biliary Endoscopy Division and Endosonography Division, Pancreas Translational and Clinical Research Centre, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Vita Salute San Raffaele University, Milan.

Purpose Of Review: Alcohol is a type I carcinogen and the WHO stated that it caused 5% of all deaths in 2016, of which 13% because of cancers. Among digestive tract cancers, this association is clear for esophageal, liver and colorectal cancer, and more debated for gastric and pancreatic cancer. The present review will revise recent evidence on epidemiologic association and mechanisms linking alcohol with the risk of esophageal, gastric, colorectal and pancreatic cancers. Read More

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December 2018

Bacterial Resistance and Prostate Cancer Susceptibility Toward Metal-Ion-doped DNA Complexes.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Sungkyunkwan Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT) and Department of Physics , Sungkyunkwan University , Suwon 16419 , Korea.

DNA nanotechnology has laid a platform to construct a variety of custom-shaped nanoscale objects for functionalization of specific target materials to achieve programmability and molecular recognition. Herein, we prepared DNA nanostructures [namely, synthetic DNA rings (RDNA) and DNA duplexes extracted from salmon (SDNA)] containing metal ions (M) such as Cu, Ni, and Zn as payloads for delivery to exterminate highly pathologic hospital bacterial strains (e.g. Read More

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December 2018

Evaluation of Carriage with the Analysis of Serogroups, Genogroups and Clonal Complexes among Polish Soldiers.

Pol J Microbiol 2018 ;67(4):493-500

Military Institute of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Tropical Medicine , Warsaw , Poland.

Neisseria meningitidis is an etiological factor of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD). This Gram-negative diplococcus is transmitted from person to person via droplets or through a direct physical contact with secretions of infected patients or asymptomatic carriers. The latter account for 5-10% of the general population. Read More

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January 2018

[The experience in the application of nikavir in the schemes of perinatal chemoprophylactics of HIV infection: evaluation of the immunological and virusological effectiveness.]

Vopr Virusol 2018 ;63(5):212-217

Academician Ye. A. Wagner State Medical University, Perm, 614000, Russian Federation.

Objectives: The goal of this work was to study the immunological and virological efficacy of the domestic antiretroviral drug nicavir (at the optimal dose, as proven by previous clinical studies) with lamivudine, in comparison with other drugs of the group of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors in combination with kaletra in perinatal HIV chemoprophylaxis regimens.

Methods: 658 pregnant women aged 16-39 years and children born to them were examined. The first group (281 people) and the third group (66 people) received the nicavir (manufactured by AZT PHARMA KB LLC) with lamivudine in combination with calyx; the second (281 people) and the fourth (30 people) of the comparison group, stag and zidovudine, respectively, with lamivudine in combination with calyx. Read More

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January 2018

[Modern ethiotropic chemotherapy of human cytomegalovirus infection: clinical effectiveness, molecular mechanism of action, drug resistance, new trends and prospects. Part 1.]

Authors:
V L Andronova

Vopr Virusol 2018 ;63(5):202-211

National Research Center for Epidemiology and Microbiology named after the honorary academician N.F. Gamaleya, Moscow, 123098, Russian Federation.

Modern chemotherapy of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections has a very limited arsenal of first-line drugs. These are preparations of ganciclovir (GCV) belonging to the class of modified nucleosides and its metabolic precursor ganciclovir valine ester. After three-step phosphorylation, GCV, as a structural analogue of the natural nucleotide, competes with it for binding to DNA polymerase and, due to its structural features, inhibits its activity. Read More

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January 2018

[Plasmids of archaea as possible ancestors of DNA-containing viruses].

Vopr Virusol 2018 ;63(5):197-201

48 Central Scientific Research Institute, Sergiev Posad, 141306, Russian Federation.

Тhе kingdom Archaea, as well as Bacteria, belongs to the overkingdom Prokaryota. Halophilic archaea (Halorubrum lacusprofundi) isolated from Antarctic saline lakes contain plasmids (pR1SE) that code proteins taking part in the formation of membranes of archaea vesicles. The molecular and biological properties of pR1SE and the peculiarity of its interaction with sensitive cells are considered in this article. Read More

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January 2018

[The development of laboratory diagnostic of leprosy using polymerase chain reaction].

Klin Lab Diagn 2018 ;63(1):55-59

DNA-Technology LLC, 115478, Moscow, Russia.

The purpose of study is to develop techniques of laboratory diagnostic of leprosy on the basis of polymerase chain reaction. The techniques were worked through such as extraction of DNA from various clinical material (bioptates and scarifcate of skin, scrapes from mucous surface of nose and trophic ulcers, blood serum). The systems of oligonucleotides were constructed to 16S pRNA and probe for identifcation of Mycobacterium leprae in real-time format for amplifer DT-96 ("The DNA-Technology", Russia). Read More

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January 2018
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[The clinical laboratory characteristic of primary acute cytomegalovirus infection in non-immunocompromised adult patients].

Klin Lab Diagn 2018 ;63(1):51-54

The state budget institution of health care "The clinical center of prevention and struggle with AIDS" of the Minzdrav of the Krasnodar kraii, 350015, Krasnodar, Russia.

The purpose of study is the clinical laboratory characteristic of acquired acute cytomegalovirus infection in nonimmunocompromised adult patients. The sampling included 75 patients with acquired acute cytomegalovirus infection admitted to the specialized clinical infection hospital of the Minzdrav of the Krasnodar kraii. The verifcation of diagnosis was implemented using serological tests and polymerase chain reaction. Read More

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January 2018

[TITLE].

Klin Lab Diagn 2018 ;63(1):44-50

The Federal state budget educational institution of higher education "The St. Petersburg state pediatric medical university" of Minzdrav of Russia, 194100, St. Petersburg, Russia.

The purpose of study is to establish features of autoimmune reaction of children with Crohn's disease. The sampling included 62 patients aged from 2 to 17 years with diagnosis of Crohn's disease. The evaluation was carried out concerning concentration in blood serum of immunoglobulins IgA, IgM, IgG, IgЕ, antibodies to Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ASCA) classes IgA, IgG и IgЕ, antibodies to Candida albicans classes IgA, IgM, IgG и IgЕ, anti-neutrophilic cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) to myeloperoxidase (MPO), to proteinase 3 (PR3), anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA), antibodies to DNAds, DNAss (to double-helical and single-stranded DNA), antibodies to antigens of small and large intestines, pancreas, circulating immune complexes. Read More

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January 2018

Identification of a Novel Gene Mutation in a Chinese Pedigree with X-linked Thrombocytopenia.

Clin Lab 2018 Oct;64(11)

Background: X-linked thrombocytopenia (XLT) is a milder form of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS), characterized predominantly by thrombocytopenia with small-sized platelets. Mutations in the WAS gene are responsible for the disease. We herein detected a new mutation in the WAS gene responsible for XLT in a 3-generation Chinese pedigree. Read More

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October 2018

Gene mutations in a Han Chinese Alzheimer's disease cohort.

Brain Behav 2018 Dec 14:e01180. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Neurology, Xinxiang Medical University, Xinxiang, China.

Objective: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia characterized by memory loss at disease onset. The gene mutations in the amyloid precursor protein (APP), presenilin 1 (PSEN1), and presenilin 2 (PSEN2) are the frequent causes of AD. However, the clinical and genetic features of AD overlap with other neurodegenerative diseases. Read More

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December 2018

A Flow Cytometry-Based Assay for High-Throughput Detection and Quantification of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps in Mixed Cell Populations.

Cytometry A 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore.

Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are web-like structures composed of decondensed chromatin and antimicrobial proteins that are released into the extracellular space during microbial infections. This active cell death program is known as NETosis. To date, florescence microscopy is the widely accepted method for visualization and quantification of NETs. Read More

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December 2018

Urinary circulating DNA and circulating antigen for diagnosis of schistosomiasis mansoni: a field study.

Trop Med Int Health 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Medical Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Medicine, University of Alexandria, Egypt.

Objective: To evaluate three non- invasive assays for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis mansoni in an Egyptian village.

Methods: Urine was collected for the detection of circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) and cell free parasite DNA (cfpd) by Point-of-contact (POC)-cassette assay and PCR respectively. These tests were compared to Kato Katz (KK) fecal thick smear for detection of Schistosoma mansoni eggs. Read More

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December 2018

Quantitative multi-locus metabarcoding and waggle dance interpretation reveal honey bee spring foraging patterns in Midwest agroecosystems.

Mol Ecol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Entomology, The Ohio State University.

We explored the pollen foraging behavior of honey bee colonies situated in the corn and soybean dominated agroecosystems of central Ohio over a month-long period using both pollen metabarcoding and waggle dance inference of spatial foraging patterns. For molecular pollen analysis we developed simple and cost-effective laboratory and bioinformatics methods. Targeting four plant barcode loci (ITS2, rbcL, trnL and trnH), we implemented metabarcoding library preparation and dual-indexing protocols designed to minimize amplification biases and index mis-tagging events. Read More

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December 2018

Role and regulation of proapoptotic Bax in oral squamous cell carcinoma and drug resistance.

Head Neck 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Centre for Life Sciences, School of Natural Sciences, Central University of Jharkhand, Ranchi, Jharkhand, India.

Background: Bax, a proapoptotic protein but its regulation during oral cancer progression and resistance remains elusive.

Methods: A total of 127 samples including adjacent normal, primary tumor, and resistance to chemoradiation therapy (RCRT) samples from oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients were used. The status of Bax was analyzed at DNA/mRNA/protein levels and the results were correlated with p53 and Akt expression in tissue samples/cisplatin-resistant oral tongue SCC (SCC9/SCC4-CisR) cell line. Read More

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December 2018

DNA damage signatures in peripheral blood cells (PBMC) as biomarkers in prodromal Huntington's disease.

Ann Neurol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Biology, University of Naples "Federico II", Naples, Italy.

Easily accessible biomarkers in Huntington disease (HD) are actively searched. We investigated telomere length (TL) and DNA double-strand breaks (histone variant pγ-H2AX) as predictive disease biomarkers in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 25 pre-manifest, 58 HD patients, with similar CAG expansion in the huntingtin gene (HTT) gene and 44 healthy controls (HC). PBMC from PRE-HD and HD groups showed shorter telomeres (p<0. Read More

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December 2018

Entecavir and peginterferon alfa-2a in adults with HBeAg-positive immune tolerant chronic hepatitis B virus infection.

Hepatology 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

University of Michigan.

Background/aim: Monotherapy with interferon or nucleoside analog is generally not recommended during the immune tolerant (IT) phase of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Recognition that high HBV DNA levels are associated with hepatocellular carcinoma has increased interest in treating HBV in the IT phase. Small pediatric studies reported efficacy with combination nucleoside analog and interferon therapy. Read More

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December 2018

Profound, durable and MGMT-independent sensitivity of glioblastoma cells to cyclin-dependent kinase inhibition.

Int J Cancer 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Laboratory of Molecular Neuro-Oncology, Department of Neurology, University Hospital and University of Zurich, Frauenklinikstrasse 26, CH-8091 Zurich, Switzerland.

TG02 is a novel cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor and thought to act mainly via CDK-9 inhibition-dependent depletion of short-lived oncoproteins such as MCL-1 or c-MYC. We studied the activity of TG02 in 9 human long-term glioma cell lines (LTC) and 5 glioma-initiating cell lines (GIC) using various cell death assays in vitro and in the LN-229 LTC and ZH-161 GIC models in vivo. TG02 exhibits strong anti-tumor cell activity with EC concentrations in the nanomolar range. Read More

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December 2018

xCas9 expands the scope of genome editing with reduced efficiency in rice.

Plant Biotechnol J 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

State Key Laboratory of Plant Genomics and National Center for Plant Gene Research (Beijing), Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, The Innovative Academy of Seed Design, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, China.

CRISPR-Cas9 systems have been widely used in animals and plants for genome editing, epigenetic modification, etc. (Cong et al., 2013, Hilton et al. Read More

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December 2018
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