51,614 results match your criteria Cytomegalovirus

Relapse protection following early CMV reactivation after HSCT is limited to HLA-C KIR ligand homozygous recipients.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Internal Medicine I: Hematology with Stem Cell Transplantation, Hemostaseology and Medical Oncology, Ordensklinikum Linz Elisabethinen, Linz, Austria; Medical Faculty, Johannes Kepler University, Linz, Austria.

Background: While the risk for non-relapse mortality (NRM) associated with early cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation (CMVR) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is well established, debate is ongoing on whether CMVR may reduce the risk of primary disease relapse.

Objective: Relapse protection following early CMV reactivation after HSCT in the context of the HLA-C KIR ligands of the recipients.

Study Design: In this retrospective, bi-centric study, 406 matched-related or unrelated transplants for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) were stratified by HLA-C KIRL groups (homozygous versus heterozygous) and were separately analyzed for the impact of early CMVR on the cumulative incidence of relapse, non-relapse mortality (NRM), acute and chronic graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD), using landmark and multi-state analyses. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

CMV, MHC-E, and the quest for an unconventional AIDS vaccine.

Bruce D Walker

Sci Immunol 2021 May;6(59)

Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT and Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. Email:

In the evolutionary battle between virus and host, a genetic alteration in cytomegalovirus caused by an inversion-deletion event during tissue culture passage opens an unconventional path toward an HIV vaccine (see the related Research Articles by Malouli , Yang , and Verweij ). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Functionally active cyclin-dependent kinase 9 is essential for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus subgenomic RNA synthesis.

Mol Immunol 2021 May 11;135:351-364. Epub 2021 May 11.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou, Henan Province, China; International Joint Research Center of National Animal Immunology, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou, Henan Province, China. Electronic address:

Cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9) is a key regulator of RNA-polymerase II and a candidate therapeutic target for various virus infections such as respiratory syncytial virus, herpes simplex virus, human adenovirus, human cytomegalovirus, hepatitis virus B, and human papillomavirus. We employed CDK9-IN-1, a selective CDK9 inhibitor, to investigate the role of CDK9 in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection. CDK9-IN-1 dose-dependently reduced PRRSV replication without cytotoxicity in the infected cells. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Cytomegalovirus infection of glioblastoma cells leads to NF-κB dependent upregulation of the c-MET oncogenic tyrosine kinase.

Cancer Lett 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Harvey Cushing Neurooncology Laboratories, Department of Neurosurgery, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is widespread in humans and has been implicated in glioblastoma (GBM) and other tumors. However, the role of CMV in GBM remains poorly understood and the mechanisms involved are not well-defined. The goal of this study was to identify candidate pathways relevant to GBM that may be modulated by CMV. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Assessment of HCMV-encoded microRNAs in plasma as potential biomarkers in pregnant women with adverse pregnancy outcomes.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Apr;9(8):638

State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemistry for Life Sciences, Jiangsu Engineering Research Center for MicroRNA Biology and Biotechnology, NJU Advanced Institute for Life Sciences (NAILS), School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China.

Background: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the most frequent cause of congenital infections and can lead to adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs). HCMV encodes multiple microRNAs (miRNAs) that have been reported to be partially related to host immune responses, cell cycle regulation, viral replication, and viral latency, and can be detected in human plasma. However, the relevance for HCMV-encoded miRNAs in maternal plasma as an indicator for APOs has never been evaluated. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Metastatic endophthalmitis presenting as subretinal abscess following a forearm furuncle.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 May 13;14(5). Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Ophthalmology, Government Medical College and Hospital, Chandigarh, India

Metastatic endophthalmitis (ME) is rare form of secondary uveitis commonly prevalent in immunocompromised patients. A 55-year-old immunocompetent woman presented with painful decrease in left eye vision (referred to us as cytomegalovirus retinochoroiditis). Ocular examination revealed diffuse yellowish-white retinitis lesion (diagnosed as subretinal abscess on macular optical coherence tomography). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Acute Liver Failure Due to Toxoplasmosis After Orthotopic Liver Transplantation.

J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep 2021 Jan-Dec;9:23247096211014691

Department of Pathology, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, AL, USA.

Solid organ transplant recipients are at risk for a wide range of opportunistic infections, the most common being cytomegalovirus. These infections may occur as reactivation of latent disease, donor-derived, or de novo. In this article, we present a case of acute liver failure secondary to toxoplasmosis following orthotopic liver transplantation. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Prediction of CMV reactivation by recipient CMV-IgG titer before allo-HCT.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Division of Hematology, Jichi Medical University Saitama Medical Center. Electronic address:

Background: Recipient cytomegalovirus (CMV) seropositivity is known to be a risk factor for CMV reactivation after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HCT).

Objective: We explored the association of CMV-IgG titer of recipients with CMV reactivation after allo-HCT and aimed to establish a model for predicting CMV reactivation for the purpose of identifying a high-risk group. In addition, we evaluated the impact of CMV-IgG titer on survival outcomes and acute graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Role of Highly Sensitive Nucleic Acid Amplification Testing for Plasma Cytomegalovirus DNA Load in Diagnosis of Cytomegalovirus Gastrointestinal Disease Among Kidney Transplant Recipients.

Transpl Infect Dis 2021 May 13:e13635. Epub 2021 May 13.

Excellence Center for Organ Transplantation, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Background: High plasma cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA load is generally associated with CMV tissue-invasive disease in solid organ transplant recipients. However, some tissue-invasive diseases, especially CMV gastrointestinal (GI) disease, have undetectable to very low plasma CMV DNA loads. Highly sensitive nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT) has been increasingly used to quantify low-level CMV DNA loads. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Severe congenital chorioretinitis caused by congenital lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection.

Am J Ophthalmol Case Rep 2021 Jun 17;22:101094. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Baylor College of Medicine, 1 Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX, 77030, USA.

Purpose: To describe a case of congenital lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), a potentially severe and under-diagnosed etiology of congenital chorioretinitis.

Observations: A 5-month old boy presented with esotropia. Examination revealed light perception vision in the right eye and normal fixation and following behavior in the left eye, and a 50PD esotropia with full versions. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Real-world evidence of cytomegalovirus reactivation in non-Hodgkin lymphomas treated with bendamustine-containing regimens.

Open Med (Wars) 2021 21;16(1):672-682. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Hematology and Transplant Center, University Hospital "San Giovanni di Dio e Ruggi d'Aragona", Salerno, 84131, Italy.

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation during chemotherapy or after organ or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, and the risk of reactivation increases with patients' age. Bendamustine, an alkylating agent currently used for treatment of indolent and aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphomas, can augment the risk of secondary infections including CMV reactivation. In this real-world study, we described an increased incidence of CMV reactivation in older adults (age >60 years old) with newly diagnosed and relapsed/refractory indolent and aggressive diseases treated with bendamustine-containing regimens. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Unilateral frosted branch angiitis in an human immunodeficiency virus-infected patient with concurrent COVID-19 infection: a case report.

J Med Case Rep 2021 May 12;15(1):267. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Ophthalmology, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Sabah, Malaysia.

Background: Frosted branch angiitis (FBA) is an uncommon ocular sign with multiple causes. With the recent outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), many cases of ocular manifestation in association with this disease have been reported. However, as yet we have no complete understanding of this condition. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Diagnostic features of the presumed focal viral retinitis: A case series.

Anu Manandhar

Nepal J Ophthalmol 2020 Jul;12(24):339-346

Tilganga Institute of Ophthalmology, Gaushala, Kathmandu, Nepal.

Introduction: Other than well-known herpetic retinopathies like acute retinal necrosis, progressive outer retinal necrosis and cytomegalovirus retinitis, there are few reports on atypical forms of viral retinitis caused by herpes virus from around the world.

Cases: Presenting symptom was sudden onset of diminution of vision in all 6 cases. Mean duration of symptoms at presentation was 7. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

High dose valaciclovir to prevent cytomegalovirus infection in allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients.

Transpl Infect Dis 2021 May 12:e13633. Epub 2021 May 12.

Haematology Department, Fiona Stanley Hospital, Perth, Australia.

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection causes morbidity and mortality after allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We investigated whether prophylaxis with high dose valaciclovir is effective at reducing the incidence of clinically significant CMV infection (csCMVi) within six months of allogeneic HSCT. Consecutive allogeneic HSCT recipients who received 2g valaciclovir orally four times daily from transplant until day 100 (prophylaxis group) were compared to subsequent patients who received no CMV prophylaxis (control group). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Co-infection with Coronavirus Disease 2019, previously undiagnosed Human Immunodeficiency Virus, pneumonia and Cytomegalovirus pneumonitis, with possible Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome.

IDCases 2021 May 7:e01153. Epub 2021 May 7.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, 110 Francis Street, Suite GB, Boston, MA, 02215, USA.

Background: Case reports, case series and cohort studies have been published describing the clinical course and outcomes of people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLWH) who contract coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia. However, the majority of the published work focuses on patients with well-controlled human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) on antiretroviral therapy (ART).

Case Presentation: We present a case of a new diagnosis of HIV with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) made simultaneously to diagnosis of COVID-19, with co-infection with pneumonia (PJP) and possible cytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonitis. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Thymoquinone: A Promising Natural Compound with Potential Benefits for COVID-19 Prevention and Cure.

Drug Des Devel Ther 2021 3;15:1819-1833. Epub 2021 May 3.

Clinical Pharmacy Practice Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, The British University in Egypt, Cairo, Egypt.

COVID-19 has caused a major global health crisis, as excessive inflammation, oxidation, and exaggerated immune response in some sufferers can lead to a condition known as cytokine storm, which may progress to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDs), which can be fatal. So far, few effective drugs have emerged to assist in the treatment of patients with COVID-19, though some herbal medicine candidates may assist in the fight against COVID-19 deaths. Thymoquinone (TQ), the main active ingredient of black seed oil, possesses antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antimicrobial, immunomodulatory and anticoagulant activities. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

A Comparative Analysis of Mucormycosis in Immunosuppressed hosts Including Patients with Uncontrolled Diabetes in the Southwest United States.

Am J Med 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Banner University Medical Center, University of Arizona, Tucson, United States.

Background: Mucormycosis (Zygomycosis) is an invasive fungal infection that carries a high risk of morbidity and mortality. Uncontrolled diabetes mellitus and other immunocompromising conditions are risk factors for Mucormycosis development. We here describe the differences in characteristics and outcomes of Mucormycosis among solid organ transplant, hematological malignancy, and diabetes mellitus groups at our institution. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Presumed cytomegalovirus retinitis late after kidney transplant.

J Bras Nefrol 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Hospital do Rim, Departamento de Nefrologia, São Paulo, SP, Brasil.

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis is a rare manifestation of CMV invasive disease and potentially threatening to vision in immunocompromised individuals. Clinical suspicion is fundamental since it is an unusual entity with a progressive and often asymptomatic installation over a long period. The authors report a 70-year-old man with diabetic nephropathy who underwent a kidney transplant (KT) in August 2014 with good clinical evolution. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Impaired T-cell and antibody immunity after COVID-19 infection in chronically immunosuppressed transplant recipients.

bioRxiv 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Assessment of T-cell immunity to the COVID-19 coronavirus requires reliable assays and is of great interest, given the uncertain longevity of the antibody response. Some recent reports have used immunodominant spike (S) antigenic peptides and anti-CD28 co-stimulation in varying combinations to assess T-cell immunity to SARS-CoV-2. These assays may cause T-cell hyperstimulation and could overestimate antiviral immunity in chronically immunosuppressed transplant recipients, who are predisposed to infections and vaccination failures. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Clinical validation of an in-house quantitative real time PCR assay for cytomegalovirus infection using the 1st WHO International Standard in kidney transplant patients.

J Bras Nefrol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil.

Introduction: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is one of the most common agents of infection in solid organ transplant patients, with significant morbidity and mortality.

Objective: This study aimed to establish a threshold for initiation of preemptive treatment. In addition, the study compared the performance of antigenemia with qPCR results. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Stochastic Episodes of Latent Cytomegalovirus Transcription Drive CD8 T-Cell "Memory Inflation" and Avoid Immune Evasion.

Front Immunol 2021 22;12:668885. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Institute for Virology, Research Center for Immunotherapy (FZI) at the University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg-University of Mainz, Mainz, Germany.

Acute infection with murine cytomegalovirus (mCMV) is controlled by CD8 T cells and develops into a state of latent infection, referred to as latency, which is defined by lifelong maintenance of viral genomes but absence of infectious virus in latently infected cell types. Latency is associated with an increase in numbers of viral epitope-specific CD8 T cells over time, a phenomenon known as "memory inflation" (MI). The "inflationary" subset of CD8 T cells has been phenotyped as KLRG1CD62L effector-memory T cells (iTEM). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Is It Feasible to Use CMV-Specific T-Cell Adoptive Transfer as Treatment Against Infection in SOT Recipients?

Front Immunol 2021 23;12:657144. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

National Center for Microbiology, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Majadahonda, Spain.

During the last decade, many studies have demonstrated the role of CMV specific T-cell immune response on controlling CMV replication and dissemination. In fact, it is well established that transplanted patients lacking CMV-specific T-cell immunity have an increased occurrence of CMV replication episodes and CMV-related complications. In this context, the use of adoptive transfer of CMV-specific T-cells has been widely investigated and applied to Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant patients and may be useful as a therapeutic alternative, to reconstitute the CMV specific T-cell response and to control CMV viremia in patients receiving a transplantation. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Sumoylation of the Carboxy-Terminal of Human Cytomegalovirus DNA Polymerase Processivity Factor UL44 Attenuates Viral DNA Replication.

Front Microbiol 2021 21;12:652719. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Key Laboratory of Molecular Target and Clinical Pharmacology, State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences and The Fifth Affiliated Hospital, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Controlled regulation of genomic DNA synthesis is a universally conserved process for all herpesviruses, including human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), and plays a key role in viral pathogenesis, such as persistent infections. HCMV DNA polymerase processivity factor UL44 plays an essential role in viral DNA replication. To better understand the biology of UL44, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen for host proteins that could interact with UL44. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Combined immunodeficiency with marginal zone lymphoma due to a novel homozygous mutation in gene and successful treatment with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2021 May 8:1-8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatric Immunology and Allergy, Ege University, İzmir, Turkey.

Mutations in the interleukin-21 receptor (IL-21R) gene are recently defined as primary immunodeficiency diseases. IL-21R defects result in combined immunodeficiency by affecting the functions of innate and adaptive immune system components.A six-year-old girl was admitted to our hospital with complaints of chronic diarrhea that started after the newborn period and generalized rash over the last three months. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Cytomegalovirus Infection and the Implications of Drug-Resistant Mutations in Pediatric Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Recipients: A Retrospective Study from a Tertiary Hospital in China.

Infect Dis Ther 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Hematology and Oncology, Shenzhen Children's Hospital, Yitian Road No. 7019, Futian, Shenzhen, 518038, China.

Introduction: Drug-resistant cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection remains a challenge in the management of pediatric recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). In this study, we retrospectively reviewed the clinical data on pediatric recipients of HSCT and identified known and unknown drug-resistant CMV variants.

Methods: A total of 221 children underwent allogeneic HSCT between October 2017 and November 2019 at Shenzhen Children's Hospital; of these, 35 patients were suspected of having drug-resistant CMV infections and were tested for drug-resistant mutations in the UL97 and UL54 genes by Sanger sequencing. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Clinical outcome and the role of antivirals in congenital cytomegalovirus infection.

Antiviral Res 2021 May 5:105083. Epub 2021 May 5.

Departments of Pediatrics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL.

Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infection is a leading cause of hearing loss and neurological disabilities in children worldwide. Although a minority of infants with cCMV will have symptoms at a birth, these children are at high risk of long-term sequelae. Most infants with cCMV have no clinical signs at birth (asymptomatic), but 10-15% will develop hearing loss. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The Changing Landscape of Pneumocystis Jiroveci Infection in Kidney Transplant Recipients: Single-Center Experience of Late-Onset Pneumocystis Pneumonia.

Transplant Proc 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Nephrology and Kidney Transplantation Clinic, Laiko Hospital, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Faculty of Medicine, Athens, Greece.

Background: Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP) is a life-threatening pulmonary infection after kidney transplantation (KTx). Its onset in the current era of modern immunosuppression and of routine use of universal PCP prophylaxis seems to differ from its onset in previous decades in terms of late onset with subtle clinical presentation, indicating a need for increased vigilance.

Methods: We retrospectively studied all KTx recipients from our center who underwent bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) between 2009 and 2018. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Cytomegalovirus in urinary sediment in patients with acute kidney injury.

BMC Nephrol 2021 May 8;22(1):169. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Internal Medicine III, Division of Nephrology and Dialysis, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090, Vienna, Austria.

Background: Immunosuppression in solid organ transplantation is associated with frequent infections. Renal allograft recipients are susceptible to opportunistic infections and can acquire human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections even within the allograft. There, HCMV can be found in both the glomerulus and tubular cells, but is mostly restricted to specific and circumscribed sites. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Investigation of Cytomegalovirus in Intestinal Tissue in a Country With High CMV Seroprevalence.

Turk J Gastroenterol 2021 Feb;32(2):123-132

Department of Medical Microbiology, Dokuz Eylül University School of Medicine, İzmir, Turkey.

Background: In Turkey, cytomegalovirus (CMV) seropositivity has been reported to be high, between 85 and 100%. CMV has been responsible for disease exacerbation in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We aimed to evaluate the presence of CMV in intestinal tissue by immunohistochemical staining in IBD and non-IBD patient groups, in a country with high CMV seroprevalence. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Survivin Promoter-Driven DFF40 Gene Expression Sensitizes Melanoma Cancer Cells to Chemotherapy.

Int J Toxicol 2021 May 7:10915818211014170. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology and Isfahan Pharmaceutical Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Downregulation of the apoptotic protein DNA fragmentation factor 40 (DFF40) is correlated with poor overall survival in some malignancies, including melanoma. In this study, DFF40 gene expression driven by survivin promoter, a tumor-specific promoter, was used to selectively induce cytotoxicity in melanoma cells. The activity and strength of survivin promoter were examined in B16F10 murine melanoma, and L929 murine normal fibroblast cell lines using enhanced green fluorescent protein reporter assay and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF