2,897,169 results match your criteria Cytology and Genetics [Journal]
Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1894:331-343
Department of Chemistry and Biomolecular Science, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY, USA.
The emergence of nanomaterials in industrial processing and consumer products has generated an increased presence of nano-enabled products in the environment and now pose an increased risk of exposure to living organisms. However, assessing the risks of nanomaterials is a challenging task because of a large variety and great variability in their properties. Here, we describe a methodology for assessing toxicity and evaluate potential risks posed by nanomaterials using zebrafish embryos as a model organism. Read More
Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1894:181-227
Institute of Occupational Diseases, Zhejiang Academy of Medical Sciences, Hangzhou, P. R. China.
DNA methylation is a process by which methyl groups are added to cytosine or adenine. DNA methylation can change the activity of the DNA molecule without changing the sequence. Methylation of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) is widespread in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes, and it is a very important epigenetic modification event, which can regulate gene activity and influence a number of key processes such as genomic imprinting, cell differentiation, transcriptional regulation, and chromatin remodeling. Read More
Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1894:57-72
College of Veterinary Medicine, Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, CA, USA.
Stem cells are undifferentiated biological cells that can differentiate into all lineages under defined control condition. Stem cell neuronal differentiation can faithfully recapitulate stages of neural development and generate neuronal progenitors, mature neurons, and glial cells. Stem cell technology will largely allow for the replacement of animal studies and reduce costs, and will provide a new paradigm for in toxic genomics, bioinformatics, systems biology, and epigenetics studies. Read More
J Mol Neurosci 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Institute of Neuroanatomy, Faculty of Medicine, RWTH Aachen University, Wendlingweg 2, 52074, Aachen, Germany.
Widespread inflammatory lesions within the central nervous system grey and white matter are major hallmarks of multiple sclerosis. The development of full-blown demyelinating multiple sclerosis lesions might be preceded by preactive lesions which are characterized by focal microglia activation in close spatial relation to apoptotic oligodendrocytes. In this study, we investigated the expression of signaling molecules of oligodendrocytes that might be involved in initial microglia activation during preactive lesion formation. Read More
Neth Heart J 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
Pathogenic mutations in the phospholamban (PLN) gene may give rise to inherited cardiomyopathies due to its role in calcium homeostasis. Several PLN mutations have been identified, with the R14del mutation being the most prevalent cardiomyopathy-related mutation in the Netherlands. It is present in patients diagnosed with arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy as well as dilated cardiomyopathy. Read More
Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1883:251-282
Department of Statistics and Systems Biology Centre, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK.
Gaussian process dynamical systems (GPDS) represent Bayesian nonparametric approaches to inference of nonlinear dynamical systems, and provide a principled framework for the learning of biological networks from multiple perturbed time series measurements of gene or protein expression. Such approaches are able to capture the full richness of complex ODE models, and can be scaled for inference in moderately large systems containing hundreds of genes. Related hierarchical approaches allow for inference from multiple datasets in which the underlying generative networks are assumed to have been rewired, either by context-dependent changes in network structure, evolutionary processes, or synthetic manipulation. Read More
Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1883:235-249
Data Mining and Modelling for Biomedicine, VIB Center for Inflammation Research, Ghent, Belgium.
Recent technological breakthroughs in single-cell RNA sequencing are revolutionizing modern experimental design in biology. The increasing size of the single-cell expression data from which networks can be inferred allows identifying more complex, non-linear dependencies between genes. Moreover, the inter-cellular variability that is observed in single-cell expression data can be used to infer not only one global network representing all the cells, but also numerous regulatory networks that are more specific to certain conditions. Read More
Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1883:143-160
UMR MIA-Paris, AgroParisTech, INRA, Université Paris-Saclay, Paris, France.
This chapter addresses the problem of reconstructing regulatory networks in molecular biology by integrating multiple sources of data. We consider data sets measured from diverse technologies all related to the same set of variables and individuals. This situation is becoming more and more common in molecular biology, for instance, when both proteomic and transcriptomic data related to the same set of "genes" are available on a given cohort of patients. Read More
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Department of Medicine, Solna, Infectious Diseases Unit, Karolinska University Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
The aim of this study was to use a 16S rDNA sequencing method in combination with conventional culture in patients with parapneumonic effusions (PPE) to evaluate the methods, study the microbiological spectrum, and examine the presence of bacteria within the different stages of PPE. Adults with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and PPE (n = 197) admitted to the Departments of Infectious Diseases at four hospitals in Stockholm County during 2011-2014 were prospectively studied. All patients underwent thoracentesis. Read More
Ecotoxicology 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Federal University of São Carlos, Rodovia Washington Luís, km 235, São Carlos, SP, 13565-905, Brazil.
The toxicity of metals, whether isolated or in mixtures, involves changes in biochemical processes as well as in cell membranes, which may lead to deleterious short- and long-term effects on the affected organisms. Among metals, cadmium and mercury stand out due to their abundance in nature, frequent use for industrial activities and biological accumulation, with high levels of residence in trophic chains. Benthic communities are particularly prone to metal pollution since metals usually accumulate in sediments. Read More
In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Department of Biophysics, Yeditepe University School of Medicine, Yeditepe University, Istanbul, Turkey.
There has been a controversy in the oncology field about the use of antioxidants along with chemotherapeutics in cancer treatment. This study aimed to investigate the effects of a potent antioxidant (astaxanthin) co-treatment with a promising anti-cancer drug (carbendazim), which is in phase I clinical trials, on MCF-7 breast cancer cell proliferation. MCF-7 cells were treated with carbendazim, astaxanthin, or their combinations and incubated for 24 h. Read More
Purinergic Signal 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Department of Physiology and Cell Biology, The Ohio State University, 473 W 12th Avenue, Columbus, OH, 43210, USA.
The pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β is a secreted protein that is cleaved by caspase-1 during inflammasome activation upon recognition of internal and external insults to cells. Purinergic receptor P2X7 has been described to be involved in the release pathway of bioactive mature IL-1β by activated immune cells. Microparticle (MP) shedding has also been recently recognized as a manner of cytokine IL-1β release. Read More
Cell Mol Life Sci 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Institute for Cell and Molecular Biosciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE2 4HH, UK.
The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a cAMP-regulated, apical anion channel that regulates ion and fluid transport in many epithelia including the airways. We have previously shown that cigarette smoke (CS) exposure to airway epithelia causes a reduction in plasma membrane CFTR expression which correlated with a decrease in airway surface hydration. The effect of CS on CFTR was dependent on an increase in cytosolic Ca. Read More
World J Urol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Department of Urology, Uro-Oncology, Robot Assisted and Reconstructive Urologic Surgery, University Hospital Cologne, Kerpener Straße 62, 50937, Cologne, Germany.
Purpose: To identify potential risk factors for the development of venous thromboembolic events in testicular cancer patients receiving platinum-based chemotherapy.
Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis including 255 patients with testicular germ cell tumors who received platinum-based chemotherapy from 2003 to 2018 as a multi-center observational cohort study. Patient and tumor characteristics of patients with and without a thromboembolic event were analyzed. Read More
Curr Opin Endocr Metab Res 2018 Oct 5;2:29-33. Epub 2018 Feb 5.
Laboratory of Endocrinology and Receptor Biology, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.
Thyroid stimulating hormone and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptors (TSHRs and IGF1Rs, respectively) interact leading to additive or synergistic stimulation of cellular responses. Recent findings provide evidence that the interaction between TSHRs and IGF1Rs is similar to that described for other G protein-coupled receptors and receptor tyrosine kinases. These types of interactions occur at or proximal to the receptors and are designated "receptor cross-talk. Read More
Sci Adv 2018 Dec 12;4(12):eaav1781. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Program in Developmental & Stem Cell Biology, The Hospital for Sick Children, 686 Bay Street, Toronto, Ontario M5G 0A4, Canada.
The etiopathogenesis of idiopathic scoliosis (IS), a highly prevalent spinal deformity that occurs in the absence of obvious congenital or physiological abnormalities, is poorly understood. Although recent zebrafish genetic studies have linked cilia motility and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow defects with scoliosis progression, underlying mechanisms were not identified. Here, we use next-generation sequencing and conditional genetic methodologies to define the spatial and biological origins of spinal curve formation in mutant zebrafish, a faithful IS model. Read More
Sci Adv 2018 Dec 12;4(12):eaav0618. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Department of Developmental and Regenerative Biology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 467-8601, Japan.
After brain injury, neural stem cell-derived neuronal precursors (neuroblasts) in the ventricular-subventricular zone migrate toward the lesion. However, the ability of the mammalian brain to regenerate neuronal circuits for functional recovery is quite limited. Here, using a mouse model for ischemic stroke, we show that neuroblast migration is restricted by reactive astrocytes in and around the lesion. Read More
Data Brief 2018 Dec 22;21:2405-2409. Epub 2018 Nov 22.
Gynecological Oncology Unit, Centro di Riferimento Oncologico - National Cancer Institute, Via F. Gallini 2, Aviano, Italy.
During pregnancy, the only diagnosis that may alter management is invasive cancer. Thus, the primary aim of the cytological screening and subsequent colposcopy performed during pregnancy should be the exclusion of invasive cancer, "Practice Bulletin No. 140: management of abnormal cervical cancer screening test results and cervical cancer precursors," (American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, 2013) . Read More
Data Brief 2018 Dec 1;21:2395-2397. Epub 2018 Nov 1.
Department of Cell Biology, Riyadh 11211, Saudi Arabia.
The data set presented here is associated with the article "Intracellular calcium and NF-B regulate hypoxia-induced leptin, VEGF, IL-6 and adiponectin secretion in human adipocytes" (Al-Anazi et al., 2018). Data illustrate hypoxia-induced VEGF and leptin expression in human adipocytes treated with the calcium chelator BAPTA-AM (1 µM). Read More
J Biol Methods 2018 16;5(2). Epub 2018 Apr 16.
Department of Cancer Biology and Genetics, The Comprehensive Cancer Center, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA.
Uterine leiomyoma (UL) or fibroid is a benign smooth muscle tumor of the myometrium with a lifetime incidence of approximately 70%. ULs often require medical intervention due to severe symptoms such as heavy menstrual bleeding and abdominal pain. Although the most common and effective management of ULs is surgical removal, the invasive surgical procedure imposes physical and psychological burdens on the patients. Read More
Front Vet Sci 2018 28;5:291. Epub 2018 Nov 28.
Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Cell Biology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis Davis, CA, United States.
Sepsis is the leading cause of critical illness and mortality in human beings and animals. Neutrophils are the primary effector cells of innate immunity during sepsis. Besides degranulation and phagocytosis, neutrophils also release neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), composed of cell-free DNA, histones, and antimicrobial proteins. Read More
Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2018 27;8:413. Epub 2018 Nov 27.
Center for Global Infectious Disease Research, Seattle Children's Research Institute, Seattle, WA, United States.
Within the liver, sporozoites traverse cells searching for a "suitable" hepatocyte, invading these cells through a process that results in the formation of a parasitophorous vacuole (PV), within which the parasite undergoes intracellular replication as a liver stage. It was previously established that two members of the s48/45 protein family, P36 and P52, are essential for productive invasion of host hepatocytes by sporozoites as their simultaneous deletion results in growth-arrested parasites that lack a PV. Recent studies point toward a pathway of entry possibly involving the interaction of P36 with hepatocyte receptors EphA2, CD81, and SR-B1. Read More
Allergo J Int 2018 9;27(8):245-255. Epub 2018 Jul 9.
9Jenner Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.
Background: Apart from active allergen avoidance, immunotherapy is regarded as the most effective form of treatment available for type I allergies. Such treatments involve the administration of allergen preparations in various forms and by various routes. Virus-like particles (VLPs) offer a very effective platform for immunization with the allergen and are characterized by high immunogenicity, low allergenicity and high clinical efficacy. Read More
Oncoimmunology 2019 2;8(1):e1523097. Epub 2018 Nov 2.
Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital, Munich, Germany.
The major goal of radiotherapy is the induction of tumor cell death. Additionally, radiotherapy can function as cancer vaccination by exposing tumor antigens and providing adjuvants for anti-tumor immune priming. In this regard, the mode of tumor cell death and the repertoire of released damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) are crucial. Read More
Oncoimmunology 2019 16;8(1):e1518628. Epub 2018 Oct 16.
National Key Laboratory of Medical Immunology & Institute of Immunology, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai China.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one type of cancers whose carcinogenesis and progression are closely related to chronic inflammation. Identifying the molecular mechanisms for inflammation-related HCC progression will contribute to improve the efficacy of current therapeutics for HCC patients. Many kinds of epigenetic factors, including long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), have been discovered to be important in HCC growth and metastasis. Read More
Oncoimmunology 2019 2;8(1):e1515611. Epub 2018 Oct 2.
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.
Tumor-infiltrating neutrophils (TINs) show diverse predictive effects in the context of different cancer types and therapeutic regimens. In this study we investigated their relevance with therapeutic effect of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). Two independent datasets including 271 mRCC patients treated by TKIs or IL-2/IFN-α based immunotherapy were retrospective included, and TINs were detected by immunohistochemistry. Read More
Oncoimmunology 2019 19;8(1):e1513440. Epub 2018 Sep 19.
Department of Molecular and Systems Biology, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Hanover, NH, USA.
Immune checkpoint inhibitors have shown great potential in treating solid tumors, inducing durable remission and prolonged survival time in responders. Despite their promise, a large fraction of patients remains unresponsive to these treatments highlighting the need for biomarkers that can predict patient sensitivity. Pre-treatment gene expression profiles for patients receiving immune checkpoint inhibitors have recently become available, establishing a new medium by which to discover biomarkers that predict therapy response. Read More
Oncoimmunology 2019 11;8(1):e1512455. Epub 2018 Oct 11.
Department of Pediatrics, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY, USA.
Pediatric and adult patients with recurrent/refractory Burkitt lymphoma (BL) continue to have poor outcomes, emphasizing the need for newer therapeutic agents. Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) is activated following B-cell receptor stimulation and in part regulates normal B-cell development. Ibrutinib, a selective and irreversible BTK inhibitor, has been efficacious in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), Waldenström's macroglobulinemia, and marginal zone lymphoma. Read More
Oncoimmunology 2019 2;8(1):e1509173. Epub 2018 Nov 2.
Key Laboratory of Regenerative Biology, South China Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Guangzhou Institutes of Biomedicine and Health, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, China.
Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell immunotherapies have shown remarkable efficacy in treating multiple types of hematological malignancies but are not sufficiently effective at treating solid tumors. NKG2D is a strong activating receptor for NK cells and a co-stimulatory receptor for T cells. NKG2D signal transduction depends on DNAX-activating protein 10 (DAP10). Read More
Oncoimmunology 2019 11;8(1):e1507669. Epub 2018 Oct 11.
Department of Immunology, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland, OH, USA.
Nearly half of melanoma patients develop brain metastases during the course of their disease. Despite advances in both localized radiation and systemic immunotherapy, brain metastases remain difficult to treat, with most patients surviving less than 5 months from the time of diagnosis. While both treatment regimens have individually shown considerable promise in treating metastatic melanoma, there is interest in combining these strategies to take advantage of potential synergy. Read More
Oncoimmunology 2019 11;8(1):e1505174. Epub 2018 Oct 11.
Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Medicale (INSERM), UMRS1138, Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, Paris, France.
In non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), stimulation of toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7), a receptor for single stranded RNA, is linked to tumor progression and resistance to anticancer chemotherapy. However, the mechanism of this effect has been elusive. Here, using a murine model of lung adenocarcinoma, we demonstrate a key role for TLR7 expressed by malignant (rather than by stromal and immune) cells, in the recruitment of myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), induced after TLR7 stimulation, resulting in accelerated tumor growth and metastasis. Read More
Oncoimmunology 2019 1;8(1):e1498285. Epub 2018 Oct 1.
Gustave Roussy Comprehensive Cancer Institute, Villejuif, France.
The success of chemotherapy largely depends on the anticancer immune response triggered by tumor cells that succumb to immunogenic cell death (ICD). One of the hallmarks of ICD is premortem autophagy that facilitates the release of adenosine triphosphate from dying cancer cells and acts as a chemoattractant for dendritic cell precursors. Here, we show that the immune response induced by inoculation of cancer cells undergoing ICD in response to the anthracycline mitoxantrone (MTX) can be improved by a short-term fasting regimen (48 hours of starvation) and that this effect is reversed by systemic administration of the autophagy inhibitor dimethyl α-ketoglutarate. Read More
Oncoimmunology 2019 22;8(1):e1486949. Epub 2018 Oct 22.
Department of Biomedical Sciences and Human Oncology, Unit of Internal Medicine "Guido Baccelli", University of Bari Medical School, Bari, Italy.
Endothelial cells (EC) line the bone marrow microvasculature and are in close contact with CD8 T cells that come and go across the permeable capillaries. Because of these intimate interactions, we investigated the capacity of EC to act as antigen-presenting cells (APC) and modulate CD8 T cell activation and proliferation in bone marrow of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. We found that EC from MM patients show a phenotype of semi-professional APC given that they express low levels of the co-stimulatory molecules CD40, CD80 and CD86, and of the inducible co-stimulator ligand (ICOSL). Read More
Oncotarget 2018 Nov 16;9(90):36250. Epub 2018 Nov 16.
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Institute for Medical Research Israel-Canada, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel.
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.18632/oncotarget.18053. Read More
Oncotarget 2018 Nov 16;9(90):36202-36219. Epub 2018 Nov 16.
Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Texas Tech Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, TX 79430, USA.
In previous studies, we found that 2'-hydroxyflavonone (2HF), a citrus flavonoid, inhibits the growth of renal cell carcinoma in a VHL-dependent manner. This was associated with the inhibition of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), the first step enzyme of the mercapturic acid pathway that catalyzes formation of glutathione-electrophile conjugates (GS-E). We studied 2HF in small cell (SCLC) and non-small cell (NSCLC) lung cancer cell lines for sensitivity to 2HF antineoplastic activity and to determine the role of the GS-E transporter Rlip (Ral-interacting protein; RLIP76; RALBP1) in the mechanism of action of 2HF. Read More
Oncotarget 2018 Nov 16;9(90):36126-36136. Epub 2018 Nov 16.
Department of Pathology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.
Breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma (BIA-ALCL) is a rare form of T-cell lymphoma that occurs after implantation of breast prostheses. We performed comprehensive next generation sequencing based genomic characterization of 11 cases of BIA-ALCL including sequence variant detection on 180 genes frequently mutated in haematological malignancy, genome-wide copy number assessment, structural variant detection involving the T-cell receptor loci and TRB deep-sequencing. We observed sequence variants leading to JAK/STAT activation in 10 out of 11 patients. Read More
Oncotarget 2018 Nov 16;9(90):36110-36125. Epub 2018 Nov 16.
BioSystems and Micromechanics IRG, Singapore-MIT Alliance for Research and Technology, Singapore.
The reciprocal interaction between circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and tissue-specific cells is influential for the progression of metastases. In particular, the process of extravasation relies on the complex cross-talk between cancer cells and other cellular players such as the endothelium and the secondary tissue. However, most studies only focus on one heterotypic cell-cell interaction and often lack of physiological relevance. Read More
Oncotarget 2018 Nov 16;9(90):36083-36101. Epub 2018 Nov 16.
Department of Neurosurgery, Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Hershey, PA 17033, USA.
Radiation is utilized in the therapy of more than 50% of cancer patients. Unfortunately, many malignancies become resistant to radiation over time. We investigated the hypothesis that one method of a cancer cell's ability to survive radiation occurs through cellular communication via exosomes. Read More
Oncol Lett 2018 Dec 2;16(6):7278-7286. Epub 2018 Oct 2.
Department of Biology and Genetics, Laboratory of Cancer Medical Science, Hokuto Hospital, Obihiro, Hokkaido 080-0833, Japan.
Thyroid carcinoma (TC) has characteristic genetic alterations, including point mutations in proto-oncogenes and chromosomal rearrangements that vary by histologic subtype. Recent developments in next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology enable simultaneous analysis of cancer-associated genes of interest, thus improving diagnostic accuracy and allowing precise personalized treatment for human cancer. A total of 50 patients who underwent thyroidectomy between 2014 and 2016 at Hokuto Hospital were enrolled. Read More
Oncol Lett 2018 Dec 26;16(6):7166-7174. Epub 2018 Sep 26.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Comenius University in Bratislava, Jessenius Faculty of Medicine in Martin, SK-03601 Martin, Slovakia.
Cervical cancer (CC) is the second most common type of cancer affecting the female population. The development of CC takes several years, and involves a precancerous stage known as cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). A key factor in the development of disease is the human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, which initiates carcinogenesis. Read More
Oncol Lett 2018 Dec 26;16(6):7035-7047. Epub 2018 Sep 26.
Department of Molecular Virology, Adam Mickiewicz University, 61-712 Poznan, Poland.
Cervical microbial communities serve a crucial role in the persistence and development of oncogenic human papilloma virus (HPV) infections. In the present study, the authors hypothesised that disturbed heterogeneity of microbial flora was associated with HPV-induced carcinogenesis. Swabs of the cervical microbiota were collected from 250 women and the 16S ribosomal DNA was sequenced using a high throughput assay. Read More
Exp Ther Med 2018 Dec 18;16(6):5201-5209. Epub 2018 Oct 18.
Cancer Biology Research Center, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430030, P.R. China.
Neuroprotective effects of dexmedetomidine (Dex) have been reported in various models of brain injury. However, to our knowledge, the neuroprotective mechanism of Dex pretreatment in rats remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to detect the expression of the α2A adrenergic receptor (ADRA2A) in focal ischemic brain tissues and to investigate the protective role and corresponding mechanism of Dex pretreatment in cerebral ischemia in rats. Read More
Exp Ther Med 2018 Dec 19;16(6):4602-4608. Epub 2018 Sep 19.
Department of Gastroenterology, Xijing Hospital of Digestive Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Cancer Biology and Institute of Digestive Diseases, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710000, P.R. China.
Despite significant developments in its clinical treatment, the reported incidence and mortality of gastric cancer have exhibited marked increases. The molecular mechanisms of gastric cancer initiation and progression remain to be fully elucidated. The aim of the present study was to identify novel microRNAs (miRNAs/miRs) with a role in the peritoneal metastasis of gastric cancer by comparing the miRNA expression in the gastric cancer cell line GC9811 with that in its variant GC9811-P, a sub-cell line with a high potential for peritoneal metastasis. Read More
Front Genet 2018 27;9:581. Epub 2018 Nov 27.
Department of Biology and Biotechnology, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.
Epilepsy is a complex clinical condition characterized by repeated spontaneous seizures. Seizures have been linked to multiple drivers including DNA damage accumulation. Investigation of epilepsy physiopathology in humans imposes ethical and practical limitations, for this reason model systems are mostly preferred. Read More
Front Plant Sci 2018 28;9:1590. Epub 2018 Nov 28.
Department of Ecogenomics and Systems Biology, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
Rapamycin is an inhibitor of the evolutionary conserved Target of Rapamycin (TOR) kinase which promotes and coordinates translation with cell growth and division. In heterotrophic organisms, TOR regulation is based on intra- and extracellular stimuli such as amino acids level and insulin perception. However, how plant TOR pathways have evolved to integrate plastid endosymbiosis is a remaining question. Read More
Front Immunol 2018 28;9:2801. Epub 2018 Nov 28.
Institute for Translational Medicine, Medical College of Qingdao University, Qingdao, China.
Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are functional RNA molecules that are transcribed from DNA but not translated into proteins. ncRNAs function as key regulators of gene expression and chromatin modification. Recently, the functional role of ncRNAs in teleost fish has been extensively studied. Read More
Front Immunol 2018 27;9:2757. Epub 2018 Nov 27.
Center for Neuroregeneration, Houston Methodist Research Institute, Houston, TX, United States.
The secondary injury cascade that is activated following traumatic brain injury (TBI) induces responses from multiple physiological systems, including the immune system. These responses are not limited to the area of brain injury; they can also alter peripheral organs such as the intestinal tract. Gut microbiota play a role in the regulation of immune cell populations and microglia activation, and microbiome dysbiosis is implicated in immune dysregulation and behavioral abnormalities. Read More
Front Neurol 2018 28;9:1027. Epub 2018 Nov 28.
Molecular Genetics Laboratory UILDM, Santa Lucia Foundation, Rome, Italy.
Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is a neuromuscular disorder which is typically transmitted by an autosomal dominant pattern, although reduced penetrance and sporadic cases caused by mutations, are often observed. FSHD may be caused by a contraction of a repetitive element, located on chromosome 4 (4q35). This locus is named and consists of 11 to more than 100 repeated units (RU). Read More
Front Physiol 2018 27;9:1659. Epub 2018 Nov 27.
Institute for Applied Computing, National Research Council of Italy, Rome, Italy.
Macrophages derived from monocyte precursors undergo specific polarization processes which are influenced by the local tissue environment: classically activated (M1) macrophages, with a pro-inflammatory activity and a role of effector cells in Th1 cellular immune responses, and alternatively activated (M2) macrophages, with anti-inflammatory functions and involved in immunosuppression and tissue repair. At least three different subsets of M2 macrophages, namely, M2a, M2b, and M2c, are characterized in the literature based on their eliciting signals. The activation and polarization of macrophages is achieved through many, often intertwined, signaling pathways. Read More
Front Neural Circuits 2018 27;12:103. Epub 2018 Nov 27.
Department of Molecular, Cell, and Developmental Biology, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, United States.
The central complex (CX) is a midline-situated collection of neuropil compartments in the arthropod central brain, implicated in higher-order processes such as goal-directed navigation. Here, we provide a systematic genetic-neuroanatomical analysis of the ellipsoid body (EB), a compartment which represents a major afferent portal of the CX. The neuropil volume of the EB, along with its prominent input compartment, called the bulb, is subdivided into precisely tessellated domains, distinguishable based on intensity of the global marker DN-cadherin. Read More