767,381 results match your criteria Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews [Journal]


Effects of irradiation and leukoreduction on down regulation of CXCL-8 and storage lesion in stored canine whole blood.

J Vet Sci 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Institute of Animal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 52828, Korea.

White blood cells (WBCs) and storage period are the main factors of transfusion reactions. In the present study, cytokine/chemokine concentrations after leukoreduction (LR) and irradiation (IR) in stored canine whole blood were measured. Red blood cell (RBC) storage lesion caused by IR and LR were also compared. Read More

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December 2018
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MAGE genes in the kidney: identification of MAGED2 as upregulated during kidney injury and in stressed tubular cells.

Nephrol Dial Transplant 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Nephrology, IIS-Fundacion Jimenez Diaz-Universidad Autonoma de Madrid and Fundacion Renal Iñigo Alvarez de Toledo-IRSIN, Madrid, Spain.

Background: Mutations in Melanoma Antigen-encoding Gene D2 (MAGED2) promote tubular dysfunction, suggesting that MAGE proteins may play a role in kidney pathophysiology. We have characterized the expression and regulation of MAGE genes in normal kidneys and during kidney disease.

Methods: The expression of MAGE genes and their encoded proteins was explored by systems biology multi-omics (kidney transcriptomics and proteomics) in healthy adult murine kidneys and following induction of experimental acute kidney injury (AKI) by a folic acid overdose. Read More

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December 2018

The role of glutamine metabolism for host defense against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.

J Infect Dis 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Radboud university medical center, Department of Internal Medicine and Radboud Center of Infectious Diseases, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.

Background: Rewiring cellular metabolism is important for activation of immune cells during host defense against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Glutamine has been implicated as an immunomodulatory nutrient, but its role in response to M. tuberculosis is unknown. Read More

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December 2018
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Diurnal distribution of carbohydrates and fat affects substrate oxidation and adipokine secretion in humans.

Am J Clin Nutr 2018 Dec;108(6):1209-1219

Departments of Clinical Nutrition.

Background: A diet in which fat is mainly eaten in the morning and carbohydrates mainly in the evening (compared with the reverse order) was recently shown to worsen glycemic control in people with prediabetes.

Objective: We investigated the effects of these dietary patterns on energy metabolism, and on the daily profiles of circulating lipids, adipokines, and inflammatory markers.

Design: In a randomized controlled crossover trial, 29 nonobese men (with normal glucose tolerance, n = 18; or impaired fasting glucose/glucose tolerance, n = 11) underwent 2 isocaloric 4-wk diets: 1) carbohydrate-rich meals until 1330 and fat-rich meals between 1630 and 2200 (HC/HF); or 2) the inverse sequence of meals (HF/HC). Read More

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December 2018

Self-assembled CpG oligodeoxynucleotides conjugated hollow gold nanospheres to enhance cancer-associated immunostimulation.

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2018 Dec 3;175:248-255. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Key Laboratory of Coal Conversion & New Carbon Materials of Hubei Province, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081, PR China. Electronic address:

To realize efficiently cellular uptake and enhance the immunostimulation, thiolated cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) were self-assembled on hollow gold nanospheres (HGNs) to form CpG-HGNs. The cellular uptake of CpG-HGNs in immune cells was studied in RAW 264.7 cells. Read More

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December 2018

TMED2 Potentiates Cellular IFN Responses to DNA Viruses by Reinforcing MITA Dimerization and Facilitating Its Trafficking.

Cell Rep 2018 Dec;25(11):3086-3098.e3

State Key Laboratory of Virology, Hubei Key Laboratory of Cell Homeostasis, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China. Electronic address:

Mediator of IRF3 activation (MITA), also known as stimulator of interferon genes (STING), plays a vital role in the innate immune responses to cytosolic dsDNA. The trafficking of MITA from the ER to perinuclear vesicles is necessary for its activation of the downstream molecules, which lead to the production of interferons and pro-inflammatory cytokines. However, the exact mechanism of MITA activation remains elusive. Read More

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December 2018

Improved multilineage human hematopoietic reconstitution and function in NSGS mice.

PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0209034. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Division of Experimental Hematology and Cancer Biology, Cancer and Blood Disease Institute, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio, United States of America.

Genetic manipulation of NOD/SCID (NS) mice has yielded numerous sub-strains with specific traits useful for the study of human hematopoietic xenografts, each with unique characteristics. Here, we have compared the engraftment and output of umbilical cord blood (UCB) CD34+ cells in four immune-deficient strains: NS, NS with additional IL2RG knockout (NSG), NS with transgenic expression of human myeloid promoting cytokines SCF, GM-CSF, and IL-3 (NSS), and NS with both IL2RG knockout and transgenic cytokine expression (NSGS). Overall engraftment of human hematopoietic cells was highest in the IL2RG knockout strains (NSG and NSGS), while myeloid cell output was notably enhanced in the two strains with transgenic cytokine expression (NSS and NSGS). Read More

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December 2018

Corticosteroid use and increased CXCR2 levels on leukocytes are associated with lumacaftor/ivacaftor discontinuation in cystic fibrosis patients homozygous for the F508del CFTR mutation.

PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0209026. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Pediatrics, National Jewish Health, Denver, CO, United States of America.

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common life-shortening genetic disease and is caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. Several current therapies aim at improving availability and/or function of the mutant CFTR proteins. The combination therapeutic lumacaftor/ivacaftor (Orkambi, luma/iva) partially corrects folding and potentiates CFTR function impaired by the F508del mutation. Read More

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December 2018

Secreted Factors From Intervertebral Disc Cells and Infiltrating Macrophages Promote Degenerated Intervertebral Disc Catabolism.

Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Spine Surgery, Beijing Jishuitan Hospital, Peking University, Beijing, China.

Study Design: Rat nucleus pulposus (NP) cells or annulus fibrosus (AF) cells were stimulated with conditioned media of RAW 264.7 macrophages and vice versa under healthy culture conditions and in the presence of pro-inflammatory mediators. The gene expression of pro-inflammatory mediators, ECM-modifying enzymes, and chemokines, which play important roles in intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD), was determined. Read More

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December 2018

Social Stress Affects Colonic Inflammation, the Gut Microbiome, and Short Chain Fatty Acid Levels and Receptors.

J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Center for Microbial Pathogenesis, The Research Institute, Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, OH, United States.

Objectives: Gastrointestinal disorders, such as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID), involve disrupted homeostatic interactions between the microbiota and the host. Both disorders are worsened during stress, and in laboratory mice, stress exposure has been shown to change the composition of the gut microbiome. Stress-induced changes to the microbiome exacerbate intestinal inflammation and alter intestinal motility in mice. Read More

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December 2018

Efficacy of Minimally Invasive Intervention in Patients with Acute Cerebral Infarction.

J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Department of Neurosurgery, Shanxi Provincial People's Hospital, Taiyuan City, Shanxi Province, China.

Our aim was to explore the efficacy of minimally invasive intervention in patients with acute cerebral infarction (ACI). Seventy patients with ACI were randomized into either an experimental group or a control group. In addition to the regular treatment, patients in the control group also received intravenous thrombolysis with urokinase, while patients in the other group underwent percutaneous transluminal cerebral angioplasty and stenting. Read More

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December 2018

LongShengZhi capsule reduces established atherosclerotic lesions in apoE deficient mice by ameliorating hepatic lipid metabolism and inhibiting inflammation.

J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

College of Biomedical Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, China.

Disorders of lipid metabolism and inflammation play an important role in atherosclerosis. LongShengZhi capsule (LSZ), a Chinese herbal medicine, has been used for treatment of patients with vascular diseases for many years. Herein, we determined the effect of LSZ on the progression of established atherosclerotic lesions in apoE deficient (apoE) mice. Read More

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December 2018

Voluntary wheel running reveals sex specific nociceptive factors in murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

Pain 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Neuroscience and Mental Health Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada, T6G 2E1.

Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory, neurodegenerative autoimmune disease associated with sensory and motor dysfunction. Although estimates vary, ∼50% of patients with MS experience pain during their disease. The mechanisms underlying the development of pain are not fully understood and no effective treatment for MS related pain is available. Read More

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December 2018

Correlation Between IL-20 and De Quervain's Disease Severity.

Ann Plast Surg 2019 Jan;82(1S Suppl 1):S6-S12

Department of Orthopedics, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan.

De Quervain's disease is a stenosing tenosynovitis of the first dorsal compartment of the wrist. Histopathological studies have reported that the thickening of the first dorsal retinaculum is characterized by degeneration rather than inflammation. However, significant infiltration of mast cells and macrophages was noted in a torn tendon study, which suggested that innate immune pathways are part of the mechanism that mediates early tendinopathy. Read More

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January 2019

Postactivated B cells in systemic lupus erythematosus: update on translational aspects and therapeutic considerations.

Curr Opin Rheumatol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Medicine/Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology.

Purpose Of Review: This review summarizes recent insights and current understanding of the role of postactivated B cells in SLE and related pathogenic and potential therapeutic implications.

Recent Finding: B cells are considered key players in SLE and experience from various B-cell-targeted therapies underlines their clinical relevance. In the last years, new insights have been obtained on B-cell abnormality within the complex pathophysiology of SLE. Read More

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December 2018

Identification of molecular signatures of cystic fibrosis disease status using plasma-based functional genomics.

Physiol Genomics 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Pediatrics, Medical College of Wisconsin, United States.

Although cystic fibrosis (CF) is attributed to dysfunction of a single gene, the relationships between the abnormal gene product and development of inflammation and progression of lung disease are not fully understood, limiting our ability to predict an individual patient's clinical course and treatment response. To better understand CF progression, we characterized the molecular signatures of CF disease status using plasma-based functional genomics. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy donors were cultured with plasma samples from CF patients (n=103) and unrelated, healthy controls (n=31). Read More

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December 2018
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Histamine causes influx via T-type voltage-gated calcium channels in an enterochromaffin tumor cell line: potential therapeutic target in adverse food reactions.

Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Institute of Pathophysiology and Immunology, Medical University of Graz.

The P-STS human ileal neuroendocrine tumor cells, as a model for gut enterochromaffin cells, are strongly and synergistically activated by histamine plus acetylcholine (ACh), presumably via histamine 4 receptors, and weakly activated by histamine alone. Sensing these signals, enterochromaffin cells could participate in intestinal intolerance or allergic reactions to food constituents associated with elevated histamine levels. In this study we aimed to analyze the underlying molecular mechanisms. Read More

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December 2018

Activin A in Mammalian Physiology.

Physiol Rev 2019 Jan;99(1):739-780

Department of Morphology, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais , Belo Horizonte , Brazil ; Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, Università Politecnica delle Marche , Ancona , Italy ; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais , Belo Horizonte , Brazil ; Department of Molecular and Developmental Medicine, Obstetrics and Gynecological Clinic, University of Siena , Siena , Italy ; and Department of Biomedical, Experimental and Clinical Sciences, Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Florence, Careggi University Hospital , Florence , Italy.

Activins are dimeric glycoproteins belonging to the transforming growth factor beta superfamily and resulting from the assembly of two beta subunits, which may also be combined with alpha subunits to form inhibins. Activins were discovered in 1986 following the isolation of inhibins from porcine follicular fluid, and were characterized as ovarian hormones that stimulate follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) release by the pituitary gland. In particular, activin A was shown to be the isoform of greater physiological importance in humans. Read More

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January 2019

CORRELATION BETWEEN NONALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER DISEASE FEATURES AND LEVELS OF ADIPOKINES AND INFLAMMATORY CYTOKINES AMONG MORBIDLY OBESE INDIVIDUALS.

Arq Gastroenterol 2018 Jul-Sep;55(3):247-251

Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Departamento de Cirurgia, Campinas, SP, Brasil.

Background: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the commonest hepatopathy worldwide.

Objective: To investigate the correlations between NAFLD histopathological features and the levels of adipokines (adiponectin, leptin, and resistin) and circulating inflammatory markers (interleukin-6 [IL-6], interleukin-8 [IL-8], tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α], and C-reactive protein [CRP]).

Methods: This is an exploratory cross-sectional study, which enrolled 19 women with obesity who underwent bariatric surgery. Read More

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February 2018

CD47 expression is decreased in hematopoietic progenitor cells in patients with myelofibrosis.

Braz J Med Biol Res 2018 Dec 10;52(1):e7784. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Sabin Medicina Diagnóstica, Brasília, DF, Brasil.

Myelofibrosis (MF) is characterized by increased circulating hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs), abnormal cytokine levels, and the survival advantage of neoplastic progenitors over their normal counterparts, which leads to progressive disappearance of polyclonal hematopoiesis. CD47 is a surface glycoprotein with many functions, such as acting as a phagocytosis inhibitor of the expressing cell, that is increased in normal hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells mobilized into the blood and several human cancer-initiating cells, such as in acute myeloid leukemia. We compared CD47 expression in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells of patients with MF and controls and found it to be decreased in progenitors of MF. Read More

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December 2018

Polydatin Alleviates Radiation-Induced Testes Injury by Scavenging ROS and Inhibiting Apoptosis Pathways.

Authors:
Yan Ma Xiaojing Jia

Med Sci Monit 2018 Dec 12;24:8993-9000. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Radiation Oncology, The Second Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin, China (mainland).

BACKGROUND Exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) induces severe damage in multiple human tissues. The testes are extremely sensitive to IR, and testes irradiation can result in infertility and abnormality. A novel and safe radioprotector for testes injury from IR is needed. Read More

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December 2018

Neuroinflammation as a target for glaucoma therapy.

Neural Regen Res 2019 Mar;14(3):391-394

Visual Neurophysiology and Neurophthalmology Research Unit, IRCCS G.B. Bietti Foundation, Roma, Italy.

The pathogenesis of glaucoma is still not fully clarified but a growing body of evidence suggests that neuroinflammation and immune response are part of the sequence of pathological events leading to the optic neuropathy. Indeed, inflammation - involving the activation and proliferation of resident glial cells (astrocytes, Muller cells and microglia) and the release of a plethora of anti- and pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and reactive oxygen species - has been reported as common features in clinical and experimental glaucoma. In the insulted retina, as for other neuronal tissues, pathogenic and reparative aspects coexist in the inflammatory process, with extent and persistency affecting the final outcome. Read More

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The protective effect of rifampicin on behavioral deficits, biochemical, and neuropathological changes in a cuprizone model of demyelination.

Cytokine 2019 Jan 24;113:417-426. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

Department of Virology, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease of the central nervous system (CNS) in which both neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration play critical roles in the pathogenesis of the disease. A growing body of evidence indicates that some antibiotics have anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties. Rifampicin, commonly used for the treatment of mycobacteria, has been shown to exert neuroprotective activities in neurodegenerative diseases. Read More

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January 2019

Terpenoid-rich Elettaria cardamomum extract prevents Alzheimer-like alterations induced in diabetic rats via inhibition of GSK3β activity, oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines.

Cytokine 2019 Jan 24;113:405-416. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt.

Purpose: Recent studies suggested that the non-familiar form of Alzheimer's disease (AD) could be consequence of metabolic syndrome and neuroinflammation. Elettaria cardamomum extract (EC) has exhibited antidiabetic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This research was conducted to evaluate the effects of EC on AD-like alterations in rats induced by high fructose and high fat diet coupled with a single small dose of STZ (25 mg/kg) (T2DM rats). Read More

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January 2019

Beneficial effects of leptin substitution on impaired eating behavior in lipodystrophy are sustained beyond 150 weeks of treatment.

Cytokine 2019 Jan 24;113:400-404. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

Department of Medicine, University Hospital Leipzig, 04103 Leipzig, Germany. Electronic address:

Aim: Metreleptin treatment in lipodystrophy patients improves eating behavior with increased satiety and reduced hunger. However, no data are available whether effects are maintained beyond 52 weeks of treatment.

Methods: A prospective study with measurements at baseline and at >150 weeks of metreleptin treatment was performed. Read More

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January 2019

Acutely malnourished weanling mice administered Flt3 ligand can support a cell-mediated inflammatory response.

Cytokine 2019 Jan 7;113:39-49. Epub 2018 Jul 7.

Department of Human Health and Nutritional Sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:

The main objective of this investigation was to determine whether, despite acute (wasting) deficits of dietary nitrogen and energy, weanling mice could respond to the dendritic cell hematopoietin, Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (Flt3L), in terms of an index of cell-mediated inflammatory competence. Male and female C57BL/6J weanlings were used, initially 19 days of age, and malnutrition was produced using a nitrogen-deficient diet. In preliminary work ten daily subcutaneous 1. Read More

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January 2019

Tumour necrosis factor and interleukin 10 in blood pressure regulation in spontaneously hypertensive and normotensive rats.

Cytokine 2019 Jan 6;113:185-194. Epub 2018 Jul 6.

Department of Experimental and Clinical Physiology, Laboratory of Centre for Preclinical Research, The Medical University of Warsaw, Banacha 1B, 02-097 Warsaw, Poland. Electronic address:

Introduction: A growing body of evidence indicates that brain cytokines are involved in the control of the cardiovascular system. Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) is an archetypal cytokine, which exerts its proinflammatory actions via type 1 receptor (TNFR1). Interleukin 10 (IL-10) plays a critical anti-inflammatory role by binding to its receptor (IL-10Ra). Read More

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January 2019

Genetic variants in RORA are associated with asthma and allergy markers in an admixed population.

Cytokine 2019 Jan 7;113:177-184. Epub 2018 Jul 7.

Departamento de Ciências da Vida, Universidade do Estado da Bahia, Salvador, BA, Brazil. Electronic address:

Asthma and allergy affect hundreds of millions of people from childhood to old age. In most of them, the inflammatory process of respiratory allergies involves the participation of type 2 cytokines, derived from T helper-2 (Th2)-cell, and Group 2 Innate Lymphoid (ILC2) Cells. An efficient memory Th2 cell response is dependent on IL-13 produced by ILC2s, causing allergic lung inflammation and elevated serum levels of immunoglobulin E. Read More

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January 2019
2 Reads

Diverse effects of platelet-derived growth factor-BB on cell signaling pathways.

Cytokine 2019 Jan 24;113:13-20. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

Shanxi Medical University School and Hospital of Stomatology, Taiyuan 030001, China. Electronic address:

Platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) is involved in the tissue repair and tumor progression effects, and act as a rapid and early effector cytokines which are released in response to pathogen-induced changes in the microenvironment. Recent researches have implicated PDGF-BB as a potential contributing factor to the spectrum of the cell signaling pathway of interrelated diseases, particularly mesangial cells, mesenchymal stem cells, human dermal fibroblasts, tumor pericytes and smooth muscle cells. In this review, we generalize the present literatures on the roles of PDGF-BB in the various interrelated diseases, providing insights or strategies into the underlying cellular and signaling mechanisms that will help guide future studies further into promising interventional targets with therapeutic potential. Read More

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January 2019

Evaluation of levels of interleukin-6, interleukin-8 and some haematologic parameters of dogs with cutaneous wounds.

Cytokine 2019 Jan 28;113:128-138. Epub 2018 Jun 28.

Department of Veterinary Medicine, ABU, Zaria, Nigeria.

The aim of the study was to investigate the time-course of serum and wound fluids interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 levels in dogs with cutaneous wounds and their relationship with some haematologic parameters. The experimental group comprised of six adult dogs that underwent surgery with wounds (n = 6) on the mid lateral aspect of the right antebrachium; and control group of six, apparently, healthy intact (free from cutaneous wounds) adult dogs, comprising equal number of both sexes. Vital signs evaluated were within normal limits. Read More

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January 2019

An extensive review regarding the adipokines in the pathogenesis and progression of osteoarthritis.

Cytokine 2019 Jan 28;113:1-12. Epub 2018 Jun 28.

Department of Orthopedics, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410011, China. Electronic address:

Osteoarthritis is the most prevalent form of aging-related joint diseases, and its etiology is still not fully understood. Obesity has been recognized as one of the most significant and potentially preventable risk factors for osteoarthritis. Beyond mechanical loading, adipokines, including leptin, visfatin, adiponectin, resistin and others, are demonstrated to have metabolic implications in the pathogenesis and progression in obesity-induced osteoarthritis by modulating the pro/anti-inflammatory and anabolic/catabolic balance, apoptosis, matrix remodeling and subchondral bone ossification. Read More

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January 2019

Suppressive Effects of the Standardized Extract of Phyllanthus amarus on Type II collagen-induced Rheumatoid Arthritis in Sprague Dawley Rats.

Curr Pharm Biotechnol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Faculty of Medicine,University of Tabuk, Tabuk 71491. Saudi Arabia.

Background: Standardized extract of Phyllanthus amarus has been shown to possess inhibitory effects on cellular and humoral immune responses in Wistar-Kyoto rats and Balb/c mice.

Objective: In the present study, the standardized extract of P. amarus was investigated for its suppressive effects on type II collagen-induced rheumatoid arthritis (TCIA) in Sprague Dawley rats. Read More

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December 2018

Prohibitin 2-mediated mitophagy attenuates renal tubular epithelial cells injury by regulating mitochondrial dysfunction and NLRP3 inflammasome activation.

Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Division of Nephrology, Shanghai Jiaotong university, China.

Accumulating evidence demonstrates that mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammasome activation play a critical role in the pathogenesis of renal tubular injury through the production of reactive oxygen species and cytokines. Prohibitin 2 (PHB2) is a newly identified intracellular receptor of mitophagy (a type of autophagy) that mediates selective removal of damaged mitochondria, and it could possibly play a renoprotective role in kidney disease. In this study, we confirmed that autophagy is activated in tubular epithelial cells treated with angiotensin II, and that inhibition of autophagy results in tubular cell injury. Read More

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December 2018

MYO-INOSITOL OXYGENASE ACCENTUATES RENAL TUBULAR INJURY INITIATED BY ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM (ER) STRESS.

Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Ward 6-140, Pathology Department, Northwestern University Medical School, United States.

Besides oxidant stress, ER stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various metabolic disorders affecting kidney. These two forms of stresses are not mutually exclusive to each other and may operate by a feedback loop in worsening the cellular injury. To attest to this contention studies were performed to assess if in such a setting there is worsening of tubulo-interstitial injury. Read More

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December 2018

Interleukin-22 promotes tumor angiogenesis.

Angiogenesis 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Moores Cancer Center, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, 92093, USA.

T17 cells play important yet complex roles in cancer development and progression. We previously reported that T17 cells and IL-17 mediate resistance to anti-VEGF therapy by inducing recruitment of immunosuppressive and proangiogenic myeloid cells to the tumor microenvironment. Here, we demonstrate that IL-22, a key effector cytokine expressed by T17 cells, directly acts on endothelial cells to promote tumor angiogenesis. Read More

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December 2018

Cytokine levels in crevicular fluid associated with compliance during periodontal maintenance therapy.

Clin Oral Investig 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Dental Clinics, Oral Pathology, and Oral Surgery, School of Dentistry, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Antônio Carlos Avenue, 6627, Pampulha, PO Box 359, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, 31270-901, Brazil.

Objectives: To longitudinally evaluate the effects of compliance during periodontal maintenance therapy (PMT) on cytokines levels and its relation to periodontal status.

Materials And Methods: Ninety-one eligible individuals were selected from a 6-year prospective study with 212 individuals in PMT. From this total, 28 regular compliers (RC) were randomly selected and matched for age and gender with 28 irregular compliers (IC). Read More

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December 2018

Overproduction of IL-6 and Type-I IFN in a Lethal Case of Chikungunya Virus Infection in an Elderly Man During the 2017 Italian Outbreak.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2018 Nov 25;5(11):ofy276. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

National Institute for Infectious Diseases "L. Spallanzani" IRCCS, Rome, Italy.

Chikungunya fever is caused by Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and is generally considered a self-limiting disease. However, severe clinical presentations with a high mortality rate have been reported in association with underlying medical conditions. This study reports the molecular characterization of the virus and an abnormal pattern of circulating cytokines in a unique lethal CHIKV case during the 2017 outbreak in Italy, which involved an elderly patient with underlying cardiac disease. Read More

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November 2018
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IL-33 Protects Mice against DSS-Induced Chronic Colitis by Increasing Both Regulatory B Cell and Regulatory T Cell Responses as Well as Decreasing Th17 Cell Response.

J Immunol Res 2018 13;2018:1827901. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Life Science School, Liaoning University, Shenyang 110036, China.

Background: Previously, we have reported that IL-33 functioned as a protective modulator in dextran sulfate sodium- (DSS-) induced chronic colitis by suppressing Th17 cell response in colon lamina propria and IL-33 induced both regulatory B cells (Bregs) and regulatory T cells (Tregs) in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) of mice with DSS-induced acute colitis. Moreover, we speculated that IL-33 would promote the Treg or Breg responses leading to the attenuation of DSS-induced chronic colitis. So, we investigated the role of IL-33 on Bregs and Tregs in the MLN of DSS-induced chronic colitis mice. Read More

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November 2018

Th1/Th2 Dichotomy in Obese Women with Gestational Diabetes and Their Macrosomic Babies.

J Diabetes Res 2018 14;2018:8474617. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Laboratory of Physiology and Functional Explorations, Faculty of Medicine, Pharmacy and Odontology, Cheikh Anta Diop University, 5005 Dakar-Fann, Senegal.

The aim of the study was to assess T cell differentiation and the modulation of inflammatory cytokines in obese and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) women and their macrosomic newborns. Hence, immediately after delivery, blood samples were collected through the mother's arm vein and the umbilical cordon vein. Biochemical parameters measured were HbA1C, glucose, insulin, triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (Tchol), HDL cholesterol (HDLchol), and LDL cholesterol (LDLchol). Read More

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November 2018

Cytokine Effect of TLR3, TLR4, and TLR7 Agonists Alone or Associated with Antigen on Blood from Dogs.

Biomed Res Int 2018 12;2018:5693736. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Departament de Medicina i Cirurgia Animals, Facultat de Veterinària, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Spain.

Activation of toll-like receptors (TLRs) has been shown to play an important role in leishmaniosis by enhancing the parasite specific immune responses to control infection. However, the role of TLR agonists has not been studied in detail in dogs. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of TLR3, TLR4, and TLR7 agonists (TLR3a, TLR4a, and TLR7a) alone or in combination with antigen (LSA) on TNF- and IL-6 production in blood from dogs living in endemic areas of canine leishmaniosis (CanL). Read More

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November 2018

Virulence of Clinical Isolates Is Associated With Sputum Pre-treatment Bacterial Load, Lineage, Survival in Macrophages, and Cytokine Response.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2018 27;8:417. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

It is uncertain whether differences in ( virulence defined influence clinical tuberculosis pathogenesis, transmission, and mortality. We primarily used a macrophage lysis model to characterize the virulence of isolates collected from 153 Vietnamese adults with pulmonary tuberculosis. The virulence phenotypes were then investigated for their relationship with sputum bacterial load, bacterial lineages, bacterial growth, and cytokine responses in macrophages. Read More

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November 2018

Sex hormones alter the response of Toll-like receptor 3 to its specific ligand in fallopian tube epithelial cells.

Clin Exp Reprod Med 2018 Dec 30;45(4):154-162. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Endocrinology and Female Infertility, Reproductive Biomedicine Research Center, Royan Institute for Reproductive Biomedicine, ACECR, Tehran, Iran.

Objective: The fallopian tubes play a critical role in the early events of fertilization. The rapid innate immune defense is an important part of the fallopian tubes. Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), as a part of the innate immune system, plays an important role in detecting viral infections. Read More

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December 2018

c-Met Signaling Protects from Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis- (NASH-) Induced Fibrosis in Different Liver Cell Types.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2018 12;2018:6957497. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Department of Internal Medicine III, University Hospital, RWTH, Aachen, Germany.

Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is the most common chronic, progressive liver disease in Western countries. The significance of cellular interactions of the HGF/c-Met axis in different liver cell subtypes and its relation to the oxidative stress response remains unclear so far. Hence, the present study is aimed at investigating the role of c-Met and the interaction with the oxidative stress response during NASH development in mice and humans. Read More

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November 2018

Omega-9 Oleic Acid, the Main Compound of Olive Oil, Mitigates Inflammation during Experimental Sepsis.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2018 13;2018:6053492. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Laboratório de Imunofarmacologia, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

The Mediterranean diet, rich in olive oil, is beneficial, reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Olive oil is mostly composed of the monounsaturated fatty acid omega-9. We showed omega-9 protects septic mice modulating lipid metabolism. Read More

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November 2018

The Clinical Efficacy and Safety of Gumiganghwal-Tang in Knee Osteoarthritis: A Phase II Randomized Double Blind Placebo Controlled Study.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2018 14;2018:3165125. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, Soonchunhyang University, Cheonan, Republic of Korea.

Background: Gumiganghwal-tang (GMGHT) is a traditional herbal medicine consisting of nine different herbs. GMGHT inhibits the mRNA expression and production of inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor- (TNF- ), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and TNF- on lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) stimulated peritoneal macrophages in a dose-dependent manner. It is empirically used for the treatment of inflammatory disease, but there are few reports of clinical trials that investigate its efficacy and safety. Read More

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November 2018

Human Vγ9Vδ2 T Lymphocytes in the Immune Response to Infection.

Front Immunol 2018 27;9:2760. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Univ. Bordeaux, CNRS ImmunoConcEpT UMR 5164, Bordeaux, France.

Malaria is an infectious disease caused by the protozoan parasite , the most lethal being . Clinical malaria is associated with the asexual replication cycle of parasites inside the red blood cells (RBCs) and a dysregulated immune response. Although the mechanisms of immune responses to blood-or liver-stage parasites have been extensively studied, this has not led to satisfactory leads for vaccine design. Read More

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November 2018

Induction of Lipid-Specific T Cell Responses by Pulmonary Delivery of Mycolic Acid-Loaded Polymeric Micellar Nanocarriers.

Front Immunol 2018 27;9:2709. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Interdisciplinary Biological Sciences Program, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, United States.

Mycolic acid (MA), a major lipid component of (Mtb) cell wall, can be presented by the non-polymorphic antigen presenting molecule CD1b to T cells isolated from Mtb-infected individuals. These MA-specific CD1b-restricted T cells are cytotoxic, produce Th1 cytokines, and form memory populations, suggesting that MA can be explored as a potential subunit vaccine candidate for TB. However, the controlled elicitation of MA-specific T cell responses has been challenging due to difficulties in the targeted delivery of lipid antigens and a lack of suitable animal models. Read More

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November 2018
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Adenylyl Cyclase 6 Mediates Inhibition of TNF in the Inflammatory Reflex.

Front Immunol 2018 27;9:2648. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Department of Medicine, Center for Bioelectronic Medicine, Center for Molecular Medicine, Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.

Macrophage cytokine production is regulated by neural signals, for example in the inflammatory reflex. Signals in the vagus and splenic nerves are relayed by choline acetyltransferase T cells that release acetylcholine, the cognate ligand for alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine subunit-containing receptors (α7nAChR), and suppress TNF release in macrophages. Here, we observed that electrical vagus nerve stimulation with a duration of 0. Read More

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November 2018

Inflammatory Measures in Depressed Patients With and Without a History of Adverse Childhood Experiences.

Front Psychiatry 2018 27;9:610. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Corporate Member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health (BIH), Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Berlin, Germany.

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a complex psychiatric condition with different subtypes and etiologies. Exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACE) is an important risk factor for the development of MDD later in life. Evidence suggests that pro-inflammatory processes may convey this risk as both MDD and ACE have been related to increased levels of inflammation. Read More

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November 2018
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