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    Abdominal Mass Secondary to Human Toxocariasis.
    APSP J Case Rep 2017 Jan-Feb;8(1). Epub 2017 Jan 5.
    Pediatric Surgery Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Toxocariasis is an extensive helminthic infection that leads to visceral larva migrans in humans. A 2.5-year-old girl referred for abdominal mass. Read More

    Seroepidemiological Study of Toxocariasis in the Owners of Domestic Cats and Dogs in Mashhad, Northeastern Iran.
    Iran J Parasitol 2016 Apr-Jun;11(2):265-268
    Dept. of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran.
    Background: Toxocariasis is the clinical terms applied to infection of human with Ascarid nematodes in the order Ascaridida, named Toxocara canis and T. cati. Because in recent years in Iran many people desire to keep pets (cats and dogs), and lacking of seroepidemiological study of toxocariasis in Mashhad, we decided to determine the seroprevalence of toxocariasis among people who own cats and dogs in comparison with control group. Read More

    Draft Genome of Toxocara canis, a Pathogen Responsible for Visceral Larva Migrans.
    Korean J Parasitol 2016 Dec 31;54(6):751-758. Epub 2016 Dec 31.
    Department of Parasitology and Institute of Medical Education, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chuncheon 24253, Korea.
    This study aimed at constructing a draft genome of the adult female worm Toxocara canis using next-generation sequencing (NGS) and de novo assembly, as well as to find new genes after annotation using functional genomics tools. Using an NGS machine, we produced DNA read data of T. canis. Read More

    Cutaneous larva migrans.
    Recent Pat Inflamm Allergy Drug Discov 2017 Jan 10. Epub 2017 Jan 10.
    Department of Paediatrics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong.
    Background: Cutaneous larva migrans is one of the most common skin diseases reported in travelers returning from tropical regions. Western physicians, however, are often not familiar of this condition.

    Objective: To review in depth the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, complications, and treatment of cutaneous larva migrans. Read More

    Treatment of cutaneous larva migrans with a single session of carbon dioxide laser: a study of ten cases in the Philippines.
    J Cosmet Dermatol 2016 Nov 29. Epub 2016 Nov 29.
    MediSkin Dermatology Clinic, Davao Doctors Hospital, Davao City, Philippines.
    Background: Cutaneous larva migrans (CLM) has a detrimental effect on patients' emotional and physical quality of life. Due to local unavailability of gold standard oral treatments for CLM, carbon dioxide laser was attempted. We present a case series where a single session of carbon dioxide laser treatment was associated with cessation of signs and symptoms of CLM. Read More

    Baylisascaris procyonis Roundworm Seroprevalence among Wildlife Rehabilitators, United States and Canada, 2012-2015.
    Emerg Infect Dis 2016 Dec;22(12):2128-2131
    Baylisascaris procyonis roundworms can cause potentially fatal neural larva migrans in many species, including humans. However, the clinical spectrum of baylisascariasis is not completely understood. We tested 347 asymptomatic adult wildlife rehabilitators for B. Read More

    Gnathostomiasis in Brazil: an emerging disease with a challenging diagnosis.
    J Travel Med 2016 Jul 30;24(1). Epub 2016 Oct 30.
    Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland.
    This case report describes the second reported case of gnathostomiasis acquired in Brazil. The French traveller returned from a sport fishing trip from Tocantins where he was repeatedly consuming raw freshwater fish marinated with lemon juice. Gnathostoma infection was diagnosed based on clinical symptoms, dietary record and by detection of specific antibodies in the blood. Read More

    The Mitochondrial Genomes of the Zoonotic Canine Filarial Parasites Dirofilaria (Nochtiella) repens and Candidatus Dirofilaria (Nochtiella) Honkongensis Provide Evidence for Presence of Cryptic Species.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2016 Oct 11;10(10):e0005028. Epub 2016 Oct 11.
    Institute for Parasitology and Tropical Veterinary Medicine, Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Background: Cutaneous dirofilariosis is a canine mosquito-borne zoonosis that can cause larva migrans disease in humans. Dirofilaria repens is considered an emerging pathogen occurring with high prevalence in Mediterranean areas and many parts of tropical Asia. In Hong Kong, a second species, Candidatus Dirofilaria hongkongensis, has been reported. Read More

    Ocular parasitoses: A comprehensive review.
    Surv Ophthalmol 2016 Oct 6. Epub 2016 Oct 6.
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA. Electronic address:
    Parasitic infections of the eyes are a major cause of ocular diseases across the globe. The causative agents range from simple organisms such as unicellular protozoans to complex metazoan helminths. The disease spectrum varies depending on the geographic location, prevailing hygiene, living and eating habits of the inhabitants, and the type of animals that surround them. Read More

    Imported cutaneous larva migrans by a 31-year-old French woman after a travel in Gabon.
    BMJ Case Rep 2016 Sep 12;2016. Epub 2016 Sep 12.
    Service de Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales, Hôpital de la Croix-Rousse, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon, France Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Lyon, France Centre International de Recherche en Infectiologie, CIRI, Inserm U1111, CNRS UMR5308, ENS de Lyon, UCBL1, Lyon, France.

    In vitro production of Toxocara canis excretory-secretory (TES) antigen.
    J Parasit Dis 2016 Sep 20;40(3):1038-43. Epub 2014 Dec 20.
    Department of Animal Biotechnology, Madras Veterinary College (TANUVAS), Chennai, India.
    Toxocara canis is a widespread gastrointestinal nematode parasite of dogs and cause Toxocara larva migrans, an important zoonotic disease in humans on ingestion of infective eggs. Toxocarosis is one of the few human parasitic diseases whose serodiagnosis uses a standardized antigen, T. canis excretory secretory antigen (TES). Read More

    Optimal ELISA antigen for the diagnosis of Ascaris suum infection in humans.
    Parasitol Res 2016 Dec 8;115(12):4701-4705. Epub 2016 Sep 8.
    Division of Parasitology, Department of Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, University of Miyazaki, 5200 Kihara, Kiyotake, 889-1692, Miyazaki, Japan.
    Ascarid nematodes, Ascaris suum, Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati, are the most important causative species of larva migrans syndrome (LMS) in humans. Although the diagnosis of ascarid LMS is generally based on serological tests, specific serological tests for A. suum infection have not been fully developed. Read More

    [Toxocarosis and acalculous acute cholecystitis: Consequence or coincidence?].
    Rev Chilena Infectol 2016 Jun;33(3):346-51
    Servicio de Pediatría, Hospital Dr. Eduardo Schütz Schroeder, Puerto Montt, Chile.
    Human toxocarosis is a chronic larval parasitosis listed as one of the five most important neglected diseases by the CDC. The larvae can spread systemically and migrate to different tissues including liver and gallbladder. Acalculous acute cholecystitis (AAC) is a rare disease in children. Read More

    Seroprevalence of Toxocara spp. in a rural population in Central African Gabon.
    Parasitol Int 2016 Dec 2;65(6 Pt A):632-634. Epub 2016 Sep 2.
    Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, Department of Medicine I, Medical University of Vienna, Austria; Centre de Recherches Médicales de Lambaréné, Lambaréné, Gabon; Institut für Tropenmedizin, Universität Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany. Electronic address:
    Toxocara spp. are zoonotic parasites with global distribution infecting humans by incidental ingestions of eggs shed in feces of dogs or cats. High seroprevalences have been reported from several regions of Africa, however data from the Central African region remain limited. Read More

    Permeability and Viability of Baylisascaris procyonis Eggs in Southern Texas Soils.
    J Parasitol 2016 Dec 19;102(6):608-612. Epub 2016 Aug 19.
    Caesar Kleberg Wildlife Research Institute, Texas A&M University-Kingsville, 700 University Blvd, MSC 218, Kingsville, Texas 78363.
    Baylisascaris procyonis is a nematode whose definitive host is the raccoon ( Procyon lotor ). Adult parasites are not particularly pathogenic to raccoons; however, larvae in intermediate hosts can cause visceral, ocular, and neural larva migrans. Humans serve as dead-end hosts, and pathological responses are similar to those found in infected intermediate hosts. Read More

    Ocular toxocariasis presenting as bilateral scleritis with suspect retinal granuloma in the nerve fiber layer: a case report.
    BMC Infect Dis 2016 Aug 18;16(1):426. Epub 2016 Aug 18.
    Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Yangsan, Korea.
    Background: This report details ocular toxocariasis presenting as bilateral scleritis with suspect retinal granuloma in the nerve fiber layer.

    Case Presentation: The patient presented with scleritis, which did not improve with systemic steroid. Intraocular pressure was elevated, and well demarcated hyper-reflective round lesion were noted in both eyes. Read More

    Helminth Infections and Cardiovascular Diseases: Toxocara Species is Contributing to the Disease.
    Curr Cardiol Rev 2017 ;13(1):56-62
    Department of Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, Karaj, Iran.
    Toxocariasis is the clinical term used to describe human infection with either the dog ascarid Toxocara canis or the feline ascarid Toxocara cati. As with other helminths zoonoses, the infective larvae of these Toxocara species cannot mature into adults in the human host. Instead, the worms wander through organs and tissues, mainly the liver, lungs, myocardium, kidney and central nervous system, in a vain attempt to find that, which they need to mature into adults. Read More

    Cutaneous Manifestations of Selected Parasitic Infections in Western Pacific and Southeast Asian Regions.
    Curr Infect Dis Rep 2016 Sep;18(9):30
    Department of Parasitology, College of Public Health, University of the Philippines Manila, P. Gil St., Ermita, Manila, 1000, Philippines.
    Cutaneous manifestations of parasitic infections often result in discomfort, debilitation, and even stigmatization. Data on cutaneous manifestations of parasitic infections, however, are limited. This article provides updates on the cutaneous manifestations of parasitic infections which are known to occur in Western Pacific and Southeast Asian regions, such as scabies, pediculosis, cutaneous larva migrans, larva currens, cutaneous schistosomiasis, cutaneous enterobiasis, cutaneous cysticercosis, acute dermatolymphangioadenitis (lymphatic filariasis), and cutaneous amoebiasis. Read More

    [Multiple pulmonary opacities revealing toxocariasis].
    Rev Pneumol Clin 2016 Aug 28;72(4):273-6. Epub 2016 Jun 28.
    Service des maladies respiratoires, hôpital Maison-Blanche, CHU de Reims, 45, rue Cognacq-Jay, 51 092 Reims cedex, France; EA 4683, université de médecine et de pharmacie, 51100 Reims, France. Electronic address:
    Introduction: Toxocariasis is a parasitosis which complicates the accidental infestation of the humans by larvae of a roundworms belonging of the genus Toxocara. In adults, the discovery is often incidental during a hypereosinophilia check-up. Clinical signs are not specific and depend on affected organs. Read More

    Got the Travel Bug? A Review of Common Infections, Infestations, Bites, and Stings Among Returning Travelers.
    Am J Clin Dermatol 2016 Oct;17(5):451-462
    Department of Dermatology, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 9500 Euclid Ave, Cleveland, OH, USA.
    The popularity of international travel continues to increase among Americans, even though they often experience subsequent illness on return from their journey. The pathogens responsible are not necessarily endemic to the destination itself but are often the result of poor sanitary conditions or activities engaged in while away. Skin disease ranks third among all medical concerns in returning travelers. Read More

    Cerebral Larva Migrans Caused by Baylisascaris spp. in a Free-ranging North American Porcupine ( Erethizon dorsatum ).
    J Wildl Dis 2016 Jul 17;52(3):763-5. Epub 2016 Jun 17.
    2 School of Veterinary Medicine and Utah Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, Utah State University, 950 E, 1400 North, Logan, Utah 84341, USA;
    A free-ranging North American porcupine ( Erethizon dorsatum ) from Utah, US, exhibited neurologic symptoms and was submitted for necropsy. Histologic examination of the brain revealed severe encephalitis with an intralesional nematode larva consistent with Baylisascaris spp. Neurologic larva migrans had not been reported in free-ranging porcupines, or from wildlife in Utah. Read More

    Larva migrans syndrome caused by Toxocara and Ascaris roundworm infections in Japanese patients.
    Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2016 Sep 6;35(9):1521-9. Epub 2016 Jun 6.
    Division of Parasitology, Department of Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, University of Miyazaki, Kihara 5200, Kiyotake-cho, Miyazaki City, Miyazaki, 889-1692, Japan.
    Larva migrans syndrome (LMS) caused by Toxocara and Ascaris roundworms is generally believed to be more common in children, while a report from Japan suggests that it is more common in adults. We conducted a large-scale retrospective study to confirm these findings and to clarify what caused the difference between Japan and other countries, to reveal overlooked aspects of this disease. The clinical information of 911 cases which we diagnosed as Toxocara or Ascaris LMS during 2001 and 2015 was analysed. Read More

    [Cutaneous larva migrans syndrome on a malformed foot (a case report)].
    Pan Afr Med J 2016 19;23:50. Epub 2016 Feb 19.
    Service de Parasitologie et de Mycologie, Hôpital Militaire de Moulay Ismail, Meknès, Maroc.
    Cutaneous larva migrans syndrome is a subcutaneous dermatitis caused by hookworms' larvae, originating from animals in parasitic impasse in humans. Transcutaneous infestation is favored by contact with contaminated soil. We report the case of a 15-month-old child, native of Guinea - Bissau, suffering from cutaneous larva migrans syndrome on a malformed foot. Read More

    [Cutaneous larva migrans: report of three cases from the Western Black Sea Region, Turkey].
    Mikrobiyol Bul 2016 Jan;50(1):165-9
    Düzce University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Microbiology, Düzce, Turkey.
    Cutaneous larva migrans (CLM) is a parasitosis frequently seen in persons who have travelled to tropical or subtropical regions and in those who have worked in contact with soil. The disease frequently develops due to Ancylostoma braziliensis and Ancylostoma caninum species. After penetrating the skin and entering the body, the hookworm larva proceeds to bore tunnels through the epidermis, creating pruritic, erythematous, serpiginous lesions. Read More

    Loeffler's Syndrome Following Cutaneous Larva Migrans: An Uncommon Sequel.
    Indian J Dermatol 2016 Mar-Apr;61(2):190-2
    Department of Dermatology, Medical College and Hospital, Kolkata, West Bengal, India.
    Cutaneous larva migrans (CLM) is characterized by the formation of distinctive, tortuous, and serpentine skin lesions occurring as a result of epidermal burrowing by certain helminthic larvae. Although this condition is usually uneventful, rarely it may result in patchy pulmonary infiltration with peripheral eosinophilia, also called Loeffler's syndrome. This association is fairly uncommon and is thus being reported. Read More

    [Current guidelines in dermatology : A selection of clinically relevant recommendations].
    Hautarzt 2016 May;67(5):391-6
    Division of Evidence-Based Medicine, Klinik für Dermatologie Venerologie und Allergologie, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Charitéplatz 1, 10117, Berlin, Deutschland.
    Guidelines are systematically developed decision aids for specific medical conditions. The German Dermatological Society, together with the German Professional Association of Dermatologists, takes the lead in the development of the guidelines for dermatology in Germany. In addition to national guidelines, European and international guidelines also exist. Read More

    [Eosinophilia prevalence and related factors in travel and immigrants of the network +REDIVI].
    Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin 2016 Mar 28. Epub 2016 Mar 28.
    Servicio de Enfermedades Infecciosas, Hospital Ramón y Cajal, Madrid, España.
    The population movements during the last decades have resulted in a progressively increasing interest in certain infectious diseases. Eosinophilia is a common finding in immigrants and travellers. One of the most common causes of eosinophilia is helminth infection, and some intestinal protozoa. Read More

    Prevalence and Risk Factors of Hookworm-Related Cutaneous Larva Migrans (HrCLM) in a Resource-Poor Community in Manaus, Brazil.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2016 Mar 24;10(3):e0004514. Epub 2016 Mar 24.
    Institute of Microbiology and Hygiene, Charité University Medical Center, Berlin, Germany.
    Background: Hookworm-related cutaneous larva migrans (HrCLM) is a neglected tropical skin disease associated with significant clinical pathology. Little knowledge exists about prevalence and risk factors of HrCLM in endemic regions.

    Methodology/ Principal Findings: To understand the epidemiology of HrCLM in Amazonia, we conducted a cross-sectional study in a resource-poor township in Manaus, Brazil. Read More

    Hepatic visceral larva migrans, a resilient entity on imaging: Experience from a tertiary liver center.
    Trop Parasitol 2016 Jan-Jun;6(1):56-68
    Department of Hepatology, Institute of Liver and Biliary Sciences, New Delhi, India.
    Introduction: Hepatic visceral larva migrans (VLM) is an uncommon parasitic manifestation seen in the liver. It presents as coalescing, conglomerated, or solitary abscess cavities in the liver on imaging. We conducted a retrospective clinico-radiological analysis of 24 patients with biopsy proven VLM who were reviewed and followed up at our tertiary liver institute over a period of 4 years. Read More

    Update on Baylisascariasis, a Highly Pathogenic Zoonotic Infection.
    Clin Microbiol Rev 2016 Apr;29(2):375-99
    Department of Comparative Pathobiology, Purdue University College of Veterinary Medicine, West Lafayette, Indiana, USA.
    Baylisascaris procyonis, the raccoon roundworm, infects a wide range of vertebrate animals, including humans, in which it causes a particularly severe type of larva migrans. It is an important cause of severe neurologic disease (neural larva migrans [NLM]) but also causes ocular disease (OLM; diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis [DUSN]), visceral larva migrans (VLM), and covert/asymptomatic infections. B. Read More

    Autochthonous cutaneous larva migrans infection in Guipúzcoa.
    Actas Dermosifiliogr 2016 Jun 2;107(5):407-13. Epub 2016 Mar 2.
    Servicio de Dermatología, Hospital Universitario Donostia, San Sebastián, Guipúzcoa, España.
    Introduction: Cutaneous larva migrans (LM) infection forms a serpiginous eruption caused by the migration of nematode helminths through the epidermis. The parasites are acquired when the skin comes into contact with soil contaminated by the feces of infected animals. Until now, infections have been believed to be imported from tropical and subtropical regions. Read More

    Spectrum of Imported Infectious Diseases: A Comparative Prevalence Study of 16,817 German Travelers and 977 Immigrants from the Tropics and Subtropics.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2016 Apr 22;94(4):757-66. Epub 2016 Feb 22.
    Department of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine (DITM), Medical Center of the University of Munich, Munich, Germany.
    The aim of this study was to assess the spectrum of imported infectious diseases (IDs) among patients consulting the University of Munich, Germany, between 1999 and 2014 after being in the sub-/tropics. The analysis investigated complete data sets of 16,817 diseased German travelers (2,318 business travelers, 4,029 all-inclusive travelers, and 10,470 backpackers) returning from Latin America (3,225), Africa (4,865), or Asia (8,727), and 977 diseased immigrants, originating from the same regions (112, 654 and 211 respectively). The most frequent symptoms assessed were diarrhea (38%), fever (29%), and skin disorder (22%). Read More

    Evaluation of the Goldmann-Witmer coefficient in the immunological diagnosis of ocular toxocariasis.
    Acta Trop 2016 Jun 17;158:20-3. Epub 2016 Feb 17.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Fudan University Eye and ENT Hospital, Shanghai 200031, China.
    Ocular toxocariasis (OT) is a zoonotic parasitic infection mainly caused by the intraocular tissue invasion of second-stage Toxocara canis or Toxocara cati larva. Measuring specific anti-T. canis antibodies in the intraocular fluid (IF) can increase OT diagnosis accuracy using Goldmann-Witmer coefficient (GWC). Read More

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