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    Erosive Pustular Dermatosis of the Scalp with Urate-Like Crystals.
    Case Rep Dermatol Med 2017 8;2017:1536434. Epub 2017 Oct 8.
    Auckland University of Technology, Auckland 1142, New Zealand.
    Follicular urate-like crystals were first described in Necrotizing Infundibular Crystalline Folliculitis (NICF), a rare cutaneous disorder with multiple waxy folliculocentric papules. Similar crystal accumulation may be seen within follicular infundibulae as an incidental finding. We describe a case showing identical crystals occurring within the horn-like crusts of a patient with erosive pustular dermatosis of the scalp (EPDS), a condition which due to its presentation can often be mistaken for nonmelanoma skin cancer. Read More

    Downregulation of spinal astrocytic connexin43 leads to upregulation of interleukin-6 and cyclooxygenase-2 and mechanical hypersensitivity in mice.
    Glia 2017 Nov 6. Epub 2017 Nov 6.
    Department of Pharmacology, Hiroshima University Graduate School of Biomedical & Health Sciences, 1-2-3 Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima, 734-8553, Japan.
    Connexin43 (Cx43), involved in intercellular signaling, is expressed in spinal dorsal horn astrocytes and crucial in the maintenance of neuropathic pain. Downregulation of spinal astrocytic Cx43 in mice enhances glutamatergic neurotransmission by decreasing glutamate transporter GLT-1 expression, resulting in cutaneous hypersensitivity. Decreased expression of astrocytic Cx43 could lead to altered expression of other nociceptive molecules. Read More

    Soft-tissue infection secondary to cellulitis killed St. John of the Cross (1542-1591).
    Infection 2017 Oct 31. Epub 2017 Oct 31.
    Department of Medicine, "San Giovanni di Dio" Hospital, Gorizia, Italy.
    Purpose: St. John of the Cross (1542-1591) died aged 49 years after 3 months of excruciating pain following a trivial lesion in his right foot. Erysipelas, a superficial bacterial infection of the skin, and subsequent sepsis were previously suggested as the cause of his death. Read More

    Baseline factors affecting closure of venous leg ulcers.
    J Vasc Surg Venous Lymphat Disord 2017 Nov;5(6):829-835.e1
    Smith & Nephew, Inc, Fort Worth, Tex; Department of Pediatrics, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, Tex.
    Objective: The objective of this study was to characterize factors associated with closure of venous leg ulcers (VLUs) in a pooled analysis of subjects from three randomized clinical trials.

    Methods: Closure of VLUs after treatment with HP802-247, an allogeneic living cell therapy consisting of growth-arrested human keratinocytes and fibroblasts, vs standard therapy with compression bandaging was evaluated in three phase 3 clinical trials of similar design. Two trials enrolled subjects with VLUs ranging from 2 cm(2) to 12 cm(2) in area with 12-week treatment periods; the third trial enrolled subjects with VLUs between >12 cm(2) and ≤36 cm(2) with a 16-week treatment period. Read More

    Managing actinic keratosis in primary care.
    Practitioner 2016 10;260(1797):25-9
    Actinic, or solar, keratosis is caused by chronic ultraviolet-induced damage to the epidermis. In the UK, 15-23% of individuals have actinic keratosis lesions. Risk factors include: advanced age; male gender; cumulative sun exposure or phototherapy; Fitzpatrick skin phototypes I-II; long-term immuno-suppression and genetic syndromes e. Read More

    Delta Opioid Receptor Expression and Function in Primary Afferent Somatosensory Neurons.
    Handb Exp Pharmacol 2017 Oct 10. Epub 2017 Oct 10.
    Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine, Stanford Neurosciences Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA, USA.
    The functional diversity of primary afferent neurons of the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) generates a variety of qualitatively and quantitatively distinct somatosensory experiences, from shooting pain to pleasant touch. In recent years, the identification of dozens of genetic markers specifically expressed by subpopulations of DRG neurons has dramatically improved our understanding of this diversity and provided the tools to manipulate their activity and uncover their molecular identity and function. Opioid receptors have long been known to be expressed by discrete populations of DRG neurons, in which they regulate cell excitability and neurotransmitter release. Read More

    Spinal Circuits for Touch, Pain, and Itch.
    Annu Rev Physiol 2017 Sep 27. Epub 2017 Sep 27.
    Molecular Neurobiology Laboratory, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California 92037, USA; email:
    The exteroceptive somatosensory system is important for reflexive and adaptive behaviors and for the dynamic control of movement in response to external stimuli. This review outlines recent efforts using genetic approaches in the mouse to map the spinal cord circuits that transmit and gate the cutaneous somatosensory modalities of touch, itch, and pain. Recent studies have revealed an underlying modular architecture in which nociceptive, pruritic, and innocuous stimuli are processed by distinct molecularly defined interneuron cell types. Read More

    Altered intrinsic and synaptic properties of lumbosacral dorsal horn neurons in a mouse model of colitis.
    Neuroscience 2017 Oct 23;362:152-167. Epub 2017 Aug 23.
    School of Biomedical Sciences & Pharmacy, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia; Hunter Medical Research Institute (HMRI), Rankin Park, NSW 2305, Australia. Electronic address:
    Visceral pain in inflammatory and functional gastrointestinal conditions is a major clinical problem. The exact mechanisms underlying the development of pain, during and after visceral inflammation are unknown. However, clinical and pre-clinical evidence suggests plasticity within the spinal cord dorsal horn is a contributing factor. Read More

    Renal cell carcinoma presenting as a cutaneous horn and nodules on the gingiva and scalp.
    BMJ Case Rep 2017 Aug 18;2017. Epub 2017 Aug 18.
    Pathology, Christian Medical College and Hospital Vellore, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India.
    A 63-year-old man presented with a pulsatile cutaneous horn on the nose and multiple angiomatous nodules on the gingiva and scalp, which appeared over 2 months. He had severe hypercalcaemia, lytic lesions in multiple bones and acute kidney injury. Excision biopsy from the gingival nodule showed a clear cell neoplasm. Read More

    Distinct activation mechanisms trigger the trypanocidal activity of DNA damaging prodrugs.
    Mol Microbiol 2017 Oct 31;106(2):207-222. Epub 2017 Aug 31.
    School of Biological and Chemical Sciences, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London, E1 4NS, UK.
    Quinone-based compounds have been exploited to treat infectious diseases and cancer, with such chemicals often functioning as inhibitors of key metabolic pathways or as prodrugs. Here, we screened an aziridinyl 1,4-benzoquinone (ABQ) library against the causative agents of trypanosomiasis, and cutaneous leishmaniasis, identifying several potent structures that exhibited EC50 values of <100 nM. However, these compounds also displayed significant toxicity towards mammalian cells indicating that they are not suitable therapies for systemic infections. Read More

    Giant Cutaneous Horn Arising in an Epidermal Nevus.
    Pediatr Dermatol 2017 Sep 7;34(5):e290-e291. Epub 2017 Aug 7.
    MedStar Washington Hospital Center, MedStar Georgetown University Hospital and Children's National Health System, Washington, DC.
    Cutaneous horns, which rarely occur in children, can overlie a large array of pathologic lesions that range from benign to malignant. When a cutaneous horn is encountered, it is not the horn itself that is of relevance, it is the nature of the underlying disease that dictates overall prognosis and management. In this report we present a case of a cutaneous horn arising within a linear verrucous epidermal nevus and briefly review cutaneous horns, with an emphasis on their clinical implications and differential diagnosis. Read More

    Well-Differentiated Squamous Cell Carcinoma Presenting as Branched Eyelid Cutaneous Horn: A Case Report with Review of Literature.
    Indian Dermatol Online J 2017 Jul-Aug;8(4):261-263
    Department of Pathology, Indira Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Patna, Bihar, India.
    Cutaneous horns are uncommon lesions consisting of keratotic material, resembling that of an animal horn. They account for 4% of all eyelid tumors. We report a case of giant cutaneous horn (2 × 1. Read More

    Selective Inhibition of Trigeminovascular Neurons by Fremanezumab: A Humanized Monoclonal Anti-CGRP Antibody.
    J Neurosci 2017 07 22;37(30):7149-7163. Epub 2017 Jun 22.
    Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care, and Pain Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts 02215,
    A large body of evidence supports an important role for calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in migraine pathophysiology. This evidence gave rise to a global effort to develop a new generation of therapeutics that inhibit the interaction of CGRP with its receptor in migraineurs. Recently, a new class of such drugs, humanized anti-CGRP monoclonal antibodies (CGRP-mAbs), were found to be effective in reducing the frequency of migraine. Read More

    Claw foot A case report.
    Ann Ital Chir 2017 ;88:368-370
    A cutaneous horn could be defined as a conical projection on the surface of skin made of cornified material and resembling an animal horn. These lesions most commonly affect light-skinned men aged between 50 to 89 years and usually appear in sun exposed areas. Radiation, chronic irritation and even human papilloma virus-2 infection may be precipitating factors. Read More

    Presynaptic inhibition of nociceptive neurotransmission by somatosensory neuron-secreted suppressors.
    Sci China Life Sci 2017 Sep 15;60(9):1013-1018. Epub 2017 Jun 15.
    Institute of Neuroscience and State Key Laboratory of Neuroscience, CAS Center for Excellence in Brain Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 200031, China.
    Noxious stimuli cause pain by activating cutaneous nociceptors. The Aδ- and C-fibers of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons convey the nociceptive signals to the laminae I-II of spinal cord. In the dorsal horn of spinal cord, the excitatory afferent synaptic transmission is regulated by the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid and modulators such as opioid peptides released from the spinal interneurons, and by serotonin, norepinepherine and dopamine from the descending inhibitory system. Read More

    Keratoacanthoma of the Nasal Septum Secondary to Ranibizumab Use.
    Case Rep Pathol 2017 11;2017:8257590. Epub 2017 May 11.
    Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Crozer-Chester Medical Center, One Medical Center Boulevard, Upland, PA, USA.
    Keratoacanthoma (KA) is a benign epithelial tumor that typically presents as a firm, cone-shaped, flesh-colored nodule with a central horn-filled crater. KA is considered to be a low-grade variant of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). We report a rare case of a 72-year-old male who presented with a KA involving the nasal septum, possibly related to ranibizumab use. Read More

    Conditioned pain modulation dampens the thermal grill illusion.
    Eur J Pain 2017 Oct 2;21(9):1591-1601. Epub 2017 Jun 2.
    Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, USA.
    Background: The thermal grill illusion (TGI) refers to the perception of burning heat and often pain that arises from simultaneous cutaneous application of innocuous warm and cool stimuli. This study utilized conditioned pain modulation (CPM) to help elucidate the TGI's underlying neural mechanisms, including the debated role of ascending nociceptive signals in generating the illusion.

    Methods: To trigger CPM, subjects placed the left hand in noxious cold (6 °C) water before placing the right volar forearm onto a thermal grill. Read More

    A Giant Cutaneous Horn Projecting from Verrucous Carcinoma of Buccal Mucosa: A Rare Case Report.
    J Clin Diagn Res 2017 Mar 1;11(3):ZD04-ZD05. Epub 2017 Mar 1.
    Reader, Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Patna Dental College and Hospital, Patna, Bihar, India.
    Cutaneous horn is conical shape of compact keratin that resembles a miniature animal horn. Though morphologically similar to horns in animals they are histologically very different from them. It is a circumscribed, conical, hyperkeratotic dense protrusion with epithelial cornification above the skin surface in response to a wide range of underlying benign and malignant pathological changes. Read More

    Successful Excision of Cutaneous Horns in the Foot and Application of a Full-Thickness Pinch Skin Graft for Primary Closure.
    J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 2017 Mar;107(2):158-161
    Cutaneous horns (cornu cutaneum) are chronic, dense, hyperkeratotic cutaneous lesions resembling the horn of an animal. These lesions are associated with a variety of benign, premalignant, and malignant cutaneous diseases. Cutaneous horns are often found on the upper parts of the body, such as the face, neck, and shoulders. Read More

    Targeted next generation sequencing of mucosal melanomas identifies frequent NF1 and RAS mutations.
    Oncotarget 2017 Jun;8(25):40683-40692
    Department of Dermatology, University Hospital Essen, West German Cancer Center, University Duisburg-Essen and the German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), University of Duisburg-Essen, Duisburg/Essen, Germany.
    Purpose: Mucosal melanoma represents ~1% of all melanomas, frequently having a poor prognosis due to diagnosis at a late stage of disease. Mucosal melanoma differs from cutaneous melanoma not only in terms of poorer clinical outcome but also on the molecular level having e.g. Read More

    Cutaneous Horn Arising From a Burn Scar: A Case Report and Review of Literature.
    J Burn Care Res 2017 Mar 31. Epub 2017 Mar 31.
    From the *College of Medicine, Mosul University, Mosul, Iraq; and †Al-Jumhoori Teaching Hospital, Mosul, Iraq.
    We report a 36-year-old male presenting with a cutaneous horn from the anterior aspect of left knee burn scar. Cutaneous horn is a cone-shaped, hyperkeratotic lesion. It is seen in sun-exposed areas. Read More

    Peripheral and central anatomical organization of cutaneous afferent subtypes in a rat nociceptive intersegmental spinal reflex.
    J Comp Neurol 2017 Jun 29;525(9):2216-2234. Epub 2017 Mar 29.
    Departments of Neurology and Physiology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia.
    Stimulation of rat segmental dorsal cutaneous nerves (DCNs) evokes the nociceptive intersegmental cutaneus trunci muscle (CTM) reflex. The reflex consists of early and late responses, mediated by Aδ and C fibers, respectively, based on required stimulation strengths, and shows segmental differences in terms of amplitude and duration. We have now investigated whether the peripheral or central anatomy of nociceptive afferent subtypes in different DCNs also vary in a segmental manner. Read More

    Trichoadenoma of Nikolowski- A Rare Tumour with Unusual Presentation Over Vulva.
    J Clin Diagn Res 2017 Jan 1;11(1):ED05-ED06. Epub 2017 Jan 1.
    Associate Professor, Department of Pathology, Shaheed Hasan Khan Mewati, Government Medical College , Nalhar, Nuh, Haryana, India .
    Trichoadenoma is a rare benign, slowly growing, cutaneous tumour of the hair follicle first described by Nikolowski in 1958. It presents as a non-specific nodule over the face or buttocks. However, unusual sites such as the neck, upper arm, thigh, shoulder, and shaft of the penis may also be affected. Read More

    Slow brushing reduces heat pain in humans.
    Eur J Pain 2017 Aug 6;21(7):1173-1185. Epub 2017 Mar 6.
    Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Background: C-tactile (CT) afferents are unmyelinated low-threshold mechanoreceptors optimized for signalling affective, gentle touch. In three separate psychophysical experiments, we examined the contribution of CT afferents to pain modulation.

    Methods: In total, 44 healthy volunteers experienced heat pain and CT optimal (slow brushing) and CT sub-optimal (fast brushing or vibration) stimuli. Read More

    Functional Organization of Cutaneous and Muscle Afferent Synapses onto Immature Spinal Lamina I Projection Neurons.
    J Neurosci 2017 Feb 9;37(6):1505-1517. Epub 2017 Jan 9.
    Pain Research Center, Department of Anesthesiology, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio 45267
    It is well established that sensory afferents innervating muscle are more effective at inducing hyperexcitability within spinal cord circuits compared with skin afferents, which likely contributes to the higher prevalence of chronic musculoskeletal pain compared with pain of cutaneous origin. However, the mechanisms underlying these differences in central nociceptive signaling remain incompletely understood, as nothing is known about how superficial dorsal horn neurons process sensory input from muscle versus skin at the synaptic level. Using a novel ex vivo spinal cord preparation, here we identify the functional organization of muscle and cutaneous afferent synapses onto immature rat lamina I spino-parabrachial neurons, which serve as a major source of nociceptive transmission to the brain. Read More

    The nitric oxide donor, isosorbide dinitrate, induces a cephalic cutaneous hypersensitivity, associated with sensitization of the medullary dorsal horn.
    Neuroscience 2017 Mar 3;344:157-166. Epub 2017 Jan 3.
    Université Clermont Auvergne, Inserm Neuro-Dol U1107, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand, France; CHU Clermont-Ferrand, Service d'Odontologie, F-63100 Clermont-Ferrand, France. Electronic address:
    Nitric oxide donors are known to produce headache in healthy as well as migraine subjects, and to induce extracephalic cutaneous hypersensitivity in rodents. However, little is known on the effect of nitric oxide donors on cephalic cutaneous sensitivity. Combining behavioral, immunohistochemical, and in vivo electrophysiological approaches, this study investigated the effect of systemic administration of the nitric oxide donor, isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN), on cephalic and extracephalic cutaneous sensitivity and on neuronal activation within the medullary dorsal horn (MDH) in the rat. Read More

    TRPV1 Nociceptor Activity Initiates USP5/T-type Channel-Mediated Plasticity.
    Cell Rep 2016 Dec;17(11):2901-2912
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Hotchkiss Brain Institute and Alberta Children's Hospital Research Institute, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N 4N1, Canada. Electronic address:
    Peripheral nerve injury and tissue inflammation result in upregulation of the deubiquitinase USP5, thus causing a dysregulation of T-type calcium channel activity and increased pain sensitivity. Here, we have explored the role of afferent fiber activity in this process. Conditioning stimulation of optogenetically targeted cutaneous TRPV1 expressing nociceptors, but not that of non-nociceptive fibers, resulted in enhanced expression of USP5 in mouse dorsal root ganglia and spinal dorsal horn, along with decreased withdrawal thresholds for thermal and mechanical stimuli that abated after 24 hr. Read More

    Noradrenergic inhibition of spinal hyperexcitation elicited by cutaneous cold stimuli in rats with oxaliplatin-induced allodynia: electrophysiological and behavioral assessments.
    J Physiol Sci 2017 May 28;67(3):431-438. Epub 2016 Nov 28.
    Department of Information Physiology, National Institute for Physiological Sciences, Okazaki, 444-8787, Japan.
    We investigated the spinal action of noradrenaline on cold-elicited hyperexcitation detected in dorsal horn neurons of rats with allodynia induced by an oxaliplatin (6 mg/kg, i.p.) injection. Read More

    Spinal cord thermosensitivity: An afferent phenomenon?
    Temperature (Austin) 2016 Apr-Jun;3(2):232-239. Epub 2016 Feb 26.
    Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia; Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia.
    We review the evidence for thermoregulatory temperature sensors in the mammalian spinal cord and reach the following conclusions. 1) Spinal cord temperature contributes physiologically to temperature regulation. 2) Parallel anterolateral ascending pathways transmit signals from spinal cooling and spinal warming: they overlap with the respective axon pathways of the dorsal horn neurons that are driven by peripheral cold- and warm-sensitive afferents. Read More

    Cutaneous Horn of the Eyelid in 13 Cases.
    Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2017 Jul/Aug;33(4):233-236
    *Ocular Oncology Service and †Department of Ophthalmic Pathology, Wills Eye Hospital, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.
    Introduction: Cutaneous horn of the eyelid is uncommon. The authors evaluate the features of benign, premalignant, and malignant tumors at the base of cutaneous horn of the eyelid.

    Objective: To describe the clinical and histopathologic features of cutaneous horn of the eyelid. Read More

    Safety and efficacy of anti-PD-1 in patients with baseline cardiac, renal, or hepatic dysfunction.
    J Immunother Cancer 2016 18;4:60. Epub 2016 Oct 18.
    Departments of Medicine, Vanderbilt Ingram Cancer Center, 777 PRB, 2220 Pierce Ave., Nashville, TN 37232 USA.
    Background: Anti-PD-1 therapy is increasingly used in various advanced malignancies. Patients with baseline organ dysfunction are largely excluded from clinical trials. Therefore it is unclear whether anti-PD-1 therapy is safe or effective in this setting. Read More

    Panfolliculoma with an endophytic architecture resembling a hair follicle: a report of three cases.
    J Cutan Pathol 2016 Nov 9;43(11):1074-1076. Epub 2016 Sep 9.
    The Ronald O. Perelman Department of Dermatology, NYU School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA.
    Panfolliculoma is a benign follicular tumor comprised of all components of the hair follicle. We report three cases of panfolliculoma with a solid, endophytic architecture, which at scanning magnification had the profile of a hair follicle. The epithelial components included uniform dark blue germinative cells, matrical cells, clear cells and cells containing trichohyaline granules. Read More

    Novel Cutaneous Manifestations of Pleuroparenchymal Fibroelastosis.
    Am J Dermatopathol 2016 Oct;38(10):e140-3
    *Big Horn Basin Skin Center, Cody, WY; †Department of Dermatology, Cockerell Dermatopathology, UT Southwestern, Dallas, TX; ‡Penrose-St Francis Hospital, Colorado Springs, CO; and §Department of Dermatology, Cockerell Dermatopathology, UT Southwestern, Dallas, TX.
    Pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (PPFE) is a rare progressive disease that manifests as parenchymal fibrosis of the upper lobe and pleura. Approximately 100 cases have been reported. Cutaneous manifestations of PPFE have not previously been described. Read More

    Phase 3 evaluation of HP802-247 in the treatment of chronic venous leg ulcers.
    Wound Repair Regen 2016 09 26;24(5):894-903. Epub 2016 Sep 26.
    Smith & Nephew, Inc, Fort Worth, Texas.
    In 2012 we reported promising results from a phase 2 clinical trial of HP802-247, a novel spray-applied investigational treatment for chronic venous leg ulcers consisting of human, allogeneic fibroblasts and keratinocytes. We now describe phase 3 clinical testing of HP802-247, its failure to detect efficacy, and subsequent investigation into the root causes of the failure. Two randomized, controlled trials enrolled a total of 673 adult outpatients at 96 centers in North America and Europe. Read More

    Hymenoptera stings in the head region induce impressive, but not severe sting reactions.
    Allergy 2016 Nov 15;71(11):1632-1634. Epub 2016 Jul 15.
    Department of Dermatology and Venerology, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria.
    Stings in the head region are considered to be a risk factor for severe systemic reactions to hymenoptera stings. We supposed that stings in skin areas, which are well supplied with blood, lead to more severe reactions and tested our hypothesis in 847 patients with confirmed hymenoptera venom allergy. However, symptom severity was independent from sting site: only 16. Read More

    Lamina specific postnatal development of PKCγ interneurons within the rat medullary dorsal horn.
    Dev Neurobiol 2017 01 30;77(1):102-119. Epub 2016 Jun 30.
    Neuro-Dol, Clermont Université, Université D'Auvergne, BP 10448, F-63000, Clermont-Ferrand & Inserm U1107, Clermont-Ferrand, F-63100, France.
    Protein kinase C gamma (PKCγ) interneurons, located in the superficial spinal (SDH) and medullary dorsal horns (MDH), have been shown to play a critical role in cutaneous mechanical hypersensitivity. However, a thorough characterization of their development in the MDH is lacking. Here, it is shown that the number of PKCγ-ir interneurons changes from postnatal day 3 (P3) to P60 (adult) and such developmental changes differ according to laminae. Read More

    Hypothesis: Hughlings Jackson and presynaptic inhibition: is there a big picture?
    J Neurophysiol 2016 Jul 27;116(1):41-50. Epub 2016 Apr 27.
    McMaster University Health Sciences Centre, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
    Presynaptic inhibition is a very powerful inhibitory mechanism and, despite many detailed studies, its purpose is still only partially understood. One accepted function is that, by reducing afferent inflow to the spinal cord and brainstem, the tonic level of presynaptic inhibition prevents sensory systems from being overloaded. A corollary of this function is that much of the incoming sensory data from peripheral receptors must be redundant, and this conclusion is reinforced by observations on patients with sensory neuropathies or congenital obstetric palsy in whom normal sensation may be preserved despite loss of sensory fibers. Read More

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