3,339 results match your criteria Current opinion in neurobiology[Journal]


Machine learning and big data in psychiatry: toward clinical applications.

Curr Opin Neurobiol 2019 Apr 15;55:152-159. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Max Planck UCL Centre for Computational Psychiatry and Ageing Research, University College London, London, England, United Kingdom; Division of Psychiatry, University College London, London, England, United Kingdom; Camden and Islington NHS Foundation Trust, London, England, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Psychiatry is a medical field concerned with the treatment of mental illness. Psychiatric disorders broadly relate to higher functions of the brain, and as such are richly intertwined with social, cultural, and experiential factors. This makes them exquisitely complex phenomena that depend on and interact with a large number of variables. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S09594388183008
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conb.2019.02.006DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Principles of progenitor temporal patterning in the developing invertebrate and vertebrate nervous system.

Curr Opin Neurobiol 2019 Apr 15;56:185-193. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Basic Neurosciences, University of Geneva, Switzerland; Department of Neurology, Geneva University Hospital, Geneva, Switzerland. Electronic address:

During the development of the central nervous system, progenitors successively generate distinct types of neurons which assemble into the circuits that underlie our ability to interact with the environment. Spatial and temporal patterning mechanisms are partially evolutionarily conserved processes that allow generation of neuronal diversity from a limited set of progenitors. Here, we review examples of temporal patterning in neuronal progenitors in the Drosophila ventral nerve cord and in the mammalian cerebral cortex. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conb.2019.03.004DOI Listing

Control of neural development and function by glial neuroligins.

Curr Opin Neurobiol 2019 Apr 13;57:163-170. Epub 2019 Apr 13.

Department of Cell Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, United States; Department of Neurobiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, United States; Duke Institute for Brain Sciences (DIBS), Durham, NC 27710, United States; Regeneration Next Initiative, Duke University, Durham, NC 27710, United States. Electronic address:

Neuroligins are a family of cell adhesion molecules, which are best known for their functions as postsynaptic components of the trans-synaptic neurexin-neuroligin complexes. Neuroligins are highly conserved across evolution with important roles in the formation, maturation and function of synaptic structures. Mutations in the genes that encode for neuroligins have been linked to a number of neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism and schizophrenia, which stem from synaptic pathologies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conb.2019.03.007DOI Listing
April 2019
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Synaptogenic pathways.

Curr Opin Neurobiol 2019 Apr 12;57:156-162. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Stanford University, Department of Biology, United States; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, United States.

During synaptogenesis, presynaptic and postsynaptic assembly are driven by diverse molecular mechanisms, mediated by intrinsic as well as extrinsic factors. How these processes are initiated and coordinated are open questions. Synapse specificity, or synaptic partner selection, is widely understood to be determined by the trans-synaptic binding of cell adhesion molecules. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conb.2019.03.005DOI Listing

Towards neural co-processors for the brain: combining decoding and encoding in brain-computer interfaces.

Authors:
Rajesh Pn Rao

Curr Opin Neurobiol 2019 Apr 3;55:142-151. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Center for Neurotechnology, Paul G. Allen School of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, United States. Electronic address:

The field of brain-computer interfaces is poised to advance from the traditional goal of controlling prosthetic devices using brain signals to combining neural decoding and encoding within a single neuroprosthetic device. Such a device acts as a 'co-processor' for the brain, with applications ranging from inducing Hebbian plasticity for rehabilitation after brain injury to reanimating paralyzed limbs and enhancing memory. We review recent progress in simultaneous decoding and encoding for closed-loop control and plasticity induction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conb.2019.03.008DOI Listing

Cell type and circuit modules in the spinal cord.

Curr Opin Neurobiol 2019 Apr 4;56:175-184. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Gene Expression Laboratory and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Salk Institute for Biological Studies, 10010 North Torrey Pines, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Electronic address:

The spinal cord contains an extraordinarily diverse population of interconnected neurons to process somatosensory information and execute movement. Studies of the embryonic spinal cord have elucidated basic principles underlying the specification of spinal cord neurons, while adult and postnatal studies have provided insight into cell type function and circuitry. However, the overarching principles that bridge molecularly defined subtypes with their connectivity, physiology, and function remain unclear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conb.2019.03.003DOI Listing

The neural and cognitive architecture for learning from a small sample.

Curr Opin Neurobiol 2019 Apr 3;55:133-141. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Computational Neuroscience Laboratories, ATR Institute International, Kyoto, Japan; RIKEN Center for Advanced Intelligence Project, ATR Institute International, Kyoto, Japan.

Artificial intelligence algorithms are capable of fantastic exploits, yet they are still grossly inefficient compared with the brain's ability to learn from few exemplars or solve problems that have not been explicitly defined. What is the secret that the evolution of human intelligence has unlocked? Generalization is one answer, but there is more to it. The brain does not directly solve difficult problems, it is able to recast them into new and more tractable problems. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conb.2019.02.011DOI Listing
April 2019
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Neuronal diversity in the somatosensory system: bridging the gap between cell type and function.

Curr Opin Neurobiol 2019 Apr 3;56:167-174. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Molecular Neurobiology Laboratory, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, 10010 North Torrey Pines Rd, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Electronic address:

A recent flurry of genetic studies in mice have provided key insights into how the somatosensory system is organized at a cellular level to encode itch, pain, temperature, and touch. These studies are largely predicated on the idea that functional cell types can be identified by their unique developmental provenance and gene expression profile. However, the extent to which gene expression profiles can be correlated with functional cell types and circuit organization remains an open question. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conb.2019.03.002DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Deep neural network models of sensory systems: windows onto the role of task constraints.

Curr Opin Neurobiol 2019 Mar 15;55:121-132. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, MIT, United States; Center for Brains, Minds, and Machines, United States; McGovern Institute for Brain Research, MIT, United States; Program in Speech and Hearing Biosciences and Technology, Harvard University, United States. Electronic address:

Sensory neuroscience aims to build models that predict neural responses and perceptual behaviors, and that provide insight into the principles that give rise to them. For decades, artificial neural networks trained to perform perceptual tasks have attracted interest as potential models of neural computation. Only recently, however, have such systems begun to perform at human levels on some real-world tasks. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conb.2019.02.003DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Histone demethylases in neuronal differentiation, plasticity, and disease.

Curr Opin Neurobiol 2019 Mar 14;59:9-15. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Department of Neurobiology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC 27710, USA. Electronic address:

For more than 40 years after its discovery, histone methylation was thought to be largely irreversible. However, the first histone demethylase (HDM) was identified in 2004, challenging this notion. Since that time, more than 20 HDMs have been identified and characterized, and many have been shown to have critical roles in organismal development, cell fate, and disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conb.2019.02.009DOI Listing
March 2019
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Generative models and abstractions for large-scale neuroanatomy datasets.

Curr Opin Neurobiol 2019 Mar 14;55:112-120. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Wallace H. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology & Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA; School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, USA. Electronic address:

Neural datasets are increasing rapidly in both resolution and volume. In neuroanatomy, this trend has been accelerated by innovations in imaging technology. As full datasets are impractical and unnecessary for many applications, it is important to identify abstractions that distill useful features of neural structure, organization, and anatomy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conb.2019.02.005DOI Listing
March 2019
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Towards the neural population doctrine.

Curr Opin Neurobiol 2019 Mar 13;55:103-111. Epub 2019 Mar 13.

Department of Statistics, Grossman Center for the Statistics of Mind Zuckerman Mind, Brain Behavior Institute, Center for Theoretical Neuroscience, Columbia University, New York City, United States. Electronic address:

Across neuroscience, large-scale data recording and population-level analysis methods have experienced explosive growth. While the underlying hardware and computational techniques have been well reviewed, we focus here on the novel science that these technologies have enabled. We detail four areas of the field where the joint analysis of neural populations has significantly furthered our understanding of computation in the brain: correlated variability, decoding, neural dynamics, and artificial neural networks. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conb.2019.02.002DOI Listing
March 2019
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Powerhouse of the mind: mitochondrial plasticity at the synapse.

Curr Opin Neurobiol 2019 Mar 12;57:149-155. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

Neurobiology Section, Division of Biological Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, United States. Electronic address:

Neurons are highly polarized cells with extraordinary energy demands, which are mainly fulfilled by mitochondria. In response to altered neuronal energy state, mitochondria adapt to enable energy homeostasis and nervous system function. This adaptation, also called mitochondrial plasticity, can be observed as alterations in the form, function and position. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S09594388183024
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conb.2019.02.001DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

What does the mind learn? A comparison of human and machine learning representations.

Curr Opin Neurobiol 2019 Mar 11;55:97-102. Epub 2019 Mar 11.

Department of Psychology, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK. Electronic address:

We present a brief review of modern machine learning techniques and their use in models of human mental representations, detailing three notable branches: spatial methods, logical methods and artificial neural networks. Each of these branches contains an extensive set of systems, and demonstrate accurate emulations of human learning of categories, concepts and language, despite substantial differences in operation. We suggest that continued applications will allow cognitive researchers the ability to model the complex real-world problems where machine learning has recently been successful, providing more complete behavioural descriptions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conb.2019.02.004DOI Listing
March 2019
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Local translation in neuronal processes.

Curr Opin Neurobiol 2019 Mar 9;57:141-148. Epub 2019 Mar 9.

Max Planck Institute for Brain Research, Frankfurt am Main, Germany. Electronic address:

Neurons exhibit a unique degree of spatial compartmentalization and are able to maintain and remodel their proteomes independently from the cell body. While much effort has been devoted to understanding the capacity and role for local protein synthesis in dendrites and spines, local mRNA translation in mature axons, projecting over distances up to a meter, has received much less attention. Also, little is known about the spatio-temporal dynamics of axonal and dendritic gene expression as function of mRNA abundance, protein synthesis and degradation. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S09594388183018
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conb.2019.02.008DOI Listing
March 2019
6 Reads

Continuing progress of spike sorting in the era of big data.

Curr Opin Neurobiol 2019 Mar 8;55:90-96. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, United States.

Engineering efforts are currently attempting to build devices capable of collecting neural activity from one million neurons in the brain. Part of this effort focuses on developing dense multiple-electrode arrays, which require post-processing via 'spike sorting' to extract neural spike trains from the raw signal. Gathering information at this scale will facilitate fascinating science, but these dreams are only realizable if the spike sorting procedure and data pipeline are computationally scalable, at or superior to hand processing, and scientifically reproducible. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conb.2019.02.007DOI Listing

CBP/p300 in brain development and plasticity: disentangling the KAT's cradle.

Curr Opin Neurobiol 2019 Mar 8;59:1-8. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

Instituto de Neurociencias (Universidad Miguel Hernández - Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas), Av. Santiago Ramón y Cajal s/n, Sant Joan d'Alacant, 03550, Alicante, Spain. Electronic address:

The paralogous transcriptional co-activators CBP and p300 (aka KAT3A and KAT3B, respectively) contain a characteristic and promiscuous lysine acetyltransferase (KAT) domain and multiple independent protein-binding domains that enable them to interact with hundreds of proteins, possibly promoting the acetylation of thousands of target lysine residues. Both proteins play critical roles during the development of the nervous system and may also regulate stimuli-driven transcription and plasticity in postmitotic neurons. The multiplicity of functions, substrates, and molecular partners, together with the redundancy and singularity of the two KAT3 paralogs, define a complex cat's cradle of relationships. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conb.2019.01.023DOI Listing
March 2019
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Backpropagation through time and the brain.

Curr Opin Neurobiol 2019 Mar 6;55:82-89. Epub 2019 Mar 6.

DeepMind, London, UK. Electronic address:

It has long been speculated that the backpropagation-of-error algorithm (backprop) may be a model of how the brain learns. Backpropagation-through-time (BPTT) is the canonical temporal-analogue to backprop used to assign credit in recurrent neural networks in machine learning, but there's even less conviction about whether BPTT has anything to do with the brain. Even in machine learning the use of BPTT in classic neural network architectures has proven insufficient for some challenging temporal credit assignment (TCA) problems that we know the brain is capable of solving. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conb.2019.01.011DOI Listing

Coordination of neural patterning in the Drosophila visual system.

Curr Opin Neurobiol 2019 Mar 5;56:153-159. Epub 2019 Mar 5.

Department of Biology, New York University, NY 10003, USA. Electronic address:

Precise formation of neuronal circuits requires the coordinated development of the different components of the circuit. Here, we review examples of coordination at multiples scales of development in one of the best-studied systems for neural patterning and circuit assembly, the Drosophila visual system, from coordination of gene expression in photoreceptors to the coordinated patterning of the different neuropiles of the optic lobe. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S09594388183016
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conb.2019.01.024DOI Listing
March 2019
12 Reads

TaDa! Analysing cell type-specific chromatin in vivo with Targeted DamID.

Curr Opin Neurobiol 2019 Mar 4;56:160-166. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

The Gurdon Institute and Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1QN, UK. Electronic address:

The emergence of neuronal diversity during development of the nervous system relies on dynamic changes in the epigenetic landscape of neural stem cells and their progeny. Targeted DamID (TaDa) is proving invaluable in identifying the genome-wide binding sites of chromatin-associated proteins in vivo, without fixation, cell isolation, or immunoprecipitation. The simplicity and efficiency of the technique have led to an ever-expanding TaDa toolbox. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conb.2019.01.021DOI Listing

Neural populations for maintaining body fluid balance.

Curr Opin Neurobiol 2019 Mar 2;57:134-140. Epub 2019 Mar 2.

Division of Biology and Biological Engineering, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd Mail Code: 216-76, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA. Electronic address:

Fine balance between loss-of water and gain-of water is essential for maintaining body fluid homeostasis. The development of neural manipulation and mapping tools has opened up new avenues to dissect the neural circuits underlying body fluid regulation. Recent studies have identified several nodes in the brain that positively and negatively regulate thirst. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conb.2019.01.014DOI Listing
March 2019
5 Reads

Compartmentalized distributions of neuronal and glial cell-surface proteins pattern the synaptic network.

Curr Opin Neurobiol 2019 Feb 28;57:126-133. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

VIB Center for Brain & Disease Research, Herestraat 49, 300 Leuven, Belgium; KU Leuven, Department of Neurosciences, Leuven Brain Institute, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven, Belgium. Electronic address:

Neuronal identity and connectivity are closely linked. Single-cell sequencing studies show that different neuronal cell types express distinct combinations of cell-surface proteins important for synaptic connectivity and function. Emerging evidence indicates that glia-derived cell-surface proteins play critical roles in shaping connectivity as well. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conb.2019.01.025DOI Listing
February 2019

Evolution of neuronal types and families.

Curr Opin Neurobiol 2019 Feb 28;56:144-152. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Developmental Biology Unit, European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Meyerhofstrasse 1, 69012, Heidelberg, Germany.

Major questions in the evolution of neurons and nervous systems remain unsolved, such as the origin of the first neuron, the possible convergent evolution of neuronal phenotypes, and the transition from a relatively simple decentralized nerve net to the complex, centralized nervous systems found in modern bilaterian animals. In recent years, comparative single-cell transcriptomics has opened up new research avenues addressing these issues. Here, we review recent conceptual progress toward an evolutionary definition of cell types, and how it facilitates the identification and large-scale comparison of neuronal types and neuron type families from single-cell data - with the family of GABAergic neurons in distinct parts of the vertebrate forebrain as prime example. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conb.2019.01.022DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

The development and assembly of the Drosophila adult ventral nerve cord.

Curr Opin Neurobiol 2019 Feb 28;56:135-143. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Department of Neuroscience, Zuckerman Mind Brain Behavior Institute, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, United States. Electronic address:

In order to generate complex motor outputs, the nervous system integrates multiple sources of sensory information that ultimately controls motor neurons to generate coordinated movements. The neural circuits that integrate higher order commands from the brain and generate motor outputs are located in the nerve cord of the central nervous system. Recently, genetic access to distinct functional subtypes that make up the Drosophila adult ventral nerve cord has significantly begun to advance our understanding of the structural organization and functions of the neural circuits coordinating motor outputs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conb.2019.01.013DOI Listing
February 2019

An integrative computational architecture for object-driven cortex.

Curr Opin Neurobiol 2019 Feb 27;55:73-81. Epub 2019 Feb 27.

Center for Brains, Minds, and Machines, MIT, Cambridge, MA 02138, United States; McGovern Institute for Brain Research, MIT, Cambridge, MA 02138, United States; Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, MIT, Cambridge, MA 02138, United States; Department of Brain & Cognitive Science, MIT, Cambridge, MA 02138, United States.

Computational architecture for object-driven cortex Objects in motion activate multiple cortical regions in every lobe of the human brain. Do these regions represent a collection of independent systems, or is there an overarching functional architecture spanning all of object-driven cortex? Inspired by recent work in artificial intelligence (AI), machine learning, and cognitive science, we consider the hypothesis that these regions can be understood as a coherent network implementing an integrative computational system that unifies the functions needed to perceive, predict, reason about, and plan with physical objects-as in the paradigmatic case of using or making tools. Our proposal draws on a modeling framework that combines multiple AI methods, including causal generative models, hybrid symbolic-continuous planning algorithms, and neural recognition networks, with object-centric, physics-based representations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conb.2019.01.010DOI Listing
February 2019

Normalization and pooling in hierarchical models of natural images.

Curr Opin Neurobiol 2019 Feb 18;55:65-72. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Computational Neuroscience Lab, Dept. of Computer Science, University of Miami, FL 33146, United States.

Divisive normalization and subunit pooling are two canonical classes of computation that have become widely used in descriptive (what) models of visual cortical processing. Normative (why) models from natural image statistics can help constrain the form and parameters of such classes of models. We focus on recent advances in two particular directions, namely deriving richer forms of divisive normalization, and advances in learning pooling from image statistics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conb.2019.01.008DOI Listing
February 2019
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Analyzing biological and artificial neural networks: challenges with opportunities for synergy?

Curr Opin Neurobiol 2019 Feb 19;55:55-64. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Computational Neuroengineering, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Technical University of Munich, Germany.

Deep neural networks (DNNs) transform stimuli across multiple processing stages to produce representations that can be used to solve complex tasks, such as object recognition in images. However, a full understanding of how they achieve this remains elusive. The complexity of biological neural networks substantially exceeds the complexity of DNNs, making it even more challenging to understand the representations they learn. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conb.2019.01.007DOI Listing
February 2019

Vesicular degradation pathways in neurons: at the crossroads of autophagy and endo-lysosomal degradation.

Curr Opin Neurobiol 2019 Feb 18;57:94-101. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Department of Physiology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, United States.

Autophagy and endo-lysosomal degradation are two parallel degradation pathways essential for maintaining neuronal health and function. Autophagosomes and endosomes sequester cellular cargo through different mechanisms, but these pathways converge upon fusion with lysosomes. Both pathways are spatially regulated, with distinct features evident in the soma, axons, and dendrites, possibly as an adaptation to the unique morphology of neurons and the specific demands of each compartment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conb.2019.01.005DOI Listing
February 2019
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Surveillance and transportation of mitochondria in neurons.

Curr Opin Neurobiol 2019 Feb 18;57:87-93. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Department of Neurosurgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA 94304, United States. Electronic address:

Neurons need to allocate and sustain mitochondria to provide adequate energy and sufficient Ca-buffering capacity in each sub specialization of their extensive arborizations. Damaged mitochondria, which are highly deleterious to the neuron, must be rapidly repaired or eliminated, even when they are left at terminals extremely far away from the soma. The unique shape of neurons complicates the tasks of both transporting and clearing mitochondria. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conb.2019.01.015DOI Listing
February 2019
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Molecular constituents and localization of the ionotropic GABA receptor complex in vivo.

Authors:
Susumu Tomita

Curr Opin Neurobiol 2019 Feb 18;57:81-86. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Department of Cellular and Molecular Physiology, Department of Neuroscience, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510, United States. Electronic address:

The ionotropic GABA receptor (GABAR) mediates fast inhibition in the brain. The GABAR pore-forming (α, β, and non-α/β) subunits were isolated approximately 30 years ago and have since been the focus of extensive studies. As a result, many properties of GABARs, including subunit assembly and channel and pharmacological properties, have been discovered. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conb.2019.01.017DOI Listing
February 2019

Subcellular control of membrane excitability in the axon.

Curr Opin Neurobiol 2019 Feb 19;57:117-125. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Dartmouth College, Department of Biological Sciences, Hanover, NH, United States. Electronic address:

Ion channels are microscopic pore proteins in the membrane that open and close in response to chemical and electrical stimuli. This simple concept underlies rapid electrical signaling in the brain as well as several important aspects of neural plasticity. Although the soma accounts for less than 1% of many neurons by membrane area, it has been the major site of measuring ion channel function. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conb.2019.01.020DOI Listing
February 2019
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The travels of mRNAs in neurons: do they know where they are going?

Curr Opin Neurobiol 2019 Feb 18;57:110-116. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Department of Anatomy and Structural Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA; Janelia Research Campus, Ashburn, VA, USA. Electronic address:

Neurons are highly polarized cells that can extend processes far from the cell body. As such, transport of messenger RNAs serves as a set of blueprints for the synthesis of specific proteins at distal sites. RNA localization to dendrites and axons confers the ability to regulate translation with extraordinary precision in space and time. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conb.2019.01.016DOI Listing
February 2019
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Septin functions during neuro-development, a yeast perspective.

Curr Opin Neurobiol 2019 Feb 18;57:102-109. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

University of Lyon, University of Lyon 1 Claude Bernard Lyon1, NeuroMyoGene Institute, CNRS UMR5310, INSERM U1217, 8 Avenue Rockefeller, Lyon F-69008, France. Electronic address:

Septins, discovered almost half a century ago in yeast, have prominent contributions in a broad range of morphological and functional processes from yeast to human. Septins now emerge as key players of neurodevelopment and more specifically of the mechanisms driving the complex morphological differentiation and compartmentalization of neurons that are fundamental to their function. We review here recent advances in Septin-mediated processes of neuron differentiation, which enlighten similarities and differences between neuron and yeast polarity programs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conb.2019.01.012DOI Listing
February 2019
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Pumping the brakes: suppression of synapse development by MDGA-neuroligin interactions.

Curr Opin Neurobiol 2019 Feb 13;57:71-80. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Djavad Mowafaghian Centre for Brain Health and Department of Psychiatry, University of British Columbia, 2211 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2B5, Canada. Electronic address:

Synapse development depends on a dynamic balance between synapse promoters and suppressors. MDGAs, immunoglobulin superfamily proteins, negatively regulate synapse development through blocking neuroligin-neurexin interactions. Recent analyses of MDGA-neuroligin complexes revealed the structural basis of this activity and indicate that MDGAs interact with all neuroligins with differential affinities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conb.2019.01.002DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Mechanisms and regulation of dopamine release.

Curr Opin Neurobiol 2019 Feb 12;57:46-53. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Department of Neurobiology, Harvard Medical School, United States. Electronic address:

Dopamine controls motor functions, motivation, and reward-related learning through G-protein coupled receptor signaling. The current working model is that upon release, dopamine diffuses to influence many target cells via wide-spread receptors. Recent studies, however, suggest that dopamine release is fast and generates small signaling hotspots. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conb.2019.01.001DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

New insights on synaptic dysfunction in neuropsychiatric disorders.

Curr Opin Neurobiol 2019 Feb 8;57:62-70. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

CNC-Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Coimbra, 3004-504 Coimbra, Portugal; Department of Life Sciences, University of Coimbra, 3004-517 Coimbra, Portugal. Electronic address:

Growing evidence implicates synaptic proteins in the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD), intellectual disability (ID) and schizophrenia. In fact, mutations in genes encoding synaptic proteins are enriched and overlap among different conditions highlighting the complex and pleiotropic nature of these disorders. In this review, we discuss recently described candidate genes that affect excitatory synapse function and result in changes in spine number and morphology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conb.2019.01.004DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Non-coding RNAs: the gatekeepers of neural network activity.

Curr Opin Neurobiol 2019 Feb 8;57:54-61. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

Dorris Neuroscience Center, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA, 92037, USA. Electronic address:

Non-coding RNAs have emerged as potent regulators of numerous cellular processes. In neurons and circuits, these molecules serve especially critical functions that ensure neural activity is maintained within appropriate physiological parameters. Their targets include synaptic proteins, ion channels, neurotransmitter receptors, and components of essential signaling cascades. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conb.2019.01.006DOI Listing
February 2019
5 Reads

Statistical model-based approaches for functional connectivity analysis of neuroimaging data.

Curr Opin Neurobiol 2019 Feb 7;55:48-54. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Paul G. Allen School of Computer Science & Engineering and Department of Statistics, University of Washington, United States. Electronic address:

We present recent literature on model-based approaches to estimating functional connectivity from neuroimaging data. In contrast to the typical focus on a particular scientific question, we reframe a wider literature in terms of the underlying statistical model used. We distinguish between directed versus undirected and static versus time-varying connectivity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conb.2019.01.009DOI Listing
February 2019

Microtubule control of functional architecture in neurons.

Curr Opin Neurobiol 2019 Feb 6;57:39-45. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Biochemistry Department, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706, USA. Electronic address:

Neurons are exquisitely polarized cells whose structure and function relies on microtubules. Microtubules in signal-receiving dendrites and signal-sending axons differ in their organization and microtubule-associated proteins. These differences, coupled with microtubule post-translational modifications, combine to locally regulate intracellular transport, morphology, and function. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conb.2019.01.003DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Editorial overview: Neurobiology of learning and plasticity.

Curr Opin Neurobiol 2019 Feb;54:iii-vi

Centre for Research in Neuroscience, Department of Medicine, The Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montréal, Québec, Canada. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conb.2019.01.018DOI Listing
February 2019

Transcytosis at the blood-brain barrier.

Curr Opin Neurobiol 2019 Jan 29;57:32-38. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Department of Neurobiology, Harvard Medical School, 220 Longwood Ave., Boston, MA 02115, USA. Electronic address:

The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a functional interface separating the brain from the circulatory system and is essential for homeostasis of the central nervous system (CNS). The BBB regulates molecular flux to maintain an optimal environment for neuronal function and protects the brain from toxins and pathogens. Endothelial cells forming the walls of CNS blood vessels constitute the BBB. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conb.2018.12.014DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Alternative splicing of neuronal genes: new mechanisms and new therapies.

Curr Opin Neurobiol 2019 Jan 28;57:26-31. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

Robert J and Nancy D Carney Institute for Brain Science, Department of Neuroscience, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912, USA.

Dynamic changes in alternative splicing during the life cycle of neurons support development and plasticity, and are implicated in disease pathology. Cell-specific alternative splicing programs coordinate exon selection across networks of functionally connected genes. In this opinion piece, we highlight recent publications that identify some of the molecular mechanisms-RNA and DNA binding proteins and epigenetic modifications-which direct cell-specific exon selection during pre-mRNA splicing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conb.2018.12.013DOI Listing
January 2019

Neuronal cell types in the fly: single-cell anatomy meets single-cell genomics.

Curr Opin Neurobiol 2019 Jan 28;56:125-134. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

VIB Center for Brain & Disease Research, KU Leuven, Leuven 3000, Belgium; Department of Human Genetics KU Leuven, Leuven 3000, Belgium. Electronic address:

At around 150 000 neurons, the adult Drosophila melanogaster central nervous system is one of the largest species, for which a complete cellular catalogue is imminent. While numerically much simpler than mammalian brains, its complexity is still difficult to parse without grouping neurons into consistent types, which can number 1-1000 cells per hemisphere. We review how neuroanatomical and gene expression data are being used to discover neuronal types at scale. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conb.2018.12.012DOI Listing
January 2019
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Unc13: a multifunctional synaptic marvel.

Authors:
Jeremy S Dittman

Curr Opin Neurobiol 2019 Jan 25;57:17-25. Epub 2019 Jan 25.

Department of Biochemistry, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY 10065, United States. Electronic address:

Nervous systems are built on synaptic connections, and our understanding of these complex compartments has deepened over the past quarter century as the diverse fields of genetics, molecular biology, physiology, and biochemistry each made significant in-roads into synaptic function. On the presynaptic side, an evolutionarily conserved core fusion apparatus constructed from a handful of proteins has emerged, with Unc13 serving as a hub that coordinates nearly every aspect of synaptic transmission. This review briefly highlights recent studies on diverse aspects of Unc13 function including roles in SNARE assembly and quality control, release site building, calcium channel proximity, and short-term synaptic plasticity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conb.2018.12.011DOI Listing
January 2019

Neuronal cell types in the annelid Platynereis dumerilii.

Curr Opin Neurobiol 2019 Jan 24;56:106-116. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

Living Systems Institute, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, EX4 4QD, Exeter, UK. Electronic address:

The marine annelid Platynereis dumerilii is an invertebrate laboratory model for developmental biology and neuroscience. Its larval stages are small and transparent, enabling whole-body analyses of cell-type diversity and neuronal circuits. Here, we review the diversity of neuronal cell types in Platynereis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conb.2018.12.008DOI Listing
January 2019
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Neuronal and synaptic protein lifetimes.

Curr Opin Neurobiol 2019 Jan 21;57:9-16. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

Technion Faculty of Medicine, Rappaport Institute and Network Biology Research Laboratories, Fishbach Building, Technion City, Haifa, 32000, Israel. Electronic address:

Neuronal proteostasis is uniquely challenged by the extraordinary architecture of neurons, the vast number of synapses they form, and the need to precisely preserve function at individual synapses. Quantitative information on protein lifetimes can provide clues as to how these challenges are met. Advances in proteomics and mass spectrometry, which now enable comprehensive lifetime estimations for thousands of proteins, suggest that neuronal and synaptic protein lifetimes are unusually long, with half-lives typically ranging from days to weeks, even months and beyond for certain protein families. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conb.2018.12.007DOI Listing
January 2019
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Bridging large-scale neuronal recordings and large-scale network models using dimensionality reduction.

Curr Opin Neurobiol 2019 Jan 21;55:40-47. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

Center for the Neural Basis of Cognition, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; Department of Electrical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; Department of Biomedical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. Electronic address:

A long-standing goal in neuroscience has been to bring together neuronal recordings and neural network modeling to understand brain function. Neuronal recordings can inform the development of network models, and network models can in turn provide predictions for subsequent experiments. Traditionally, neuronal recordings and network models have been related using single-neuron and pairwise spike train statistics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conb.2018.12.009DOI Listing
January 2019
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Shared and derived features of cellular diversity in the human cerebral cortex.

Curr Opin Neurobiol 2019 Jan 21;56:117-124. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

Department of Neurology and the Eli and Edythe Broad Center for Regeneration Medicine and Stem Cell Research at the University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA. Electronic address:

The cerebral cortex is the hallmark of the mammalian nervous system, and its large size and cellular diversity in humans support our most sophisticated cognitive abilities. Although the basic cellular organization of the cortex is conserved across mammals, cells have diversified during evolution. An increasingly integrated taxonomy of cell types, especially with the advent of single-cell transcriptomic data, has revealed an unprecedented variety of human cortical cell subtypes. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S09594388183019
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conb.2018.12.005DOI Listing
January 2019
5 Reads

Neuronal identity control by terminal selectors in worms, flies, and chordates.

Curr Opin Neurobiol 2019 Jan 18;56:97-105. Epub 2019 Jan 18.

Department of Neurobiology, University of Chicago, 947 E. 58th St., Chicago, IL 60637, USA. Electronic address:

How do post-mitotic neurons acquire and maintain their terminal identity? Genetic mutant analysis in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has revealed common molecular programs that control neuronal identity. Neuron type-specific combinations of transcription factors, called terminal selectors, act as master regulatory factors to initiate and maintain terminal identity programs through direct regulation of neuron type-specific effector genes. We will provide here an update on recent studies that solidify the terminal selector concept in worms, flies and chordates. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conb.2018.12.006DOI Listing
January 2019
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Not all cortical expansions are the same: the coevolution of the neocortex and the dorsal thalamus in mammals.

Curr Opin Neurobiol 2019 Jan 15;56:78-86. Epub 2019 Jan 15.

Center for Neuroscience, University of California, Davis, CA, United States; Department of Psychology, University of California, Davis, CA, United States. Electronic address:

A central question in comparative neurobiology concerns how evolution has produced brains with expanded neocortices, composed of more areas with unique connectivity and functional properties. Some mammalian lineages, such as primates, exhibit exceptionally large cortices relative to the amount of sensory inputs from the dorsal thalamus, and this expansion is associated with a larger number of distinct cortical areas, composing a larger proportion of the cortical sheet. We propose a link between the organization of the neocortex and its expansion relative to the size of the dorsal thalamus, based on a combination of work in comparative neuroanatomy and experimental research. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conb.2018.12.003DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read