1,803 results match your criteria Current opinion in infectious diseases[Journal]


Influenza virus polymerase inhibitors in clinical development.

Curr Opin Infect Dis 2019 Apr;32(2):176-186

Health Emergencies Programme, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.

Purpose Of Review: We review antivirals inhibiting subunits of the influenza polymerase complex that are advancing in clinical development.

Recent Findings: Favipiravir, pimodivir, and baloxavir are inhibitory in preclinical models for influenza A viruses, including pandemic threat viruses and those resistant to currently approved antivirals, and two (favipiravir and baloxavir) also inhibit influenza B viruses. All are orally administered, although the dosing regimens vary. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QCO.0000000000000532DOI Listing

Skin and soft tissue infections after breast surgery.

Curr Opin Infect Dis 2019 Apr;32(2):87-94

Department of Medical Sciences, University of Turin, City of Health and Sciences, Turin, Italy.

Purpose Of Review: Breast surgery is considered a clean surgical procedure; nevertheless, infection rates are often higher than those reported after other similarly considered clean surgeries (e.g., thyroid, hernia). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QCO.0000000000000531DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Aspiration pneumonia and pneumonitis: a spectrum of infectious/noninfectious diseases affecting the lung.

Curr Opin Infect Dis 2019 Apr;32(2):152-157

Section of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Intermountain Medical Center, Murray.

Purpose Of Review: Our purpose is to describe aspiration pneumonia/pneumonitis as a spectrum of infectious/noninfectious diseases affecting the lung. We summarize diagnosis, risk factors, treatment, and strategies for prevention of aspiration.

Recent Findings: Aspiration is present in normal individuals, and disease manifestation depends on the chemical characteristics, frequency, and volume of inoculum. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QCO.0000000000000524DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Why have trials of inhaled antibiotics for ventilator-associated infections failed?

Authors:
Lucy B Palmer

Curr Opin Infect Dis 2019 Apr;32(2):163-168

Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Division, HSC T17-040, SUNY at Stony Brook, New York, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Two recent large randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials of adjunctive inhaled therapy for the treatment of ventilator-associated pneumonia failed to show a mortality effect or more rapid resolution of pneumonia symptoms. Does the failure of these studies to reach their endpoints suggest the end of inhaled therapy? This review will explain why inhaled therapy may still have an important role in the treatment of ventilated patients.

Recent Findings: The recent interest in inhaled antimicrobial therapy is driven by the global emergence of increasingly resistant bacteria to systemic therapy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QCO.0000000000000525DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Prosthetic joint infections: clinical management, diagnosis, and treatment.

Curr Opin Infect Dis 2019 Apr;32(2):102-112

Infectious Diseases Division, Department of Medicine, University of Udine and Azienda Sanitaria Universitaria Integrata di Udine, Udine, Italy.

Purpose Of Review: Prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) represent one of the most disastrous complications in prosthetic surgery, requiring long hospitalization, prolonged antimicrobial treatment and repeated surgical interventions. No gold standard test to formulate diagnosis exist. A combination of high index of suspicion, physical examination, microbiological and biohumoral investigations is required. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QCO.0000000000000534DOI Listing

Acute exacerbations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: should we use antibiotics and if so, which ones?

Curr Opin Infect Dis 2019 Apr;32(2):143-151

Department of Medicine, Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Acute exacerbations are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with evidence suggesting at least 50% of exacerbations involve bacteria that benefit from antibiotic treatment. Here, we review the most relevant data regarding the use of antibiotics in exacerbations of COPD and provide insights on the selection of initial antibiotic therapy for their treatment.

Recent Findings: Identification of bacterial exacerbations still relies on clinical assessment rather than laboratory biomarkers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QCO.0000000000000533DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

The evolving burden of viruses in pneumonia.

Curr Opin Infect Dis 2019 Apr;32(2):158-162

Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine Service, Medstar Washington Hospital Center, Washington, DC, USA.

Purpose Of Review: To describe the evolving microbiology of various forms of pneumonia and the importance of viruses as etiologic causes of pneumonia.

Recent Findings: Multiple studies utilizing novel diagnostic modalities demonstrate that the prevalence of viruses as causes for pneumonia varies from approximately 10-30% depending on the specific pneumonia type evaluated. Viral pneumonias appear similar in presentation and severity of illness to bacterial causes of pulmonary infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QCO.0000000000000536DOI Listing
April 2019
6 Reads

Principles and practice of antibiotic stewardship in the management of diabetic foot infections.

Curr Opin Infect Dis 2019 Apr;32(2):95-101

University of Washington, Seattle, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Systemic antibiotic therapy in persons with a diabetic foot infection (DFI) is frequent, increasing the risk of promoting resistance to common pathogens. Applying principles of antibiotic stewardship may help avoid this problem.

Recent Findings: We performed a systematic review of the literature, especially seeking recently published studies, for data on the role and value of antibiotic stewardship (especially reducing the spectrum and duration of antibiotic therapy) in community and hospital populations of persons with a DFI. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QCO.0000000000000530DOI Listing
April 2019
7 Reads
5.006 Impact Factor

Current role of oxazolidinones and lipoglycopeptides in skin and soft tissue infections.

Curr Opin Infect Dis 2019 Apr;32(2):123-129

Infectious Diseases Clinic, Azienda Sanitaria Universitaria Integrata, Udine.

Purpose Of Review: An increase of skin and soft tissue infections involving Staphylococcus aureus has been reported in community and hospital settings. Methicillin resistance in S. aureus is associated with treatment failure and increased mortality. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QCO.0000000000000529DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

What's new in the epidemiology of skin and soft tissue infections in 2018?

Curr Opin Infect Dis 2019 Apr;32(2):77-86

4th Department of Internal Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, School of Medicine, Attikon University General Hospital, Athens, Greece.

Purpose Of Review: Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are among the most common infections in outpatients and the most frequent infectious cause of referrals to emergency departments in developed world, contributing to significant morbidity and healthcare expenditures. We sought to review recent literature covering epidemiology of SSTIs.

Recent Findings: Staphylococcus aureus and streptococci predominate and methicillin-resistant S. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QCO.0000000000000527DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

The role of carbapenem-resistant pathogens in cSSTI and how to manage them.

Curr Opin Infect Dis 2019 Apr;32(2):113-122

UOC Malattie Infettive, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS.

Purpose Of Review: Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) with a wide spectrum of disease severity ranging from uncomplicated to potentially lethal are still a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. The burden of carbapenem-resistant gram-negative bacteria (CR-GNB) in SSTIs is increasing. Luckily, the armamentarium of drugs available is recently expanding as well. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QCO.0000000000000528DOI Listing
April 2019
4 Reads

Procalcitonin to guide antibiotic decision making.

Curr Opin Infect Dis 2019 Apr;32(2):130-135

Department of Internal Medicine, Kantonsspital Aarau, Aarau.

Purpose Of Review: There is convincing evidence linking antibiotic-stewardship efforts which include the infection marker procalcitonin (PCT) to more rational use of antibiotics with improvements in side-effects and clinical outcomes. This is particularly true in the setting of respiratory infection and sepsis. Yet, some recent trials have shown no benefit of PCT-guided care. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QCO.0000000000000522DOI Listing
April 2019
26 Reads

Biomarkers of fungal lung infection.

Curr Opin Infect Dis 2019 Apr;32(2):136-142

Intensive Care Medicine Department, Centro Hospitalar São João.

Purpose Of Review: The incidence of lung fungal infections, namely invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) and mucormycosis, is increasing in neutropenic and nonneutropenic patients. As they are a major cause of death, early diagnosis and antifungal therapy are crucial for outcome. The role of biomarkers in the management of this infections is the scope of this review. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QCO.0000000000000523DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

New antibiotics for community-acquired pneumonia.

Curr Opin Infect Dis 2019 Apr;32(2):169-175

Department of Pharmacy Practice, Barnes-Jewish Hospital, St. Louis, Missouri, USA.

Purpose Of Review: This review provides the rationale for the development of new antibiotics to treat community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). It also provides an overview of the new antibiotics targeting CAP that have recently received approval by the regulatory agencies, and those antibiotics that are in the development pipeline.

Recent Findings: CAP is one of the most common reasons for hospitalization and carries a significant morbidity and risk of mortality. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QCO.0000000000000526DOI Listing
April 2019
8 Reads

Recent insights into HSV infection and disease: results of wider genome analysis.

Curr Opin Infect Dis 2019 Feb;32(1):51-55

University of Southampton, Southampton, UK.

Purpose Of Review: Technology to rapidly determine the partial or full genomic sequences of large viruses has developed rapidly in the last few years. Required sample sizes have diminished and sequencing of directly collected patient samples is now possible. Using banked samples from a number of clinical studies researchers have investigated how genomic variation may determine pathogenicity and answering important questions around the limits of vaccine therapy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QCO.0000000000000512DOI Listing
February 2019
10 Reads

Update on prevention of cytomegalovirus in hematopoietic cell transplantation.

Authors:
Sanjeet S Dadwal

Curr Opin Infect Dis 2019 Feb;32(1):63-68

Division of Infectious Disease, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Cytomegalovirus infection (CMVi) has been the troll of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT). Over the last 4 decades various approaches have been adopted to minimize the burden from CMVi. There has been major advancement in the management of CMVi in HCT within the last few years that is poised to change the approaches employed in preventing and managing CMVi. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QCO.0000000000000517DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Sexually transmitted infections and travel.

Authors:
Karen E Rogstad

Curr Opin Infect Dis 2019 Feb;32(1):56-62

HIV and Sexual Health Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust and Associate Director of Student Affairs, University of Sheffield School of Medicine, Sheffield, UK.

Purpose Of Review: The present review considers recent evidence on travel-associated sexual intercourse and sexually transmitted infection (STI) risks and travel with regards to risk behavior and implications of travel on communities. It highlights the lack of research in this area and topics for consideration.

Recent Findings: A population-based study, and others, shows significant levels of sex abroad and risk behavior with inconsistent condom use despite increasing travel advice about risks. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QCO.0000000000000513DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Sexually transmitted hepatitis C infection: the evolving epidemic in HIV-positive and HIV-negative MSM.

Curr Opin Infect Dis 2019 Feb;32(1):31-37

St Vincent's Clinical School, Faculty of Medicine.

Purpose Of Review: The scale-up of direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy and introduction of preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has changed the epidemiology of sexually acquired hepatitis C virus (HCV) amongst HIV-positive and HIV-negative MSM.

Recent Findings: Sexually acquired HCV continues to occur predominantly amongst HIV-positive MSM. Despite an increased uptake of DAA therapy the incidence of acute HCV has not declined consistently amongst HIV-positive MSM, likely a result of high infection and reinfection rates. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QCO.0000000000000515DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Managing Acinetobacter baumannii infections.

Curr Opin Infect Dis 2019 Feb;32(1):69-76

Medical and infectious diseases ICU (MI2) APHP Bichat University Hospital.

Purpose Of Review: We reviewed recent data about epidemiology of Acinetobacter baumannii, resistance mechanisms, and therapeutic options for severe infections caused by multidrug-resistant strains.

Recent Findings: A. baumannii is a major cause of nosocomial infections affecting mainly to debilitating patients in the ICU, although the spread to regular wards and to long-term care facilities is increasing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QCO.0000000000000518DOI Listing
February 2019
14 Reads

Lymphoganuloma venereum in the Western world, 15 years after its re-emergence: new perspectives and research priorities.

Curr Opin Infect Dis 2019 Feb;32(1):43-50

Department of Infectious Diseases, STI Outpatient Clinic, Public Health Service of Amsterdam.

Purpose Of Review: Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is a serious sexually transmitted infection caused by Chlamydia trachomatis. If left untreated LGV can cause irreversible late sequelae. LGV is endemic among a high-risk population of men who have sex with men (MSM), and largely reported in Western metropoles. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QCO.0000000000000519DOI Listing
February 2019
12 Reads

The biofilm in bacterial vaginosis: implications for epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment: 2018 update.

Curr Opin Infect Dis 2019 Feb;32(1):38-42

Section of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Laboratory for Molecular Genetics, Polymicrobial Infections and Biofilms, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

Purpose Of Review: Bacterial vaginosis is conventionally appreciated as a temporary community disturbance of the vaginal microbiota, though really involving self-organization as a resilient biofilm community. We will briefly review here how recent findings on this matter may affect practice and research in this field.

Recent Findings: The rapidly expanding literature base on the vaginal microbiome is largely based on 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) and cpn60 gene sequencing, with few studies accounting thus far for spatial microbiota organization. Read More

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http://Insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00001432-201902000-0000
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QCO.0000000000000516DOI Listing
February 2019
8 Reads

Emerging concepts in HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis.

Curr Opin Infect Dis 2019 Feb;32(1):16-23

Botswana-Harvard AIDS Institute Partnership, Gaborone, Botswana.

Purpose Of Review: HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis remains a significant contributor to AIDS-related mortality despite widened access to antiretroviral therapy. Even in clinical trial settings 10-week mortality is roughly 40%. A number of important clinical trials have either recently concluded or are actively recruiting. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QCO.0000000000000514DOI Listing
February 2019
3 Reads

Assessing inflammation and its role in comorbidities among persons living with HIV.

Curr Opin Infect Dis 2019 Feb;32(1):8-15

Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota.

Purpose Of Review: This article describes the use of biomarkers in expanding our understanding of chronic non-AIDS comorbidities among persons living with HIV (PLWH) receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART).

Recent Findings: We review current evidence that biomarkers of chronic immune activation and inflammation associate with a broad spectrum of end-organ diseases in PLWH. We discuss how ART may impact inflammation associated with HIV infection and the degree to which inflammation persists despite effective suppression of viral replication in plasma. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QCO.0000000000000510DOI Listing
February 2019
8 Reads

Optimizing antiretroviral regimens in chronic kidney disease.

Curr Opin Infect Dis 2019 Feb;32(1):1-7

King's College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.

Purpose Of Review: To identify recent data that inform the management of individuals with HIV and chronic kidney disease.

Recent Findings: Several nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase, protease, and integrase strand transfer inhibitors inhibit tubular creatinine secretion resulting in stable reductions in creatinine clearance of 5-20 ml/min in the absence of other manifestations of kidney injury. Progressive renal tubular dysfunction is observed with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate in clinical trials, and more rapid decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate in cohort studies of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and atazanavir, with stabilization, improvement or recovery of kidney function upon discontinuation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QCO.0000000000000509DOI Listing
February 2019
18 Reads

Scaling up pre-exposure prophylaxis in sub-Saharan Africa.

Curr Opin Infect Dis 2019 Feb;32(1):24-30

Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.

Purpose Of Review: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is highly efficacious for preventing HIV. Demonstrations worldwide show growing acceptability with nonoral formulations in the pipeline. Despite these successes, oral PrEP scale-up in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), the region hardest hit by HIV, remains sub-optimal. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QCO.0000000000000511DOI Listing
February 2019
12 Reads

Optimal duration of antibiotic treatment in Gram-negative infections.

Curr Opin Infect Dis 2018 Dec;31(6):606-611

Multidisciplinary Intensive Care Research Organization (MICRO), Department of Intensive Care Medicine, St James's Hospital, Dublin, Ireland.

Purpose Of Review: Whilst many guidelines recommend limiting the use of antibiotics because of the increase in antimicrobial resistance (AMR), this strategy becomes challenging when dealing with severe infections in critically ill patients. Moreover, some Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) can exhibit mechanisms of resistance that make the patient more vulnerable to recurrence of infections. We reviewed recent data on the optimal duration of antibiotic therapy in these patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QCO.0000000000000491DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Optimizing therapy in carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae infections.

Curr Opin Infect Dis 2018 Dec;31(6):566-577

1st Department of Internal Medicine-Infectious Diseases, Hygeia General Hospital, Athens, Greece.

Purpose Of Review: In the absence of randomized clinical trial data, questions remain regarding the optimal treatment of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) infections. CRE have historically been susceptible to polymyxins, tigecycline or aminoglycosides (mostly gentamicin), and these antibiotics have long been considered the drugs of choice for CRE infections, although varying rates of resistance to all have been reported. This review looks at data from clinical studies assessing the outcomes of CRE infections treated with different antibiotic regimens. Read More

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http://Insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00001432-900000000-9924
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QCO.0000000000000493DOI Listing
December 2018
6 Reads

Iron: an essential nutrient for Aspergillus fumigatus and a fulcrum for pathogenesis.

Curr Opin Infect Dis 2018 Dec;31(6):506-511

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford.

Purpose Of Review: Aspergillus fumigatus is a ubiquitous saprophytic fungus that can cause life-threatening invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients. Apart from the immune status of the host only a few characterized virulence factors have been identified. In this review, we describe the role of iron in the manifestation of A. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QCO.0000000000000487DOI Listing
December 2018
15 Reads

Viral therapeutics: where we are and where we are going.

Curr Opin Infect Dis 2018 Dec;31(6):512-513

Academic Unit of Clinical and Experimental Sciences, University of Southampton.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QCO.0000000000000507DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

Paramyxovirus infections in hematopoietic cell transplant recipients.

Curr Opin Infect Dis 2018 Dec;31(6):542-552

Department of Infectious Diseases, Infection Control, and Employee Health, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, USA.

Purpose Of Review: In hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients, paramyxovirus infections are major viral respiratory tract infections that, if they progress to lower respiratory tract infections, are associated with reduced survival rates in this population. There are important knowledge gaps regarding treatment decisions for HCT recipients with these infections and in the identification of risk factors that predict infection severity. Here, we review recent data on paramyxovirus infections in HCT recipients focusing on risk factors, new diagnostic and prognostic tools, and management including new drugs and vaccines under development. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QCO.0000000000000503DOI Listing
December 2018
13 Reads

Treatment of influenza with neuraminidase inhibitors.

Curr Opin Infect Dis 2018 Dec;31(6):514-519

Academic Unit of Clinical and Experimental Sciences, University of Southampton.

Purpose Of Review: Seasonal and pandemic influenza are major causes of morbidity and mortality globally. Neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) are the only class of antiviral agent recommended for the treatment of currently circulating strains of influenza. There has previously been controversy over the level of evidence for patient benefit with NAIs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QCO.0000000000000496DOI Listing
December 2018
9 Reads

Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis complicating severe influenza: epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment.

Curr Opin Infect Dis 2018 Dec;31(6):471-480

University Hospitals Leuven, Department of General Internal Medicine, Medical Intensive Care Unit.

Purpose Of Review: Bacterial super-infection of critically ill influenza patients is well known, but in recent years, more and more reports describe invasive aspergillosis as a frequent complication as well. This review summarizes the available literature on the association of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) with severe influenza [influenza-associated aspergillosis (IAA)], including epidemiology, diagnostic approaches and treatment options.

Recent Findings: Though IPA typically develops in immunodeficient patients, non-classically immunocompromised patients such as critically ill influenza patients are at high-risk for IPA as well. Read More

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http://Insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00001432-900000000-9924
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QCO.0000000000000504DOI Listing
December 2018
5 Reads

Update on epidemiology and appropriate treatment of life-threatening gram-negative infections.

Curr Opin Infect Dis 2018 Dec;31(6):553-554

Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Medstar Washington Hospital Center, Washington, DC, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QCO.0000000000000501DOI Listing
December 2018
20 Reads

Rational approach in the management of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections.

Curr Opin Infect Dis 2018 Dec;31(6):578-586

Infectious Diseases Service, Department of Medicine, University Hospital and University of Lausanne.

Purpose Of Review: This review details the management of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections covering both current and future treatment options that are and may be available for the clinicians.

Recent Findings: Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections are a great concern in hospital-acquired infections with very limited therapeutic options. The increasing antibiotic resistance has led to a need for different treatment choices that range from the use of new antibiotics to new nonantibiotic alternative agents to kill or disarm the pathogen. Read More

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http://Insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00001432-900000000-9923
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QCO.0000000000000505DOI Listing
December 2018
47 Reads

Whipple's disease and Tropheryma whipplei infections: when to suspect them and how to diagnose and treat them.

Curr Opin Infect Dis 2018 Dec;31(6):463-470

Aix Marseille Univ, IRD, MEPHI, IHU-Méditerranée Infection, Marseille, France.

Purpose Of Review: The delay between first clinical signs and diagnosis of Whipple's disease and Tropheryma whipplei infections is more than 6 years, and relapses are frequently observed, resulting in a need for clinicians to be aware of this infection.

Recent Findings: 18 FDG-PET is useful in the diagnosis and the follow-up of patients (particularly in case of neurological involvement). Histological involvement remains the goldstandard for classic Whipple's disease diagnosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QCO.0000000000000489DOI Listing
December 2018
3 Reads

Antifungal stewardship: developments in the field.

Curr Opin Infect Dis 2018 Dec;31(6):490-498

National Centre for Infections in Cancer, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre.

Purpose Of Review: To outline key drivers and components of antifungal stewardship (AFS) programmes, the evidence for specific interventions, and methods to assess performance of programmes.

Recent Findings: Recent developments in antifungal resistance and breakthrough invasive fungal diseases have increased the urgency for effective AFS. In practice, however, few hospitals have dedicated AFS programmes. Read More

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http://Insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00001432-900000000-9923
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QCO.0000000000000497DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

Invasive fungal disease and cytomegalovirus infection: is there an association?

Curr Opin Infect Dis 2018 Dec;31(6):481-489

Department of Medicine, MD Anderson Cancer Center, University of Texas, Houston, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Invasive fungal disease (IFD) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections occur frequently, either concomitantly or sequentially in immune-compromised hosts. Although there is extensive knowledge of the risk factors for these infections as single entities, the inter-relationship between opportunistic fungii and CMV has not been comprehensively explored.

Recent Findings: Both solid organ and stem cell transplant recipients who develop CMV invasive organ disease are at an increased risk of developing IFD, particularly aspergillosis and Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP). Read More

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http://Insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00001432-900000000-9923
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QCO.0000000000000502DOI Listing
December 2018
9 Reads

Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies for the treatment of influenza.

Authors:
John H Beigel

Curr Opin Infect Dis 2018 Dec;31(6):527-534

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), Rockville, Maryland, USA.

Purpose Of Review: This review summarizes past and ongoing efforts for using polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies for the treatment of influenza, and is focused on products that have entered clinical trials.

Recent Findings: At least three polyclonal and eight monoclonal antibody products have been tested in clinical trials for the treatment of influenza. Considered across the two classes of therapeutics, these products appear to be safe and well tolerated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QCO.0000000000000499DOI Listing
December 2018
14 Reads

The ideal patient profile for new beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitors.

Curr Opin Infect Dis 2018 Dec;31(6):587-593

Infectious Diseases Division, Department of Medicine University of Udine and Azienda Sanitaria Universitaria Integrata di Udine, Udine, Italy.

Purpose Of Review: The worldwide spread of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria, the overuse of carbapenems, the emergence of carbapenemase-producing organisms and the growing importance of multidrug-resistant and/or extended drug-resistant strains have totally changed prescribers' habits, leading to very few treatment options in many cases. Beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor (BLBLI) combinations should be considered as an alternative to carbapenems for treating ESBL-producing bacteria and Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections. The purpose of this study was to provide insight concerning the patients who would constitute ideal candidates to receive these new BLBLI combinations. Read More

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http://Insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00001432-900000000-9923
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QCO.0000000000000490DOI Listing
December 2018
20 Reads

Current management of Gram-negative septic shock.

Curr Opin Infect Dis 2018 Dec;31(6):600-605

Department of Intensive Care, Erasme Hospital, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium.

Purpose Of Review: Sepsis is a common condition in critically ill patients and associated with high morbidity and mortality. Sepsis is the result of infection by many potential pathogens, including Gram-negative bacteria. There are no specific antisepsis therapies and management relies largely on infection control and organ support, including hemodynamic stabilization. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QCO.0000000000000492DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

Combination versus monotherapy for the treatment of infections due to carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae.

Curr Opin Infect Dis 2018 Dec;31(6):594-599

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Diagnostic and Public Health, University of Verona, Italy.

Purpose Of Review: Combination therapy is a common strategy for treatment of multidrug resistant infections. Despite the strong twin rationales of improving efficacy and reducing resistance development, the evidence supporting this strategy remains controversial. The aims of this review are to assess the most recent studies supporting the use of combination therapy for treating infections because of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) and to highlight relevant areas for further research. Read More

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http://Insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00001432-900000000-9923
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QCO.0000000000000495DOI Listing
December 2018
5 Reads

Neuraminidase inhibitor resistance in influenza: a clinical perspective.

Curr Opin Infect Dis 2018 Dec;31(6):520-526

WHO Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Influenza, VIDRL, Peter Doherty Institute, Melbourne, Australia.

Purpose Of Review: Neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs), including oseltamivir, zanamivir, and peramivir, is the main class of antiviral available for clinical use. As such, development of resistance toward these agents is of great clinical and public health concern.

Recent Findings: At present, NAI resistance remains uncommon among the circulating viruses (oseltamivir <3. Read More

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http://Insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00001432-900000000-9923
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QCO.0000000000000498DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

Hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infection in immunocompromised patients.

Curr Opin Infect Dis 2018 Dec;31(6):535-541

Department of Infectious Diseases, Infection Control and Employee Health.

Purpose Of Review: To provide an update on recent studies of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections in cancer patients with an emphasis on viral reactivation after cancer treatment, new antiviral therapies, and safety concerns.

Recent Findings: The diagnostic criteria for HBV reactivation in patients receiving cancer therapy were revised in 2018. HBV reactivation in these patients is preventable, even with the use of new cancer therapies. Read More

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http://Insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00001432-900000000-9922
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QCO.0000000000000500DOI Listing
December 2018
6 Reads

How to optimize antibiotic pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamics for Gram-negative infections in critically ill patients.

Curr Opin Infect Dis 2018 Dec;31(6):555-565

Centre for Translational Anti-Infective Pharmacodynamics, School of Pharmacy, The University of Queensland, Woolloongabba, Queensland, Australia.

Purpose Of Review: Optimized antibiotic dosing regimens improve survival rates in critically ill patients. However, dose optimization is challenging because of fluctuating antibiotic pharmacokinetics both between patients and within a single patient. This study reviews the pharmacokinetic changes that occur in critically ill patients, along with the pharmacodynamics and toxicodynamics of antibiotics commonly used for the treatment of Gram-negative bacterial infections to formulate a recommendation for antibiotic dosing at the bedside. Read More

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http://Insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00001432-900000000-9922
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QCO.0000000000000494DOI Listing
December 2018
3 Reads

Multidrug-resistant Gram-negative infection in solid organ transplant recipients: implications for outcome and treatment.

Curr Opin Infect Dis 2018 Dec;31(6):499-505

Unit of Infectious Diseases, Hospital Universitario '12 de Octubre', Instituto de Investigación Hospital '12 de Octubre' (imas12), School of Medicine, Universidad Complutense, Madrid, Spain.

Purpose Of Review: Solid organ transplantation (SOT) is the best therapeutic option for both acute and chronic end-stage diseases. The development of more potent and safer immunosuppressants and the improvement of prophylactic practices have significantly diminished the morbidity and mortality associated with rejection and opportunistic infections. However, infections produced by multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) have recently emerged as a significant threat. Read More

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http://Insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00001432-900000000-9922
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QCO.0000000000000488DOI Listing
December 2018
3 Reads

Angiostrongylus cantonensis in travelers: clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment.

Curr Opin Infect Dis 2018 Oct;31(5):399-408

Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Ratchathewi, Bangkok, Thailand.

Purpose Of Review: Angiostrongylus cantonensis eosinophilic meningitis is a neglected, yet important emerging disease, which has been increasingly recognized in travelers. In this review, we describe the occurrence of the disease in travelers, sources of infection, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and currently recommended treatment.

Recent Findings: Various intermediate hosts and/or paratenic hosts can be the source of infection in humans. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QCO.0000000000000481DOI Listing
October 2018
15 Reads

Typhoid and paratyphoid fever: a call to action.

Curr Opin Infect Dis 2018 Oct;31(5):440-448

Oxford Vaccine Group, Department of Paediatrics, University of Oxford, and NIHR Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford, UK.

Purpose Of Review: Enteric fever remains a major global-health concern, estimated to be responsible for between 11.9 and 26.9 million cases annually. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QCO.0000000000000479DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6319573PMC
October 2018
30 Reads

Clinical management of cystic echinococcosis: state of the art and perspectives.

Curr Opin Infect Dis 2018 Oct;31(5):383-392

Section Clinical Tropical Medicine.

Purpose Of Review: This review draws attention to patients with cystic echinococcosis migrating from highly endemic to non-endemic countries with limited experience in cystic echinococcosis management, to ultrasound-based cyst staging, and to the WHO cyst classification as a powerful, to date underused tool to triage patients into the four currently available treatment modalities.

Recent Findings: In non- and low-prevalence countries, cystic echinococcosis is often misclassified. Differential diagnoses, such as simple cysts and other benign and malignant space-occupying lesions, have similar appearances on imaging. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QCO.0000000000000485DOI Listing
October 2018
3 Reads

Recent developments in the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of Fasciola infection.

Curr Opin Infect Dis 2018 Oct;31(5):409-414

Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas, USA.

Purpose Of Review: This review aims at describing the latest research in Fasciola epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, and control in endemic countries.

Recent Findings: The geographic distribution and range of reservoirs for Fasciola hepatica continues to expand. The impact of fascioliasis goes beyond human disease to affect food security and income in developed and developing countries. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QCO.0000000000000482DOI Listing
October 2018
1 Read

Imported onchocerciasis in migrants and travelers.

Curr Opin Infect Dis 2018 Oct;31(5):393-398

Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

Purpose Of Review: With increasing international travel and mass global population migration, clinicians in nonendemic countries must be familiar with imported neglected tropical diseases including onchocerciasis, which is commonly known as 'river blindness'.

Recent Findings: Imported onchocerciasis manifests differently in travelers compared with migrants from endemic areas and is likely underdiagnosed in both groups. Recent clinical studies confirm that eosinophilia is not a sensitive marker for Onchocerca volvulus, with one-third of patients having a normal eosinophil count. Read More

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http://Insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00001432-900000000-9924
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QCO.0000000000000483DOI Listing
October 2018
8 Reads