16,999 results match your criteria Current biology : CB[Journal]


Pelagic Subsidies Underpin Fish Productivity on a Degraded Coral Reef.

Curr Biol 2019 Apr 11. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

College of Science and Engineering, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD 4811, Australia; ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD 4811, Australia.

Coral reefs harbor high productivity in nutrient-poor tropical oceans. This exceptional productivity can be explained by high recycling rates [1, 2], deep-water nutrient enrichment [3], and assimilation of external production [4]. Fishes consume this productivity through multiple trophic pathways and, as a result, dominate consumer biomass. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2019.03.044DOI Listing
April 2019
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Texture Identification by Bounded Integration of Sensory Cortical Signals.

Curr Biol 2019 Apr 12. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Tactile Perception and Learning Lab, International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA), Via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste, Italy. Electronic address:

Recent work demonstrated that when a rat palpates a surface to identify its texture, signals generated by whisker kinematics are integrated by the brain, one touch at a time, until the accumulated evidence supports a well-grounded choice. The framework of decision making through bounded integration, previously attributed to primates, thus extends to rodents. In the present study, we ask whether vibrissal somatosensory cortex (vS1 and vS2) functions as the integrator of incoming evidence or, alternatively, as a relay of evidence to a downstream integrator. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2019.03.017DOI Listing

Rats Generate Vibrissal Sensory Evidence until Boundary Crossing Triggers a Decision.

Curr Biol 2019 Apr 12. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Tactile Perception and Learning Lab, International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA), Via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste, Italy. Electronic address:

Behaviors in which primates collect externally generated streams of sensory evidence, such as judgment of random dot motion direction, are explained by a bounded integration decision model. Does this model extend to rodents, and does it account for behavior in which the motor system generates evidence through interactions with the environment? In this study, rats palpated surfaces to identify the texture before them, showing marked trial-to-trial variability in the number of touches prior to expressing their choice. By high-speed video, we tracked whisker kinematic features and characterized how they encoded the contacted texture. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2019.03.016DOI Listing

Aurora B-INCENP Localization at Centromeres/Inner Kinetochores Is Required for Chromosome Bi-orientation in Budding Yeast.

Curr Biol 2019 Apr 12. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Centre for Gene Regulation and Expression, School of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, Dow Street, Dundee DD1 5EH, UK. Electronic address:

For proper chromosome segregation in mitosis, sister kinetochores must interact with microtubules from opposite spindle poles (chromosome bi-orientation) [1, 2]. To promote bi-orientation, Aurora B kinase disrupts aberrant kinetochore-microtubule interactions [3-6]. It has long been debated how Aurora B halts this action when bi-orientation is established and tension is applied across sister kinetochores. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2019.03.051DOI Listing

Epidermis-Derived L1CAM Homolog Neuroglian Mediates Dendrite Enclosure and Blocks Heteroneuronal Dendrite Bundling.

Curr Biol 2019 Apr 12. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Institute of Molecular Biology, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Building sensory dendritic arbors requires branching, growth, spacing, and substrate support. The conserved L1CAM family of cell-adhesion molecules generates neuronal isoforms to regulate neurite development in various aspects. However, whether non-neuronal isoforms participate in any of these aspects is unclear. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S09609822193034
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2019.03.050DOI Listing
April 2019
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Alternative Mechanisms for Fast Na/Ca Signaling in Eukaryotes via a Novel Class of Single-Domain Voltage-Gated Channels.

Curr Biol 2019 Apr 8. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Marine Biological Association, The Laboratory, Citadel Hill, Plymouth PL1 2PB, UK; School of Ocean and Earth Science, University of Southampton, Southampton SO14 3ZH, UK. Electronic address:

Rapid Na/Ca-based action potentials govern essential cellular functions in eukaryotes, from the motile responses of unicellular protists, such as Paramecium [1, 2], to complex animal neuromuscular activity [3]. A key innovation underpinning this fundamental signaling process has been the evolution of four-domain voltage-gated Na/Ca channels (4D-Cas/Nas). These channels are widely distributed across eukaryote diversity [4], albeit several eukaryotes, including land plants and fungi, have lost voltage-sensitive 4D-Ca/Nas [5-7]. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2019.03.041DOI Listing

Nanopore Formation in the Cuticle of an Insect Olfactory Sensillum.

Curr Biol 2019 Apr 5. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

RIKEN Center for Biosystems Dynamics Research, 2-2-3 Minatojima-minamimachi, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0047, Japan; Department of Biology, Kobe University Graduate School of Science, Kobe, Hyogo 657-8501, Japan. Electronic address:

Nanometer-level patterned surface structures form the basis of biological functions, including superhydrophobicity, structural coloration, and light absorption [1-3]. In insects, the cuticle overlying the olfactory sensilla has multiple small (50- to 200-nm diameter) pores [4-8], which are supposed to function as a filter that admits odorant molecules, while preventing the entry of larger airborne particles and limiting water loss. However, the cellular processes underlying the patterning of extracellular matrices into functional nano-structures remain unknown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2019.03.043DOI Listing

Memory Performance Influences Male Reproductive Success in a Wild Bird.

Curr Biol 2019 Apr 2. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

School of Biological Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington 6012, New Zealand.

Despite decades of comparative research, how selection shapes the evolution of cognitive traits remains poorly understood [1-3]. Several lines of evidence suggest that natural selection acts on spatial memory in food-caching species [3-6]. However, a link between reproductive fitness and spatial memory ability has yet to be demonstrated in any caching species [1, 3, 6]. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2019.03.027DOI Listing

Joint Evolution of Asexuality and Queen Number in an Ant.

Curr Biol 2019 Apr 6. Epub 2019 Apr 6.

University of Georgia, Department of Entomology, 413 Biological Sciences Building, 120 Cedar Street, Athens, GA 30602, USA.

Ants exhibit a striking diversity of reproductive systems, varying in traits such as the number of reproductives per colony [1], the mode of daughter production (sexual or asexual) [2], and the mode of caste determination (genetic or environmental) [3]. Species employing mixed reproductive systems present a unique opportunity to explore the causes and consequences of alternative breeding strategies. Mixed reproductive systems in ants include social polymorphism in colony queen number, whereby single-queen (monogyne) and multiple-queen (polygyne) colonies co-occur within species [4-7], and facultative asexuality, in which female offspring may be produced sexually or asexually within colonies [8-13]. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2019.03.018DOI Listing

PCMD-1 Organizes Centrosome Matrix Assembly in C. elegans.

Curr Biol 2019 Apr 11. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Department of Biology II, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Großhaderner Str. 2, 82152 Planegg-Martinsried, Germany. Electronic address:

Centrosomes, the major microtubule-organizing centers of animal cells, are essential for the assembly of a bipolar spindle during mitosis. Spindle defective-5 (SPD-5), the main scaffold protein of the centrosome matrix in Caenorhabditis elegans, forms a thin core around non-mitotic centrioles. Upon mitotic entry, the SPD-5-containing centrosome matrix expands in a Polo-like-kinase 1 (PLK-1)-dependent manner and this enables an enhanced microtubule nucleation activity during mitosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2019.03.029DOI Listing

Opposing Influence of Sensory and Motor Cortical Input on Striatal Circuitry and Choice Behavior.

Curr Biol 2019 Apr 8. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 604 Allison Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA. Electronic address:

The striatum is the main input nucleus of the basal ganglia and is a key site of sensorimotor integration. While the striatum receives extensive excitatory afferents from the cerebral cortex, the influence of different cortical areas on striatal circuitry and behavior is unknown. Here, we find that corticostriatal inputs from whisker-related primary somatosensory (S1) and motor (M1) cortex differentially innervate projection neurons and interneurons in the dorsal striatum and exert opposing effects on sensory-guided behavior. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2019.03.028DOI Listing
April 2019
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Social Contact Acts as Appetitive Reinforcement and Supports Associative Learning in Honeybees.

Curr Biol 2019 Apr 8. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Evolution, Genomes, Behavior and Ecology, CNRS, Univ. Paris-Sud, IRD (UMR 9191), Université Paris-Saclay, 1 avenue de la Terrasse, 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette, France. Electronic address:

Social learning is taxonomically widespread in the animal kingdom [1], and although it is long thought to be a hallmark of vertebrates, recent studies revealed that it also exists in insects [2-5]. The adaptive functions of social learning are well known, but its underlying mechanisms remain debated [2, 5, 6]. Social insects critically depend on the social transmission of information for successful food search and their colonies' fitness [7] and are tractable models for studying the social cues and cognitive mechanisms involved [2-5]. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S09609822193032
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2019.03.025DOI Listing
April 2019
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Bumblebee Rejection of Toxic Pollen Facilitates Pollen Transfer.

Curr Biol 2019 Mar 30. Epub 2019 Mar 30.

Institute of Evolution and Ecology, School of Life Sciences, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079, China. Electronic address:

Many bees are effective pollen collectors; however, pollen grains collected by bees for larval food are lost for plant sexual reproduction. Recognition of these conflicting interests between bees and flowers is essential for understanding of reproduction for both bees and flowers [1-3]. Plant defense compounds in pollen may function to reduce pollen waste by deterring ineffective pollinators [4-6], but this hypothesis remains unexamined. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2019.03.023DOI Listing

The Drosophila Pioneer Factor Zelda Modulates the Nuclear Microenvironment of a Dorsal Target Enhancer to Potentiate Transcriptional Output.

Curr Biol 2019 Mar 30. Epub 2019 Mar 30.

Department of Biology, New York University, New York, NY 10003, USA. Electronic address:

Connecting the developmental patterning of tissues to the mechanistic control of RNA polymerase II remains a long-term goal of developmental biology. Many key elements have been identified in the establishment of spatial-temporal control of transcription in the early Drosophila embryo, a model system for transcriptional regulation. The dorsal-ventral axis of the Drosophila embryo is determined by the graded distribution of Dorsal (Dl), a homolog of the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) family of transcriptional activators found in humans [1, 2]. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2019.03.019DOI Listing

Emotional Mirror Neurons in the Rat's Anterior Cingulate Cortex.

Curr Biol 2019 Mar 28. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Social Brain Lab, Netherlands Institute for Neuroscience, Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, Meibergdreef 47, 1105 BA Amsterdam, the Netherlands; Department of Psychology, University of Amsterdam, Nieuwe Achtergracht 166, 1018 WV Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

How do the emotions of others affect us? The human anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) responds while experiencing pain in the self and witnessing pain in others, but the underlying cellular mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here we show the rat ACC (area 24) contains neurons responding when a rat experiences pain as triggered by a laser and while witnessing another rat receive footshocks. Most of these neurons do not respond to a fear-conditioned sound (CS). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2019.03.024DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Distributed Plasticity Drives Visual Habituation Learning in Larval Zebrafish.

Curr Biol 2019 Mar 26. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. Electronic address:

Habituation is a simple form of learning where animals learn to reduce their responses to repeated innocuous stimuli [1]. Habituation is thought to occur via at least two temporally and molecularly distinct mechanisms, which lead to short-term memories that last for seconds to minutes and long-term memories that last for hours or longer [1, 2]. Here, we focus on long-term habituation, which, due to the extended time course, necessitates stable alterations to circuit properties [2-4]. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2019.02.039DOI Listing

A CCRK and a MAK Kinase Modulate Cilia Branching and Length via Regulation of Axonemal Microtubule Dynamics in Caenorhabditis elegans.

Curr Biol 2019 Mar 26. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

Department of Biology, Brandeis University, 415 South Street, Waltham, MA 02454, USA. Electronic address:

The diverse morphologies of primary cilia are tightly regulated as a function of cell type and cellular state. CCRK- and MAK-related kinases have been implicated in ciliary length control in multiple species, although the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Here, we show that in C. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2019.02.062DOI Listing
March 2019
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Experienced Migratory Bats Integrate the Sun's Position at Dusk for Navigation at Night.

Curr Biol 2019 Mar 26. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

Department of Evolutionary Ecology, Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research, Alfred-Kowalke-Straße 17, 10315 Berlin, Germany; AG Verhaltensbiologie, Institute of Biology, Freie Universität Berlin, Takustraße 6, 14195 Berlin, Germany.

From bats to whales, millions of mammals migrate every year. However, their navigation capacity for accomplishing long-distance movements remains remarkably understudied and lags behind by five decades compared to other animals [1, 2]-partly because, unlike for other taxa, such as birds and sea turtles, no small-scale orientation assay has so far been developed. Yet recently, bats became a model to investigate which cues mammals use for long-range navigation, and, surprisingly for nocturnal animals, sunset cues, and particularly polarized-light cues, appear to be crucial for calibration of the magnetic-compass system in non-migratory bats [3-5]. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2019.03.002DOI Listing
March 2019
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An Amphibious Whale from the Middle Eocene of Peru Reveals Early South Pacific Dispersal of Quadrupedal Cetaceans.

Curr Biol 2019 Apr 2. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Centre de Recherche en Paléontologie-Paris, CR2P (CNRS, MNHN, Sorbonne-Université), Département Origines et Évolution, Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, 8, Rue Buffon 75005 Paris, France.

Cetaceans originated in south Asia more than 50 million years ago (mya), from a small quadrupedal artiodactyl ancestor [1-3]. Amphibious whales gradually dispersed westward along North Africa and arrived in North America before 41.2 mya [4]. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S09609822193022
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2019.02.050DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

Noisy Cell-Size-Correlated Expression of Cyclin B Drives Probabilistic Cell-Size Homeostasis in Fission Yeast.

Curr Biol 2019 Mar 19. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Cell Cycle Laboratory, The Francis Crick Institute, 1 Midland Road, London NW1 1ST, UK; Laboratory of Yeast Genetics and Cell Biology, Rockefeller University, 1230 York Ave, New York, NY 10065, USA.

How cells correct deviations from a mean cell size at mitosis remains uncertain. Classical cell-size homeostasis models are the sizer, timer, and adder [1]. Sizers postulate that cells divide at some threshold size; timers, that cells grow for a set time; and adders, that cells add a constant volume before division. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2019.03.011DOI Listing
March 2019
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Feeling a Touch to the Hand on the Foot.

Curr Biol 2019 Mar 13. Epub 2019 Mar 13.

Biopsychology & Cognitive Neuroscience, Bielefeld University, Universitätsstrasse 25, 33615 Bielefeld, Germany; Center of Excellence Cognitive Interaction Technology (CITEC), Bielefeld University, Inspiration 1, 33619 Bielefeld, Germany.

Where we perceive a touch putatively depends on topographic maps that code the touch's location on the skin [1] as well as its position in external space [2-5]. However, neither somatotopic nor external-spatial representations can account for atypical tactile percepts in some neurological patients and amputees; referral of touch to an absent or anaesthetized hand after stimulation of a foot [6, 7] or the contralateral hand [8-10] challenges the role of topographic representations when attributing touch to the limbs. Here, we show that even healthy adults systematically misattribute touch to other limbs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2019.02.060DOI Listing
March 2019
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Visual Attention: What Inattention Reveals about the Brain.

Authors:
Masud Husain

Curr Biol 2019 Apr;29(7):R262-R264

Nuffield Dept of Clinical Neurosciences, Department of Experimental Psychology and Wellcome Trust Centre for Integrative Neuroimaging, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 9DU, UK. Electronic address:

The precise contribution of brain regions to selective attention is disputed. New research identifies what happens to nodes in the attention network when one of them is inactivated and reveals whether they might have a causal role in directing attention. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2019.02.026DOI Listing
April 2019
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9.571 Impact Factor

Animal Behavior: Honesty Can Kill.

Curr Biol 2019 Apr;29(7):R259-R261

Department of Neuroscience, Scripps Research, La Jolla, CA, USA. Electronic address:

Virgin male mice naturally kill another male's pups so they can sire their own offspring. New research shows that pups are identified using a combination of generic and 'honest' cues, revealing an unexpected logic underlying pup recognition and ensuing infanticide. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2019.02.002DOI Listing

Evolution: The Battle of the First Animals.

Curr Biol 2019 Apr;29(7):R257-R259

Institute of Earth Sciences, University of Lausanne, Geopolis, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.

Ctenophores or 'comb-jellies' are marine animals whose relationship to other phyla is uncertain, yet important for understanding major steps in animal evolution. Fossil ctenophores from the Cambrian indicate that ctenophores may have evolved from a sessile, cnidarian-like ancestor. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2019.02.031DOI Listing

Animal Behavior: Ape Curiosity on Camera.

Curr Biol 2019 Apr;29(7):R255-R257

Faculty of Science, Department for early prehistory and quaternary ecology, University of Tübingen, Germany.

How animals respond to novel objects may reflect their overall cognitive and behavioral disposition. A study using camera traps reveals that different species of wild ape respond to novelty differently. Read More

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https://data.crossref.org/10.1016%2Fj.cub.2019.02.055
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2019.02.055DOI Listing
April 2019
4 Reads

Developmental Biology: Embryos Need to Control Their Nucleotides Just Right.

Curr Biol 2019 Apr;29(7):R252-R254

Department of Cell Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA. Electronic address:

The maternal-to-zygotic transition in the Drosophila embryo requires accurate control of the levels of free nucleotides, arguing for an essential role of nucleotide metabolism in the regulation of the cell cycle during early embryogenesis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2019.02.051DOI Listing
April 2019
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Drosophila Courtship: Neuronal Coordination of Behavioural Sequences and a 60-Year-Old Hypothesis.

Authors:
Matthew Cobb

Curr Biol 2019 Apr;29(7):R250-R252

School of Biological Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PT, UK. Electronic address:

Drosophila courtship consists of a stereotypic sequence of behaviours, involving increasing levels of excitation. A pair of neurons coordinate some of these sequences using a spike-counting model that echoes an idea first outlined in 1959. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2019.02.030DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Evolution: The Genetics of Milk Champagne Yeast.

Authors:
Rachel Brem

Curr Biol 2019 Apr;29(7):R248-R250

Buck Institute for Research on Aging, Novato, CA 94945, USA; Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. Electronic address:

A newly characterized group of budding yeast found in fermented milk drinks in West and Central Asia far outshines its relatives in the ability to use galactose, a milk sugar byproduct. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2019.02.040DOI Listing

Vision: Filling Black Holes.

Curr Biol 2019 Apr;29(7):R245-R248

Institute of Neuroscience, CNR, Via Moruzzi, 1, 56124, Pisa, Italy. Electronic address:

At night our visual system does not have information on the center of the visual field, yet it manages to fill this gap. A recent study uncovers details and paradoxes of this phenomenon. Read More

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https://data.crossref.org/10.1016%2Fj.cub.2019.02.046
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2019.02.046DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Behavior: Why Male Flies Sing Different Songs.

Curr Biol 2019 Apr;29(7):R243-R245

Neurobiology Division, MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge CB2 0QH, UK; Drosophila Connectomics Group, Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, UK. Electronic address:

A new study investigates the distinct male courtship songs of two related Drosophila species and the neurons controlling this behavior, localizing a site of evolutionary divergence to the motor system, downstream of the central brain. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S09609822193022
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2019.02.054DOI Listing
April 2019
8 Reads

Genome Size Evolution: Small Transposons with Large Consequences.

Authors:
Alexander Suh

Curr Biol 2019 Apr;29(7):R241-R243

Department of Evolutionary Biology, Evolutionary Biology Centre (EBC), Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, SE-752 36, Uppsala, Sweden. Electronic address:

Transposable elements (TEs) heavily influence genome size variation between organisms. A new study on larvacean tunicates now shows that even non-autonomous TEs - small TEs that parasitize the enzymatic machinery of large, autonomous TEs - can have a large impact on genome size. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2019.02.032DOI Listing
April 2019
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Long-term decline in survival and reproduction of dolphins following a marine heatwave.

Curr Biol 2019 Apr;29(7):R239-R240

Evolutionary Genetics Group, Department of Anthropology, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; School of Biological Sciences and Oceans Institute, University of Western Australia, Crawley, Western Australia, Australia; School of Biological Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.

One of many challenges in the conservation of biodiversity is the recent trend in the frequency and intensity of extreme climatic events [1]. The Shark Bay World Heritage Area, Western Australia, endured an unprecedented marine heatwave in 2011. Catastrophic losses of habitat-forming seagrass meadows followed [2], along with mass mortalities of invertebrate and fish communities [3]. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2019.02.047DOI Listing

Linking colony size with quantitative estimates of ecosystem services of African fruit bats.

Curr Biol 2019 Apr;29(7):R237-R238

Max Planck Institute for Ornithology, Department of Migration and Immuno-ecology, Am Obstberg 1, Radolfzell, 78315, Germany; University of Konstanz, Department of Biology, Universitätsstraße 10, Konstanz, 78457, Germany.

Animal-mediated seed dispersal is a pivotal component of functioning forest ecosystems all over the globe. Animals that disperse seeds away from their parental plants increase the seeds' chances of survival by releasing them from competition and specialised predators and so contribute to maintain the biodiversity of forests. Furthermore, seeds dispersed into deforested areas provide the opportunity for reforestation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2019.02.033DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Neural network models and deep learning.

Curr Biol 2019 Apr;29(7):R231-R236

Zuckerman Mind Brain Behavior Institute, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, USA. Electronic address:

Originally inspired by neurobiology, deep neural network models have become a powerful tool of machine learning and artificial intelligence. They can approximate functions and dynamics by learning from examples. Here we give a brief introduction to neural network models and deep learning for biologists. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2019.02.034DOI Listing

Protein glycosylation.

Authors:
Jerry Eichler

Curr Biol 2019 Apr;29(7):R229-R231

Department of Life Sciences, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beersheva 84105, Israel. Electronic address:

Eichler introduces the diversity of protein glycosylations and the roles of these modifications in regulating protein function. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2019.01.003DOI Listing

A Rapid Form of Offline Consolidation in Skill Learning.

Curr Biol 2019 Mar 11. Epub 2019 Mar 11.

Human Cortical Physiology and Neurorehabilitation Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Bethesda, Maryland 20814, USA. Electronic address:

The brain strengthens memories through consolidation, defined as resistance to interference (stabilization) or performance improvements between the end of a practice session and the beginning of the next (offline gains) [1]. Typically, consolidation has been measured hours or days after the completion of training [2], but the same concept may apply to periods of rest that occur interspersed in a series of practice bouts within the same session. Here, we took an unprecedented close look at the within-seconds time course of early human procedural learning over alternating short periods of practice and rest that constitute a typical online training session. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2019.02.049DOI Listing

Category-Induced Transfer of Visual Perceptual Learning.

Curr Biol 2019 Mar 18. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Department of Cognitive, Linguistic and Psychological Sciences, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912, USA. Electronic address:

Visual perceptual learning (VPL) refers to a long-term enhancement of visual task performance as a result of visual experience [1-6]. VPL is generally specific for the trained visual feature, meaning that training on a feature leads to performance enhancement only on the feature and those in its close vicinity. In the meantime, visual perception is often categorical [7-10]. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2019.03.003DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Induction of a Spindle-Assembly-Competent M Phase in Xenopus Egg Extracts.

Curr Biol 2019 Mar 14. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Department of Molecular Biology, University of Wyoming, 1000 E. University Ave., Laramie, WY 82071, USA; Marine Biological Laboratory, Cell Division and Organization Group, 7 MBL Street, Woods Hole, MA 02543, USA. Electronic address:

Normal mitotic spindle assembly is a prerequisite for faithful chromosome segregation and unperturbed cell-cycle progression. Precise functioning of the spindle machinery relies on conserved architectural features, such as focused poles, chromosome alignment at the metaphase plate, and proper spindle length. These morphological requirements can be achieved only within a compositionally distinct cytoplasm that results from cell-cycle-dependent regulation of specific protein levels and specific post-translational modifications. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2019.02.061DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

Neuronal Gluconeogenesis Regulates Systemic Glucose Homeostasis in Drosophila melanogaster.

Curr Biol 2019 Mar 26. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, College of Medicine, Health Science Center, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77845, USA. Electronic address:

Gluconeogenesis is a well-established metabolic process whereby glucose is generated from small carbon molecules in the liver and kidney to maintain blood glucose levels. Expression of gluconeogenic genes has been reported in other organs of mammals and insects, where their function is not yet known. In the fruit fly, one of the gluconeogenic genes, glucose-6-phosphatase (G6P) is exclusively expressed in the CNS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2019.02.053DOI Listing

Force Transmission between Three Tissues Controls Bipolar Planar Polarity Establishment and Morphogenesis.

Curr Biol 2019 Mar 8. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

CNRS, Univ Rennes, IGDR (Institut de Génétique et Développement de Rennes) - UMR6290, 2 Avenue du Professeur Léon Bernard, 35000 Rennes, France. Electronic address:

How tissues from different developmental origins interact to achieve coordinated morphogenesis at the level of a whole organism is a fundamental question in developmental biology. While biochemical signaling pathways controlling morphogenesis have been extensively studied [1-3], morphogenesis of epithelial tissues can also be directed by mechanotransduction pathways physically linking two tissues [4-8]. C. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2019.02.059DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes Detect Acidic Volatiles Found in Human Odor Using the IR8a Pathway.

Curr Biol 2019 Mar 28. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Department of Biological Sciences & Biomolecular Sciences Institute, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199, USA. Electronic address:

Mosquitoes use olfaction as a primary means of detecting their hosts. Previously, the functional ablation of a family of Aedes aegypti olfactory receptors, the odorant receptors (ORs), was not sufficient to reduce host seeking in the presence of carbon dioxide (CO). This suggests the olfactory receptors that remain, such as the ionotropic receptors (IRs), could play a significant role in host detection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2019.02.045DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Dynamic Theta Networks in the Human Medial Temporal Lobe Support Episodic Memory.

Curr Biol 2019 Apr 21;29(7):1100-1111.e4. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Department of Psychology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. Electronic address:

The medial temporal lobe (MTL) is a locus of episodic memory in the human brain. It is comprised of cytologically distinct subregions that, in concert, give rise to successful encoding and retrieval of context-dependent memories. However, the functional connections between these subregions are poorly understood. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S09609822193015
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2019.02.020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6445741PMC
April 2019
3 Reads
9.571 Impact Factor

The RIF1-PP1 Axis Controls Abscission Timing in Human Cells.

Curr Biol 2019 Apr 21;29(7):1232-1242.e5. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Center for Chromosome Stability and Center for Healthy Aging, Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 3B, 2200 Copenhagen N, Denmark. Electronic address:

Abscission is the final step of cell division when the cytokinetic furrow ingresses completely, leading to midbody formation and plasma membrane fission [1]. In human cells, the Aurora-B-driven abscission checkpoint delays cytokinesis until any residual chromatin spanning the midbody is removed [2-5]. If this does not occur efficiently, uneven segregation of daughter genomes can occur. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2019.02.037DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

A Retino-retinal Projection Guided by Unc5c Emerged in Species with Retinal Waves.

Curr Biol 2019 Apr 21;29(7):1149-1160.e4. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Instituto de Neurociencias, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas-Universidad Miguel Hernández, CSIC-UMH, Av. Santiago Ramón y Cajal s/n, Sant Joan d'Alacant 03550, Alicante, Spain. Electronic address:

The existence of axons extending from one retina to the other has been reported during perinatal development in different vertebrates. However, it has been thought that these axons are either a labeling artifact or misprojections. Here, we show unequivocally that a small subset of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) project to the opposite retina and that the guidance receptor Unc5c, expressed in the retinal region where the retinal-retinal (R-R) RGCs are located, is necessary and sufficient to guide axons to the opposite retina. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2019.02.052DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6453780PMC

Humans Trust Central Vision More Than Peripheral Vision Even in the Dark.

Curr Biol 2019 Apr 21;29(7):1206-1210.e4. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Department of Psychology, University of Marburg, Gutenbergstr. 18, 35032 Marburg, Germany. Electronic address:

Two types of photoreceptors in the human retina support vision across a wide range of luminances: cones are active under bright daylight illumination (photopic viewing) and rods under dim illumination at night (scotopic viewing). These photoreceptors are distributed inhomogeneously across the retina [1]: cone-receptor density peaks at the center of the visual field (i.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2019.02.023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6453110PMC

Acute Inhibition of Heterotrimeric Kinesin-2 Function Reveals Mechanisms of Intraflagellar Transport in Mammalian Cilia.

Curr Biol 2019 Apr 21;29(7):1137-1148.e4. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Department of Cell & Developmental Biology, University of Michigan Medical School, 109 Zina Pitcher Place, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA. Electronic address:

The trafficking of components within cilia, called intraflagellar transport (IFT), is powered by kinesin-2 and dynein-2 motors. Loss of function in any subunit of the heterotrimeric KIF3A/KIF3B/KAP kinesin-2 motor prevents ciliogenesis in mammalian cells and has hindered an understanding of how kinesin-2 motors function in cilium assembly and IFT. We used a chemical-genetic approach to generate an inhibitable KIF3A/KIF3B/KAP kinesin-2 motor (i3A/i3B) that is capable of rescuing wild-type (WT) motor function for cilium assembly and Hedgehog signaling in Kif3a/Kif3b double-knockout cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2019.02.043DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6445692PMC

Source-Sink Regulation Is Mediated by Interaction of an FT Homolog with a SWEET Protein in Potato.

Curr Biol 2019 Apr 21;29(7):1178-1186.e6. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Plant Breeding, Wageningen University & Research, P.O. Box 386, 6700 AJ Wageningen, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Potato plants form tuberous storage organs on underground modified stems called stolons. Tubers are rich in starch, proteins, and other important nutrients, making potato one of the most important staple food crops. The timing of tuber development in wild potato is regulated by day length through a mechanism that is closely related to floral transition [1, 2]. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2019.02.018DOI Listing
April 2019
21 Reads

Cambrian Sessile, Suspension Feeding Stem-Group Ctenophores and Evolution of the Comb Jelly Body Plan.

Curr Biol 2019 Apr 21;29(7):1112-1125.e2. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Yunnan Key Laboratory for Palaeobiology, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091, China; MEC International Joint Laboratory for Palaeobiology and Palaeoenvironment, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091, China; Department of Earth Sciences, The Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD, UK. Electronic address:

The origin of ctenophores (comb jellies) is obscured by their controversial phylogenetic position, with recent phylogenomic analyses resolving either sponges or ctenophores as the sister group of all other animals. Fossil taxa can provide morphological evidence that may elucidate the origins of derived characters and shared ancestries among divergent taxa, providing a means to "break" long branches in phylogenetic trees. Here we describe new fossil material from the early Cambrian Chengjiang Biota, Yunnan Province, China, including the putative cnidarian Xianguangia, the new taxon Daihua sanqiong gen et sp. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2019.02.036DOI Listing
April 2019
9.571 Impact Factor

The Hippocampus Encodes Distances in Multidimensional Feature Space.

Curr Biol 2019 Apr 21;29(7):1226-1231.e3. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Max-Planck-Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Leipzig, Germany; Kavli Institute for Systems Neuroscience, Centre for Neural Computation, The Egil and Pauline Braathen and Fred Kavli Centre for Cortical Microcircuits, NTNU, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway. Electronic address:

The hippocampal formation encodes maps of the physical environment [1-5]. A key question in neuroscience is whether its spatial coding principles also provide a universal metric for the organization of non-spatial information. Initial evidence comes from studies revealing directional modulation of fMRI responses in humans [6, 7] during navigation through abstract spaces and the involvement of place and grid cells in encoding of non-spatial feature dimensions [8]. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2019.02.035DOI Listing

Reverse Evolution of a Classic Gene Network in Yeast Offers a Competitive Advantage.

Curr Biol 2019 Apr 21;29(7):1126-1136.e5. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

State Key Laboratory of Mycology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China; College of Life Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19 A Yuquan Road, Shijingshan District, Beijing 100049, China. Electronic address:

Glucose repression is a central regulatory system in yeast that ensures the utilization of carbon sources in a highly economical manner. The galactose (GAL) metabolism network is stringently regulated by glucose repression in yeast and has been a classic system for studying gene regulation. We show here that a Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2019.02.038DOI Listing