4,544 results match your criteria Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology[Journal]


IgG Fc Receptors: Evolutionary Considerations.

Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 2019 Feb 10. Epub 2019 Feb 10.

The Laboratory of Molecular Genetics and Immunology, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Ave, New York, NY, 10065, USA.

Immunoglobulins (Ig), a critical component of the adaptive immune system, are present in all jawed vertebrates and through sophisticated diversification mechanisms are able to recognize antigens of almost infinite diversity. During mammalian evolution, IgG has emerged as the predominant Ig isotype that is elicited upon antigenic challenge, representing the most abundant isotype present in circulation. Along with the IgG molecule, a family of specialized receptors has evolved in mammalian species that specifically recognize the Fc domain of IgG. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/82_2019_149DOI Listing
February 2019
17 Reads

Chronic Chikungunya Virus Disease.

Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 2019 Jan 18. Epub 2019 Jan 18.

Department of Immunology and Microbiology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO, 80045, USA.

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that has caused both small- and large-scale epidemics of incapacitating musculoskeletal disease across the globe. A substantial proportion of infected individuals experience debilitating arthralgia and/or arthritis that can persist in relapsing or continuous forms for months to years, an occurrence that appears independent of viral strain and outbreak location. Due to the lack of CHIKV-specific vaccine or therapeutics, treatment of chronic CHIKV disease is limited to supportive care. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/82_2018_147DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Molecular Virology of Chikungunya Virus.

Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 2019 Jan 1. Epub 2019 Jan 1.

Department of Microbiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1720 2nd Ave South, BBRB373/Box 3, 35294-2170, Birmingham, AL, USA.

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) was discovered more than six decades ago, but has remained poorly investigated. However, after a recent outbreak of CHIK fever in both hemispheres and viral adaptation to new species of mosquitoes, it has attracted a lot of attention. The currently available experimental data suggest that molecular mechanisms of CHIKV replication in vertebrate and mosquito cells are similar to those of other New and Old World alphaviruses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/82_2018_146DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Cryptococcal Titan Cells: When Yeast Cells Are All Grown up.

Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 2018 Nov 9. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

Mycology Reference Laboratory, National Centre for Microbiology, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Majadahonda, Madrid, Spain.

Cryptococcus neoformans is a human pathogenic yeast that causes hundreds of thousands of deaths worldwide among susceptible individuals, in particular, HIV+ patients. This yeast has developed several adaptation mechanisms that allow replication within the host. During decades, this yeast has been well known for a very peculiar and unique structure that contributes to virulence, a complex polysaccharide capsule that surrounds the cell wall. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/82_2018_145
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November 2018
14 Reads

Activity-Based Protein Profiling-Enabling Multimodal Functional Studies of Microbial Communities.

Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 2019 ;420:1-21

Chemical Biology and Exposure Sciences Group, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, 99352, USA.

Microorganisms living in community are critical to life on Earth, playing numerous and profound roles in the environment and human and animal health. Though their essentiality to life is clear, the mechanistic underpinnings of community structure, interactions, and functions are largely unexplored and in need of function-dependent technologies to unravel the mysteries. Activity-based protein profiling offers unprecedented molecular-level characterization of functions within microbial communities and provides an avenue to determine how external exposures result in functional alterations to microbiomes. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/82_2018_128
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January 2019
8 Reads

From Genes to Networks: The Regulatory Circuitry Controlling Candida albicans Morphogenesis.

Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 2018 Oct 28. Epub 2018 Oct 28.

Unité Biologie et Pathogénicité Fongiques, Institut Pasteur, INRA, 25 Rue Du Docteur Roux, 75015, Paris, France.

Candida albicans is a commensal yeast of most healthy individuals, but also one of the most prevalent human fungal pathogens. During adaptation to the mammalian host, C. albicans encounters different niches where it is exposed to several types of stress, including oxidative, nitrosative (e. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/82_2018_144
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/82_2018_144DOI Listing
October 2018
10 Reads

Overview and Comparison of Intestinal Organotypic Models, Intestinal Cells, and Intestinal Explants Used for Toxicity Studies.

Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 2018 Sep 28. Epub 2018 Sep 28.

Toxalim (Research Centre in Food Toxicology), Université de Toulouse, INRA, ENVT, INP-Purpan, UPS, Toulouse, France.

The intestine is a complex organ formed of different types of cell distributed in different layers of tissue. To minimize animal experiments, for decades, researchers have been trying to develop in vitro/ex vivo systems able to mimic the cellular diversity naturally found in the gut. Such models not only help our understanding of the gut physiology but also of intestinal toxicity. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/82_2018_142
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/82_2018_142DOI Listing
September 2018
14 Reads

The Clock Keeps on Ticking: Emerging Roles for Circadian Regulation in the Control of Fungal Physiology and Pathogenesis.

Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 2018 Sep 26. Epub 2018 Sep 26.

Millennium Institute for Integrative Biology (iBio), Santiago, Chile.

Tic-tac, tic-tac, the sound of time is familiar to us, yet, it also silently shapes daily biological processes conferring 24-hour rhythms in, among others, cellular and systemic signaling, gene expression, and metabolism. Indeed, circadian clocks are molecular machines that permit temporal control of a variety of processes in individuals, with a close to 24-hour period, optimizing cellular dynamics in synchrony with daily environmental cycles. For over three decades, the molecular bases of these clocks have been extensively described in the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa, yet, there have been few molecular studies in fungi other than Neurospora, despite evidence of rhythmic phenomena in many fungal species, including pathogenic ones. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/82_2018_143DOI Listing
September 2018
3 Reads

Recent Advances in Activity-Based Protein Profiling of Proteases.

Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 2019 ;420:253-281

Laboratory of Chemical Biology, Department of Cellular & Molecular Medicine, KU Leuven-University of Leuven, Herestraat 49, Box 802, 3000, Louvain, Belgium.

The activity of proteases is tightly regulated, and dysregulation is linked to a variety of human diseases. For this reason, ABPP is a well-suited method to study protease biology and the design of protease probes has pushed the boundaries of ABPP. The development of highly selective protease probes is still a challenging task. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/82_2018_138DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

ABPP and Host-Virus Interactions.

Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 2019 ;420:131-154

Department of Chemistry and Biomolecular Sciences, University of Ottawa, 10 Marie Curie Pvt., Ottawa, ON, K1N 6N5, Canada.

Successful viral infection, as well as any resultant antiviral response, relies on numerous sequential interactions between host and viral factors. These interactions can take the form of affinity-based interactions between viral and host macromolecules or active, enzyme-based interactions, consisting both of direct enzyme activity performed by viral enzymes and indirect modulation of the activity of the host cell's enzymes via viral interference. This activity has the potential to transform the local microenvironment to the benefit or detriment of both the virus and the host, favouring either the continuation of the viral life cycle or the host's antiviral response. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/82_2018_139
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/82_2018_139DOI Listing
January 2019
17 Reads

Opportunities for Lipid-Based Probes in the Field of Immunology.

Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 2019 ;420:283-319

Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Lipids perform a wide range of functions inside the cell, ranging from structural building block of membranes and energy storage to cell signaling. The mode of action of many signaling lipids has remained elusive due to their low abundance, high lipophilicity, and inherent instability. Various chemical biology approaches, such as photoaffinity or activity-based protein profiling methods, have been employed to shed light on the biological role of lipids and the lipid-protein interaction profile. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/82_2018_127DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Extracellular Vesicles in Fungi: Composition and Functions.

Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 2018 Sep 22. Epub 2018 Sep 22.

Laboratory of Gene Expression Regulation, Carlos Chagas Institute, FIOCRUZ, Curitiba, PR, Brazil.

The comprehension of fungal biology is important for several reasons. Besides being used in biotechnological processes and in the food industry, fungi are also important animal and vegetal pathogens. Fungal diseases in humans have a great importance worldwide, and understanding fungal biology is crucial for treatment and prevention of these diseases, especially because of emerging antifungal resistance that poses great epidemiological risks. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/82_2018_141DOI Listing
September 2018
2 Reads

Small-Molecule Inhibitors of PARPs: From Tools for Investigating ADP-Ribosylation to Therapeutics.

Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 2019 ;420:211-231

Program in Chemical Biology, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, 97210, USA.

Over the last 60 years, poly-ADP-ribose polymerases (PARPs, 17 family members in humans) have emerged as important regulators of physiology and disease. Small-molecule inhibitors have been essential tools for unraveling PARP function, and recently the first PARP inhibitors have been approved for the treatment of various human cancers. However, inhibitors have only been developed for a few PARPs and in vitro profiling has revealed that many of these exhibit polypharmacology across the PARP family. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/82_2018_137
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January 2019
16 Reads

Correction to: Agrobacterium: A Genome-Editing Tool-Delivery System.

Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 2018 ;418:509

Department of Agronomy, Purdue University, 915 W State Street, West Lafayette, IN, 47907, USA.

By mistake the chapter was published with incorrect author name. The chapter has now been corrected. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/82_2018_136
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/82_2018_136DOI Listing
January 2018
2 Reads

Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli.

Authors:
Claire Jenkins

Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 2018 ;416:27-50

Public Health England, 61 Colindale Avenue, London, NW9 5HT, UK.

Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC, formerly known as "EAggEC") cause acute or persistent watery diarrhoea (with or without mucus) in children, predominantly in low-income countries, and are associated with travellers' diarrhoea in children and adults in middle and high income countries. The diverse nature of EAEC is such that not all strains cause disease. Conversely, certain strains of EAEC possess additional virulence determinants associated with the ability to cause severe diarrhoea and other symptoms, which might be life-threatening in vulnerable patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/82_2018_105DOI Listing
January 2018
1 Read

Activity-Based Protein Profiling Methods to Study Bacteria: The Power of Small-Molecule Electrophiles.

Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 2019 ;420:23-48

Department of Chemistry, University of Minnesota-Twin Cities, Minneapolis, MN, 55455, USA.

ABPP methods have been utilized for the last two decades as a means to investigate complex proteomes in all three domains of life. Extensive use in eukaryotes has provided a more fundamental understanding of the biological processes involved in numerous diseases and has driven drug discovery and treatment campaigns. However, the use of ABPP in prokaryotes has been less common, although it has gained more attention over the last decade. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/82_2018_135DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Human Organotypic Models for Anti-infective Research.

Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 2018 Sep 20. Epub 2018 Sep 20.

GSK, Siena, Italy.

The use of human organotypic models for biomedical research is experiencing a significant increase due to their biological relevance, the possibility to perform high-throughput analyses, and their cost efficiency. In the field of anti-infective research, comprising the search for novel antipathogenic treatments including vaccines, efforts have been made to reduce the use of animal models. That is due to two main reasons: unreliability of data obtained with animal models and the increasing willingness to reduce the use of animals in research for ethical reasons. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/82_2018_130DOI Listing
September 2018
1 Read

Shigella and Enteroinvasive Escherichia Coli.

Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 2018 Sep 15. Epub 2018 Sep 15.

Microbiologie et Maladies Infectieuses, Collège de France, 11 Place Marcelin Berthelot, 75005, Paris, France.

Shigella and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) are gram-negative bacteria responsible for bacillary dysentery (shigellosis) in humans, which is characterized by invasion and inflammatory destruction of the human colonic epithelium. Different EIEC and Shigella subgroups rose independently from commensal E. coli through patho-adaptive evolution that included loss of functional genes interfering with the virulence and/or with the intracellular lifestyle of the bacteria, as well as acquisition of genetic elements harboring virulence genes. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/82_2018_104
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/82_2018_104DOI Listing
September 2018
11 Reads

Activity-Based Protein Profiling at the Host-Pathogen Interface.

Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 2019 ;420:73-91

Microbial Sciences Institute, Yale University, West Haven, CT, 06516, USA.

Activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) is a technique for selectively detecting reactive amino acids in complex proteomes with the aid of chemical probes. Using probes that target catalytically active enzymes, ABPP can rapidly define the functional proteome of a biological system. In recent years, this approach has been increasingly applied to globally profile enzymes active at the host-pathogen interface of microbial infections. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/82_2018_129
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January 2019
11 Reads

The Overlooked Glycan Components of the Cryptococcus Capsule.

Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 2018 Sep 11. Epub 2018 Sep 11.

Instituto Carlos Chagas, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (Fiocruz), Curitiba, Brazil.

Pathogenic species of Cryptococcus kill approximately 200,000 people each year. The most important virulence mechanism of C. neoformans and C. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/82_2018_140
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/82_2018_140DOI Listing
September 2018
8 Reads

Development of Activity-Based Proteomic Probes for Protein Citrullination.

Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 2019 ;420:233-251

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, LRB 826, 364 Plantation Street, Worcester, MA, 01605, USA.

Protein arginine deiminases (PADs) catalyze the post-translational deimination of peptidyl arginine to form peptidyl citrulline. This modification is increased in multiple inflammatory diseases and in certain cancers. PADs regulate a variety of signaling pathways including apoptosis, terminal differentiation, and transcriptional regulation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/82_2018_132DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6348022PMC
January 2019
1 Read

Real-Time Trafficking of Agrobacterium Virulence Protein VirE2 Inside Host Cells.

Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 2018 ;418:261-286

Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore, 117543, Singapore, Singapore.

A. tumefaciens delivers T-DNA and virulence proteins, including VirE2, into host plant cells, where T-DNA is proposed to be protected by VirE2 molecules as a nucleoprotein complex (T-complex) and trafficked into the nucleus. VirE2 is a protein that can self-aggregate and contains targeting sequences so that it can efficiently move from outside of a cell to the nucleus. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/82_2018_131
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/82_2018_131DOI Listing
January 2018
10 Reads
4.097 Impact Factor

Coping with High Temperature: A Unique Regulation in A. tumefaciens.

Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 2018 ;418:185-194

School of Molecular Cell Biology and Biotechnology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, 69978, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Elevation of temperature is a frequent and considerable stress for mesophilic bacteria. Therefore, several molecular mechanisms have evolved to cope with high temperature. We have been studying the response of Agrobacterium tumefaciens to temperature stress, focusing on two aspects: the heat-shock response and the temperature-dependent regulation of methionine biosynthesis. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/82_2018_119
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/82_2018_119DOI Listing
January 2018
7 Reads

Activity-Based Protein Profiling of Non-ribosomal Peptide Synthetases.

Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 2019 ;420:321-349

Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, Sakyo, Kyoto, 606-8501, Japan.

Non-ribosomal peptide (NRP) natural products are one of the most promising resources for drug discovery and development because of their wide-ranging of therapeutic potential, and their behavior as virulence factors and signaling molecules. The NRPs are biosynthesized independently of the ribosome by enzyme assembly lines known as the non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) machinery. Genetic, biochemical, and bioinformatics analyses have provided a detailed understanding of the mechanism of NRPS catalysis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/82_2018_133DOI Listing
January 2019
18 Reads

Modulation of Host Cell Processes by T3SS Effectors.

Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 2018 ;416:73-115

MRC Centre for Molecular Bacteriology and Infection, Imperial College London, Armstrong Road, SW7 2AZ, London, UK.

Two of the enteric Escherichia coli pathotypes-enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) and enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC)-have a conserved type 3 secretion system which is essential for virulence. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/82_2018_106DOI Listing
January 2018
2 Reads

Opportunities and Challenges in Activity-Based Protein Profiling of Mycobacteria.

Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 2019 ;420:49-72

Department of Pharmacological Sciences, Stony Brook University, 11794, Stony Brook, NY, USA.

Mycobacteria, from saprophytic to pathogenic species, encounter diverse environments that demand metabolic versatility and rapid adaptation from these bacteria for their survival. The human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis, for example, can enter a reversible state of dormancy in which it is metabolically active, but does not increase in number, and which is believed to enable its survival in the human host for years, with attendant risk for reactivation to active tuberculosis. Driven by the need to combat mycobacterial diseases like tuberculosis, efforts to understand such adaptations have benefitted in recent years from application of activity-based probes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/82_2018_125DOI Listing
January 2019
11 Reads

How to Target Viral and Bacterial Effector Proteins Interfering with Ubiquitin Signaling.

Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 2019 ;420:111-130

Department of Cell and Chemical Biology, Chemical Immunology, Oncode Institute, Leiden University Medical Centre, 2333 ZC, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Ubiquitination is a frequently occurring and very diverse posttranslational modification influencing a wide scope of cellular processes. Ubiquitin (Ub) has the unique ability to form eight different lysine-linked polymeric chains, mixed chains and engages with ubiquitin-like (Ubl) molecules. The distinct signals evoked by specific enzymes play a crucial role in, for instance, proteasome-mediated protein degradation, cell cycle regulation, and DNA damage responses. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/82_2018_134
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January 2019
14 Reads

Transcriptome Sequencing Approaches to Elucidate Host-Microbe Interactions in Opportunistic Human Fungal Pathogens.

Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 2018 Aug 21. Epub 2018 Aug 21.

Centre for Genomic Regulation, The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology, Barcelona, Spain.

Infections caused by opportunistic human fungal pathogens are a source of increasing medical concern, due to their growing incidence, the emergence of novel pathogenic species, and the lack of effective diagnostics tools. Fungal pathogens are phylogenetically diverse, and their virulence mechanisms can differ widely across species. Despite extensive efforts, the molecular bases of virulence in pathogenic fungi and their interactions with the human host remain poorly understood for most species. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/82_2018_122DOI Listing
August 2018
12 Reads

Deciphering T Cell Immunometabolism with Activity-Based Protein Profiling.

Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 2019 ;420:175-210

Department of Chemistry, University of Virginia, McCormick Road, P.O. Box 400319, Charlottesville, VA, 22904, USA.

As a major sentinel of adaptive immunity, T cells seek and destroy diseased cells using antigen recognition to achieve molecular specificity. Strategies to block checkpoint inhibition of T cell activity and thus reawaken the patient's antitumor immune responses are rapidly becoming standard of care for treatment of diverse cancers. Adoptive transfer of patient T cells genetically engineered with tumor-targeting capabilities is redefining the field of personalized medicines. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/82_2018_124DOI Listing
January 2019
5 Reads

Chemical Proteomic Profiling of Protein Fatty-Acylation in Microbial Pathogens.

Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 2019 ;420:93-110

Laboratory of Chemical Biology and Microbial Pathogenesis, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY, 10065, USA.

Protein fatty-acylation describes the covalent modification of protein with fatty acids during or after translation. Chemical proteomic profiling methods have provided new opportunities to explore protein fatty-acylation in microbial pathogens. Recent studies suggest that protein fatty-acylation is essential to survival and pathogenesis of eukaryotic pathogens such as parasites and fungi. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/82_2018_126DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Activity-Based Protein Profiling for the Study of Parasite Biology.

Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 2019 ;420:155-174

Life Sciences, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, South Kensington, London, SW7 2AZ, UK.

Parasites exist within most ecological niches, often transitioning through biologically and chemically complex host environments over the course of their parasitic life cycles. While the development of technologies for genetic engineering has revolutionised the field of functional genomics, parasites have historically been less amenable to such modification. In light of this, parasitologists have often been at the forefront of adopting new small-molecule technologies, repurposing drugs into biological tools and probes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/82_2018_123DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Target Identification of Bioactive Covalently Acting Natural Products.

Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 2019 ;420:351-374

Department of Chemistry, University of California, 94720, Berkeley, CA, USA.

There are countless natural products that have been isolated from microbes, plants, and other living organisms that have been shown to possess therapeutic activities such as antimicrobial, anticancer, or anti-inflammatory effects. However, developing these bioactive natural products into drugs has remained challenging in part because of their difficulty in isolation, synthesis, mechanistic understanding, and off-target effects. Among the large pool of bioactive natural products lies classes of compounds that contain potential reactive electrophilic centers that can covalently react with nucleophilic amino acid hotspots on proteins and other biological molecules to modulate their biological action. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/82_2018_121DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Residual Immune Activation and Latency.

Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 2018 ;417:157-180

Laboratory of Immunoregulation, National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.

The introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in the 1990s has dramatically changed the course of HIV infection, decreasing the risk for both AIDS- and non-AIDS-related events. Cancers, cardiovascular disease (CVD), liver and kidney disease, neurological disorders and frailty have become of great importance lately in the clinical management as they represent the principal cause of death in people living with HIV who receive cART (Kirk et al. in Clin Infect Dis 45(1):103-10, 2007; Strategies for Management of Antiretroviral Therapy Study et al. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/82_2018_118DOI Listing
January 2018
2 Reads

Applications of Reactive Cysteine Profiling.

Authors:
Keriann M Backus

Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 2019 ;420:375-417

Department of Biological Chemistry, University of California, Los Angeles, 615 Charles E. Young Dr South, BSRB, Room 350A, Los Angeles, CA, 90095, USA.

Cysteine thiols are involved in a diverse set of biological transformations, including nucleophilic and redox catalysis, metal coordination and formation of both dynamic and structural disulfides. Often posttranslationally modified, cysteines are also frequently alkylated by electrophilic compounds, including electrophilic metabolites, drugs, and natural products, and are attractive sites for covalent probe and drug development. Quantitative proteomics combined with activity-based protein profiling has been applied to annotate cysteine reactivity, susceptibility to posttranslational modifications, and accessibility to chemical probes, uncovering thousands of functional and small-molecule targetable cysteines across a diverse set of proteins, proteome-wide in an unbiased manner. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/82_2018_120DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Current Trends in Antimicrobial Resistance of Escherichia coli.

Authors:
Yossi Paitan

Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 2018 ;416:181-211

Clinical Microbiology Laboratory, Meir Medical Center, 44282, Kfar Saba, Israel.

Escherichia coli is the most common Gram-negative bacterial pathogen, presenting both a clinical and an epidemiological challenge. In the last decade, several successful multidrug-resistant high-risk strains, such as strain E. coli ST131 have evolved, mainly due to the growing selective pressure of antimicrobial use. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/82_2018_110
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/82_2018_110DOI Listing
January 2018
5 Reads

The Type III Secretion System of Pathogenic Escherichia coli.

Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 2018 ;416:51-72

Department of Life Sciences, MRC Centre for Molecular Bacteriology and Infection, Imperial College London, London, UK.

Infection with enteropathogenic and enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EPEC and EHEC), enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) and Shigella relies on the elaboration of a type III secretion system (T3SS). Few strains also encode a second T3SS, named ETT2. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/82_2018_116DOI Listing
January 2018
1 Read

Fungi as Part of the Microbiota and Interactions with Intestinal Bacteria.

Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 2018 Jul 31. Epub 2018 Jul 31.

Research Group Microbial Immunology, Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology, Hans Knöll Institute, Jena, Germany.

The human microbiota consists of bacteria, archaea, viruses, and fungi that build a highly complex network of interactions between each other and the host. While there are many examples for commensal bacterial influence on host health and immune modulation, little is known about the role of commensal fungi inside the gut community. Up until now, fungal research was concentrating on opportunistic diseases caused by fungal species, leaving the possible role of fungi as part of the microbiota largely unclear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/82_2018_117DOI Listing
July 2018
16 Reads

Vaccines Against Escherichia coli.

Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 2018 ;416:213-242

GSK, Siena, Italy.

Escherichia coli has a complex and versatile nature and continuously evolves from non-virulent isolates to highly pathogenic strains causing severe diseases and outbreaks. Broadly protective vaccines against pathogenic E. coli are not available and the rising in both, multi-drug resistant and hypervirulent isolates, raise concern for healthcare and require continuous efforts in epidemiologic surveillance and disease monitoring. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/82_2018_111DOI Listing
January 2018
11 Reads

Transcriptome Profiling of Plant Genes in Response to Agrobacterium tumefaciens-Mediated Transformation.

Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 2018 ;418:319-348

Division of Plant Sciences, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA.

Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a plant pathogen that causes crown gall disease. During infection of the host plant, Agrobacterium transfers T-DNA from its Ti plasmid into the host cell, which can then be integrated into the host genome. This unique genetic transformation capability has been employed as the dominant technology for producing genetically modified plants for both basic research and biotechnological applications. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/82_2018_115DOI Listing
January 2018
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The 2011 German Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia Coli O104:H4 Outbreak-The Danger Is Still Out There.

Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 2018 ;416:117-148

Institute of Hygiene, University of Münster, Münster, Germany.

Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) are Shiga toxin (Stx) producing bacteria causing a disease characterized by bloody (or non-bloody) diarrhea, which might progress to hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). EHEC O104:H4 caused the largest ever recorded EHEC outbreak in Germany in 2011, which in addition showed the so far highest incidence rate of EHEC-related HUS worldwide. The aggressive outbreak strain carries an unusual combination of virulence traits characteristic to both EHEC-a chromosomally integrated Stx-encoding bacteriophage, and enteroaggregative Escherichia coli-pAA plasmid-encoded aggregative adherence fimbriae mediating its tight adhesion to epithelia cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/82_2018_107DOI Listing
January 2018
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Targeting Glycans on Human Pathogens for Vaccine Design.

Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 2018 Jul 26. Epub 2018 Jul 26.

Department of Infectious Diseases, King's College London, 2nd Floor, Borough Wing, Guy's Hospital, London Bridge, London, SE1 9RT, UK.

Glycosylation is an important post-translational modification that is required for structural and stability purposes and functional roles such as signalling, attachment and shielding. Many human pathogens such as bacteria display an array of carbohydrates on their surface that are non-self to the host; others such as viruses highjack the host-cell machinery and present self-carbohydrates sometimes arranged in a non-self more immunogenic manner. In combination with carrier proteins, these glycan structures can be highly immunogenic. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/82_2018_103
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/82_2018_103DOI Listing
July 2018
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Successful Vaccines.

Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 2018 Jul 26. Epub 2018 Jul 26.

Oregon National Primate Research Center, Oregon Health & Science University, Beaverton, OR, 97006, USA.

Vaccines are considered one of the most important advances in modern medicine and have greatly improved our quality of life by reducing or eliminating many serious infectious diseases. Successful vaccines have been developed against many of the most common human pathogens, and this success has not been dependent upon any one specific class of vaccine since subunit vaccines, non-replicating whole-virus or whole-bacteria vaccines, and attenuated live vaccines have all been effective for particular vaccine targets. After completing the initial immunization series, one common aspect of successful vaccines is that they induce long-term protective immunity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/82_2018_102DOI Listing
July 2018
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Pandemic Bacteremic Escherichia Coli Strains: Evolution and Emergence of Drug-Resistant Pathogens.

Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 2018 ;416:163-180

Department of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, 69978, Tel Aviv, Israel.

In recent years, there have been several pandemics of E. coli strains which are highly virulent and antibiotics resistant. Here, we discuss one recent pandemic strain, ST131. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/82_2018_109DOI Listing
January 2018
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Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia coli.

Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 2018 ;416:149-161

Department of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, 39978, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) present a major clinical problem that has emerged in the past years. Most of the infections are hospital or community-acquired and involve patients with a compromised immune system. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/82_2018_108DOI Listing
January 2018
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Agrobacterium: A Genome-Editing Tool-Delivery System.

Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 2018 ;418:463-488

Department of Agronomy, Purdue University, 915 W State Street, West Lafayette, IN, 47907, USA.

With the rapidly increasing global population, it will be extremely challenging to provide food to the world without increasing food production by at least 70% over the next 30 years. As we reach the limits of expanding arable land, the responsibility of meeting this production goal will rely on increasing yields. Traditional plant breeding practices will not be able to realistically meet these expectations, thrusting plant biotechnology into the limelight to fulfill these needs. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/82_2018_101
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/82_2018_101DOI Listing
January 2018
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Adjuvants.

Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 2018 Jul 25. Epub 2018 Jul 25.

Adjuvant Technologies, IDRI, 1616 Eastlake Avenue E., Suite 400, Seattle, WA, 98102, USA.

Developing new vaccines against emerging pathogens or pathogens where variability of antigenic sites presents a challenge, the inclusion of stimulators of the innate immune system is critical to mature the immune response in a way that allows high avidity recognition while preserving the ability to react to drifted serovars. The innate immune system is an ancient mechanism for recognition of nonself and the first line of defense against pathogen insult. By triggering innate receptors, adjuvants can boost responses to vaccines and enhance the quality and magnitude of the resulting immune response. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/82_2018_112DOI Listing
July 2018
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Host Genetic Signatures of Susceptibility to Fungal Disease.

Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 2018 Jul 25. Epub 2018 Jul 25.

Life and Health Sciences Research Institute (ICVS), School of Medicine, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057, Braga, Portugal.

Our relative inability to predict the development of fungal disease and its clinical outcome raises fundamental questions about its actual pathogenesis. Several clinical risk factors are described to predispose to fungal disease, particularly in immunocompromised and severely ill patients. However, these alone do not entirely explain why, under comparable clinical conditions, only some patients develop infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/82_2018_113DOI Listing
July 2018
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Histoplasma Capsulatum: Mechanisms for Pathogenesis.

Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 2018 Jul 25. Epub 2018 Jul 25.

Department of Medicine (Infectious Diseases), Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA.

Histoplasmosis, caused by the dimorphic environmental fungus Histoplasma capsulatum, is a major mycosis on the global stage. Acquisition of the fungus by mammalian hosts can be clinically silent or it can lead to life-threatening systemic disease, which can occur in immunologically intact or deficient hosts, albeit severe disease is more likely in the setting of compromised cellular immunity. H. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/82_2018_114DOI Listing
July 2018
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Function and Regulation of Agrobacterium tumefaciens Cell Surface Structures that Promote Attachment.

Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 2018 Jul 12. Epub 2018 Jul 12.

Department of Biology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, 47405, USA.

Agrobacterium tumefaciens attaches stably to plant host tissues and abiotic surfaces. During pathogenesis, physical attachment to the site of infection is a prerequisite to infection and horizontal gene transfer to the plant. Virulent and avirulent strains may also attach to plant tissue in more benign plant associations, and as with other soil microbes, to soil surfaces in the terrestrial environment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/82_2018_96DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6330146PMC
July 2018
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The Agrobacterium Type VI Secretion System: A Contractile Nanomachine for Interbacterial Competition.

Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 2018 Jul 11. Epub 2018 Jul 11.

Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, USA.

The bacterial type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a contractile nanomachine dedicated to delivering molecules out of bacterial cells. T6SS-encoding loci are in the genome sequences of many Gram-negative bacteria, and T6SS has been implicated in a plethora of roles. In the majority of cases, the T6SSs deliver effector proteins in a contact-dependent manner to antagonize other bacteria. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/82_2018_99DOI Listing
July 2018
18 Reads