639 results match your criteria Current Osteoporosis Reports [Journal]


In Vivo Osteocyte Mechanotransduction: Recent Developments and Future Directions.

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2018 Dec;16(6):746-753

Department of Anatomy & Tissue Engineering Research Group, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, 123 St Stephens Green, Dublin 2, Ireland.

Purpose Of Review: Mechanical loading is an essential stimulus for skeletal tissues. Osteocytes are primarily responsible for sensing mechanical stimuli in bone and for orchestrating subsequent responses. This is critical for maintaining homeostasis, and responding to injury/disease. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11914-018-0485-1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-018-0485-1DOI Listing
December 2018
5 Reads

Fibula: The Forgotten Bone-May It Provide Some Insight On a Wider Scope for Bone Mechanostat Control?

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2018 Dec;16(6):775-778

Center of P-Ca Metabolism Studies (CEMFoC) National University of Rosario and Arg NRC (CONICET), Rosario, Argentina.

The human fibula responds to its mechanical environment differently from the tibia accordingly with foot usage. Fibula structure is unaffected by disuse, and is stronger concerning lateral bending in soccer players (who evert and rotate the foot) and weaker in long-distance runners (who jump while running) with respect to untrained controls, along the insertion region of peroneus muscles. These features, strikingly associated to the abilities of the fibulae of predator and prey quadrupeds to manage uneven surfaces and to store elastic energy to jump, respectively, suggest that bone mechanostat would control bone properties with high selective connotations beyond structural strength. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11914-018-0497-x
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-018-0497-xDOI Listing
December 2018
4 Reads

Mineral and Bone Disease in Kidney Transplant Recipients.

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2018 Dec;16(6):703-711

Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, NorthShore University HealthSystem, University of Chicago Medical School, 2650 Ridge Avenue, Evanston, IL, 60201, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Despite metabolic improvements following kidney transplantation, transplant recipients still often suffer from complex mineral and bone disease after transplantation.

Recent Findings: The pathophysiology of post-transplant disease is unique, secondary to underlying pre-transplant mineral and bone disease, immunosuppression, and changing kidney function. Changes in modern immunosuppression regimens continue to alter the clinical picture. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-018-0490-4DOI Listing
December 2018
10 Reads

Medication Decision-making in Osteoporosis: Can We Explain Why Patients Do Not Take Their Osteoporosis Medications?

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2018 Dec;16(6):772-774

Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA.

Patients at high risk of fracture often do not take medication for osteoporosis. Recent literature may give us some insights into why patients at high risk of fracture do not take medications for osteoporosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-018-0494-0DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Mechanisms Underlying Bone and Joint Pain.

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2018 Dec;16(6):763-771

Center for Excellence in the Neurosciences, University of New England, Biddeford, ME, 04043, USA.

Purpose Of Review: The goal of this review is to provide a broad overview of the current understanding of mechanisms underlying bone and joint pain.

Recent Findings: Bone or joint pathology is generally accompanied by local release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, growth factors, and neurotransmitters that activate and sensitize sensory nerves resulting in an amplified pain signal. Modulation of the pain signal within the spinal cord and brain that result in net increased facilitation is proposed to contribute to the development of chronic pain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-018-0493-1DOI Listing
December 2018

Importance of Recent Fracture as Predictor of Imminent Fracture Risk.

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2018 Dec;16(6):738-745

Division of Clinical Immunology and Rheumatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 510 20th Street South, Faculty Office Tower 820D, Birmingham, AL, 35294, USA.

Purpose Of Review: To examine the importance of recent fracture as a predictor of imminent fracture risk, review the importance of prior fracture type and timing, and identify risk factors for recurrent osteoporotic fracture.

Recent Findings: Prior fracture type and timing impact risk of subsequent fracture that is largely independent of bone mineral density. Site of re-fracture is similar to original major osteoporotic fracture. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11914-018-0487-z
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-018-0487-zDOI Listing
December 2018
4 Reads

Updates in CKD-Associated Osteoporosis.

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2018 Dec;16(6):712-723

Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Columbia University Medical Center, 622 West 168th Street, PH2-124, New York City, NY, 10032, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with bone loss and fractures. The purpose of this review is to provide clinicians with an overview of the underlying pathogenesis of CKD-associated osteoporosis, and a summary of the current diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to this disease.

Recent Findings: In 2017, the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes Committee on Bone Quality updated their guidelines to include screening for osteoporosis and fracture risk by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in patients with CKD. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11914-018-0491-3
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-018-0491-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6264896PMC
December 2018
2 Reads

Non-renal-Related Mechanisms of FGF23 Pathophysiology.

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2018 Dec;16(6):724-729

UCLA Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Nephrology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, MDCC A2-383, Los Angeles, CA, 90095-1752, USA.

Purpose Of Review: We will review non-renal-related mechanisms of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) pathophysiology.

Recent Findings: FGF23 production and metabolism may be affected by many bone, mineral, and kidney factors. However, it has recently been demonstrated that other factors, such as iron status, erythropoietin, and inflammation, also affect FGF23 production and metabolism. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-018-0492-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6234055PMC
December 2018
2 Reads

Celiac Disease-Musculoskeletal Manifestations and Mechanisms in Children to Adults.

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2018 Dec;16(6):754-762

Celiac Disease Center, Columbia University Medical Center, 180 Fort Washington Ave, New York, NY, 10032, USA.

Purpose Of Review: We aim to review the current literature on the association of musculoskeletal disorders and celiac disease that is a common disorder, affecting about 1% of the population. Extra-intestinal symptoms and presentations predominate.

Recent Findings: While the literature supports an association with reduced bone mineral density and increased fracture risk and celiac disease, there is little evidence supporting associations with other rheumatological conditions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-018-0488-yDOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Crosstalk Between Sensory Nerves and Cancer in Bone.

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2018 Dec;16(6):648-656

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1 Shikatacho, Kita-ku, Okayama, Okayama, 700-8525, Japan.

Purpose Of Review: Sensory nerves (SNs) richly innervate bone and are a component of bone microenvironment. Cancer metastasis in bone, which is under the control of the crosstalk with bone microenvironment, induces bone pain via excitation of SNs innervating bone. However, little is known whether excited SNs in turn affect bone metastasis. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11914-018-0489-x
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-018-0489-xDOI Listing
December 2018
6 Reads

Gonadal Hormones in the Pathogenesis and Treatment of Bone Health in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2018 Dec;16(6):674-692

Department of Endocrinology, Monash Health, 246 Clayton Rd. Clayton, Melbourne, Victoria, 3168, Australia.

Purpose Of Review: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have a greatly increased fracture risk compared with the general population. Gonadal hormones have an important influence on bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture risk, and hormone therapies can significantly improve these outcomes. Gonadal dysfunction is a frequent finding in patients with CKD; yet, little is known about the impact of gonadal hormones in the pathogenesis and treatment of bone health in patients with CKD. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11914-018-0483-3
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-018-0483-3DOI Listing
December 2018
10 Reads

CKD-MBD: from the Pathogenesis to the Identification and Development of Potential Novel Therapeutic Targets.

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2018 Dec;16(6):693-702

Universidade Nove de Julho, UNINOVE, Rua Iperoig, 690 ap 121, São Paulo, SP, 05016-000, Brazil.

Purpose Of Review: Although we have seen tremendous advances in the comprehension of CKD-MBD pathophysiology during the last few years, this was not accompanied by a significant change in mortality rate and quality of life. This review will address the traditional and updated pathophysiology of CKD-MBD along with the therapeutic limitations that affect CKD-MBD and proposed alternative treatment targets.

Recent Findings: An innovative concept brings the osteocyte to the center of CKD-MBD pathophysiology, in contrast to the traditional view of the skeleton as a target organ for disturbances in calcium, phosphate, parathyroid hormone, and vitamin D. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-018-0486-0DOI Listing
December 2018

PET-MRI for the Study of Metabolic Bone Disease.

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2018 Dec;16(6):665-673

Department of Radiology, Stanford University, 1201 Welch Rd, Stanford, CA, 94305, USA.

Purpose Of Review: This review article attempts to summarize the current state and applications of the hybrid imaging modality of PET-MRI to metabolic bone diseases. The advances of PET and MRI are also discussed for metabolic bone diseases as potentially applied via PET-MRI.

Recent Findings: Etiologies and mechanisms of metabolic bone disease can be complex where molecular changes precede structural changes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-018-0482-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6234052PMC
December 2018
1 Read

Recent Progress in Sarcopenia Research: a Focus on Operationalizing a Definition of Sarcopenia.

Authors:
Peggy M Cawthon

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2018 Dec;16(6):730-737

San Francisco Coordinating Center, 550 16th Street, 2nd Floor, Box #0560, San Francisco, CA, 94143, USA.

Purpose Of Review: To discuss recent progress in sarcopenia research and to highlight controversies in the field particularly around reaching consensus on a definition of sarcopenia.

Recent Findings: Accordingly, this review begins with a discussion of the increasing awareness of this condition; briefly describes evolving definitions of sarcopenia; suggests a framework for consistent terminology for sarcopenia; discusses outstanding issues in the definition of sarcopenia; and reviews the association between sarcopenia and adverse outcome in older adults. In addition, the role of sarcopenia in other diseases is discussed. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11914-018-0484-2
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-018-0484-2DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

Micro-Finite Element Analysis of the Proximal Femur on the Basis of High-Resolution Magnetic Resonance Images.

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2018 Dec;16(6):657-664

Department of Radiology, New York University, 426 1st Avenue, New York, NY, 10010, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Hip fractures have catastrophic consequences. The purpose of this article is to review recent developments in high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided finite element analysis (FEA) of the hip as a means to determine subject-specific bone strength.

Recent Findings: Despite the ability of DXA to predict hip fracture, the majority of fractures occur in patients who do not have BMD T scores less than - 2. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11914-018-0481-5
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-018-0481-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6234089PMC
December 2018
2 Reads

Contributions of the Bone Microenvironment to Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance Pathogenesis.

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2018 Dec;16(6):635-641

Nuffield Department of Surgical Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Purpose Of Review: MGUS (monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance) is a plasma cell disorder characterized by a moderate increase in serum monoclonal protein (≤ 3 g/dL), an increase in bone marrow plasma cell infiltration (≤ 10%) and the absence of any end-organ damage. Although MGUS is considered a benign condition, evidence for clinical consequences is increasing. In this review, we examine the most recent evidence regarding MGUS manifestations and risks and present an overview of MGUS population studies as related to bone disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-018-0479-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6244894PMC
December 2018
2 Reads

Targeting the Muscle-Bone Unit: Filling Two Needs with One Deed in the Treatment of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2018 Oct;16(5):541-553

Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Québec, Centre de Recherche du Centre Hospitalier de l'Université Laval (CHUQ-CHUL), Axe Neurosciences, Université Laval, Quebec City, QC, G1V 4G2, Canada.

Purpose Of Review: In Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), the progressive skeletal and cardiac muscle dysfunction and degeneration is accompanied by low bone mineral density and bone fragility. Glucocorticoids, which remain the standard of care for patients with DMD, increase the risk of developing osteoporosis. The scope of this review emphasizes the mutual cohesion and common signaling pathways between bone and skeletal muscle in DMD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-018-0468-2DOI Listing
October 2018

Osteoblastic Factors in Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis.

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2018 Dec;16(6):642-647

Department of Translational Molecular Pathology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd., Houston, TX, 77030, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Prostate cancer bone metastasis is the lethal progression of the disease. The disease frequently presents with osteoblastic lesions in bone. The tumor-induced bone can cause complications that significantly hamper the quality of life of patients. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11914-018-0480-6
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-018-0480-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6234057PMC
December 2018
5 Reads

Carbon Nanomaterials for Treating Osteoporotic Vertebral Fractures.

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2018 Oct;16(5):626-634

Instituto de Ciência e Tecnologia, Universidade Brasil, Rua Carolina da Fonseca, 584, Bairro Itaquera, São Paulo, 08230-030, Brazil.

Purpose Of Review: To identify the use of carbon nanomaterials in bone regeneration and present new data on the regenerative capacity of bone tissue in osteopenic rats treated with graphene nanoribbons (GNRs).

Recent Findings: The results show that the physical and chemical properties of the nanomaterials are suitable for the fabrication of scaffolds intended for bone regeneration. The in vitro tests suggested a non-toxicity of the GNRs as well as improved biocompatibility and bone mineralization activity. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11914-018-0476-2
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-018-0476-2DOI Listing
October 2018
5 Reads

Using Mendelian Randomization to Decipher Mechanisms of Bone Disease.

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2018 Oct;16(5):531-540

Departments of Internal Medicine and Epidemiology, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Purpose Of Review: This review summarizes the basic principles of Mendelian randomization (MR) and provides evidence for the causal effect of multiple modifiable factors on bone outcomes.

Recent Findings: Several studies using MR approach have provided support for the causal effect of obesity on bone mineral density (BMD). Strikingly, studies have failed to prove a causal association between elevated 25(OH) D concentrations and higher BMD in community-dwelling individuals. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11914-018-0467-3
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-018-0467-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6153565PMC
October 2018
3 Reads

The Influence of Cortical Porosity on the Strength of Bone During Growth and Advancing Age.

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2018 Oct;16(5):561-572

Department of Medicine, The University of Melbourne, Austin Health, Melbourne, Australia.

Purpose Of Review: Bone densitometry provides a two-dimensional projected areal apparent bone mineral density that fails to capture the heterogeneity of bone's material composition and macro-, micro-, and nano-structures critical to its material and structural strength. Assessment of the structural basis of bone fragility has focused largely on trabecular bone based on the common occurrence of fragility fractures at sites with substantial amounts of trabecular bone. This review focuses on the contribution of cortical bone to bone fragility throughout life. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-018-0478-0DOI Listing
October 2018

Mechanisms of Osteoarthritis (OA) Pain.

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2018 Oct;16(5):611-616

Arthritis Research UK Centre for Epidemiology, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, The University of Manchester, The Stopford Building, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PT, UK.

Purpose Of Review: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a major cause of pain and disability worldwide. There is, however, a relatively poor correlation between the severity of OA based on plain radiograph changes and symptoms. In this review, we consider the mechanisms of pain in OA. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-018-0477-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6153568PMC
October 2018
15 Reads

Current Understanding of the Pathophysiology of Osteonecrosis of the Jaw.

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2018 Oct;16(5):584-595

Department of Periodontics and Oral Medicine, School of Dentistry, University of Michigan, 1011 North University Ave, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) is a rare and severe necrotic bone disease reflecting a compromise in the body's osseous healing mechanisms and unique to the craniofacial region. Antiresorptive and antiangiogenic medications have been suggested to be associated with the occurrence of ONJ; yet, the pathophysiology of this disease has not been fully elucidated. This article raises the current theories underlying the pathophysiology of ONJ. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-018-0474-4DOI Listing
October 2018
1 Read

Cortical Bone Mapping: Measurement and Statistical Analysis of Localised Skeletal Changes.

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2018 Oct;16(5):617-625

Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 1PZ, UK.

Purpose Of Review: Cortical bone mapping (CBM) is a technique for measuring localised skeletal changes from computed tomography (CT) images. It can provide measurements with accuracy surpassing the underlying imaging resolution. CBM can detect changes in several properties of the cortex, with no prior assumptions about the likely location of said changes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-018-0475-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6153562PMC
October 2018
3 Reads

Mechanisms for Joint Pain in Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA): from Cytokines to Central Sensitization.

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2018 Oct;16(5):603-610

Division of Rheumatology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, 60611, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Pain in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) may be due to different etiologies, ranging from peripheral inflammation to dysregulation of central nervous system (CNS) processing. This review evaluates relevant literature published on RA pain mechanisms in recent years.

Recent Findings: Despite successes of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), pain persists for many RA patients. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11914-018-0473-5
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-018-0473-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6157001PMC
October 2018
21 Reads

Interactions Between Disseminated Tumor Cells and Bone Marrow Stromal Cells Regulate Tumor Dormancy.

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2018 Oct;16(5):596-602

Department of Cancer Biology and Comprehensive Cancer Center, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Medical Center Blvd, Winston-Salem, NC, 27157-1082, USA.

Purpose Of Review: To succinctly summarize recent findings concerning dormancy regulating interactions between bone marrow stromal cells and disseminated tumor cells.

Recent Findings: Recent studies have highlighted roles of the bone marrow microenviroment, including osteoblasts, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and endothelial cells, in inducing or maintaining cancer cell dormancy. Key pathways of interest include: osteoblast-induced transforming growth factor (TGF)-β2 signaling, transfer of MSC-derived exosomes containing dormancy inducing microRNA, cancer cell cannibalism of MSCs, and endothelial cell secretion of thrombospondin 1 (TSP1). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-018-0471-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6156930PMC
October 2018

The Effects of Homocysteine on the Skeleton.

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2018 Oct;16(5):554-560

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Jikei University School of Medicine, 3-25-8 Nishi-Shinbashi, Minato-ku, Tokyo, 105-8461, Japan.

Purpose Of Review: Homocystinuria is a congenital metabolic disorder in which cystathionine β-synthase deficiency results in a prominent increase in homocysteine (serum levels > 100 μM), causing mental retardation, atherosclerotic cerebral infarction, and osteoporosis accompanied by fragility fractures. Encountering a case with excessive homocysteinemia such as that seen in hereditary homocystinuria is unlikely during usual medical examinations. However, in individuals who have vitamin B or folate deficiency, serum homocysteine concentrations are known to increase. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-018-0469-1DOI Listing
October 2018
13 Reads

Vertebral Fracture Identification as Part of a Comprehensive Risk Assessment in Patients with Osteoporosis.

Authors:
John T Schousboe

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2018 Oct;16(5):573-583

Park Nicollet Osteoporosis Center, HealthPartners Inc., Bloomington, MN, USA.

Purpose Of Review: To review current evidence regarding the vertebral fracture prevalence, the accuracy of vertebral fracture identification on current imaging technologies, and the potential impact of vertebral fracture identification on fracture risk.

Recent Findings: Important new studies have clarified the features of prevalent vertebral fracture that most strongly predict incident fractures. Age- and sex-stratified estimates of vertebral fracture prevalence on densitometric lateral spine images in the US population are now available. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-018-0472-6DOI Listing
October 2018
2 Reads

Extra-Alveolar Bone Screws for Conservative Correction of Severe Malocclusion Without Extractions or Orthognathic Surgery.

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2018 Aug;16(4):387-394

Beethoven Orthodontic Center, No. 6, Ln.59, Jiangong 1st Rd., East Dist, Hsinchu City, 300, Taiwan.

Purpose Of Review: Evaluate management of challenging malocclusions conservatively (no extractions or orthognathic surgery).

Recent Findings: Most malocclusions have a predominately environmental etiology. Optimal esthetics and function are restored by aligning the dentition over the apical base of bone at the appropriate vertical dimension of occlusion (VDO). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-018-0465-5DOI Listing
August 2018
39 Reads

Origin of Reparative Stem Cells in Fracture Healing.

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2018 Aug;16(4):490-503

Orthopaedic Trauma Institute, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), San Francisco, CA, USA.

Purpose Of Review: The identity and functional roles of stem cell population(s) that contribute to fracture repair remains unclear. This review provides a brief history of mesenchymal stem cell (MSCs) and provides an updated view of the many stem/progenitor cell populations contributing to fracture repair.

Recent Findings: Functional studies show MSCs are not the multipotential stem cell population that form cartilage and bone during fracture repair. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-018-0458-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6041151PMC
August 2018
4 Reads

Current Understanding of Epidemiology, Pathophysiology, and Management of Atypical Femur Fractures.

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2018 Aug;16(4):519-529

Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, 180 Fort Washington Avenue, Room 9-910, New York, NY, 10032, USA.

Purpose Of Review: To summarize reports published since the 2013 American Society of Bone and Mineral Research Task Force Report on atypical femoral fractures (AFF).

Recent Findings: The absolute incidence of AFFs remains low. AFFs are primarily associated with prolonged bisphosphonate (BP) exposure, but have also been reported in unexposed patients and those receiving denosumab for osteoporosis and metastatic bone disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-018-0464-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6061199PMC
August 2018
7 Reads

Part I: Development and Physiology of the Temporomandibular Joint.

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2018 Aug;16(4):360-368

School of Dentistry, Department of Orthodontics & Orofacial Genetics, Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI), Indianapolis, IN, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Investigate the developmental physiology of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), a unique articulation between the cranium and the mandible.

Recent Findings: Principal regulatory factors for TMJ and disc development are Indian hedgehog (IHH) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP-2). The mechanism is closely associated with ear morphogenesis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-018-0447-7DOI Listing
August 2018
8 Reads

New Insights in Understanding and Treating Bone Fracture Pain.

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2018 Aug;16(4):325-332

Department of Pharmacology, University of Arizona, 1501 N. Campbell Ave., PO Box 245050, Tucson, AZ, 85724, USA.

Purpose Of Review: This paper describes recent advances in understanding the mechanisms that drive fracture pain and how these findings are helping develop new therapies to treat fracture pain.

Recent Findings: Immediately following fracture, mechanosensitive nerve fibers that innervate bone are mechanically distorted. This results in these nerve fibers rapidly discharging and signaling the initial sharp fracture pain to the brain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-018-0446-8DOI Listing
August 2018
3 Reads

Part II: Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ)-Regeneration, Degeneration, and Adaptation.

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2018 Aug;16(4):369-379

School of Science, Department of Biology, Indiana University-Purdue University (IUPUI), Indianapolis, IN, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Elucidate temporomandibular joint (TMJ) development and pathophysiology relative to regeneration, degeneration, and adaption.

Recent Findings: The pharyngeal arch produces a highly conserved stomatognathic system that supports airway and masticatory function. An induced subperiosteal layer of fibrocartilage cushions TMJ functional and parafunctional loads. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-018-0462-8DOI Listing
August 2018
4 Reads

The Impact of Exercise in Rodent Models of Chronic Pain.

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2018 Jun 23. Epub 2018 Jun 23.

Pain and Integrative Neuroscience Laboratory, National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, National Institutes of Health, Room 1E-420, 35A Convent Drive, Bethesda, MD, 20892, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Physical activity is increasingly recommended for chronic pain. In this review, we briefly survey recent, high-quality meta-analyses on the effects of exercise in human chronic pain populations, followed by a critical discussion of the rodent literature.

Recent Findings: Most meta-analytical studies on the effects of exercise in human chronic pain populations describe moderate improvements in various types of chronic pain, despite substantial variability in the outcomes reported in the primary literature. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-018-0461-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6061206PMC
June 2018
1 Read

Correction to: Are CT-Based Finite Element Model Predictions of Femoral Bone Strength Clinically Useful?

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2018 Jun 22. Epub 2018 Jun 22.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.

The original version "Are CT-Based Finite Element Model Predictions of Femoral Bone Strengthening Clinically Useful?" Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-018-0466-4DOI Listing
June 2018
4 Reads

Mouse Cre Models for the Study of Bone Diseases.

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2018 Jun 22. Epub 2018 Jun 22.

Department of Oral and Craniofacial Sciences, School of Dentistry, University of Missouri, 650 E. 25th Street, Kansas, MO, 64108, USA.

Purpose: Transgenic Cre lines are a valuable tool for conditionally inactivating or activating genes to understand their function. Here, we provide an overview of Cre transgenic models used for studying gene function in bone cells and discuss their advantages and limitations, with particular emphasis on Cre lines used for studying osteocyte and osteoclast function.

Recent Findings: Recent studies have shown that many bone cell-targeted Cre models are not as specific as originally thought. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-018-0455-7DOI Listing

Review of Superelastic Differential Force Archwires for Producing Ideal Orthodontic Forces: an Advanced Technology Potentially Applicable to Orthognathic Surgery and Orthopedics.

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2018 Jun 20. Epub 2018 Jun 20.

Smarter Alloys Inc., 75 Bathurst Drive, Suite B, Waterloo, Ontario, N2V 1N2, Canada.

Purpose Of Review: Gentle and continuous loads are preferred for optimum orthodontic tooth movement. Nitinol, an alloy of nickel and titanium developed for the aerospace industry, found its first clinical applications in orthodontics because it has ideal load-deflection behavior. The purpose of this review is to elucidate the criteria for effective orthodontic mechanics relative to emerging Nitinol technology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-018-0457-5DOI Listing
June 2018
9 Reads

Mechanical Characterization of Bone: State of the Art in Experimental Approaches-What Types of Experiments Do People Do and How Does One Interpret the Results?

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2018 Jun 18. Epub 2018 Jun 18.

Center for Biotechnology and Interdisciplinary Studies, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 8th Street, Troy, NY, 12180, USA.

Purpose Of Review: The mechanical integrity of bone is determined by the direct measurement of bone mechanical properties. This article presents an overview of the current, most common, and new and upcoming experimental approaches for the mechanical characterization of bone. The key outcome variables of mechanical testing, as well as interpretations of the results in the context of bone structure and biology are also discussed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-018-0454-8DOI Listing
June 2018
5 Reads

Mechanical Stimuli in the Local In Vivo Environment in Bone: Computational Approaches Linking Organ-Scale Loads to Cellular Signals.

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2018 Jun 18. Epub 2018 Jun 18.

Institute for Biomechanics, ETH Zurich, Leopold-Ruzicka-Weg 4, 8093, Zürich, Switzerland.

Purpose Of Review: Connecting organ-scale loads to cellular signals in their local in vivo environment is a current challenge in the field of bone (re)modelling. Understanding this critical missing link would greatly improve our ability to anticipate mechanotransduction during different modes of stimuli and the resultant cellular responses. This review characterises computational approaches that could enable coupling links across the multiple scales of bone. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-018-0448-6DOI Listing
June 2018
8 Reads

Surgical Approach to Bone Metastases.

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2018 Jun 18. Epub 2018 Jun 18.

Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

Purpose Of Review: The purpose of this review was to examine the recent changes in the surgical treatment of bone metastases and how the treatment paradigm has shifted with the improvement of adjuvant therapies. How surgery fits into the local and systemic treatment was reviewed for bone metastases in different areas.

Recent Findings: The more common use of targeted chemotherapies and focused high-dose radiation have altered the treatment paradigm of bone metastases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-018-0463-7DOI Listing
June 2018
8 Reads

Clinical Relevance of Joint Hypermobility and Its Impact on Musculoskeletal Pain and Bone Mass.

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2018 Jun 18. Epub 2018 Jun 18.

Division of Medical Genetics, IRCCS-Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza, Poliambulatorio "Papa Giovanni Paolo II", 2nd Floor, Viale Padre Pio 7, 71013, San Giovanni Rotondo, Foggia, Italy.

Purpose Of Review: To summarize current evidence on the links between joint hypermobility (JH) and Ehlers-Danlos syndromes (EDS), with pain and reduced bone mass; to illustrate an updated approach to JH and EDS.

Recent Findings: In 2017, a novel classification for EDS and JH has been published. Increasing data demonstrate that pain is a major disability determinator in JH and EDS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-018-0460-xDOI Listing
June 2018
6 Reads

Recent Advances and Future of Gene Therapy for Bone Regeneration.

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2018 Jun 16. Epub 2018 Jun 16.

Skeletal Biotech Laboratory, The Hebrew University-Hadassah Faculty of Dental Medicine, Ein Kerem, 91120, Jerusalem, Israel.

Purpose Of Review: The purpose of this review is to discuss the recent advances in gene therapy as a treatment for bone regeneration. While most fractures heal spontaneously, patients who present with fracture nonunion suffer from prolonged pain, disability, and often require additional operations to regain musculoskeletal function.

Recent Findings: In the last few years, BMP gene delivery by means of electroporation and sonoporation resulted in repair of nonunion bone defects in mice, rats, and minipigs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-018-0459-3DOI Listing
June 2018
14 Reads

Osteogenesis Imperfecta: Muscle-Bone Interactions when Bi-directionally Compromised.

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2018 Jun 16. Epub 2018 Jun 16.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Missouri, 117 Schweitzer Hall, Columbia, MO, 65211, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a hereditary connective tissue disorder of skeletal fragility and more recently muscle weakness. This review highlights our current knowledge of the impact of compromised OI muscle function on muscle-bone interactions and skeletal strength in OI.

Recent Findings: The ramifications of inherent muscle weakness in OI muscle-bone interactions are just beginning to be elucidated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-018-0456-6DOI Listing
June 2018
20 Reads

The Lipid Side of Bone Marrow Adipocytes: How Tumor Cells Adapt and Survive in Bone.

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2018 Aug;16(4):443-457

Department of Pharmacology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, 540 E. Canfield, Rm 6304, Detroit, MI, 48201, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Bone marrow adipocytes have emerged in recent years as key contributors to metastatic progression in bone. In this review, we focus specifically on their role as the suppliers of lipids and discuss pro-survival pathways that are closely linked to lipid metabolism, affected by the adipocyte-tumor cell interactions, and likely impacting the ability of the tumor cell to thrive in bone marrow space and evade therapy.

Recent Findings: The combined in silico, pre-clinical, and clinical evidence shows that in adipocyte-rich tissues such as bone marrow, tumor cells rely on exogenous lipids for regulation of cellular energetics and adaptation to harsh metabolic conditions of the metastatic niche. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-018-0453-9DOI Listing

On the Relation of Bone Mineral Density and the Elastic Modulus in Healthy and Pathologic Bone.

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2018 Aug;16(4):404-410

Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Osteoporosis could lead to the bone mechanical failure. To examine the bone health, mechanical properties are often estimated from the images of the bone density. Here, we review the relationships that have been experimentally determined between mineral density and the elastic modulus and factors that affect these relationships. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-018-0449-5DOI Listing
August 2018
7 Reads

Bone Marrow Adipose Tissue and Skeletal Health.

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2018 Aug;16(4):434-442

Department of Pharmacology, Dalhousie University, 5850 College Street, Box 15000, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H4R2, Canada.

Purpose Of Review: To summarize and discuss recent progress and novel signaling mechanisms relevant to bone marrow adipocyte formation and its physiological/pathophysiological implications for bone remodeling.

Recent Findings: Skeletal remodeling is a coordinated process entailing removal of old bone and formation of new bone. Several bone loss disorders such as osteoporosis are commonly associated with increased bone marrow adipose tissue. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-018-0451-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6239196PMC

Fracture Prediction by Computed Tomography and Finite Element Analysis: Current and Future Perspectives.

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2018 Aug;16(4):411-422

Center for Advanced Orthopedic Studies, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 330 Brookline Avenue, RN 120, Boston, MA, 02215, USA.

Purpose Of Review: This review critiques the ability of CT-based methods to predict incident hip and vertebral fractures.

Recent Findings: CT-based techniques with concurrent calibration all show strong associations with incident hip and vertebral fracture, predicting hip and vertebral fractures as well as, and sometimes better than, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry areal biomass density (DXA aBMD). There is growing evidence for use of routine CT scans for bone health assessment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-018-0450-zDOI Listing

Modeling Rare Bone Diseases in Animals.

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2018 Aug;16(4):458-465

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR, USA.

Purpose Of Review: The goal of this review is to highlight some of the considerations involved in creating animal models to study rare bone diseases and then to compare and contrast approaches to creating such models, focusing on the advantages and novel opportunities offered by the CRISPR-Cas system.

Recent Findings: Gene editing after creation of double-stranded breaks in chromosomal DNA is increasingly being used to modify animal genomes. Multiple tools can be used to create such breaks, with the newest ones being based on the bacterial adaptive immune system known as CRISPR/Cas. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-018-0452-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6041139PMC

Endemic Molar Incisor Hypomineralization: a Pandemic Problem That Requires Monitoring by the Entire Health Care Community.

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2018 Jun;16(3):283-288

Melbourne Dental School, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.

Purpose Of Review: This review brings a major, previously under-recognized dental and general health problem to the attention of the medical and scientific community. The goals are to help clinicians make early diagnoses, thereby improving treatment outcomes, and to stimulate increasing research efforts to understand the etiology and ultimately prevention.

Recent Findings: There are two recent systematic reviews of molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH). Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11914-018-0444-x
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-018-0444-xDOI Listing
June 2018
8 Reads