655 results match your criteria Current Osteoporosis Reports [Journal]


Nuclear Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor Signaling in Skeletal Development and Disease.

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2019 Apr 13. Epub 2019 Apr 13.

Center for Craniofacial Molecular Biology, Herman Ostrow School of Dentistry, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, 90033, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) signaling regulates proliferation and differentiation during development and homeostasis. While membrane-bound FGFRs play a central role in these processes, the function of nuclear FGFRs is also critical. Here, we highlight mechanisms for nuclear FGFR translocation and the effects of nuclear FGFRs on skeletal development and disease. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11914-019-00512-2
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-019-00512-2DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Inter-site Variability of the Human Osteocyte Lacunar Network: Implications for Bone Quality.

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2019 Apr 12. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Department of Osteology and Biomechanics, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Lottestrasse 55A, 22529, Hamburg, Germany.

Purpose Of Review: This article provides a review on the variability of the osteocyte lacunar network in the human skeleton. It highlights characteristics of the osteocyte lacunar network in relation to different skeletal sites and fracture susceptibility.

Recent Findings: Application of 2D analyses (quantitative backscattered electron microscopy, histology, confocal laser scanning microscopy) and 3D reconstructions (microcomputed tomography and synchrotron radiation microcomputed tomography) provides extended high-resolution information on osteocyte lacunar properties in individuals of various age (fetal, children's growth, elderly), sex, and disease states with increased fracture risk. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11914-019-00508-y
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-019-00508-yDOI Listing
April 2019
8 Reads

A Second Career for Chondrocytes-Transformation into Osteoblasts.

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2019 Apr 4. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Institute of Musculoskeletal Medicine, Department of Bone and Skeletal Research, Medical Faculty of the Westphalian Wilhelms University Münster, Munster, Germany.

Purpose Of Review: The goal of the review is to summarize the current knowledge on the process of chondrocyte-to-osteoblast transdifferentiation during endochondral bone formation and its potential implications in fracture healing and disease.

Recent Findings: Lineage tracing experiments confirmed the transdifferentiation of chondrocytes into osteoblasts. More recent studies lead to the discovery of molecules involved in this process, as well as to the hypothesis that these cells may re-enter a stem cell-like phase prior to their osteoblastic differentiation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-019-00511-3DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

The Osteocyte as a Novel Key Player in Understanding Periodontitis Through its Expression of RANKL and Sclerostin: a Review.

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2019 Mar 28. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Centre for Reproductive Health, Queen Margaret Research Institute, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Little France Crescent, EH16 4TJ, UK.

Purpose Of Review: Periodontitis is the inflammation-associated bone loss disease of the alveolar bone that surrounds teeth. Classically, the emphasis on the etiology of periodontitis has been on the products of periodontal pathogens that lead to an inflammatory response of the soft tissues of the periodontium, eventually leading to activation of osteoclasts that degrade the alveolar bone. Until recently, the response of osteocytes that populate the alveolar bone, and that are known for their regulatory role in bone anabolism and catabolism, has not been addressed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-019-00509-xDOI Listing

Falls and Fractures in Diabetes-More than Bone Fragility.

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2019 Mar 26. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

Department of Endocrinology, Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark.

Purpose Of Review: Based on a systematic literature search, we performed a comprehensive review of risk factors for falls and fractures in patients with diabetes.

Recent Findings: Patients with diabetes have an increased risk of fractures partly explained by increased bone fragility. Several risk factors as altered body composition including sarcopenia and obesity, impaired postural control, gait deficits, neuropathy, cardiovascular disease, and other co-morbidities are considered to increase the risk of falling. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-019-00513-1DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Pro-inflammatory Cytokines and Osteocytes.

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2019 Mar 26. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

Key Laboratory of Oral Medicine, Guangzhou Institute of Oral Disease, Affiliated Stomatology Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Huangsha Avenue 39, Guangzhou, 510140, China.

Purpose Of Review: An elevated level of pro-inflammatory cytokines in inflammatory conditions causes bone loss and disrupts vital organ function. Osteocytes comprise > 95% of the cellular component in bone tissue, produce a range of cytokines and signaling molecules, and influence bone and other organ function. In this review, we hypothesized that an elevated level of pro-inflammatory cytokines in inflammatory conditions affects osteocyte survival and function thereby possibly amplifying inflammation, and causing bone loss and non-bone clinical complications. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-019-00507-zDOI Listing

MicroRNAs in Bone Metastasis.

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2019 Mar 23. Epub 2019 Mar 23.

Department of Trauma, Hand and Reconstructive Surgery, Molecular Skeletal Biology Laboratory, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistrasse 52, 20246, Hamburg, Germany.

Purpose Of Review: This review provides an update on the recent literature describing the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in cancer formation and bone metastasis. We confined our focus on osteosarcoma, breast cancer, prostate cancer, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

Recent Findings: In all areas covered, major discoveries on the role of miRNAs in tumorigenesis and metastasis have been made. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11914-019-00510-4
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-019-00510-4DOI Listing
March 2019
9 Reads

Wnt Antagonists in Hematopoietic and Immune Cell Fate: Implications for Osteoporosis Therapies.

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2019 Apr;17(2):49-58

Quantitative and Systems Biology Graduate Program, University of California, Merced, CA, USA.

Purpose Of Review: We reviewed the current literature on the roles of the Wnt antagonists sclerostin (Sost) and sclerostin-containing domain protein 1 (Sostdc1) on bone homeostasis, the relationship of the hypoxia-inducible factor (Hif) and von Hippel-Lindau (Vhl) pathways on Sost expression, and how changes in bone induced by depletion of Sost, Sostdc1, and Vhl affect hematopoietic cells.

Recent Findings: B cell development is adversely affected in Sost-knockout mice and is more severely affected in Vhl-knockout mice. Inflammation in the Sost bone microenvironment could alter hematopoietic stem cell behavior. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-019-00503-3DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

The Emerging Role of Glucose Metabolism in Cartilage Development.

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2019 Apr;17(2):59-69

Program in Cell, Molecular, and Developmental Biology, Sackler School of Graduate Biomedical Sciences, Tufts University, Boston, MA, 02111, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Proper cartilage development is critical to bone formation during endochondral ossification. This review highlights the current understanding of various aspects of glucose metabolism in chondrocytes during cartilage development.

Recent Findings: Recent studies indicate that chondrocytes transdifferentiate into osteoblasts and bone marrow stromal cells during endochondral ossification. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-019-00506-0DOI Listing
April 2019
4 Reads

Genetics of Bone and Muscle Interactions in Humans.

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2019 Apr;17(2):86-95

Hebrew SeniorLife, Institute for Aging Research, Boston, MA, USA.

Purpose Of Review: To summarize the evidence from recent studies on the shared genetics between bone and muscle in humans.

Recent Findings: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have successfully identified a multitude of loci influencing the variability of different bone or muscle parameters, with multiple loci overlapping between the traits. In addition, joint analyses of multiple correlated musculoskeletal traits (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-019-00505-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6424938PMC

Targeting Cell Senescence for the Treatment of Age-Related Bone Loss.

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2019 Apr;17(2):70-85

Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

Purpose Of Review: We review cell senescence in the context of age-related bone loss by broadly discussing aging mechanisms in bone, currently known inducers and markers of senescence, the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), and the emerging roles of senescence in bone homeostasis and pathology.

Recent Findings: Cellular senescence is a state of irreversible cell cycle arrest induced by insults or stressors including telomere attrition, oxidative stress, DNA damage, oncogene activation, and other intrinsic or extrinsic triggers and there is mounting evidence for the role of senescence in aging bone. Cellular aging also instigates a SASP that exerts detrimental paracrine and likely systemic effects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-019-00504-2DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Hypoxia Signaling in the Skeleton: Implications for Bone Health.

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2019 Feb;17(1):26-35

Department of Anatomy, Physiology, and Cell Biology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, 1089 Veterinary Medicine Drive, Davis, CA, 95616, USA.

Purpose Of Review: We reviewed recent literature on oxygen sensing in osteogenic cells and its contribution to development of a skeletal phenotype, the coupling of osteogenesis with angiogenesis and integration of hypoxia into canonical Wnt signaling, and opportunities to manipulate oxygen sensing to promote skeletal repair.

Recent Findings: Oxygen sensing in osteocytes can confer a high bone mass phenotype in murine models; common and unique targets of HIF-1α and HIF-2α and lineage-specific deletion of oxygen sensing machinery suggest differentia utilization and requirement of HIF-α proteins in the differentiation from mesenchymal stem cell to osteoblast to osteocyte; oxygen-dependent but HIF-α-independent signaling may contribute to observed skeletal phenotypes. Manipulating oxygen sensing machinery in osteogenic cells influences skeletal phenotype through angiogenesis-dependent and angiogenesis-independent pathways and involves HIF-1α, HIF-2α, or both proteins. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-019-00500-6DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

RAGE Signaling in Skeletal Biology.

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2019 Feb;17(1):16-25

Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine, 635 Barnhill Dr., MS 5023, Indianapolis, IN, 46202, USA.

Purpose Of Review: The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and several of its ligands have been implicated in the onset and progression of pathologies associated with aging, chronic inflammation, and cellular stress. In particular, the role of RAGE and its ligands in bone tissue during both physiological and pathological conditions has been investigated. However, the extent to which RAGE signaling regulates bone homeostasis and disease onset remains unclear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-019-00499-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6447316PMC
February 2019
4 Reads

Glucocorticoid-Induced Osteoporosis: New Insights into the Pathophysiology and Treatments.

Authors:
Nancy E Lane

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2019 Feb;17(1):1-7

Center for Musculoskeletal Health, University of California at Davis Health System, 4625 Second Avenue, Suite 2006, Sacramento, CA, 95817, USA.

Purpose Of This Review: The goal of the review is to provide an updated understanding of the pathophysiology of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis and treatment recommendations.

Recent Findings: Glucocorticoids reduce osteoblast and osteocyte lifespan and activity and reduce the vascularity of the bone that together may explain the greater reductions in bone strength than those of bone mass. Treatments with parathyroid hormone fragments appear to reverse glucocorticoid-induced bone loss and fracture risk partially through maintaining bone vascularity and bone strength. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-019-00498-xDOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Mechanisms Underlying Normal Fracture Healing and Risk Factors for Delayed Healing.

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2019 Feb;17(1):36-47

Endocrine Research Unit, Department of Medicine, San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 1700 Owens Street, Room 369, San Francisco, CA, 94158, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Substantial advances have been made in understanding the biological basis of fracture healing. Yet, it is unclear whether the presence of osteoporosis or prior or current osteoporosis therapy influences the healing process or is associated with impaired healing. This review discusses the normal process of fracture healing and the role of osteoporosis and patient-specific factors in relation to fracture repair. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-019-00501-5DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Stopping Denosumab.

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2019 Feb;17(1):8-15

Center of Bone Diseases, Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Purpose Of Review: Denosumab discontinuation is associated with a rebound effect manifesting by an increased risk of multiple spontaneous vertebral fractures. The purpose of this review is to (1) better characterize this risk and (2) find solutions to avoid it.

Recent Findings: In the absence of a potent bisphosphonate prescription at denosumab discontinuation, the frequency of multiple vertebral fractures is common or frequent (≥ 1/100 and < 1/10). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-019-00502-4DOI Listing
February 2019
10 Reads

In Vivo Osteocyte Mechanotransduction: Recent Developments and Future Directions.

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2018 12;16(6):746-753

Department of Anatomy & Tissue Engineering Research Group, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, 123 St Stephens Green, Dublin 2, Ireland.

Purpose Of Review: Mechanical loading is an essential stimulus for skeletal tissues. Osteocytes are primarily responsible for sensing mechanical stimuli in bone and for orchestrating subsequent responses. This is critical for maintaining homeostasis, and responding to injury/disease. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11914-018-0485-1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-018-0485-1DOI Listing
December 2018
20 Reads

Fibula: The Forgotten Bone-May It Provide Some Insight On a Wider Scope for Bone Mechanostat Control?

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2018 12;16(6):775-778

Center of P-Ca Metabolism Studies (CEMFoC) National University of Rosario and Arg NRC (CONICET), Rosario, Argentina.

The human fibula responds to its mechanical environment differently from the tibia accordingly with foot usage. Fibula structure is unaffected by disuse, and is stronger concerning lateral bending in soccer players (who evert and rotate the foot) and weaker in long-distance runners (who jump while running) with respect to untrained controls, along the insertion region of peroneus muscles. These features, strikingly associated to the abilities of the fibulae of predator and prey quadrupeds to manage uneven surfaces and to store elastic energy to jump, respectively, suggest that bone mechanostat would control bone properties with high selective connotations beyond structural strength. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11914-018-0497-x
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-018-0497-xDOI Listing
December 2018
5 Reads

Mineral and Bone Disease in Kidney Transplant Recipients.

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2018 12;16(6):703-711

Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, NorthShore University HealthSystem, University of Chicago Medical School, 2650 Ridge Avenue, Evanston, IL, 60201, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Despite metabolic improvements following kidney transplantation, transplant recipients still often suffer from complex mineral and bone disease after transplantation.

Recent Findings: The pathophysiology of post-transplant disease is unique, secondary to underlying pre-transplant mineral and bone disease, immunosuppression, and changing kidney function. Changes in modern immunosuppression regimens continue to alter the clinical picture. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-018-0490-4DOI Listing
December 2018
20 Reads

Medication Decision-making in Osteoporosis: Can We Explain Why Patients Do Not Take Their Osteoporosis Medications?

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2018 12;16(6):772-774

Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA.

Patients at high risk of fracture often do not take medication for osteoporosis. Recent literature may give us some insights into why patients at high risk of fracture do not take medications for osteoporosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-018-0494-0DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

Mechanisms Underlying Bone and Joint Pain.

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2018 12;16(6):763-771

Center for Excellence in the Neurosciences, University of New England, Biddeford, ME, 04043, USA.

Purpose Of Review: The goal of this review is to provide a broad overview of the current understanding of mechanisms underlying bone and joint pain.

Recent Findings: Bone or joint pathology is generally accompanied by local release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, growth factors, and neurotransmitters that activate and sensitize sensory nerves resulting in an amplified pain signal. Modulation of the pain signal within the spinal cord and brain that result in net increased facilitation is proposed to contribute to the development of chronic pain. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11914-018-0493-1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-018-0493-1DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

Importance of Recent Fracture as Predictor of Imminent Fracture Risk.

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2018 12;16(6):738-745

Division of Clinical Immunology and Rheumatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 510 20th Street South, Faculty Office Tower 820D, Birmingham, AL, 35294, USA.

Purpose Of Review: To examine the importance of recent fracture as a predictor of imminent fracture risk, review the importance of prior fracture type and timing, and identify risk factors for recurrent osteoporotic fracture.

Recent Findings: Prior fracture type and timing impact risk of subsequent fracture that is largely independent of bone mineral density. Site of re-fracture is similar to original major osteoporotic fracture. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11914-018-0487-z
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-018-0487-zDOI Listing
December 2018
10 Reads

Updates in CKD-Associated Osteoporosis.

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2018 12;16(6):712-723

Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Columbia University Medical Center, 622 West 168th Street, PH2-124, New York City, NY, 10032, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with bone loss and fractures. The purpose of this review is to provide clinicians with an overview of the underlying pathogenesis of CKD-associated osteoporosis, and a summary of the current diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to this disease.

Recent Findings: In 2017, the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes Committee on Bone Quality updated their guidelines to include screening for osteoporosis and fracture risk by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in patients with CKD. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11914-018-0491-3
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-018-0491-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6264896PMC
December 2018
14 Reads

Non-renal-Related Mechanisms of FGF23 Pathophysiology.

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2018 12;16(6):724-729

UCLA Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Nephrology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, MDCC A2-383, Los Angeles, CA, 90095-1752, USA.

Purpose Of Review: We will review non-renal-related mechanisms of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) pathophysiology.

Recent Findings: FGF23 production and metabolism may be affected by many bone, mineral, and kidney factors. However, it has recently been demonstrated that other factors, such as iron status, erythropoietin, and inflammation, also affect FGF23 production and metabolism. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-018-0492-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6234055PMC
December 2018
3 Reads

Celiac Disease-Musculoskeletal Manifestations and Mechanisms in Children to Adults.

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2018 12;16(6):754-762

Celiac Disease Center, Columbia University Medical Center, 180 Fort Washington Ave, New York, NY, 10032, USA.

Purpose Of Review: We aim to review the current literature on the association of musculoskeletal disorders and celiac disease that is a common disorder, affecting about 1% of the population. Extra-intestinal symptoms and presentations predominate.

Recent Findings: While the literature supports an association with reduced bone mineral density and increased fracture risk and celiac disease, there is little evidence supporting associations with other rheumatological conditions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-018-0488-yDOI Listing
December 2018
6 Reads

Crosstalk Between Sensory Nerves and Cancer in Bone.

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2018 12;16(6):648-656

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1 Shikatacho, Kita-ku, Okayama, Okayama, 700-8525, Japan.

Purpose Of Review: Sensory nerves (SNs) richly innervate bone and are a component of bone microenvironment. Cancer metastasis in bone, which is under the control of the crosstalk with bone microenvironment, induces bone pain via excitation of SNs innervating bone. However, little is known whether excited SNs in turn affect bone metastasis. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11914-018-0489-x
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-018-0489-xDOI Listing
December 2018
18 Reads

Gonadal Hormones in the Pathogenesis and Treatment of Bone Health in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2018 12;16(6):674-692

Department of Endocrinology, Monash Health, 246 Clayton Rd. Clayton, Melbourne, Victoria, 3168, Australia.

Purpose Of Review: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have a greatly increased fracture risk compared with the general population. Gonadal hormones have an important influence on bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture risk, and hormone therapies can significantly improve these outcomes. Gonadal dysfunction is a frequent finding in patients with CKD; yet, little is known about the impact of gonadal hormones in the pathogenesis and treatment of bone health in patients with CKD. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11914-018-0483-3
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-018-0483-3DOI Listing
December 2018
14 Reads

CKD-MBD: from the Pathogenesis to the Identification and Development of Potential Novel Therapeutic Targets.

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2018 12;16(6):693-702

Universidade Nove de Julho, UNINOVE, Rua Iperoig, 690 ap 121, São Paulo, SP, 05016-000, Brazil.

Purpose Of Review: Although we have seen tremendous advances in the comprehension of CKD-MBD pathophysiology during the last few years, this was not accompanied by a significant change in mortality rate and quality of life. This review will address the traditional and updated pathophysiology of CKD-MBD along with the therapeutic limitations that affect CKD-MBD and proposed alternative treatment targets.

Recent Findings: An innovative concept brings the osteocyte to the center of CKD-MBD pathophysiology, in contrast to the traditional view of the skeleton as a target organ for disturbances in calcium, phosphate, parathyroid hormone, and vitamin D. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-018-0486-0DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

PET-MRI for the Study of Metabolic Bone Disease.

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2018 12;16(6):665-673

Department of Radiology, Stanford University, 1201 Welch Rd, Stanford, CA, 94305, USA.

Purpose Of Review: This review article attempts to summarize the current state and applications of the hybrid imaging modality of PET-MRI to metabolic bone diseases. The advances of PET and MRI are also discussed for metabolic bone diseases as potentially applied via PET-MRI.

Recent Findings: Etiologies and mechanisms of metabolic bone disease can be complex where molecular changes precede structural changes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-018-0482-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6234052PMC
December 2018
2 Reads

Recent Progress in Sarcopenia Research: a Focus on Operationalizing a Definition of Sarcopenia.

Authors:
Peggy M Cawthon

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2018 12;16(6):730-737

San Francisco Coordinating Center, 550 16th Street, 2nd Floor, Box #0560, San Francisco, CA, 94143, USA.

Purpose Of Review: To discuss recent progress in sarcopenia research and to highlight controversies in the field particularly around reaching consensus on a definition of sarcopenia.

Recent Findings: Accordingly, this review begins with a discussion of the increasing awareness of this condition; briefly describes evolving definitions of sarcopenia; suggests a framework for consistent terminology for sarcopenia; discusses outstanding issues in the definition of sarcopenia; and reviews the association between sarcopenia and adverse outcome in older adults. In addition, the role of sarcopenia in other diseases is discussed. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11914-018-0484-2
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-018-0484-2DOI Listing
December 2018
3 Reads

Micro-Finite Element Analysis of the Proximal Femur on the Basis of High-Resolution Magnetic Resonance Images.

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2018 12;16(6):657-664

Department of Radiology, New York University, 426 1st Avenue, New York, NY, 10010, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Hip fractures have catastrophic consequences. The purpose of this article is to review recent developments in high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided finite element analysis (FEA) of the hip as a means to determine subject-specific bone strength.

Recent Findings: Despite the ability of DXA to predict hip fracture, the majority of fractures occur in patients who do not have BMD T scores less than - 2. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11914-018-0481-5
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-018-0481-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6234089PMC
December 2018
5 Reads

Contributions of the Bone Microenvironment to Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance Pathogenesis.

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2018 12;16(6):635-641

Nuffield Department of Surgical Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Purpose Of Review: MGUS (monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance) is a plasma cell disorder characterized by a moderate increase in serum monoclonal protein (≤ 3 g/dL), an increase in bone marrow plasma cell infiltration (≤ 10%) and the absence of any end-organ damage. Although MGUS is considered a benign condition, evidence for clinical consequences is increasing. In this review, we examine the most recent evidence regarding MGUS manifestations and risks and present an overview of MGUS population studies as related to bone disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-018-0479-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6244894PMC
December 2018
4 Reads

Targeting the Muscle-Bone Unit: Filling Two Needs with One Deed in the Treatment of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2018 10;16(5):541-553

Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Québec, Centre de Recherche du Centre Hospitalier de l'Université Laval (CHUQ-CHUL), Axe Neurosciences, Université Laval, Quebec City, QC, G1V 4G2, Canada.

Purpose Of Review: In Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), the progressive skeletal and cardiac muscle dysfunction and degeneration is accompanied by low bone mineral density and bone fragility. Glucocorticoids, which remain the standard of care for patients with DMD, increase the risk of developing osteoporosis. The scope of this review emphasizes the mutual cohesion and common signaling pathways between bone and skeletal muscle in DMD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-018-0468-2DOI Listing
October 2018
5 Reads

Osteoblastic Factors in Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis.

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2018 12;16(6):642-647

Department of Translational Molecular Pathology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd., Houston, TX, 77030, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Prostate cancer bone metastasis is the lethal progression of the disease. The disease frequently presents with osteoblastic lesions in bone. The tumor-induced bone can cause complications that significantly hamper the quality of life of patients. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11914-018-0480-6
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-018-0480-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6234057PMC
December 2018
22 Reads

Carbon Nanomaterials for Treating Osteoporotic Vertebral Fractures.

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2018 10;16(5):626-634

Instituto de Ciência e Tecnologia, Universidade Brasil, Rua Carolina da Fonseca, 584, Bairro Itaquera, São Paulo, 08230-030, Brazil.

Purpose Of Review: To identify the use of carbon nanomaterials in bone regeneration and present new data on the regenerative capacity of bone tissue in osteopenic rats treated with graphene nanoribbons (GNRs).

Recent Findings: The results show that the physical and chemical properties of the nanomaterials are suitable for the fabrication of scaffolds intended for bone regeneration. The in vitro tests suggested a non-toxicity of the GNRs as well as improved biocompatibility and bone mineralization activity. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11914-018-0476-2
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-018-0476-2DOI Listing
October 2018
18 Reads

Using Mendelian Randomization to Decipher Mechanisms of Bone Disease.

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2018 10;16(5):531-540

Departments of Internal Medicine and Epidemiology, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Purpose Of Review: This review summarizes the basic principles of Mendelian randomization (MR) and provides evidence for the causal effect of multiple modifiable factors on bone outcomes.

Recent Findings: Several studies using MR approach have provided support for the causal effect of obesity on bone mineral density (BMD). Strikingly, studies have failed to prove a causal association between elevated 25(OH) D concentrations and higher BMD in community-dwelling individuals. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11914-018-0467-3
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-018-0467-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6153565PMC
October 2018
7 Reads

The Influence of Cortical Porosity on the Strength of Bone During Growth and Advancing Age.

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2018 10;16(5):561-572

Department of Medicine, The University of Melbourne, Austin Health, Melbourne, Australia.

Purpose Of Review: Bone densitometry provides a two-dimensional projected areal apparent bone mineral density that fails to capture the heterogeneity of bone's material composition and macro-, micro-, and nano-structures critical to its material and structural strength. Assessment of the structural basis of bone fragility has focused largely on trabecular bone based on the common occurrence of fragility fractures at sites with substantial amounts of trabecular bone. This review focuses on the contribution of cortical bone to bone fragility throughout life. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-018-0478-0DOI Listing
October 2018
5 Reads

Mechanisms of Osteoarthritis (OA) Pain.

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2018 10;16(5):611-616

Arthritis Research UK Centre for Epidemiology, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, The University of Manchester, The Stopford Building, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PT, UK.

Purpose Of Review: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a major cause of pain and disability worldwide. There is, however, a relatively poor correlation between the severity of OA based on plain radiograph changes and symptoms. In this review, we consider the mechanisms of pain in OA. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-018-0477-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6153568PMC
October 2018
26 Reads

Current Understanding of the Pathophysiology of Osteonecrosis of the Jaw.

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2018 10;16(5):584-595

Department of Periodontics and Oral Medicine, School of Dentistry, University of Michigan, 1011 North University Ave, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) is a rare and severe necrotic bone disease reflecting a compromise in the body's osseous healing mechanisms and unique to the craniofacial region. Antiresorptive and antiangiogenic medications have been suggested to be associated with the occurrence of ONJ; yet, the pathophysiology of this disease has not been fully elucidated. This article raises the current theories underlying the pathophysiology of ONJ. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-018-0474-4DOI Listing
October 2018
2 Reads

Cortical Bone Mapping: Measurement and Statistical Analysis of Localised Skeletal Changes.

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2018 10;16(5):617-625

Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 1PZ, UK.

Purpose Of Review: Cortical bone mapping (CBM) is a technique for measuring localised skeletal changes from computed tomography (CT) images. It can provide measurements with accuracy surpassing the underlying imaging resolution. CBM can detect changes in several properties of the cortex, with no prior assumptions about the likely location of said changes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-018-0475-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6153562PMC
October 2018
6 Reads

Mechanisms for Joint Pain in Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA): from Cytokines to Central Sensitization.

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2018 10;16(5):603-610

Division of Rheumatology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, 60611, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Pain in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) may be due to different etiologies, ranging from peripheral inflammation to dysregulation of central nervous system (CNS) processing. This review evaluates relevant literature published on RA pain mechanisms in recent years.

Recent Findings: Despite successes of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), pain persists for many RA patients. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11914-018-0473-5
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-018-0473-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6157001PMC
October 2018
35 Reads

Interactions Between Disseminated Tumor Cells and Bone Marrow Stromal Cells Regulate Tumor Dormancy.

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2018 10;16(5):596-602

Department of Cancer Biology and Comprehensive Cancer Center, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Medical Center Blvd, Winston-Salem, NC, 27157-1082, USA.

Purpose Of Review: To succinctly summarize recent findings concerning dormancy regulating interactions between bone marrow stromal cells and disseminated tumor cells.

Recent Findings: Recent studies have highlighted roles of the bone marrow microenviroment, including osteoblasts, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and endothelial cells, in inducing or maintaining cancer cell dormancy. Key pathways of interest include: osteoblast-induced transforming growth factor (TGF)-β2 signaling, transfer of MSC-derived exosomes containing dormancy inducing microRNA, cancer cell cannibalism of MSCs, and endothelial cell secretion of thrombospondin 1 (TSP1). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-018-0471-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6156930PMC
October 2018
2 Reads

The Effects of Homocysteine on the Skeleton.

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2018 10;16(5):554-560

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Jikei University School of Medicine, 3-25-8 Nishi-Shinbashi, Minato-ku, Tokyo, 105-8461, Japan.

Purpose Of Review: Homocystinuria is a congenital metabolic disorder in which cystathionine β-synthase deficiency results in a prominent increase in homocysteine (serum levels > 100 μM), causing mental retardation, atherosclerotic cerebral infarction, and osteoporosis accompanied by fragility fractures. Encountering a case with excessive homocysteinemia such as that seen in hereditary homocystinuria is unlikely during usual medical examinations. However, in individuals who have vitamin B or folate deficiency, serum homocysteine concentrations are known to increase. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-018-0469-1DOI Listing
October 2018
23 Reads

Vertebral Fracture Identification as Part of a Comprehensive Risk Assessment in Patients with Osteoporosis.

Authors:
John T Schousboe

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2018 10;16(5):573-583

Park Nicollet Osteoporosis Center, HealthPartners Inc., Bloomington, MN, USA.

Purpose Of Review: To review current evidence regarding the vertebral fracture prevalence, the accuracy of vertebral fracture identification on current imaging technologies, and the potential impact of vertebral fracture identification on fracture risk.

Recent Findings: Important new studies have clarified the features of prevalent vertebral fracture that most strongly predict incident fractures. Age- and sex-stratified estimates of vertebral fracture prevalence on densitometric lateral spine images in the US population are now available. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-018-0472-6DOI Listing
October 2018
3 Reads

Extra-Alveolar Bone Screws for Conservative Correction of Severe Malocclusion Without Extractions or Orthognathic Surgery.

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2018 08;16(4):387-394

Beethoven Orthodontic Center, No. 6, Ln.59, Jiangong 1st Rd., East Dist, Hsinchu City, 300, Taiwan.

Purpose Of Review: Evaluate management of challenging malocclusions conservatively (no extractions or orthognathic surgery).

Recent Findings: Most malocclusions have a predominately environmental etiology. Optimal esthetics and function are restored by aligning the dentition over the apical base of bone at the appropriate vertical dimension of occlusion (VDO). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-018-0465-5DOI Listing
August 2018
61 Reads

Origin of Reparative Stem Cells in Fracture Healing.

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2018 08;16(4):490-503

Orthopaedic Trauma Institute, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), San Francisco, CA, USA.

Purpose Of Review: The identity and functional roles of stem cell population(s) that contribute to fracture repair remains unclear. This review provides a brief history of mesenchymal stem cell (MSCs) and provides an updated view of the many stem/progenitor cell populations contributing to fracture repair.

Recent Findings: Functional studies show MSCs are not the multipotential stem cell population that form cartilage and bone during fracture repair. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-018-0458-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6041151PMC
August 2018
5 Reads

Current Understanding of Epidemiology, Pathophysiology, and Management of Atypical Femur Fractures.

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2018 08;16(4):519-529

Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, 180 Fort Washington Avenue, Room 9-910, New York, NY, 10032, USA.

Purpose Of Review: To summarize reports published since the 2013 American Society of Bone and Mineral Research Task Force Report on atypical femoral fractures (AFF).

Recent Findings: The absolute incidence of AFFs remains low. AFFs are primarily associated with prolonged bisphosphonate (BP) exposure, but have also been reported in unexposed patients and those receiving denosumab for osteoporosis and metastatic bone disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-018-0464-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6061199PMC
August 2018
11 Reads

Part I: Development and Physiology of the Temporomandibular Joint.

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2018 08;16(4):360-368

School of Dentistry, Department of Orthodontics & Orofacial Genetics, Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI), Indianapolis, IN, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Investigate the developmental physiology of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), a unique articulation between the cranium and the mandible.

Recent Findings: Principal regulatory factors for TMJ and disc development are Indian hedgehog (IHH) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP-2). The mechanism is closely associated with ear morphogenesis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-018-0447-7DOI Listing
August 2018
16 Reads

New Insights in Understanding and Treating Bone Fracture Pain.

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2018 08;16(4):325-332

Department of Pharmacology, University of Arizona, 1501 N. Campbell Ave., PO Box 245050, Tucson, AZ, 85724, USA.

Purpose Of Review: This paper describes recent advances in understanding the mechanisms that drive fracture pain and how these findings are helping develop new therapies to treat fracture pain.

Recent Findings: Immediately following fracture, mechanosensitive nerve fibers that innervate bone are mechanically distorted. This results in these nerve fibers rapidly discharging and signaling the initial sharp fracture pain to the brain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-018-0446-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6355163PMC
August 2018
4 Reads

Part II: Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ)-Regeneration, Degeneration, and Adaptation.

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2018 08;16(4):369-379

School of Science, Department of Biology, Indiana University-Purdue University (IUPUI), Indianapolis, IN, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Elucidate temporomandibular joint (TMJ) development and pathophysiology relative to regeneration, degeneration, and adaption.

Recent Findings: The pharyngeal arch produces a highly conserved stomatognathic system that supports airway and masticatory function. An induced subperiosteal layer of fibrocartilage cushions TMJ functional and parafunctional loads. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11914-018-0462-8DOI Listing
August 2018
5 Reads