1,970 results match your criteria Current Opinion in Pharmacology[Journal]


Targeting P2X4 and P2X7 receptors in multiple sclerosis.

Curr Opin Pharmacol 2019 Apr 20;47:119-125. Epub 2019 Apr 20.

Department of Neurosciences, University of the Basque Country, Achucarro Basque Center for Neuroscience-UPV/EHU, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (CIBERNED), 48940 Leioa, Spain. Electronic address:

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease of the central nervous system characterized by massive infiltration of immune cells, demyelination, and axonal loss. However, spontaneous myelin repair can occur during the course of the disease. A major component of this regenerative process is a robust innate immune response consisting of infiltrating macrophages and brain microgliosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coph.2019.03.010DOI Listing

The role of gut microbiota in obesity, diabetes mellitus, and effect of metformin: new insights into old diseases.

Curr Opin Pharmacol 2019 Apr 20;49:1-5. Epub 2019 Apr 20.

Diabetes and Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases Unit and the Centre for Applied Clinical Research (Ce.R.C.A.) Clinical Institute "Beato Matteo", 27029 Vigevano, Italy. Electronic address:

There is a recent growing evidence that abnormalities in the microbiota composition can have a major role in the development of obesity and diabetes and that some actions of metformin may be mediated by gut bacteria. Several mechanisms have been found. A reduced microbial diversity is associated to inflammation, insulin-resistance, and adiposity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coph.2019.03.011DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

The non-anticoagulant promise of heparin and its mimetics.

Authors:
Barbara Mulloy

Curr Opin Pharmacol 2019 Apr 19;46:50-54. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Institute of Pharmaceutical Science, King's College London, 150 Stamford Street, London, SE1 9NH, UK. Electronic address:

Heparin, the widely used anticoagulant and antithrombotic polysaccharide, has other potential therapeutic uses that arise from its similarity to heparan sulfate. This review provides a brief overview of the most recent developments in this field, paying particular respect to pulmonary and respiratory pharmacology. It has often been said that heparin, with its mimetics and derivatives, shows great promise in the treatment of inflammatory, infectious, and malignant conditions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coph.2019.03.009DOI Listing

Heterogeneity and emergent behaviour in the vascular endothelium.

Curr Opin Pharmacol 2019 Apr 18;45:23-32. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, 161 Cathedral Street, Glasgow G4 0RE, UK.

The endothelium is the single layer of cells lining all blood vessels, and it is a remarkable cardiovascular control centre. Each endothelial cell has only a small number (on average six) of interconnected neighbours. Yet this arrangement produces a large repertoire of behaviours, capable of controlling numerous cardiovascular functions in a flexible and dynamic way. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S14714892183015
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coph.2019.03.008DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Recently developed synthetic compounds with anti-infective activity.

Curr Opin Pharmacol 2019 Apr 18;48:17-23. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Centro Singular de Investigación en Química Biolóxica e Materiais Moleculares (CiQUS), Departamento de Química Orgánica, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, calle Jenaro de la Fuente s/n, 15782 Santiago de Compostela, Spain. Electronic address:

The ability of antibiotics to cure bacterial infections is at a serious risk due to the emergence and worldwide spread of superbugs. A lack of innovation and investment for almost 50 years has led to significant efforts currently being devoted to find alternative and innovative therapies to face this challenge. This short review highlights some of the recent efforts to develop synthetic small molecules with anti-infective activity. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S14714892183017
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coph.2019.03.004DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Molecular regulation of myoendothelial gap junctions.

Curr Opin Pharmacol 2019 Apr 15;45:16-22. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Walter-Brendel-Centre of Experimental Medicine, University Hospital, LMU Munich, Biomedical Centre, Cardiovascular Physiology, LMU Munich and German Centre for Cardiovascular Research, Partner Site Munich Heart Alliance, Munich, Germany.

Myoendothelial gap junctions are involved in the regulation of vascular tone. The major connexins described in the vascular system are Cx37, Cx40, Cx43, and Cx45 with all but Cx45 found in myoendothelial connections. Although many reports on post-translational modifications of these connexins are available, only few groups have investigated their role in controlling myoendothelial communication and signal propagation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coph.2019.03.006DOI Listing

Novel biologics targeting the P2X7 ion channel.

Curr Opin Pharmacol 2019 Apr 12;47:110-118. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Institute of Immunology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany; Normandie University, UNIROUEN, INSERM, U1234, Pathophysiology, Autoimmunity, Neuromuscular diseases and regenerative THERapies (PANTHER), 76000, Rouen, France. Electronic address:

Targeting the P2X7 ion channel, a danger sensor for extracellular nucleotides, improves outcomes in models of inflammation, cancer, and brain-diseases. Antibodies and nanobodies have been developed that antagonize or potentiate gating of P2X7. Their potential advantages over small-molecule drugs include high specificity, lower off-target effects, and tunable in vivo half-life. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coph.2019.03.001DOI Listing
April 2019
4.595 Impact Factor

Agonist-evoked endothelial Ca signalling microdomains.

Curr Opin Pharmacol 2019 Apr 12;45:8-15. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Physiology, School of Medical Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 Australia; Biomedical Science, School of Health and Sports Science, University of the Sunshine Coast, Maroochydore, Qld 4558 Australia.

Localized, oscillating Ca signals have been identified in discrete microdomains of vascular endothelial cells. At myoendothelial contacts (between endothelial and smooth muscle cells), both endothelial Ca pulsars (IP-mediated release of intracellular Ca) and Ca sparklets (extracellular Ca entry via TRP channels) contribute to endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization of smooth muscle, vasodilation, and feedback control of vasoconstriction. Ca sparklets occurring at close-contact domains between endothelial cells are possibly involved in conducted hyperpolarization and spreading vasodilation in arterial networks. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coph.2019.03.005DOI Listing

Pharmacological advances in pemphigus.

Curr Opin Pharmacol 2019 Apr 8;46:44-49. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

St George Hospital, UNSW Department of Dermatology, Kogarah, Sydney, NSW 2217, Australia. Electronic address:

This is an updated review of the literature on the emerging therapeutic options for the treatment of pemphigus to provide better care for patients. There is an increasing range of molecules targeted for pemphigus therapy against CD20, Bruton tyrosine kinase, chimeric antigen receptor, T-cell immune components, B-cell activating factor, proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL), CD25, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) and cytokine modulation therapies (anti-IL-4, anti-IL-6). The main aim of the current new therapies is to provide specific pathology-focused therapeutic options which have long-term sustainable therapeutic effects on disease progress, cause less side effects without systemic immunosuppression, and have less risk of getting antibodies against the medication during treatment. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S14714892183009
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coph.2019.01.001DOI Listing
April 2019
4 Reads

The role of the P2X7 receptor in myeloid-derived suppressor cells and immunosuppression.

Curr Opin Pharmacol 2019 Apr 5;47:82-89. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Stem Cell Laboratory and Cell Therapy Center, IRCCS Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Genova, Italy; Center of Translational and Experimental Myology, IRCCS Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Genova, Italy. Electronic address:

Myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are a heterogeneous population of immature myeloid cells expanded and recruited from the bone marrow to the periphery or to a specific site of inflammation/infection. MDSC have been described in different pathological conditions including cancer, infections, autoimmunity and obesity. The main function of MDSC is immunosuppression occurring through different mechanisms such as induction of immunosuppressive cells, impairment of lymphocyte homing, free radical production, depletion of amino acids critical for T cell functions, upregulation of ectoenzymes involved in adenosine production and activation of immune regulatory molecules responsible of T cell anergy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coph.2019.02.010DOI Listing

Peptides in clinical development for the treatment of brain tumors.

Curr Opin Pharmacol 2019 Apr 4;47:102-109. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Laboratory for Research on Neurodegenerative Disorders, Istituti Clinici Scientifici Maugeri SpA SB - IRCCS, 27100 Pavia, Italy. Electronic address:

Peptides have emerged as novel and promising medicaments for the treatment of many human diseases, including tumors. In the treatment of cancer, they can be employed directly as bioactive therapeutics, promoting the reduction of tumor growth, but also as drug delivery systems, to facilitate the passage of drugs through cell and tissue barriers and to increase the selectivity of therapeutics for tumor cells. The advantages of peptides over standard chemotherapeutic agents are several-fold and include ease of synthesis, high efficacy, reduced side-effects, and low production cost. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coph.2019.02.007DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Role of the purinergic P2X receptors in osteoclast pathophysiology.

Curr Opin Pharmacol 2019 Apr 4;47:97-101. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Rigshospitalet, Valdemar Hansens Vej 13, DK-2600 Glostrup, Denmark; OPEN, Odense Patient data Explorative Network, Odense University Hospital/Institute of Clinical Research, University of Southern Denmark, J.B.Winsløws Vej 9, DK-5000 Odense C, Denmark. Electronic address:

Osteoclasts are cells of the hematopoietic lineage that are responsible for bone resorption. Their activity is crucial in the initiation of bone remodeling and for maintenance of a strong and healthy skeleton. However, in a number of diseases, including inflammatory disorders, inappropriately high osteoclast activity results in excessive bone degradation, bone loss, and subsequently fractures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coph.2019.02.013DOI Listing

Role of the P2X7 receptor in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and its microvascular complications.

Curr Opin Pharmacol 2019 Apr 4;47:75-81. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Section for Cell Biology and Physiology, Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. Electronic address:

P2X7 receptors can be found in many tissues and organs, where they mediate several biological functions. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the role of this receptor in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes, in which the key clinical features are impaired insulin secretion and sensitivity, hyperglycemia, coexistence of other cardiovascular risk factors such as dyslipidemia and hypertension, and subclinical inflammation. The receptor modulates crucial pathways in the pancreatic islets (where it can either exert a trophic or detrimental action on β cells), and in the liver, in the adipose tissue and in the skeletal muscle, which are main sites of insulin resistance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coph.2019.02.009DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Purinergic receptors and the inflammatory response mediated by lipids.

Curr Opin Pharmacol 2019 Apr 2;47:90-96. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Instituto Murciano de Investigación Biosanitaria IMIB-Arrixaca, Hospital Clínico Universitario Virgen de la Arrixaca, Murcia, Spain. Electronic address:

The inflammatory response is regulated by the production of different extracellular mediators, including lipids and extracellular nucleotides. In the extracellular environment, intermediate lipids activate specific G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in target cells and promote cell recruitment and activation. Extracellular nucleotides activate two types of receptors, the ionotropic purinergic P2X and the metabotropic purinergic P2Y receptors, inducing the release of cytokines and promoting cell recruitment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coph.2019.02.004DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Harnessing microbiota interactions to produce bioactive metabolites: communication signals and receptor proteins.

Curr Opin Pharmacol 2019 Mar 29;48:8-16. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Department of Molecular Biology, Section Microbiology, University of León, 24071 León, Spain.

Numerous microbial communities live in soil, aquatic habitats, plants, and animal bodies. Microbial genome sequences have revealed that thousands of biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) are present in different bacteria and filamentous fungi. Many of these BGCs are not expressed in pure cultures in the laboratory. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coph.2019.02.014DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Impact of ∼omics in the detection and validation of potential anti-infective drugs.

Curr Opin Pharmacol 2019 Mar 25;48:1-7. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Departamento de Biología Molecular y Biotecnología, Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), CDMX, 04510, Mexico. Electronic address:

New anti-infective drugs are an unmet necessity of modern medicine. The use of ∼omics technologies has exponentially increased the knowledge on active anti-infective structures, where to search for them and their mechanisms of action. Research involving extreme and unique environments (such as endophytes) revealed their potential for many yet unknown active molecules. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coph.2019.02.008DOI Listing

P2X4 receptors, immunity, and sepsis.

Curr Opin Pharmacol 2019 Mar 25;47:65-74. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Department of Anesthesiology, Columbia University, New York, NY, 10032, USA. Electronic address:

Sepsis is life-threatening systemic organ dysfunction caused by a deregulated host response to an infectious insult. Currently, the treatment of sepsis is limited to the use of antibiotics, fluids, and cardiovascular/respiratory support. Despite these interventions, septic mortality remains high, with reduced life quality in survivors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coph.2019.02.011DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Role of the P2X7 receptor in tumor-associated inflammation.

Curr Opin Pharmacol 2019 Mar 25;47:59-64. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Department of Morphology, Surgery and Experimental Medicine, University of Ferrara, Italy.

Inflammation is constantly associated to cancer. Malignant tumors often develop at sites of chronic inflammation, and inflammation promotes tumor progression. But, at the same time, inflammation is crucial for anti-tumor immune response. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coph.2019.02.012DOI Listing

Immunomodulatory effects of P2X7 receptor in intracellular parasite infections.

Curr Opin Pharmacol 2019 Mar 19;47:53-58. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Laboratory of Immunophysiology, Biophysics Institute Carlos Chagas Filho, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Electronic address:

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is released from host cells during parasite infections and acts as a danger signal in the extracellular space by activating plasma membrane purinergic type 2 receptors-P2 receptors. The activation of these receptors has been described as a crucial step in immune cell activation, inflammation and parasite control. The P2X7 receptor is most involved in the activation of host microbicidal mechanisms, including production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, phagolysosomal fusion, acidification of parasitophorous vacuoles and release of cytokines and chemokines. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coph.2019.02.005DOI Listing

The ATP/P2X7 axis in human immunodeficiency virus infection of macrophages.

Curr Opin Pharmacol 2019 Mar 19;47:46-52. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Viral Pathogens and Biosafety Unit, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milano, Italy; Vita-Salute San Raffaele University School of Medicine, Milano, Italy. Electronic address:

HIV-1 infects CD4+ T lymphocytes with a 'helper' function and myeloid cells, mostly tissue-resident macrophages. While infection of CD4 T lymphocytes in the absence of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) leads to their depletion and to a profound immunodeficiency, macrophages are resistant to virus-induced cytopathicity and are a source of infectious virus, particularly in the central nervous system (CNS). Infected macrophages are characterized by accumulating newly formed viral particles (virions) in subcellular vacuoles defined as 'virus-containing compartments (VCC)', derived from invaginations of the plasma membrane, that are poorly accessible to antiretroviral agents and anti-HIV antibodies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coph.2019.02.006DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

P2X7 purinoceptor as a therapeutic target in muscular dystrophies.

Curr Opin Pharmacol 2019 Mar 19;47:40-45. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

School of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Portsmouth, UK; Military Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Warsaw, Poland. Electronic address:

Mutations in the dystrophin and sarcoglycans genes result in muscular dystrophies causing severe disability and premature death and where no effective treatment is available. New therapeutic approaches targeting secondary disease mechanisms have a strong translational potential. Dystrophic muscle damage triggers release of ATP whilst loss of ecto-ATPase activity of sarcoglycan further elevates extracellular ATP (eATP) levels. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coph.2019.02.003DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Role of the P2X4 receptor in neuropathic pain.

Authors:
Kazuhide Inoue

Curr Opin Pharmacol 2019 Mar 14;47:33-39. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Department of Molecular and System Pharmacology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8582, Japan. Electronic address:

Neuropathic pain is the most important type of chronic pain because it is refractory to available medications. Neuropathic pain occurs after peripheral nerve injury (PNI) or nerve damage by various reasons. In recent decades, a growing body of evidence shows that spinal microglia and P2X4 receptor (P2X4R), a subtype of ionotropic ATP receptors, play a principal role in evoking this pain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coph.2019.02.001DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Experimental models to study prion disease pathogenesis and identify potential therapeutic compounds.

Curr Opin Pharmacol 2019 Mar 14;44:28-38. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri IRCCS, 20156 Milan, Italy. Electronic address:

Prion diseases are devastating neurodegenerative disorders for which no drugs are available. The successful development of therapeutics depends on drug screening platforms and preclinical models that recapitulate key molecular and pathological features of the disease. Innovative experimental tools have been developed over the last few years that might facilitate drug discovery, including cell-free prion replication assays and prion-infected flies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coph.2019.02.002DOI Listing

The future of peptides in cancer treatment.

Curr Opin Pharmacol 2019 Mar 8;47:27-32. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

University of Tartu, Institute of Technology, Nooruse 1, Tartu, Estonia. Electronic address:

Peptides hold great potential for the cancer therapy and diagnostics. In the current review, the main and most influential areas of peptide cancer therapeutics are overviewed. These include the development of anticancer peptides, use of peptides for drug delivery, and cancer targeting. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coph.2019.01.008DOI Listing

Peptides as cancer vaccines.

Curr Opin Pharmacol 2019 Mar 1;47:20-26. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

Center for Translational Research in Onco-Hematology, Division of Oncology, Geneva University Hospitals and University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Cancer vaccines based on synthetic peptides are a safe, well-tolerated immunotherapy able to specifically stimulate tumor-reactive T cells. However, their clinical efficacy does not approach that achieved with other immunotherapies such as immune checkpoint blockade. Nevertheless, major advances have been made in selecting tumor antigens to target, identifying epitopes binding to classical and non-classical HLA molecules, and incorporating these into optimal sized peptides for formulation into a vaccine. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coph.2019.01.007DOI Listing
March 2019
9 Reads

The de-Alzheimerization of age-related dementias: implications for drug targets and approaches to effective therapeutics.

Curr Opin Pharmacol 2019 Feb 19. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Department of Biological Chemistry and Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, United States. Electronic address:

Alzheimer's disease (AD) was differentiated from senile dementia (SD) in 1910 due to its early onset and pathological severity. In 1976, this distinction was upended when SD was redesignated as AD to focus efforts and funding in dementia-related research. AD then became conflated with amyloid plaques and, to a lesser degree, neurofibrillary tangles complicating efforts in understanding dementia causality and its treatment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coph.2019.01.004DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Tumor targeting peptides: novel therapeutic strategies in glioblastoma.

Authors:
Drazen Raucher

Curr Opin Pharmacol 2019 Feb 15;47:14-19. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS, United States. Electronic address:

Peptides are a promising new therapeutic approach for glioblastoma with potential for more effective targeting and fewer devastating side effects compared to conventional cancer therapies. With the specificity to target receptors which are uniquely or overexpressed on cancer cells as well as accurately targeting dysregulated signaling pathways, peptides demonstrate a high potential for the treatment of even the most aggressive cancers. By binding to these targets, peptides can be used to deliver drugs, serve as antagonists to various ligands, or, given some inherent anticancer activity, provide additional treatment options alone or in combination therapy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coph.2019.01.006DOI Listing
February 2019

Recent advances of anti-cancer therapies including the use of cell-penetrating peptides.

Curr Opin Pharmacol 2019 Feb 13;47:8-13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

University of Cologne, Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry, Zülpicher Str. 47a, 50674 Cologne, Germany. Electronic address:

Cancer is one of the major growing public health problems making the development of new anti-cancer treatment strategies still compulsory. Conventionally used chemotherapies are quite often associated with severe side effects. One reason is limited cell-permeability of the used drugs resulting in only poor overall bioavailability. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S14714892183008
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coph.2019.01.003DOI Listing
February 2019
9 Reads

Pharmacological advances in pemphigoid.

Curr Opin Pharmacol 2019 Feb 12;46:34-43. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Department of Dermatology, Philipps University, Baldingerstr., Marburg, Germany. Electronic address:

Pemphigoid is the most common autoimmune blistering disease. IgG and IgE autoantibodies against the hemidesmosomal antigens Bullous Pemphigoid (BP) 180 and BP230 are of pathogenic relevance, since autoantibody-antigen binding results in complement activation, immune cells infiltration, impaired hemidesmosomal function, and loss of dermal-epidermal adhesion. Systemic steroids and immunosuppressants are frontline therapies in pemphigoid, but result in substantial morbidity and increased mortality. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coph.2018.12.007DOI Listing
February 2019
6 Reads

Therapeutic strategies for eosinophilic dermatoses.

Curr Opin Pharmacol 2019 Feb 8;46:29-33. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

Institute of Pharmacology, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland; Department of Clinical Immunology and Allergology, Sechenov University, Moscow, Russia.

Eosinophil infiltration is observed in a broad spectrum of skin diseases of various origins. Eosinophils are thought to actively contribute to pathogenesis as they are able to defend against microbes, to regulate inflammation, cause tissue damage, promote remodeling and fibrosis, and initiate pruritus. Therefore, targeting eosinophils would seem a worthwhile therapeutic approach. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coph.2019.01.002DOI Listing
February 2019
3 Reads

Modern sun protection.

Curr Opin Pharmacol 2019 Feb 4;46:24-28. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Department of Dermatology, University Hospital Regensburg, Franz-Josef-Strauß-Allee 11, 93053 Regensburg, Germany.

So far sun protection meant ultraviolet (UV) protection. But there is preliminary data that beside UV radiation also visible light (VIS) and near infrared A (IRA) radiation may have harmful effects on our skin resulting in photoaging and even cancer induction. Therefore, some authors claim that modern sun protection should also include shielding against longer wavelengths such as VIS and IRA. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S14714892183012
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coph.2018.12.006DOI Listing
February 2019
13 Reads

Protein-driven nanomedicines in oncotherapy.

Curr Opin Pharmacol 2019 Jan 24;47:1-7. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

CIBER de Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN), Bellaterra, 08193, Barcelona, Spain; Departament de Genètica i de Microbiologia, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, 08193, Barcelona, Spain; Institut de Biotecnologia i de Biomedicina, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, 08193, Barcelona, Spain.

Proteins are organic macromolecules essential in life but exploited, mainly in recombinant versions, as drugs or vaccine components, among other uses in industry or biomedicine. In oncology, individual proteins or supramolecular complexes have been tailored as small molecular weight drug carriers for passive or active tumor cell-targeted delivery, through the de novo design of appropriate drug stabilizing vehicles, or by generating constructs with different extents of mimesis of natural cell-targeted entities, such as viruses. In most of these approaches, a convenient nanoscale size is achieved through the oligomeric organization of the protein component in the drug conjugate. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coph.2018.12.004DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Identification of anti-prion drugs and targets using toxicity-based assays.

Curr Opin Pharmacol 2019 Jan 23;44:20-27. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02118, United States. Electronic address:

Prion diseases are untreatable and invariably fatal, making the discovery of effective therapeutic interventions a priority. Most candidate molecules have been discovered based on their ability to reduce the levels of PrP, the infectious form of the prion protein, in cultured neuroblastoma cells. We have employed an alternative assay, based on an abnormal cellular phenotype associated with a mutant prion protein, to discover a novel class of anti-prion compounds, the phenethyl piperidines. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coph.2018.12.005DOI Listing
January 2019

Trends in the treatment and prevention of keratinocyte carcinoma (non-melanoma skin cancer).

Authors:
Alexander Zink

Curr Opin Pharmacol 2019 Jan 17;46:19-23. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

Department of Dermatology and Allergy, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany; Clinical Unit Allergology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health GmbH, Neuherberg, Germany. Electronic address:

Keratinocyte carcinoma (KC), previously also known as non-melanoma skin cancer, is the most common malignancy worldwide. It comprises basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and actinic keratoses as carcinoma in situ or precursors of SCC. With solar ultraviolet radiation being the main risk factor, several countries have accepted KC as an occupational disease of outdoor professions. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S14714892183009
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coph.2018.12.002DOI Listing
January 2019
14 Reads

Clinical effectiveness of novel rosacea therapies.

Curr Opin Pharmacol 2019 Jan 10;46:14-18. Epub 2019 Jan 10.

Center for Dermatology Research, Department of Dermatology, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, United States.

Rosacea is a common inflammatory skin disease that is difficult to manage because of the unknown etiology and due to its variable manifestations. These facts and the few new available treatment options make it difficult to select a really effective treatment. This review aims to assess the efficacy and safety of novel treatment options for rosacea. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S14714892183011
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coph.2018.12.001DOI Listing
January 2019
17 Reads

Current pharmaceutical developments in atopic dermatitis.

Curr Opin Pharmacol 2019 Jan 2;46:7-13. Epub 2019 Jan 2.

Aarhus University Hospital, Department of Dermatology, Aarhus, Denmark.

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is an inflammatory, pruritic, chronic or chronically relapsing skin disease that typically begins in early childhood and is occurring frequently in families with other atopic diseases (bronchial asthma and/or allergic rhino-conjunctivitis). Thanks to immunological and neurobiological research, the era of new treatments is coming as well as it occurred with psoriasis 15 years ago. Many treatments targeting cytokines (IL-4, IL-13, IL-31, TSLP) or neurotransmitters (substance P, opioids) or their respective receptors as well as phosphodiesterase-4 or the Jak/Stat pathways are under development. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coph.2018.12.003DOI Listing
January 2019
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Current treatment strategies in refractory chronic pruritus.

Curr Opin Pharmacol 2018 Dec 6;46:1-6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Dermatology and Center for Chronic Pruritus, University Hospital Münster, Münster, Germany.

Chronic pruritus is a highly prevalent, debilitating disease, which is often refractory to conventional therapies. A step-wise, guideline-driven approach should be adopted in the management of these patients. Emollients as well as topical corticosteroids if appropriate should be initiated whilst looking for the cause underlying the pruritus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coph.2018.11.007DOI Listing
December 2018
6 Reads

Therapeutic strategies for prion disease: a practical perspective.

Curr Opin Pharmacol 2018 Nov 30;44:15-19. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Neurology, University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, 3619 Park East Drive, Suite 206, Beachwood, OH 44122, USA.

Human prion diseases are usually rapid neurodegenerative illnesses that are invariably fatal. Despite several clinical trials, no effective treatment has been discovered in humans. Although prior clinical trials have not been successful, they provided information that is vital for the formation of future clinical trials. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coph.2018.11.006DOI Listing
November 2018
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Impact of currently used anti-diabetic drugs on myoendothelial communication.

Curr Opin Pharmacol 2018 Nov 28;45:1-7. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Departments of Pharmacology and Medical Education, Weill Cornell Medicine - Qatar, Qatar Foundation, Education City, Doha, Qatar. Electronic address:

Diabetes is associated with a high risk of cardiovascular complications and ideally anti-diabetic drugs should not only reduce metabolic abnormalities but also reduce the negative impact of diabetes on vascular function; however, lowering blood glucose levels does not necessarily reduce cardiovascular events. Endothelial dysfunction, defined as a reduction in endothelium-dependent vasodilation, is the earliest indicator of vascular disease and this raises the question: Do the currently used anti-diabetic drugs protect endothelial function? Metformin, in use for 60 years, is the first choice drug for type 2 diabetes and based on pre-clinical and clinical data metformin has proven cardiovascular protective actions; in contrast SGLT2 inhibitors were only introduced in 2013 but show great promise. This review compares metformin with SGLT2 inhibitors and the data supporting their protective effects on the endothelium. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coph.2018.11.002DOI Listing
November 2018
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4.595 Impact Factor

Editorial.

Curr Opin Pharmacol 2018 Dec 27;43:150. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coph.2018.11.004DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

Editorial.

Curr Opin Pharmacol 2018 Dec 27;43:151. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

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December 2018
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Editorial overview.

Curr Opin Pharmacol 2018 Dec 24;43:vi-vii. Epub 2018 Nov 24.

Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, University of Naples "Federico II", Naples, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coph.2018.11.005DOI Listing
December 2018
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Cell-based therapy against prion diseases.

Curr Opin Pharmacol 2018 Nov 22;44:8-14. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Institute for Regenerative Medicine and Biotherapies (IRMB), Neural Stem Cell, MSC and Neurodegenerative Diseases - U1183 INSERM (Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale), 80 rue Augustin Fliche, 34295 Montpellier, France. Electronic address:

Despite multiple efforts to find treatments, prion diseases are still incurable. The currently available therapeutic strategies are mostly based on compounds to inhibit pathological PrP (PrPSc) accumulation, and cellular PrP (PrP) conversion into PrP. However, they cannot reverse the pathological changes already present in the brain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coph.2018.11.001DOI Listing
November 2018
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Editorial overview: Endocrine and metabolic diseases Druggable diabetes: identification of therapeutic opportunities.

Curr Opin Pharmacol 2018 Dec 13;43:iii-v. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Department of Diabetes, School of Life Course Sciences King's College London, London SE1 1UL, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coph.2018.10.002DOI Listing
December 2018
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Cell-free prion protein conversion assays in screening for anti-prion drug candidates.

Curr Opin Pharmacol 2018 Nov 6;44:1-7. Epub 2018 Nov 6.

Laboratory of Persistent Viral Diseases, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, MT, United States. Electronic address:

The search for medications to treat prion diseases has lasted more than 30 years but no clinically validated treatments for prion diseases of humans or livestock have been realized. A primary strategy has been to identify molecules that can inhibit the formation of pathological forms of prion protein, for example, protease-resistant forms called PrP. Such inhibitors can prolong the lives of experimental animals inoculated peripherally with prions, but the practical therapeutic efficacy of known inhibitors against ongoing brain infections has so far been limited by toxicity, insufficient bioavailability to the CNS, and/or strain specificities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coph.2018.10.001DOI Listing
November 2018
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The epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) as a therapeutic target for cystic fibrosis.

Curr Opin Pharmacol 2018 Dec 16;43:152-165. Epub 2018 Oct 16.

Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA; Department of Pediatrics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA; Department of Cell Developmental and Integrative Biology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA; The Gregory Fleming James Cystic Fibrosis Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA. Electronic address:

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a monogenic disease caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. CFTR dysfunction is characterized by abnormal mucociliary transport due to a dehydrated airway surface liquid (ASL) and hyperviscous mucus, among other pathologies of host defense. ASL depletion is caused by the absence of CFTR mediated chloride secretion along with continued activity of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) activity, which can also be affected by CFTR mediated anion conductance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coph.2018.09.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6294660PMC
December 2018
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Stem cell therapy in severe pediatric motility disorders.

Curr Opin Pharmacol 2018 Dec 16;43:145-149. Epub 2018 Oct 16.

Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine, UCL Great Ormond Street Institute of Child Health, 30 Guilford Street, London, WC1N 1EH, UK; Neurogastroenterology and Motility Unit, Department of Paediatric Gastroenterology, Great Ormond Street Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, WC1N 3JH, UK. Electronic address:

Pediatric gastrointestinal motility disorders represent a range of severe developmental or acquired conditions that disrupt enteric neuromuscular function. Current medical and surgical therapeutic options are very limited but recent advances have highlighted the possibility of improved or curative stem cell-based treatments. Not only has the ability to harvest, propagate and transplant human-derived enteric neural stem cells (ENSCs) been demonstrated but recent in vivo transplantation studies have confirmed that ENSCs are capable of engraftment within recipient intestine of animal models of enteric neuropathy and effecting functional rescue. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coph.2018.09.004DOI Listing
December 2018
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Medical and dietary treatments in eosinophilic esophagitis.

Curr Opin Pharmacol 2018 Dec 16;43:139-144. Epub 2018 Oct 16.

Department of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, University Hospital Zurich, Switzerland.

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) refers to a relatively new chronic inflammatory disease of the esophagus, which according to the current understanding underlies an immune-mediated pathogenesis driven by exposure to allergens. While several open questions remain regarding ethiopathogenesis as well as treatment options and their positioning, one thing has increasingly been recognized. The disease is on the rise and will increasingly be of importance in everyday's clinical practice, not only in expert physicians but also gastroenterologists with a broad clinical spectrum, allergologists and even general practitioners. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coph.2018.08.013DOI Listing
December 2018
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Use of dietary interventions for functional gastrointestinal disorders.

Curr Opin Pharmacol 2018 Dec 9;43:132-138. Epub 2018 Oct 9.

Department of Rehabilitation, Nutrition and Sport, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia. Electronic address:

The role of food in the development of symptoms experienced within functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) is well recognised. This review aims to describe the evidence base for dietary interventions in the different functional esophageal, duodenal and bowel disorders. Randomised controlled trials are lacking for many of the FGIDs, with the exception of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S14714892183001
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coph.2018.09.003DOI Listing
December 2018
4 Reads