3,003 results match your criteria Current Opinion in Pediatrics[Journal]


Updates on HIV nonoccupational postexposure prophylaxis.

Curr Opin Pediatr 2019 Apr 9. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

VCU Health, School of Medicine, Richmond, Virginia, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Adolescents and young adults continue to contribute to new HIV infections despite improved antiretroviral regimens and HIV preexposure and postexposure prophylaxis (PrEP and PEP). Knowledge about nonoccupational HIV PEP (nPEP) is relevant and important for all pediatricians as adolescents present under a variety of circumstances disclosing past sexual activity.

Recent Findings: nPEP is effective in preventing HIV infection, and newer regimens have been shown to increase compliance amongst users, have less side effects, and lead to less HIV resistance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000775DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Changing paradigms in pediatric surgery.

Curr Opin Pediatr 2019 Apr 3. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Section of Pediatric Surgery, Department of Surgery, The University of Chicago Medicine, Comer Children's Hospital, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000770DOI Listing

Pediatric pulmonology, ever changing, but happily in the same, old boat.

Curr Opin Pediatr 2019 Apr 3. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Department of Pediatrics, Center for Excellence in Pulmonary Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000761DOI Listing

Mindfulness-based interventions for adolescent health.

Curr Opin Pediatr 2019 Apr 1. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Division of Adolescent/Young Adult Medicine.

Purpose Of Review: Mindfulness, the practice of paying attention to the present moment, purposefully and nonjudgmentally, has been gaining popularity as adjunct treatment for adolescents with a range of physical and mental health problems. Research conducted in adults and emerging research conducted in adolescents has shown that mindfulness-based interventions can improve outcomes in several areas. The purpose of this review is to discuss recent research on the effects of mindfulness and suggest exercises that primary care clinicians can offer to their adolescent patients. Read More

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http://Insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00008480-900000000-9887
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000760DOI Listing
April 2019
5 Reads

Adolescent vaccinations: updates for the general practitioner.

Curr Opin Pediatr 2019 Apr 1. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Massachusetts Medical School-Baystate, Springfield, Massachusetts, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Adolescent providers have a unique opportunity to interface with adolescents during a transformative time period. Optimizing vaccinations may protect teens against preventable but potentially deadly diseases. Healthcare providers must be aware of the evolving vaccination data and up-to-date recommendations for vaccinations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000759DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

An update on allergic emergencies.

Curr Opin Pediatr 2019 Apr 1. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

The Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Hanover.

Purpose Of Review: To provide an updated framework of management for allergic emergencies.

Recent Findings: The most frequent causes of anaphylaxis include medications, foods, and stinging insects. Early and appropriate administration of epinephrine is critical to managing anaphylaxis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000769DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Prevention of allergy with diverse and healthy microbiota: an update.

Curr Opin Pediatr 2019 Apr 1. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Hanover.

Purpose Of Review: Microbiota consist of symbiotic microscopic neighbors that interact on and within our bodies in diverse and incompletely understood ways throughout our lifetime. Though various associations with allergic disease have been described, clear effective therapeutic interventions to prevent allergy have been elusive.

Recent Findings: The human microbiome is influenced by multiple factors, including: mode of infant delivery (vaginal vs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000766DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Who moved my fellow: changes to Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education fellowships in pediatric surgery and what may be yet to come.

Curr Opin Pediatr 2019 Apr 1. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Division of Pediatric Surgery, Department of Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Over the past 15 years, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) has significantly altered the regulatory framework governing fellowship training in pediatric surgery. The daily experiences of pediatric surgical trainees have been impacted by these changes, but training program directors and faculty have not developed a consistent approach to managing this shift. This review highlights the changes, which have occurred, analyzes the current state of fellowship training, and proposes potential strategies for management. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000762DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Pediatric postoperative opioid prescribing and the opioid crisis.

Curr Opin Pediatr 2019 Apr 1. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Department of Surgery, University of Michigan Medical School.

Purpose Of Review: The purpose of this review is to explore the effects of the opioid crisis on pediatric patients in the postoperative setting and provide recommendations for well-tolerated opioid prescribing practices.

Recent Findings: Opioid overdoses have increased among all age groups, predominantly related to overprescribing and accessibility of opioids in the home. Adverse risks of prescribed opioids include respiratory depression, gastrointestinal distress, accidental ingestion, intentional misuse, new chronic use, diversion to another user, and overdose. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000768DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

Global children's surgery: recent advances and future directions.

Curr Opin Pediatr 2019 Apr 1. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Department of Surgery, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Two-thirds of the world's population lacks access to surgical care, many of them being children. This review provides an update on recent advances in global children's surgery.

Recent Findings: Surgery is being increasingly recognized as an essential component of global and child health. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000765DOI Listing

Ethical challenges in regionalization of pediatric surgical care.

Curr Opin Pediatr 2019 Apr 1. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Division of Pediatric Surgery, Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Rapid advancement in the field of pediatric surgery has resulted in unprecedented opportunities to advance the care of children. However, assuring that the highest quality, most appropriate care is available to all pediatric patients remains challenging. Regionalization of care has been proposed as a means of obtaining this critical goal. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000764DOI Listing

Asthma severity, nature or nurture: genetic determinants.

Authors:
Benjamin A Raby

Curr Opin Pediatr 2019 Mar 20. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Boston Children's Hospital.

Purpose Of Review: This article reviews the progress in the search for the genetic determinants of severe asthma.

Recent Findings: Twin studies estimate that approximately 25% of the phenotypic variability in asthma severity is determined by genetic factors, with the remainder determined by nongenetic factors including environmental and psychosocial factors, behavioral traits, and comorbidities. Most genetic association studies of asthma severity performed to date are underpowered and not designed to clearly distinguish asthma severity variants from asthma susceptibility variants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000758DOI Listing
March 2019
4 Reads

Long-term ventilation for children with chronic lung disease of infancy.

Curr Opin Pediatr 2019 Mar 18. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Section of Pulmonary Medicine and Pediatric Heart Lung Center, Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado, School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Modern medical advances have resulted in an increased survival after extremely preterm birth. However, some infants will develop severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and fail to wean from invasive or noninvasive positive pressure support. It remains unclear which infants will benefit from tracheostomy placement for chronic ventilation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000757DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

Precision medicine in pediatric sepsis.

Curr Opin Pediatr 2019 Mar 18. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Division of Critical Care Medicine, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center.

Purpose Of Review: Pediatric sepsis is a heterogeneous state associated with significant morbidity and mortality, but treatment strategies are limited. Clinical trials of immunomodulators in sepsis have shown no benefit, despite having a strong biological rationale. There is considerable interest in application of a precision medicine approach to pediatric sepsis to identify patients who are more likely to benefit from targeted therapeutic interventions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000753DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

Rethinking what constitutes a diagnosis in the genomics era: a critical illness perspective.

Curr Opin Pediatr 2019 Mar 18. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Genomics Discovery Program, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.

Purpose Of Review: The purpose of this review is to highlight the significant advances in the testing, interpretation, and diagnosis of genetic abnormalities in critically ill children and to emphasize that pediatric intensivists are uniquely positioned to search for genetic diagnoses in these patients.

Recent Findings: Ten years following the first clinical diagnosis made through whole exome sequencing, we remain in the dark about the function of roughly 75% of our genes. However, steady advancements in molecular techniques, particularly next-generation sequencing, have spurred a rapid expansion of our understanding of the genetic underpinnings of severe congenital diseases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000754DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

An update on the medical consequences of anorexia nervosa.

Curr Opin Pediatr 2019 Mar 14. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

GMCCLINICS and Medical Department of the Eating Disorder Unit at The American Centre of Psychiatry and Neurology ACPN, Dubai, United Arab Emirates.

Purpose Of Review: The diagnosis of anorexia nervosa is associated with the highest mortality rate of any psychiatric disorder, mainly caused by medical complications.The purpose of this article is to review the common medical consequences of anorexia nervosa focusing on the special considerations related to children and adolescents and recent updates on the pathophysiology of these complications and their prognosis significance.

Recent Findings: The main findings were related to the diagnostic and prognostic value of hypokalaemia, QTc prolongation, hypoglycaemia and orthostatic changes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000755DOI Listing
March 2019
5 Reads

Asthma in children with sickle cell disease.

Curr Opin Pediatr 2019 Mar 14. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt-Meharry Center for Excellence in Sickle Cell Disease, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Asthma is common in children with sickle cell disease (SCD) and appears to be associated with increased morbidity. Providers caring for children with SCD have struggled with the question of whether asthma exists as a true comorbidity or whether certain aspects of the chronic inflammatory disease gives children with SCD an asthma-like phenotype.

Recent Findings: Clinical signs and symptoms seen in children with asthma in the general population, such as wheezing, airway hyperresponsiveness, atopy, elevated leukotrienes, and abnormal lung function are seen in children with SCD both with and without a diagnosis of asthma. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000756DOI Listing
March 2019
4 Reads

Genetic causes of surfactant protein abnormalities.

Authors:
Lawrence M Nogee

Curr Opin Pediatr 2019 Mar 6. Epub 2019 Mar 6.

Eudowood Neonatal Pulmonary Division, Department of Pediatrics, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Mutations in genes encoding proteins critical for the production and function of pulmonary surfactant cause diffuse lung disease. Timely recognition and diagnosis of affected individuals is important for proper counseling concerning prognosis and recurrence risk.

Recent Findings: Involved genes include those encoding for surfactant proteins A, B, and C, member A3 of the ATP-binding cassette family, and for thyroid transcription factor 1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000751DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Cannabis-related emergencies in children and teens.

Curr Opin Pediatr 2019 Mar 6. Epub 2019 Mar 6.

Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Purpose Of Review: To examine the spectrum of emergency department presentations associated with cannabis use or misuse that are currently seen in the pediatric population.

Recent Findings: There is a growing concern that pediatric emergency department visits related to cannabis are on the rise, especially given rapidly changing legislation on cannabis and its broad availability in certain areas. These concerns are substantiated in the current literature, as the evidence mounts for an array of emergency department presentations of intentional or accidental cannabis use. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000752DOI Listing

Diagnosis of appendicitis in the paediatric emergency department: an update.

Curr Opin Pediatr 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Emergency Department, Sunshine Hospital.

Purpose Of Review: Concern regarding appendicitis is a common reason for presentation to the paediatric emergency department. We review recent progress in the use of biomarkers, imaging and clinical scoring systems in improving diagnostic accuracy in suspected appendicitis in children.

Recent Findings: Use of ultrasound, often performed at the bedside, is becoming more widespread with a parallel reduction in computed tomography (CT) use. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000749DOI Listing
February 2019

Addressing adverse childhood experiences in diverse racial and ethnic settings: a review.

Curr Opin Pediatr 2019 Apr;31(2):284-289

Department of Pediatrics, Cohen Children's Medical Center, Northwell Health Solutions, New York, USA.

Purpose Of Review: This article reviews the current literature on adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) with particular focus on racial and ethnic factors.

Recent Findings: Limited research exists with respect to ACEs and certain racial and ethnic groups. In this article, we highlight the unique challenges specific populations may face in their lives. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000748DOI Listing

Chimeric antigen receptor T-cell toxicity.

Curr Opin Pediatr 2019 Apr;31(2):251-255

Department of Emergency Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Chimeric antigen receptor -(CAR) T-cell therapy has become a commonly used immunotherapy originally used in the treatment of B-cell leukemias but which are now applied broadly across tumor classes. Although high rates of remission are associated with CAR T-cell therapy, toxicities associated with these novel treatment regimens can be lethal if not recognized in a timely manner.

Recent Findings: Cytokine release syndrome and neurotoxicity are the two most common toxicities associated with CAR T-cell therapy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000747DOI Listing
April 2019
7 Reads

What is new in electronic-cigarettes research?

Curr Opin Pediatr 2019 Apr;31(2):262-266

Department of Pediatrics, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York City, New York, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and other vaping devices have seen extraordinary growth in use in the past 10 years, and companies are accelerating their development of new products and marketing efforts. In turn, researchers have increased their efforts to determine how e-cigarettes affect health, how marketing these products impacts adolescents and how the use of e-cigarettes may affect adolescents' use of other tobacco products. Products like Juul were not on the market 2 years ago; thus, frequent updates on the topic are essential. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000741DOI Listing

Editorial: Untangling the knottiest neonatal challenges.

Curr Opin Pediatr 2019 Apr;31(2):175-176

Department of Pediatrics, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, New York, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000743DOI Listing
April 2019
2.528 Impact Factor

Living or deceased donor kidney transplantation in children.

Curr Opin Pediatr 2019 Apr;31(2):232-236

Division of Pediatric Nephrology, Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Kidney transplantation is the preferred treatment modality for children with end-stage renal disease. In this review, we discuss the factors affecting the selection of the appropriate donor to ensure the best possible short and long-term outcomes.

Recent Findings: Outcomes of pediatric renal transplantation from living donors are superior to those obtained from deceased donors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000740DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Editorial: Renal transplantation: a brief history and outlook for the future.

Authors:
Michel Baum

Curr Opin Pediatr 2019 Apr;31(2):210-212

Department of Pediatrics and Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000744DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Physiologic diagnosis of congenital heart disease in cyanotic neonates.

Curr Opin Pediatr 2019 Apr;31(2):274-283

Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Cohen Children's Medical Center of New York - Donald and Barbara Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/Northwell, New York, USA.

Purpose Of Review: We aim to improve diagnosis of congenital heart disease (CHD) with cyanosis by physiology for general practitioners to reduce time to appropriate treatment.

Recent Findings: New implementation of the critical congenital heart disease (CCHD) pulse oximetry screen has improved rate of diagnosis of CHD in recent years. However, many infants with cyanotic heart lesions often decompensate before screening in the newborn nursery, or have lesions that are not amenable to pulse oximetry screening and that present later in the emergency room. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000742DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Neurotoxicity of general anesthetics in children: evidence and uncertainties.

Curr Opin Pediatr 2019 Apr;31(2):267-273

Department of Psychiatry, Boston Children's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Compelling evidence in animal models that, under some conditions, general anesthetics and sedatives produce changes in the brain and persistent impairments in learning, memory, and behavior. The present review summarizes recent clinical studies investigating whether the use of these agents in children causes similar neurotoxicities.

Recent Findings: Although the results of retrospective studies are somewhat mixed, multiple exposures to general anesthesia were generally found to confer greater risk than single exposures with regard to learning disability, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, school readiness, and academic achievement. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000737DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

The neurointensive nursery: concept, development, and insights gained.

Curr Opin Pediatr 2019 Apr;31(2):202-209

Department Pediatrics, UCSF Benioff Children's Hospital.

Purpose Of Review: With the advent of therapeutic hypothermia for treatment of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, and improvements in neuroimaging and bedside neuromonitoring, a new era of neonatal brain-focused care has emerged in recent years. We describe the development of the first neurointensive care nursery (NICN) as a model for comanagement of neonates with identified neurologic risk factors by a multidisciplinary team constituted of neurologists, neonatologists, specialized nurses, and others with the goal of optimizing management, preventing secondary injury and maximizing long-term outcomes.

Recent Findings: Optimizing brain metabolic environment and perfusion and preventing secondary brain injury are key to neurocritical care. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000733DOI Listing
April 2019
4 Reads

Cannabinoid toxicity in pediatrics.

Curr Opin Pediatr 2019 Apr;31(2):256-261

Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts, USA.

Purpose Of Review: The advent of legalized cannabis in multiple regions of the United States has rendered the drug more accessible to pediatric patients. Pediatricians and Pediatric Emergency Medicine Providers face new challenges in counseling both patients and their parents, diagnosing exploratory ingestions of cannabinoids in toddlers, and managing complications of prolonged, heavy cannabis use in adolescents. The purpose of this review article is to provide clinicians a succinct summary of recent literature regarding tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, impacts on development, as well as presentations of acute and chronic toxicity. Read More

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http://Insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00008480-900000000-9889
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000739DOI Listing
April 2019
26 Reads

Ultra-short bowel syndrome during infancy: improving outcomes and novel therapies.

Curr Opin Pediatr 2019 Apr;31(2):177-181

Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, Cincinnati Children's Hospital.

Purpose Of Review: Ultra-short bowel syndrome is relatively rare and has not yet been extensively reported. In ultra-short bowel syndrome, poor absorption of nutrients and dysmotility, interfere with fluid, energy, electrolyte and micronutrient balance. Patients with this disorder are managed through prolonged parenteral nutrition with the ultimate goal of achieving enteral autonomy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000738DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Nonadherence after pediatric renal transplantation: detection and treatment.

Curr Opin Pediatr 2019 Apr;31(2):219-225

Hospital for Children and Adolescents, University of Helsinki, and Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

Purpose Of Review: Nonadherence is a problem in adolescents and young adults. Risk factors are classified as those of the individual, family, health-care-system, or community. I present the latest reports and how to tackle nonadherence. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000734DOI Listing

Arguments for routine administration of probiotics for NEC prevention.

Authors:
Mark A Underwood

Curr Opin Pediatr 2019 Apr;31(2):188-194

Division of Neonatology, University of California Davis School of Medicine, California, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Probiotic administration to premature infants for the purpose of prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis is common in many parts of the world but uncommon in the United States. The present review will emphasize recent findings in support of routine administration of probiotics to this highly vulnerable population.

Recent Findings: Additional evidence from animal models describing mechanisms of protection of probiotics in the immature gut and updated meta-analyses of randomized placebo-controlled trials and observational cohorts are presented (now including more than 40 000 premature infants from countries across the globe). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000732DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6405295PMC
April 2019
1 Read

Air pollution, ambient temperature, green space and preterm birth.

Authors:
Itai Kloog

Curr Opin Pediatr 2019 Apr;31(2):237-243

Department of Geography and Environmental Development, Ben-Gurion University, Beer Sheva, Israel.

Purpose Of Review: Preterm birth is the leading cause of global child mortality, and survivors are at increased risk of multiple morbidities that can continue into adulthood. Recent studies have suggested that maternal exposure to air pollution and high and low ambient temperatures may increase the risk of preterm birth, whereas proximity to green space may decrease it. This review summarizes these findings and suggests avenues for further research. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000736DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Use of earth observations for temperature exposure assessment in epidemiological studies.

Authors:
Itai Kloog

Curr Opin Pediatr 2019 Apr;31(2):244-250

Department of Geography and Environmental Development, Ben-Gurion University, Beer Sheva, Israel.

Purpose Of Review: Low, high, extreme, and variable temperatures have been linked to multiple adverse health outcomes, particularly among the elderly and children. Recent models incorporating satellite remote sensing data have mitigated several limitations of previous studies, improving exposure assessment. This review focuses on these new temperature exposure models and their application in epidemiological studies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000735DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Arguments against routine administration of probiotics for NEC prevention.

Curr Opin Pediatr 2019 Apr;31(2):195-201

Department of Paediatrics.

Purpose Of Review: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among premature neonates. Although randomized trials have shown that probiotics may be efficacious in the prevention of NEC, their use has not been universally adopted in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Caveats regarding routine probiotic supplementation for the prevention of NEC are summarized in this review. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000730DOI Listing
April 2019
13 Reads

Editorial: Recent advances in pediatric oncology.

Authors:
Susan M Blaney

Curr Opin Pediatr 2019 Feb;31(1):1-2

Texas Children's Cancer and Hematology Centers, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA.

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http://Insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00008480-201902000-0000
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000725DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Deliveries at extreme prematurity: outcomes, approaches, institutional variation, and uncertainty.

Curr Opin Pediatr 2019 Apr;31(2):182-187

Division of Newborn Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Medical decision making and practices surrounding extremely premature birth remains challenging for parents and care providers alike. Recently, concerns have been raised regarding wide practice variation, selection bias, and the limitations of outcomes data in this population. The purpose of this review is to summarize the recent literature relevant to deliveries at extreme prematurity with a focus on outcomes, approaches, and institutional variation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000731DOI Listing
April 2019
10 Reads

Advances in hematopoietic cell transplant for the treatment of hematologic malignancies.

Curr Opin Pediatr 2019 Feb;31(1):3-13

Division of Pediatric Hematology, Oncology and Blood and Marrow Transplantation, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Incorporation of minimal residual disease (MRD) testing in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) has transformed the landscape of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Pre-HCT MRD has allowed prognostication of HCT outcomes for high-risk leukemia patients, whereas the detection of post-HCT MRD has allowed for interventions to decrease relapse.

Recent Findings: In this review, we emphasize studies from the past two decades that highlight the critical role of MRD in HCT in pediatric ALL and AML. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000729DOI Listing
February 2019
9 Reads

Pathogenesis and treatment of electrolyte problems post transplant.

Authors:
Erin Kim

Curr Opin Pediatr 2019 Apr;31(2):213-218

Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Electrolyte abnormalities posttransplant are common occurrences that can have significant short-term and long-term effects on graft outcome and patient quality of life. Understanding the pathophysiology of these electrolyte derangements can help guide management to optimize bone health and minimize cardiovascular disease. This review explores the pathogenesis of the most common postrenal transplant electrolytes abnormalities as well as current treatment options. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000715DOI Listing
April 2019
4 Reads

Renal transplantation and predisposition to opportunistic infections.

Curr Opin Pediatr 2019 Apr;31(2):226-231

Division of Pediatric Nephrology, Hypertension and Pheresis, Washington University School of Medicine and St Louis Children's Hospital, St. Louis.

Purpose Of Review: Infections represent a significant source of morbidity and mortality after kidney transplantation in children. We review recent advances in epidemiology, assessment, prevention and treatment for several different infections.

Recent Findings: Infections, such as bacterial urinary tract infection or opportunistic viral infection remain common, may be increasing and represent a large proportion of hospitalization. Read More

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http://Insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00008480-900000000-9890
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000728DOI Listing
April 2019
17 Reads

Strategies to improve antibiotic use in the neonatal ICU.

Curr Opin Pediatr 2019 Feb;31(1):127-134

Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Neonates are at a high risk of infection and may have nonspecific signs of sepsis. Accordingly, they are heavily exposed to antimicrobials. Neonates are also uniquely at risk of both short-term and long-term complications from antibiotic exposure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000716DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Promoting resilience in vulnerable populations: focus on opioid-exposed children, siblings of children with special healthcare needs and support for children through school-based interventions.

Curr Opin Pediatr 2019 Feb;31(1):157-165

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Emergency Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Resilience is an important factor in withstanding the health consequences of childhood adversity. This article discusses recent literature related to promoting resilience in opioid-exposed children and siblings of children with special healthcare needs. It also addresses ways that school systems can foster childhood resilience. Read More

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http://Insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00008480-900000000-9891
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000722DOI Listing
February 2019
8 Reads

The future of careers in pediatric infectious diseases: a call to action.

Curr Opin Pediatr 2019 Feb;31(1):144-147

Department of Pediatrics, DG School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California, USA.

Purpose Of Review: The purpose of this review is to describe some current challenges facing the field of pediatric infectious diseases and discuss strategies for enhancing recognition of the value of infectious disease services and for recruiting new talent to the field.

Recent Findings: Pediatric infectious disease programs are currently filling approximately half of their fellowship positions, and salaries are among the lowest in medical subspecialties. Research-intensive careers in pediatric infectious diseases are threatened by low the National Institutes of Health paylines for career development awards. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000723DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Pediatric influenza and illness severity: what is known and what questions remain?

Curr Opin Pediatr 2019 Feb;31(1):119-126

Influenza Division, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Influenza causes a range of illnesses in children, from uncomplicated self-limited illness to severe disease and death. This review provides an update on the severity and burden of influenza in US children over recent seasons.

Recent Findings: The 2017-2018 influenza season was widespread and severe across all ages, including children. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000721DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Updates on progress in cancer screening for children with hereditary cancer predisposition syndromes.

Authors:
Surya P Rednam

Curr Opin Pediatr 2019 Feb;31(1):41-47

Texas Children's Cancer Center, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA.

Purpose Of Review: A significant proportion of pediatric cancer occurs in children with hereditary cancer predisposition syndromes. Their survival may be significantly improved and/or late effects diminished through screening for their greatly elevated cancer risks. Here, an overview of new developments in the field of pediatric cancer surveillance is provided. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000709DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Tibial spine avulsion fractures: treatment update.

Curr Opin Pediatr 2019 Feb;31(1):103-111

Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, New York, USA.

Purpose Of Review: The purpose of this review is to summarize and clarify the current framework for treating tibial spine avulsion fractures (TSAFs). We will discuss how these fractures are classified both on plain radiographs and MRI as well as report the incidence of concomitant soft tissue injury, an important consideration that guides treatment. We will also compare guidelines for nonsurgical versus surgical treatment and summarize frequently used surgical techniques. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000719DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Management of pediatric low-grade glioma.

Curr Opin Pediatr 2019 Feb;31(1):21-27

Division of Oncology, Aflac Cancer and Blood Disorders Center, Children's Healthcare of Atlanta.

Purpose Of Review: Pediatric low-grade gliomas (pLGGs) have been treated with similar therapies for the last 30 years. Recent biological insights have allowed a new generation of targeted therapies to be developed for these diverse tumors. At the same time, technological advances may redefine the late toxicities associated with radiation therapy. Read More

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http://Insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00008480-900000000-9891
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000717DOI Listing
February 2019
11 Reads

Pediatric and adolescent ankle instability: diagnosis and treatment options.

Curr Opin Pediatr 2019 Feb;31(1):69-78

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery.

Purpose Of Review: The purpose of this review is to discuss the epidemiology, pathoanatomy, diagnosis, and treatment for lateral ankle instability in pediatric patients.

Recent Findings: Chronic ankle instability is a common sequela of lateral ankle sprain in young athletes. Incidence is increasing, possibly due in part to inadequate treatment of first-time ankle sprains, as well as increased youth participation in organized and competitive sports. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000720DOI Listing
February 2019
3 Reads

Spondylolysis 2019 update.

Curr Opin Pediatr 2019 Feb;31(1):61-68

Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Provide a comprehensive overview of lumbar spondylolysis, a frequent cause of lower back pain in children and adolescents, from evaluation to management.

Recent Findings: With the surge of structured sports participation in the pediatric population, spondylolysis is a common ailment that afflicts many young athletes due to rigorous competition that taxes the growing spine with repetitive extension and rotation.

Summary: Spondylolysis is a fracture through the pars interarticularis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000706DOI Listing
February 2019
5 Reads