2,983 results match your criteria Current Opinion in Pediatrics[Journal]


Addressing adverse childhood experiences in diverse racial and ethnic settings: a review.

Curr Opin Pediatr 2019 Feb 11. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Department of Pediatrics, Cohen Children's Medical Center, Northwell Health Solutions, New York, USA.

Purpose Of Review: This article reviews the current literature on adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) with particular focus on racial and ethnic factors.

Recent Findings: Limited research exists with respect to ACEs and certain racial and ethnic groups. In this article, we highlight the unique challenges specific populations may face in their lives. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000748DOI Listing
February 2019

Chimeric antigen receptor T-cell toxicity.

Curr Opin Pediatr 2019 Feb 11. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Chimeric antigen receptor -(CAR) T-cell therapy has become a commonly used immunotherapy originally used in the treatment of B-cell leukemias but which are now applied broadly across tumor classes. Although high rates of remission are associated with CAR T-cell therapy, toxicities associated with these novel treatment regimens can be lethal if not recognized in a timely manner.

Recent Findings: Cytokine release syndrome and neurotoxicity are the two most common toxicities associated with CAR T-cell therapy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000747DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

What is new in electronic-cigarettes research?

Curr Opin Pediatr 2019 Feb 11. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Department of Pediatrics, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York City, New York, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and other vaping devices have seen extraordinary growth in use in the past 10 years, and companies are accelerating their development of new products and marketing efforts. In turn, researchers have increased their efforts to determine how e-cigarettes affect health, how marketing these products impacts adolescents and how the use of e-cigarettes may affect adolescents' use of other tobacco products. Products like Juul were not on the market 2 years ago; thus, frequent updates on the topic are essential. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000741DOI Listing
February 2019

Untangling the knottiest neonatal challenges.

Curr Opin Pediatr 2019 Feb 11. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Department of Pediatrics, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, New York, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000743DOI Listing
February 2019

Living or deceased donor kidney transplantation in children.

Curr Opin Pediatr 2019 Feb 11. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Division of Pediatric Nephrology, Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Kidney transplantation is the preferred treatment modality for children with end-stage renal disease. In this review, we discuss the factors affecting the selection of the appropriate donor to ensure the best possible short and long-term outcomes.

Recent Findings: Outcomes of pediatric renal transplantation from living donors are superior to those obtained from deceased donors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000740DOI Listing
February 2019

Renal transplantation: a brief history and outlook for the future.

Authors:
Michel Baum

Curr Opin Pediatr 2019 Feb 5. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Department of Pediatrics and Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000744DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Physiologic diagnosis of congenital heart disease in cyanotic neonates.

Curr Opin Pediatr 2019 Feb 5. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Cohen Children's Medical Center of New York - Donald and Barbara Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/Northwell, New York, USA.

Purpose Of Review: We aim to improve diagnosis of congenital heart disease (CHD) with cyanosis by physiology for general practitioners to reduce time to appropriate treatment.

Recent Findings: New implementation of the critical congenital heart disease (CCHD) pulse oximetry screen has improved rate of diagnosis of CHD in recent years. However, many infants with cyanotic heart lesions often decompensate before screening in the newborn nursery, or have lesions that are not amenable to pulse oximetry screening and that present later in the emergency room. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000742DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Neurotoxicity of general anesthetics in children: evidence and uncertainties.

Curr Opin Pediatr 2019 Jan 31. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Department of Psychiatry, Boston Children's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Compelling evidence in animal models that, under some conditions, general anesthetics and sedatives produce changes in the brain and persistent impairments in learning, memory, and behavior. The present review summarizes recent clinical studies investigating whether the use of these agents in children causes similar neurotoxicities.

Recent Findings: Although the results of retrospective studies are somewhat mixed, multiple exposures to general anesthesia were generally found to confer greater risk than single exposures with regard to learning disability, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, school readiness, and academic achievement. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000737DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

The neurointensive nursery: concept, development, and insights gained.

Curr Opin Pediatr 2019 Jan 31. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Department Pediatrics, UCSF Benioff Children's Hospital.

Purpose Of Review: With the advent of therapeutic hypothermia for treatment of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, and improvements in neuroimaging and bedside neuromonitoring, a new era of neonatal brain-focused care has emerged in recent years. We describe the development of the first neurointensive care nursery (NICN) as a model for comanagement of neonates with identified neurologic risk factors by a multidisciplinary team constituted of neurologists, neonatologists, specialized nurses, and others with the goal of optimizing management, preventing secondary injury and maximizing long-term outcomes.

Recent Findings: Optimizing brain metabolic environment and perfusion and preventing secondary brain injury are key to neurocritical care. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000733DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Cannabinoid toxicity in pediatrics.

Curr Opin Pediatr 2019 Jan 28. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts, USA.

Purpose Of Review: The advent of legalized cannabis in multiple regions of the United States has rendered the drug more accessible to pediatric patients. Pediatricians and Pediatric Emergency Medicine Providers face new challenges in counseling both patients and their parents, diagnosing exploratory ingestions of cannabinoids in toddlers, and managing complications of prolonged, heavy cannabis use in adolescents. The purpose of this review article is to provide clinicians a succinct summary of recent literature regarding tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, impacts on development, as well as presentations of acute and chronic toxicity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000739DOI Listing
January 2019
12 Reads

Ultra-short bowel syndrome during infancy: improving outcomes and novel therapies.

Curr Opin Pediatr 2019 Jan 21. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, Cincinnati Children's Hospital.

Purpose Of Review: Ultra-short bowel syndrome is relatively rare and has not yet been extensively reported. In ultra-short bowel syndrome, poor absorption of nutrients and dysmotility, interfere with fluid, energy, electrolyte and micronutrient balance. Patients with this disorder are managed through prolonged parenteral nutrition with the ultimate goal of achieving enteral autonomy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000738DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Nonadherence after pediatric renal transplantation: detection and treatment.

Curr Opin Pediatr 2019 Jan 21. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

Hospital for Children and Adolescents, University of Helsinki, and Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

Purpose Of Review: Nonadherence is a problem in adolescents and young adults. Risk factors are classified as those of the individual, family, health-care-system, or community. I present the latest reports and how to tackle nonadherence. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000734DOI Listing
January 2019

Arguments for routine administration of probiotics for NEC prevention.

Authors:
Mark A Underwood

Curr Opin Pediatr 2019 Jan 16. Epub 2019 Jan 16.

Division of Neonatology, University of California Davis School of Medicine, California, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Probiotic administration to premature infants for the purpose of prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis is common in many parts of the world but uncommon in the United States. The present review will emphasize recent findings in support of routine administration of probiotics to this highly vulnerable population.

Recent Findings: Additional evidence from animal models describing mechanisms of protection of probiotics in the immature gut and updated meta-analyses of randomized placebo-controlled trials and observational cohorts are presented (now including more than 40 000 premature infants from countries across the globe). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000732DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Air pollution, ambient temperature, green space and preterm birth.

Authors:
Itai Kloog

Curr Opin Pediatr 2019 Jan 11. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

Department of Geography and Environmental Development, Ben-Gurion University, Beer Sheva, Israel.

Purpose Of Review: Preterm birth is the leading cause of global child mortality, and survivors are at increased risk of multiple morbidities that can continue into adulthood. Recent studies have suggested that maternal exposure to air pollution and high and low ambient temperatures may increase the risk of preterm birth, whereas proximity to green space may decrease it. This review summarizes these findings and suggests avenues for further research. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000736DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Use of earth observations for temperature exposure assessment in epidemiological studies.

Authors:
Itai Kloog

Curr Opin Pediatr 2019 Jan 11. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

Department of Geography and Environmental Development, Ben-Gurion University, Beer Sheva, Israel.

Purpose Of Review: Low, high, extreme, and variable temperatures have been linked to multiple adverse health outcomes, particularly among the elderly and children. Recent models incorporating satellite remote sensing data have mitigated several limitations of previous studies, improving exposure assessment. This review focuses on these new temperature exposure models and their application in epidemiological studies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000735DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Arguments against routine administration of probiotics for NEC prevention.

Curr Opin Pediatr 2019 Jan 9. Epub 2019 Jan 9.

Department of Paediatrics.

Purpose Of Review: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among premature neonates. Although randomized trials have shown that probiotics may be efficacious in the prevention of NEC, their use has not been universally adopted in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Caveats regarding routine probiotic supplementation for the prevention of NEC are summarized in this review. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000730DOI Listing
January 2019
9 Reads

Editorial: Recent advances in pediatric oncology.

Authors:
Susan M Blaney

Curr Opin Pediatr 2019 Feb;31(1):1-2

Texas Children's Cancer and Hematology Centers, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000725DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Deliveries at extreme prematurity: outcomes, approaches, institutional variation, and uncertainty.

Curr Opin Pediatr 2019 Jan 2. Epub 2019 Jan 2.

Division of Newborn Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Medical decision making and practices surrounding extremely premature birth remains challenging for parents and care providers alike. Recently, concerns have been raised regarding wide practice variation, selection bias, and the limitations of outcomes data in this population. The purpose of this review is to summarize the recent literature relevant to deliveries at extreme prematurity with a focus on outcomes, approaches, and institutional variation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000731DOI Listing
January 2019
7 Reads

Advances in hematopoietic cell transplant for the treatment of hematologic malignancies.

Curr Opin Pediatr 2019 Feb;31(1):3-13

Division of Pediatric Hematology, Oncology and Blood and Marrow Transplantation, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Incorporation of minimal residual disease (MRD) testing in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) has transformed the landscape of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Pre-HCT MRD has allowed prognostication of HCT outcomes for high-risk leukemia patients, whereas the detection of post-HCT MRD has allowed for interventions to decrease relapse.

Recent Findings: In this review, we emphasize studies from the past two decades that highlight the critical role of MRD in HCT in pediatric ALL and AML. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000729DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Pathogenesis and treatment of electrolyte problems post transplant.

Authors:
Erin Kim

Curr Opin Pediatr 2018 Dec 21. Epub 2018 Dec 21.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Electrolyte abnormalities posttransplant are common occurrences that can have significant short-term and long-term effects on graft outcome and patient quality of life. Understanding the pathophysiology of these electrolyte derangements can help guide management to optimize bone health and minimize cardiovascular disease. This review explores the pathogenesis of the most common postrenal transplant electrolytes abnormalities as well as current treatment options. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000715DOI Listing
December 2018
3 Reads

Renal transplantation and predisposition to opportunistic infections.

Curr Opin Pediatr 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Division of Pediatric Nephrology, Hypertension and Pheresis, Washington University School of Medicine and St Louis Children's Hospital, St. Louis.

Purpose Of Review: Infections represent a significant source of morbidity and mortality after kidney transplantation in children. We review recent advances in epidemiology, assessment, prevention and treatment for several different infections.

Recent Findings: Infections, such as bacterial urinary tract infection or opportunistic viral infection remain common, may be increasing and represent a large proportion of hospitalization. Read More

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http://Insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00008480-900000000-9890
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000728DOI Listing
December 2018
11 Reads

Strategies to improve antibiotic use in the neonatal ICU.

Curr Opin Pediatr 2019 Feb;31(1):127-134

Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Neonates are at a high risk of infection and may have nonspecific signs of sepsis. Accordingly, they are heavily exposed to antimicrobials. Neonates are also uniquely at risk of both short-term and long-term complications from antibiotic exposure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000716DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Promoting resilience in vulnerable populations: focus on opioid-exposed children, siblings of children with special healthcare needs and support for children through school-based interventions.

Curr Opin Pediatr 2019 Feb;31(1):157-165

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Emergency Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Resilience is an important factor in withstanding the health consequences of childhood adversity. This article discusses recent literature related to promoting resilience in opioid-exposed children and siblings of children with special healthcare needs. It also addresses ways that school systems can foster childhood resilience. Read More

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http://Insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00008480-900000000-9891
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000722DOI Listing
February 2019
8 Reads

The future of careers in pediatric infectious diseases: a call to action.

Curr Opin Pediatr 2019 Feb;31(1):144-147

Department of Pediatrics, DG School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California, USA.

Purpose Of Review: The purpose of this review is to describe some current challenges facing the field of pediatric infectious diseases and discuss strategies for enhancing recognition of the value of infectious disease services and for recruiting new talent to the field.

Recent Findings: Pediatric infectious disease programs are currently filling approximately half of their fellowship positions, and salaries are among the lowest in medical subspecialties. Research-intensive careers in pediatric infectious diseases are threatened by low the National Institutes of Health paylines for career development awards. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000723DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Pediatric influenza and illness severity: what is known and what questions remain?

Curr Opin Pediatr 2019 Feb;31(1):119-126

Influenza Division, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Influenza causes a range of illnesses in children, from uncomplicated self-limited illness to severe disease and death. This review provides an update on the severity and burden of influenza in US children over recent seasons.

Recent Findings: The 2017-2018 influenza season was widespread and severe across all ages, including children. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000721DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Updates on progress in cancer screening for children with hereditary cancer predisposition syndromes.

Authors:
Surya P Rednam

Curr Opin Pediatr 2019 Feb;31(1):41-47

Texas Children's Cancer Center, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA.

Purpose Of Review: A significant proportion of pediatric cancer occurs in children with hereditary cancer predisposition syndromes. Their survival may be significantly improved and/or late effects diminished through screening for their greatly elevated cancer risks. Here, an overview of new developments in the field of pediatric cancer surveillance is provided. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000709DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Tibial spine avulsion fractures: treatment update.

Curr Opin Pediatr 2019 Feb;31(1):103-111

Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, New York, USA.

Purpose Of Review: The purpose of this review is to summarize and clarify the current framework for treating tibial spine avulsion fractures (TSAFs). We will discuss how these fractures are classified both on plain radiographs and MRI as well as report the incidence of concomitant soft tissue injury, an important consideration that guides treatment. We will also compare guidelines for nonsurgical versus surgical treatment and summarize frequently used surgical techniques. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000719DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Management of pediatric low-grade glioma.

Curr Opin Pediatr 2019 Feb;31(1):21-27

Division of Oncology, Aflac Cancer and Blood Disorders Center, Children's Healthcare of Atlanta.

Purpose Of Review: Pediatric low-grade gliomas (pLGGs) have been treated with similar therapies for the last 30 years. Recent biological insights have allowed a new generation of targeted therapies to be developed for these diverse tumors. At the same time, technological advances may redefine the late toxicities associated with radiation therapy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000717DOI Listing
February 2019
7 Reads

Pediatric and adolescent ankle instability: diagnosis and treatment options.

Curr Opin Pediatr 2019 Feb;31(1):69-78

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery.

Purpose Of Review: The purpose of this review is to discuss the epidemiology, pathoanatomy, diagnosis, and treatment for lateral ankle instability in pediatric patients.

Recent Findings: Chronic ankle instability is a common sequela of lateral ankle sprain in young athletes. Incidence is increasing, possibly due in part to inadequate treatment of first-time ankle sprains, as well as increased youth participation in organized and competitive sports. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000720DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Spondylolysis 2019 update.

Curr Opin Pediatr 2019 Feb;31(1):61-68

Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Provide a comprehensive overview of lumbar spondylolysis, a frequent cause of lower back pain in children and adolescents, from evaluation to management.

Recent Findings: With the surge of structured sports participation in the pediatric population, spondylolysis is a common ailment that afflicts many young athletes due to rigorous competition that taxes the growing spine with repetitive extension and rotation.

Summary: Spondylolysis is a fracture through the pars interarticularis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000706DOI Listing
February 2019
4 Reads

New stimulant formulations for pediatric attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a case-based approach for the primary care provider.

Curr Opin Pediatr 2019 Feb;31(1):166-174

Department of Psychiatry, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA and Department of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

Purpose Of Review: To provide an up-to-date clinical review of U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved stimulant medications for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), including a framework for individualized treatment by primary care pediatric providers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000718DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Chronic Monteggia.

Curr Opin Pediatr 2019 Feb;31(1):54-60

Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná, Brasil.

Purpose Of Review: The chronic Monteggia may lead to pain, mobility limitation, progressive valgus deformity, lateral elbow instability, late ulnar nerve paralysis, and degenerative changes. In this review, we discuss the current procedures in the literature focused on correcting chronic Monteggia to avoid these complications.

Recent Findings: Correction of the ulnar deformity with elongation and angulation of the ulna in the opposite direction of the dislocation of the radial head is the most important factor for the reduction and consequent preservation of the radial head. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000710DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Proton beam therapy in pediatric oncology.

Curr Opin Pediatr 2019 Feb;31(1):28-34

Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital/Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Purpose Of Review: The advent of proton beam therapy (PBT) has initiated a paradigm shift in the field of pediatric radiation oncology, with increasing promise to alleviate both short-term and long-term toxicities. Given the dramatic rise in proton therapy centers in the United States, a discussion of the quality of evidence supporting its use in pediatric cancers is warranted.

Recent Findings: Proton radiotherapy appears to decrease the incidence and severity of late effects with the strongest evidence in pediatric brain tumor cohorts that shows benefits in neurocognitive, hearing, and endocrine outcomes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000724DOI Listing
February 2019
3 Reads

New age technology and social media: adolescent psychosocial implications and the need for protective measures.

Curr Opin Pediatr 2019 Feb;31(1):148-156

Division of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, Steven and Alexandra Cohen Children's Medical Center of New York, Northwell Health System, Lake Success, New York, USA.

Purpose Of Review: In recent years, breakthroughs and advancements in new age technology have revolutionized the way children communicate and interact with the world around them. As social media platforms such as Facebook, Instagram, and Snapchat continue to grow in popularity, their usage has raised concerns about their role and impact on adolescent development and behavior. This review examines the psychosocial implications of social media usage on youth outcomes related to body image, socialization, and adolescent development. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000714DOI Listing
February 2019
4 Reads

Advances in pediatric antimicrobial agents development.

Curr Opin Pediatr 2019 Feb;31(1):135-143

Vanderbilt Vaccine Research Program, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Rising rates of multidrug-resistant organisms has necessitated the development of novel antimicrobials. In this review, we will highlight agents that have recently received licensure and those that are in clinical development.

Recent Findings: In recent years, development of novel antimicrobial agents has accelerated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000713DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Influenza: annual seasonal severity.

Curr Opin Pediatr 2019 Feb;31(1):112-118

Department of Infectious Diseases, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Influenza remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The 2017-2018 season was one of the most severe in the past decade. The exact factors determining the severity of a particular influenza season are complex and often poorly understood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000712DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Advances in neuroblastoma therapy.

Curr Opin Pediatr 2019 Feb;31(1):14-20

Division of Oncology, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia.

Purpose Of Review: Our understanding of the biologic basis of neuroblastoma, the genetic heterogeneity of this malignancy and the role of host factors has expanded significantly in recent years. In this review, we highlight current and future risk-based treatment approaches and discuss the opportunities and challenges of selecting optimal therapies for specific patient subsets.

Recent Findings: Significant progress has been made in understanding neuroblastoma predisposition and new approaches have been taken to treatment of this disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000711DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis for the primary care physician: frequently asked questions.

Curr Opin Pediatr 2019 Feb;31(1):48-53

Orthopedic Surgery Department, Hotel-Dieu de France Hospital, Saint-Joseph University, Achrafieh, Beirut, Lebanon.

Purpose Of Review: Provide primary care physicians with the best available evidence to support answers to frequently asked questions by caregivers of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS).

Recent Findings: A review of best available evidence shows that schoolbag design and weight are not associated with higher odds of developing AIS. However, patients with AIS are more prone to balance problems with asymmetric backpack carrying and with rising weights. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000705DOI Listing
February 2019
10 Reads

Evidence-based update on the surgical treatment of pediatric tibial shaft fractures.

Curr Opin Pediatr 2019 Feb;31(1):92-102

Pediatric Orthopaedic Surgery Service, Hospital for Special Surgery, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York, USA.

Purpose Of Review: To describe surgical treatment options for pediatric tibial shaft fractures which are the third most common pediatric long bone fracture. Management of these injuries is dictated by fracture location, fracture pattern, associated injuries, skeletal maturity, and other patient-specific factors. Although most pediatric tibial shaft fractures can be treated nonoperatively, this review provides an update on surgical treatment options when operative intervention is indicated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000704DOI Listing
February 2019
8 Reads

Paediatric medial humeral epicondyle fracture management: 2019 approach.

Curr Opin Pediatr 2019 Feb;31(1):86-91

Department of Trauma and Orthopaedics, Queen's Medical Centre, Nottingham, UK.

Purpose Of Review: The management of displaced medial humeral epicondyle fractures in children remains controversial. The indications for surgery, the ideal surgical strategy and the implications of a painful nonunion remain unclear.

Recent Findings: This article describes the state of the evidence and the art in the management of medial humeral epicondyle fractures concentrating on recent research and current opinion. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000707DOI Listing
February 2019
3 Reads

Septic arthritis of the pediatric hip: update on diagnosis and treatment.

Curr Opin Pediatr 2019 Feb;31(1):79-85

Department of Orthopaedics, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, USA.

Purpose Of Review: To review the clinical diagnosis, management and natural history of septic arthritis of the hip (SAH) in the pediatric patient, and to highlight new information that may improve the management of these patients.

Recent Findings: The basics of management of possible pediatric SAH have remained largely unchanged for generations. New questions have been raised regarding the role and timing of advanced imaging (MRI) in the evaluation of patients with possible SAH. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000703DOI Listing
February 2019
9 Reads

Treatment of fever in neutropenia in pediatric oncology patients.

Curr Opin Pediatr 2019 Feb;31(1):35-40

Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, Hospital for Children and Adolescents, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University, Frankfurt, Germany.

Purpose Of Review: Fever during neutropenia is a common occurrence in children with cancer. A number of studies have recently been performed to refine algorithms regarding initiation, modification, and termination of antimicrobial treatment and are the basis for international pediatric-specific guidelines for the treatment of fever and neutropenia in children with cancer.

Recent Findings: Although hospitalization and prompt initiation of intravenous broad-spectrum antibiotics remains the mainstay in the treatment of febrile neutropenic children with cancer, recent research has addressed a number of questions to optimize the management of these patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000708DOI Listing
February 2019
13 Reads

The overlap between allergy and immunodeficiency.

Curr Opin Pediatr 2018 Dec;30(6):848-854

Laboratory of Allergic Diseases, NIAID, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

Purpose Of Review: The mechanisms underlying the overlap of, and relationship between, atopy and immunodeficiency are just beginning to be recognized, through the identification of novel genetic conditions and the reexamination of well known primary immunodeficiencies. The present review seeks both to frame the topic and to highlight the most recent literature combining allergy in the context of immunodeficiency.

Recent Findings: The true prevalence of atopic disorders in the setting of primary immunodeficiency as a whole is difficult to pinpoint, however there have been recent attempts to measure prevalence. Read More

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http://Insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00008480-900000000-9893
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000697DOI Listing
December 2018
10 Reads

Dysregulatory syndromes: the role of signal transducers and activators of transcription.

Curr Opin Pediatr 2018 Dec;30(6):821-828

Instituto Multidisciplinario de Investigaciones en Patologías Pediátricas (IMIPP) CONICET- Inmunología, Hospital de Niños R. Gutiérrez, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Purpose Of Review: A comparative description of dysregulatory syndromes with mutations in signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) genes.

Recent Findings: STAT 1, 3 and 5b loss of function (LOF) and gain of function (GOF) mutations are a heterogeneous group of genetic disorders that range from immunodeficiency (ID) to autoimmune disease (AID), depending on the underlying signalling pathway defect. Between them, there are clear overlapping and differences in clinical presentation and laboratory findings. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000685DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Headache, Chiari I malformation and foramen magnum decompression.

Curr Opin Pediatr 2018 Dec;30(6):786-790

Department of Neurosurgery, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Purpose Of Review: With increasing use of MRI, more patients are being diagnosed with Chiari I malformation (CM1), many of whom are asymptomatic. When symptoms are present, headache is the most frequent presenting feature, although symptoms can be variable. The purpose of this review is to help primary care clinicians better understand the relationship between an individual's presenting symptoms and the presence of radiographic CM1, and to describe the expected outcomes for patients who undergo decompression surgery. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000679DOI Listing
December 2018
11 Reads
2.530 Impact Factor

Nerve blocks in paediatric and adolescent headache disorders.

Curr Opin Pediatr 2018 Dec;30(6):780-785

Montreal Children's Hospital, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Purpose Of Review: Headaches in children and adolescents are common, causing debilitating symptoms in many. Treatment of headache disorders can be complex and standard lifestyle changes as well as oral medications may offer inadequate relief. The purpose of this article is to review the mechanism of action, efficacy and technique of peripheral nerve blocks (PNBs) and the role they play in treating paediatric headache disorders. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000687DOI Listing
December 2018
3 Reads

Facial recognition software in clinical dysmorphology.

Authors:
Anna C E Hurst

Curr Opin Pediatr 2018 Dec;30(6):701-706

Department of Genetics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, USA.

Purpose Of Review: The current review aims to discuss the incorporation of facial recognition software into the clinical practice of dysmorphology and medical genetics.

Recent Findings: Facial recognition software has improved the process of generating a differential diagnosis for rare genetic syndromes, and recent publications demonstrate utility in both research and clinical applications. Software programs are freely available to verified medical providers and can be incorporated into routine clinic encounters. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000677DOI Listing
December 2018
9 Reads

New autoinflammatory diseases.

Authors:
M Cecilia Poli

Curr Opin Pediatr 2018 Dec;30(6):837-847

Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine.

Purpose Of Review: Advances in sequencing techniques and systematic cohort-analysis of patients with autoinflammatory phenotypes have enabled a burst in the recognition of new autoinflammatory diseases and contributed to the description of the mechanisms involved in autoinflammation. This review focuses on new genetic and mechanistic discoveries that have broadened the definition of autoinflammatory diseases in the context of the established landscape, providing new therapeutic opportunities and avenues for further discoveries.

Recent Findings: Mechanistic insights of inflammatory diseases open opportunities for new targeted therapies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000696DOI Listing
December 2018
7 Reads

Female athletes: managing risk and maximizing benefit.

Curr Opin Pediatr 2018 Dec;30(6):874-882

Division of Adolescent Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Cohen Children's Medical Center, New York, New York, USA.

Purpose Of Review: The purpose of this review is to provide an updated summary on the unique aspects of caring for female youth and adolescent athletes.

Recent Findings: Recent research on female athletes has led to a better understanding of injuries and conditions that are more likely to occur in female youth and adolescent athletes, including the frequency and severity of concussions, musculoskeletal injury such as involving the anterior cruciate ligament, and the female athlete triad. Social factors, such as the growing pressure to specialize in a sport particularly at an early age, also put young female athletes at risk for issues such as overuse injuries. Read More

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http://Insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00008480-900000000-9893
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000700DOI Listing
December 2018
7 Reads

New primary immunodeficiency diseases: context and future.

Curr Opin Pediatr 2018 Dec;30(6):806-820

Division of Allergy, Immunology, and Rheumatology.

Purpose Of Review: Primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs) are genetic disorders classically characterized by impaired host defense and an increased susceptibility to infections. It is now appreciated that these conditions broadly include variations in the genetic code that cause dysregulated immune function. This review highlights the newly defined PIDs in the 2017 International Union of Immunologic Societies (IUIS) report, current approaches to diagnosing PIDs, and the implications for the future management of PIDs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000699DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read