2,240 results match your criteria Current Opinion in Microbiology [Journal]


Vibrio variations on a type three theme.

Curr Opin Microbiol 2019 Jan 31;47:66-73. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY 14642, United States. Electronic address:

Mounting evidence suggests that Type 3 Secretion Systems (T3SS) are widespread among Vibrio species, and are present in strains isolated from diverse sources such as human clinical infections, environmental reservoirs, and diseased marine life. Experiments evaluating Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio cholerae T3SS mediated virulence suggest that Vibrio T3SS pathogenicity islands have a tripartite composition. A conserved 'core' region encodes functions essential for colonization and disease in vivo, including modulation of innate immune signaling pathways and actin dynamics, whereas regions flanking core sequences are variable among strains and encode effector proteins performing a diverse array of activities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mib.2018.12.001DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Modulation of host cell metabolism by T4SS-encoding intracellular pathogens.

Curr Opin Microbiol 2019 Jan 10;47:59-65. Epub 2019 Jan 10.

Mikrobiologisches Institut-Klinische Mikrobiologie, Immunologie und Hygiene, Universitätsklinikum Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander Universität (FAU) Erlangen-Nürnberg, Wasserturmstraße 3/5, D-91054 Erlangen, Germany. Electronic address:

Intracellular bacterial pathogens intimately interact with the infected host cell to prevent elimination and to ensure survival. One group of intracellular pathogens, including Coxiella burnetii, Legionella pneumophila, Brucella spp., Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Ehrlichia chaffeensis, utilizes a type IV secretion system (T4SS) that injects effectors to modulate host cell signalling, vesicular trafficking, autophagy, cell death and transcription to ensure survival [1]. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mib.2018.11.010DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Host-Microbe Interactions: Parasitology Vol 46.

Authors:
Pascal Mäser

Curr Opin Microbiol 2018 Dec;46:vi-viii

Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Department Medical Parasitology and Infection Biology, Socinstrasse 57. 4051 Basel, Switzerland; University of Basel, Petersplatz 1. 4001 Basel, Switzerland. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mib.2018.11.008DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Host-Microbe Interactions: Fungi Vol 46.

Curr Opin Microbiol 2018 Dec;46:iii-v

Research Director, UMR BIOGER, INRA, AgroParisTech, Paris-Saclay University, Thiverval-Grignon, France. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mib.2018.11.009DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

Effective models and the search for quantitative principles in microbial evolution.

Curr Opin Microbiol 2018 10 6;45:203-212. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, United States; Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley, United States.

Microbes evolve rapidly. Yet they do so in idiosyncratic ways, which depend on the specific mutations that are beneficial or deleterious in a given situation. At the same time, some population-level patterns of adaptation are strikingly similar across different microbial systems, suggesting that there may also be simple, quantitative principles that unite these diverse scenarios. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mib.2018.11.005DOI Listing
October 2018
1 Read

Nutrient sulfur acquisition strategies employed by bacterial pathogens.

Curr Opin Microbiol 2018 Dec 7;47:52-58. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA. Electronic address:

Pathogens have evolved elegant mechanisms to acquire essential nutrients from host environments. Sulfur is a requirement for bacterial growth and inorganic and organic sulfur-containing metabolites are abundant within the host-pathogen interface. A growing body of evidence suggests that pathogens are capable of scavenging both types of sulfur sources to fulfill the nutritional requirement. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mib.2018.11.002DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

The role of acid stress in Salmonella pathogenesis.

Authors:
Linda J Kenney

Curr Opin Microbiol 2018 Dec 4;47:45-51. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Mechanobiology Institute, National University of Singapore, Singapore; Department of Biochemistry, National University of Singapore, Singapore; Department of Microbiology & Immunology, University of Illinois-Chicago, United States; Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois-Chicago, United States; Jesse Brown Veterans Administration Medical Center, Chicago, IL, United States. Electronic address:

After uptake by epithelial cells or engulfment by macrophages, Salmonella resides in an acidic vacuole. Salmonella senses this acidic compartment through the action of the EnvZ/OmpR two-component regulatory system. OmpR, in turn, represses the cadC/BA system, preventing neutralization of the bacterial cytoplasm. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mib.2018.11.006DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Simple organizing principles in microbial communities.

Authors:
Jeff Gore

Curr Opin Microbiol 2018 10 29;45:195-202. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

MIT, MA 02139, United States. Electronic address:

There is a great deal of interest in discovering the principles that organize microbial communities, to better understand the structure and diversity of these communities in the natural world. Recent conceptual and technical advances have shown how simple organizing principles can give rise to surprising diversity and complex patterns in these consortia. Understanding competition, cooperation, and communication among microbes has provided novel insights into the structure and behavior of microbial collectives, and the use of simple animal models has advanced our understanding of microbial ecology in the host. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mib.2018.11.007DOI Listing
October 2018
3 Reads

Control of bacterial colonization in the glands and crypts.

Curr Opin Microbiol 2018 Nov 28;47:38-44. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Microbiology and Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 USA. Electronic address:

The epithelial cell layer of the major organs of the mammalian gastrointestinal (GI) tract is extensively invaginated into thousands of gland and crypt structures. These are lined by distinct sets of epithelial cells and may comprise discrete niches. The host maximizes the distance between the epithelial cell layer and GI-inhabiting microbes to limit inflammation, and these strategies also likely keep bacteria out of the glands and crypts. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mib.2018.11.004DOI Listing
November 2018
1 Read

Come, sweet death: targeting glycosomal protein import for antitrypanosomal drug development.

Curr Opin Microbiol 2018 Dec 24;46:116-122. Epub 2018 Nov 24.

Institute of Structural Biology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, Ingolstädter Landstr. 1, 85764 Neuherberg, Germany; Center for Integrated Protein Science Munich at Chair of Biomolecular NMR, Department Chemie, Technische Universität München, Lichtenbergstr. 4, 85747 Garching, Germany. Electronic address:

Glycosomes evolved as specialized system for glycolysis in trypanosomatids. These organelle rely on protein import to maintain function. A machinery of peroxin (PEX) proteins is responsible for recognition and transport of glycosomal proteins to the organelle. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mib.2018.11.003DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

The role of chemotaxis during Campylobacter jejuni colonisation and pathogenesis.

Authors:
Victoria Korolik

Curr Opin Microbiol 2018 Nov 23;47:32-37. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Institute for Glycomics, Griffith University, Gold Coast, 4222, QLD, Australia. Electronic address:

Campylobacter jejuni is a ubiquitous gastrointestinal pathogen, transmitted to humans from birds and animals, where C. jejuni is part of normal intestinal flora. In C. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S13695274183006
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mib.2018.11.001DOI Listing
November 2018
7 Reads

Colonization of the mammalian intestinal tract by enterococci.

Curr Opin Microbiol 2018 Nov 12;47:26-31. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, United States. Electronic address:

Enterococci are colonizers of the mammalian gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and normally live in healthy association with their human host. However, enterococci are also major causes of healthcare-acquired infections, prompting the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to declare vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) a serious threat to public health. Because of both intrinsic and acquired antibiotic resistance, enterococci proliferate in the GIT during antibiotic therapy, leading to dissemination and disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mib.2018.10.005DOI Listing
November 2018
2 Reads

Sense and sensor ability: redox-responsive regulators in Listeria monocytogenes.

Curr Opin Microbiol 2018 Nov 6;47:20-25. Epub 2018 Nov 6.

Department of Microbiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA. Electronic address:

Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) is a Gram-positive bacterium that thrives in nature as a saprophyte and in the mammalian host as an intracellular pathogen. Both environments pose potential danger in the form of redox stress. In addition, endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) are continuously generated as by-products of aerobic metabolism. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mib.2018.10.006DOI Listing
November 2018
2 Reads

Modulation of bacterial virulence and fitness by host glutathione.

Curr Opin Microbiol 2018 Nov 2;47:8-13. Epub 2018 Nov 2.

Department of Biochemistry, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore. Electronic address:

Glutathione is a low molecular weight thiol that is important for maintaining intracellular redox homeostasis. Some bacteria are able to import exogenous glutathione as a nutritional source and to counter oxidative stress. In cytosolic pathogens Burkholderia pseudomallei and Listeria monocytogenes, host glutathione regulates bacterial virulence. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mib.2018.10.004DOI Listing
November 2018
12 Reads

Emerging insights into bacterial deubiquitinases.

Curr Opin Microbiol 2018 Nov 1;47:14-19. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

Department of Microbiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Gifu University, 1-1 Yanagito, Gifu 501-1194, Japan.

Bacterial pathogens utilize eukaryotic cellular systems in various ways for their own benefits. To counteract host immune responses and survive in cells, bacteria modify host signaling pathways. For this aim, they have evolved virulence secretion systems. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mib.2018.10.001DOI Listing
November 2018
10 Reads

How to do business with lysosomes: Salmonella leads the way.

Curr Opin Microbiol 2018 Nov 1;47:1-7. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

Department of Biological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISER)-Mohali, Punjab, India. Electronic address:

Pathogens have devised various strategies to alter the host endomembrane system towards building their replicative niche. This is aptly illustrated by Salmonella Typhimurium, whereby it remodels the host endolysosomal system to form a unique niche, also known as Salmonella-containing vacuole (SCV). Decades of research using in vitro cell-based infection studies have revealed intricate details of how Salmonella effectors target endocytic trafficking machinery of the host cell to acquire membrane and nutrients for bacterial replication. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mib.2018.10.003DOI Listing
November 2018
1 Read

Molecular and cellular interactions defining the tropism of Plasmodium vivax for reticulocytes.

Curr Opin Microbiol 2018 Dec 23;46:109-115. Epub 2018 Oct 23.

Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:

Plasmodium vivax is uniquely restricted to invading reticulocytes, the youngest of red blood cells. Parasite invasion relies on the sequential deployment of multiple parasite invasion ligands. Correct targeting of the host reticulocyte is mediated by two families of invasion ligands: the reticulocyte binding proteins (RBPs) and erythrocyte binding proteins (EBPs). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mib.2018.10.002DOI Listing
December 2018
13 Reads

Editorial overview: Current Opinion in Microbiology 2018 Special issue 'Microbial systems biology, vol. 45'.

Authors:
Terry Hwa Uwe Sauer

Curr Opin Microbiol 2018 10 17;45:vi-viii. Epub 2018 Oct 17.

Institute for Molecular Systems Biology, ETH Zurich, Switzerland. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mib.2018.09.005DOI Listing
October 2018
1 Read

Parasitic nematodes manipulate plant development to establish feeding sites.

Curr Opin Microbiol 2018 Dec 13;46:102-108. Epub 2018 Oct 13.

Molecular Phytomedicine, INRES, University of Bonn, Karlrobert-Kreiten-Straße 13, D-53115 Bonn, Germany. Electronic address:

Cyst and root-knot nematodes, the two economically most important groups of plant parasitic nematodes, induce neoplastic feeding sites in the roots of their host plants. The formation of feeding sites is accompanied by large-scale transcriptomic, metabolomic, and structural changes in host plants. However, the mechanisms that lead to such remarkable changes have remained poorly understood until recently. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S13695274183003
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mib.2018.09.004DOI Listing
December 2018
12 Reads

Rodent malaria models: insights into human disease and parasite biology.

Curr Opin Microbiol 2018 Dec 11;46:93-101. Epub 2018 Oct 11.

Institute for Cell Biology, University of Bern, CH-3012, Switzerland. Electronic address:

The use of rodents as model organisms to study human disease is based on the genetic and physiological similarities between the species. Successful molecular methods to generate transgenic reporter or humanized rodents has rendered rodents as powerful tools for understanding biological processes and host-pathogen interactions relevant to humans. In malaria research, rodent models have been pivotal for the study of liver stages, syndromes arising from blood stages of infection, and malaria transmission to and from the mammalian host. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mib.2018.09.003DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Effector variation at tandem gene arrays in tissue-dwelling coccidia: who needs antigenic variation anyway?

Curr Opin Microbiol 2018 Dec 11;46:86-92. Epub 2018 Oct 11.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. Electronic address:

Locus expansion and diversification is pervasive in apicomplexan genomes and is predominantly found in loci encoding secreted proteins that interact with factors outside of the parasite. Key for understanding the impact of each of these loci on the host requires identification and functional characterization of their protein products, but these repetitive loci often are refractory to genome assembly. In this review we focus on Toxoplasma gondii and its nearest relatives to highlight the known impact of duplicated and diversified loci on our understanding of the host-pathogen molecular arms race. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mib.2018.09.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6295348PMC
December 2018
1 Read

Fasciola hepatica, TGF-β and host mimicry: the enemy within.

Curr Opin Microbiol 2018 Dec 11;46:80-85. Epub 2018 Oct 11.

Department of Infection Biology, Institute of Infection and Global Health, University of Liverpool, L3 5RF, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Helminths parasites undergo developmental changes and migration within their definitive host, in addition to establishing chronic infection. Essential to this is the evasion of host immune responses; the canonical Th2 response is effective at removing parasites resident in the intestine. Conversely, helminths also promote the development of antigen-specific anergy and regulation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mib.2018.09.002DOI Listing
December 2018
5 Reads

Opportunities for plant natural products in infection control.

Curr Opin Microbiol 2018 10 13;45:189-194. Epub 2018 Sep 13.

Center for the Study of Human Health, Emory University College of Arts and Sciences, Atlanta, GA, United States; Department of Dermatology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, United States; Antibiotic Resistance Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, United States; Emory University Herbarium, Atlanta, GA, United States. Electronic address:

The continued spread of antimicrobial resistance represents one of the most serious infectious disease threats to global health. There is consensus that a key component of addressing this threat is to replenish the waning pipeline of antimicrobials, with attention being paid to novel mechanisms of action. This includes the development of new classes of classic bacteriostatic and bactericidal antibiotics as well as antivirulence drugs, and it is especially in these areas where plant natural products demonstrate great potential. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mib.2018.08.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6295356PMC
October 2018
2 Reads

Microbial exposure and human health.

Curr Opin Microbiol 2018 08 5;44:79-87. Epub 2018 Sep 5.

Department of Surgery, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, United States; BioSciences, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, IL 60439, United States.

The human body comprises of micro-ecosystem made up of trillions of microbes (i.e. bacteria, archaea, fungi, protists and viruses). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mib.2018.08.003DOI Listing
August 2018
3 Reads

Editorial overview: Antimicrobials.

Curr Opin Microbiol 2018 10 31;45:iii-v. Epub 2018 Aug 31.

M.G. DeGroote Institute for Infectious Disease Research, Department of Biochemistry and Biomedical Sciences, DeGroote School of Medicine, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, ON L8S 4K1, Canada.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mib.2018.08.001DOI Listing
October 2018
1 Read

Helminth extracellular vesicles in host-parasite interactions.

Curr Opin Microbiol 2018 Dec 30;46:73-79. Epub 2018 Aug 30.

Institute of Parasitology, McGill University, 21111 Lakeshore Road, Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue, QC H9X 3V9, Canada.

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been characterized from many species of parasitic helminths, and recent experimental evidence supports important functions for their cargo in host-parasite relationships as immunomodulatory mediators. Here we summarize available data on the effects of parasite-derived EVs, including their protein and/or small RNA contents, on their hosts. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mib.2018.08.002DOI Listing
December 2018
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From systems biology to metabolically engineered cells-an omics perspective on the development of industrial microbes.

Curr Opin Microbiol 2018 10 29;45:180-188. Epub 2018 Aug 29.

Institute of Systems Biotechnology, Universität des Saarlandes, Germany. Electronic address:

Green routes are indispensable for a sustainable production of energy, chemicals and materials, and health and nutrition products from renewable resources. Naturally, microbes are capable to conduct many of the desired biochemical conversions involved, however, only at rather low efficiency. It is therefore essential to metabolically engineer them towards efficient cell factories, which enable a high product titer, yield and productivity, exhibit a good process robustness and a broad substrate spectrum, and are safe to be used, to name a few prominent points from the wish list for industrial bio-production. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mib.2018.06.001DOI Listing
October 2018
2 Reads

Editorial overview: It's the ecology, stupid: microbiome research in the post-stamp collecting age.

Authors:
Jeroen Raes

Curr Opin Microbiol 2018 08 22;44:iv-v. Epub 2018 Aug 22.

Laboratory of Molecular Bacteriology (Rega Institute), Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium; VIB, Center of Microbiology, Leuven, Belgium. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mib.2018.07.008DOI Listing
August 2018
4 Reads

The criminal association of Leishmania parasites and viruses.

Curr Opin Microbiol 2018 Dec 7;46:65-72. Epub 2018 Aug 7.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Lausanne, Epalinges, Switzerland. Electronic address:

In nature, humans infected with protozoan parasites can encounter viruses, which could alter their host immune response. The impact of viruses on human parasitic diseases remains largely unexplored due to the highly sterilized environment in experimental studies and the difficulty to draw a correlation between co-infection and pathology. Recent studies show that viral infections exacerbate pathology and promote dissemination of some Leishmania infections, based on a hyper-inflammatory reaction driven by type I interferons. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mib.2018.07.005DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Early life colonization of the human gut: microbes matter everywhere.

Curr Opin Microbiol 2018 08 4;44:70-78. Epub 2018 Aug 4.

Immunobiology Research Programme, Department of Bacteriology and Immunology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; Laboratory of Microbiology, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Microbes colonising the infant intestine, especially bacteria, are considered important for metabolic and immunological programming in early life, potentially affecting the susceptibility of the host to disease. We combined published data to provide a global view of microbiota development in early life. The results support the concept that the microbiota develops with age in an orchestrated manner, showing common patterns across populations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mib.2018.06.003DOI Listing
August 2018
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Integrating genetic and protein-protein interaction networks maps a functional wiring diagram of a cell.

Curr Opin Microbiol 2018 10 28;45:170-179. Epub 2018 Jul 28.

The Donnelly Centre, University of Toronto, 160 College Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E1, Canada; Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, 160 College Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E1, Canada; RIKEN Center for Sustainable Resource Science, Wako, Saitama, Japan.

Systematic experimental approaches have led to construction of comprehensive genetic and protein-protein interaction networks for the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetic interactions capture functional relationships between genes using phenotypic readouts, while protein-protein interactions identify physical connections between gene products. These complementary, and largely non-overlapping, networks provide a global view of the functional architecture of a cell, revealing general organizing principles, many of which appear to be evolutionarily conserved. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mib.2018.06.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6295359PMC
October 2018
16 Reads

Are microbiome studies ready for hypothesis-driven research?

Curr Opin Microbiol 2018 08 27;44:61-69. Epub 2018 Jul 27.

Department of Pediatrics, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA; Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA; Center for Microbiome Innovation, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA. Electronic address:

Hypothesis-driven research has led to many scientific advances, but hypotheses cannot be tested in isolation: rather, they require a framework of aggregated scientific knowledge to allow questions to be posed meaningfully. This framework is largely still lacking in microbiome studies, and the only way to create it is by discovery-driven, tool-driven, and standards-driven research projects. Here we illustrate these issues using several such non-hypothesis-driven projects from our own laboratories, including spatial mapping, the American Gut Project, the Earth Microbiome Project (which is an umbrella project integrating many smaller hypothesis-driven projects), and the knowledgebase-driven tools GNPS and Qiita. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S13695274183005
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mib.2018.07.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6153026PMC
August 2018
7 Reads

Standardization in host-microbiota interaction studies: challenges, gnotobiology as a tool, and perspective.

Curr Opin Microbiol 2018 08 26;44:50-60. Epub 2018 Jul 26.

Universitätsklinik für Viszerale Chirurgie und Medizin, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, Department for BioMedical Research (DBMR), University of Bern, Murtenstrasse 35, 3008 Bern, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Considering the increasing list of diseases linked to the commensal microbiota, experimental studies of host-microbe interactions are of growing interest. Axenic and differently colonized animal models are inalienable tools to study these interactions. Factors, such as host genetics, diet, antibiotics and litter affect microbiota composition and can be confounding factors in many experimental settings. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mib.2018.07.007DOI Listing
August 2018
6 Reads

Mechanisms of biofilm stimulation by subinhibitory concentrations of antimicrobials.

Curr Opin Microbiol 2018 10 24;45:164-169. Epub 2018 Jul 24.

Dept. of Biochemistry and Biomedical Sciences and the Michael G. DeGroote Institute for Infectious Diseases Research, McMaster University, Canada. Electronic address:

Biofilms are a typical mode of growth for most microorganisms and provide them with a variety of survival benefits. Biofilms can pose medical and industrial challenges due to their increased tolerance of antimicrobials and disinfectants. Exposure of bacteria to subinhibitory concentrations of those compounds can further exacerbate the problem, as they provoke physiological changes that lead to increased biofilm production and potential therapeutic failure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mib.2018.07.006DOI Listing
October 2018
1 Read

Microbial communities as dynamical systems.

Curr Opin Microbiol 2018 08 21;44:41-49. Epub 2018 Jul 21.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Rega institute, Herestraat 49, KU Leuven, 3000 Leuven, Belgium. Electronic address:

Nowadays, microbial communities are frequently monitored over long periods of time and the interactions between their members are explored in vitro. This development has opened the way to apply mathematical models to characterize community structure and dynamics, to predict responses to perturbations and to explore general dynamical properties such as stability, alternative stable states and periodicity. Here, we highlight the role of dynamical systems theory in the exploration of microbial communities, with a special emphasis on the generalized Lotka-Volterra (gLV) equations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mib.2018.07.004DOI Listing
August 2018
2 Reads

Low diversity gut microbiota dysbiosis: drivers, functional implications and recovery.

Curr Opin Microbiol 2018 08 20;44:34-40. Epub 2018 Jul 20.

Division of Biomedical Informatics and Personalized Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Colorado, 12700 East 19th Avenue, Campus Box 8617, Aurora, CO 80045, USA. Electronic address:

Dysbiosis, an imbalance in microbial communities, is linked with disease when this imbalance disturbs microbiota functions essential for maintaining health or introduces processes that promote disease. Dysbiosis in disease is predicted when microbiota differ compositionally from a healthy control population, but only truly defined when these differences are mechanistically related to adverse phenotypes. For the human gut microbiota, dysbiosis varies across diseases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mib.2018.07.003DOI Listing
August 2018
30 Reads

Resolving host-microbe interactions in the gut: the promise of in vitro models to complement in vivo research.

Curr Opin Microbiol 2018 08;44:28-33

Center for Microbial Ecology and Technology, Ghent University, Belgium. Electronic address:

While animal models remain essential for inferring causality, they exhibit important limitations, which restrict the direct translation of findings into new approaches aimed at steering host-microbe interactions for the improvement of human health. Different in vitro models have therefore been developed which incorporate human cell types and microbiota. By virtue of their intricate designs, these models result in human and microbial read-outs reflective of in vivo gut physiology, and present important alternatives to animal models. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mib.2018.07.001DOI Listing
August 2018
1 Read

A unified conceptual framework for prediction and control of microbiomes.

Curr Opin Microbiol 2018 08 11;44:20-27. Epub 2018 Jul 11.

Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352, USA. Electronic address:

Microbiomes impact nearly all systems on Earth, and despite vast differences among systems, we contend that it is possible and highly beneficial to develop a unified conceptual framework for understanding microbiome dynamics that is applicable across systems. The ability to robustly predict and control environmental and human microbiomes would provide impactful opportunities to sustain and improve the health of ecosystems and humans alike. Doing so requires understanding the processes governing microbiome temporal dynamics, which currently presents an enormous challenge. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mib.2018.06.002DOI Listing
August 2018
37 Reads

Repeat-containing effectors of filamentous pathogens and symbionts.

Curr Opin Microbiol 2018 Dec 18;46:123-130. Epub 2018 Jun 18.

Max Planck Institute for Terrestrial Microbiology, 35043 Marburg, Germany. Electronic address:

Pathogenic and symbiotic filamentous microbes secrete effectors which suppress host immune responses and promote a successful colonization. Pathogen effectors are engaged in the arms race with their hosts and because of this they are subject to intense evolutionary pressure. Effectors particularly prone to rapid evolution display repeat-containing domains which can easily expand or contract and accumulate point mutations without altering their original function. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S13695274173006
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mib.2018.01.007DOI Listing
December 2018
14 Reads

Editorial overview: Environmental microbiology: Environmental and engineered microbiomes.

Curr Opin Microbiol 2018 06;43:v-vii

Institute of Microbiology, ETH Zurich, Switzerland. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mib.2018.05.004DOI Listing
June 2018
2 Reads

Host genetics and microbiome associations through the lens of genome wide association studies.

Curr Opin Microbiol 2018 08 14;44:9-19. Epub 2018 Jun 14.

Department of Computer Science and Applied Mathematics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 7610001, Israel; Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 7610001, Israel. Electronic address:

Recent studies indicate that the gut microbiome is partially heritable, motivating the need to investigate microbiome-host genome associations via microbial genome-wide association studies (mGWAS). Existing mGWAS demonstrate that microbiome-host genotype associations are typically weak and are spread across multiple variants, similar to associations often observed in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of complex traits. Here we reconsider mGWAS by viewing them through the lens of GWAS, and demonstrate that there are striking similarities between the challenges and pitfalls faced by the two study designs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mib.2018.05.003DOI Listing
August 2018
15 Reads

Go with the flow or solitary confinement: a look inside the single-cell toolbox for isolation of rare and uncultured microbes.

Curr Opin Microbiol 2018 08 13;44:1-8. Epub 2018 Jun 13.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Rega Institute, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium; VIB, Center for Microbiology, Leuven, Belgium. Electronic address:

With the vast majority of the microbial world still considered unculturable or undiscovered, microbiologists not only require more fundamental insights concerning microbial growth requirements but also need to implement miniaturized, versatile and high-throughput technologies to upscale current microbial isolation strategies. In this respect, single-cell-based approaches are increasingly finding their way to the microbiology lab. A number of recent studies have demonstrated that analysis and separation of free microbial cells by flow-based sorting as well as physical stochastic confinement of individual cells in microenvironment compartments can facilitate the isolation of previously uncultured species and the discovery of novel microbial taxa. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mib.2018.05.002DOI Listing
August 2018
6 Reads

Recent advances in activating silent biosynthetic gene clusters in bacteria.

Curr Opin Microbiol 2018 10 5;45:156-163. Epub 2018 Jun 5.

Department of Chemistry, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, United States; Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, United States. Electronic address:

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S13695274183005
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mib.2018.05.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6281788PMC
October 2018
37 Reads
5.900 Impact Factor

A decade of genome sequencing has revolutionized studies of experimental evolution.

Curr Opin Microbiol 2018 10 4;45:149-155. Epub 2018 Jun 4.

Department of Biological Sciences, Institute for Bioinformatics and Evolutionary Studies, Center for Modeling Complex Interactions, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844, USA. Electronic address:

Genome sequencing has revolutionized studies using experimental evolution of microbes because it readily provides comprehensive insight into the genetic bases of adaptation. In this perspective we discuss applications of sequencing-based technologies used to study evolution in microbes, including genomic sequencing of isolated evolved clones and mixed evolved populations, and also the use of sequencing methods to follow the fate of introduced variations, whether neutral barcodes or variants introduced by genome editing. Collectively, these sequencing-based approaches have vastly advanced the examination of evolution in the lab, as well as begun to synthesize this work with examination of the genetic bases of adaptation and evolutionary dynamics within natural populations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mib.2018.03.002DOI Listing
October 2018
1 Read

Engineering enzymatic assembly lines for the production of new antimicrobials.

Curr Opin Microbiol 2018 10 4;45:140-148. Epub 2018 May 4.

Department of Chemistry, NC State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, United States; Comparative Medicine Institute, NC State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, United States. Electronic address:

A large portion of natural products are biosynthesized by the polyketide synthase and non-ribosomal peptide synthetase enzymatic assembly lines. Recent advancements in the study of these megasynthases has led to many new examples that demonstrate the production of non-natural natural products. The field is likely nearing the ability to design and build new biosynthetic pathways de novo. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mib.2018.04.005DOI Listing
October 2018
3 Reads

Klebsiella pneumoniae as a key trafficker of drug resistance genes from environmental to clinically important bacteria.

Curr Opin Microbiol 2018 10 1;45:131-139. Epub 2018 May 1.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Bio21 Molecular Science and Biotechnology Institute, University of Melbourne, 30 Flemington Rd, Parkville, Victoria 3010, Australia.

Klebsiella pneumoniae is an opportunistic bacterial pathogen known for its high frequency and diversity of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genes. In addition to being a significant clinical problem in its own right, K. pneumoniae is the species within which several new AMR genes were first discovered before spreading to other pathogens (e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mib.2018.04.004DOI Listing
October 2018
6 Reads

Bursting onto the scene? Exploring stochastic mRNA production in bacteria.

Curr Opin Microbiol 2018 10 26;45:124-130. Epub 2018 Apr 26.

Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

Recent large-scale measurements of gene expression variability (or noise) in E. coli have led to the unexpected conclusion that the variability is in large part dictated by and increasing with the mean level of expression. Here we review the evidence for this apparent universal trend in variability, as well as for the related idea that transcription is fundamentally bursty. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mib.2018.04.001DOI Listing
October 2018
1 Read

Microbial interactions trigger the production of antibiotics.

Curr Opin Microbiol 2018 10 24;45:117-123. Epub 2018 Apr 24.

Department of Molecular and Applied Microbiology, Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology (HKI) , Beutenbergstrasse 11a, 07745 Jena, Germany; Institute of Microbiology, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Jena, Germany. Electronic address:

Since the discovery of penicillin, antibiotics have been instrumental in treating infectious diseases. However, emerging antibiotic multi-resistance coinciding with a nearly exhausted drug pipeline is a major concern for the future of the therapy of infections. A novel approach for the discovery of antibiotics relies on the analysis of microbial consortia in their ecological context, taking into account the potential natural role of antibiotics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mib.2018.04.002DOI Listing
October 2018
4 Reads

Editorial overview: The new microscopy.

Curr Opin Microbiol 2018 06 24;43:208-211. Epub 2018 Apr 24.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QU, UK. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mib.2018.04.003DOI Listing
June 2018
2 Reads

Microbiology catches the cryo-EM bug.

Curr Opin Microbiol 2018 06 12;43:199-207. Epub 2018 Apr 12.

Laboratory of Cell Biology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. Electronic address:

Over the past few years, the advances in technology and methods that have revolutionized cryo-EM are allowing for key insights in a variety of areas in biology, and microbiology is no exception. A wide range of important macromolecular assemblies in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, as well as intact viruses, have now become accessible to investigation by new methods in 3D electron microscopy. We focus here on selected examples that illustrate this breadth, and review the application of methods in single particle cryo-EM and cryo-electron tomography to progress in the structural biology of CRISPR systems, visualization of small molecule drugs in membrane proteins, in situ visualization of bacterial nanomachines, and the analysis of antigen-antibody interactions to drive vaccine design. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mib.2018.02.012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6005731PMC
June 2018
3 Reads