3,359 results match your criteria Current Opinion in Immunology[Journal]


T-bet B cells: A common denominator in protective and autoreactive antibody responses?

Curr Opin Immunol 2019 Feb 19;57:40-45. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.

T-bet B cells have emerged as a key component of the humoral immune response in both infections and autoimmune disorders, with many of their phenotypic and functional attributes conserved between mice and humans. They are protective (infections) and pathogenic (autoimmunity), although the associated commonalities and differences remain unclear. Heterogeneity within this pool, in terms of origin, fate and function may underlie these divergent roles. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coi.2019.01.002DOI Listing
February 2019

MHC I chaperone complexes shaping immunity.

Curr Opin Immunol 2019 Feb 14;58:9-15. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Institute of Biochemistry, Biocenter, Goethe University Frankfurt, Max-von-Laue Str. 9, 60438 Frankfurt/Main, Germany. Electronic address:

Major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I) molecules present peptides on the surface of most nucleated cells and allow the immune system to detect and eliminate infected or malignantly transformed cells. The peptides are derived from endogenous proteins by proteasomal degradation or aberrant translation, and are translocated from the cytosol into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by the transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP), a central component of the peptide-loading complex (PLC). The peptides are subsequently processed by ER-resident aminopeptidases (ERAP1/2) and loaded onto MHC I. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coi.2019.01.001DOI Listing
February 2019

The labyrinth unfolds: architectural rearrangements of the endolysosomal system in antigen-presenting cells.

Curr Opin Immunol 2019 Feb 6;58:1-8. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Oncode Institute, Department of Cell and Chemical Biology, Leiden University Medical Center, Einthovenweg 20, 2333 ZC, Leiden, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

Antigen-presenting cells (APCs) capture and present pathogens to T cells, thus arousing adaptive immune responses geared at the elimination of these invaders. In APCs, pathogens acquired from the extracellular space intersect with MHC class II (MHC-II) molecules in the endolysosomal system, where processing and loading of antigenic peptides occur. The resulting complexes can then be directed to the cell surface for recognition by T cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coi.2018.12.004DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Affinity war: forging immunoglobulin repertoires.

Curr Opin Immunol 2019 Jan 25;57:32-39. Epub 2019 Jan 25.

Department of Medicine, Division of Rheumatology, Immunology and Allergy Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, USA. Electronic address:

B cell immunoglobulin (Ig) repertoire composition shapes immune responses. The generation of Ig diversity begins with Ig variable region exon assembly from gene segments, random inter-segment junction sequence diversity, and combinations of Ig heavy and light chain. This generates vast preemptive sequence freedom in early developing B lineage cell Ig genes that can anticipate a great diversity of threats. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coi.2018.12.002DOI Listing
January 2019

B-1 cell responses to infections.

Curr Opin Immunol 2019 Jan 24;57:23-31. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

Graduate Group in Integrative Pathobiology, University of California, Davis, United States; Center for Comparative Medicine, University of California, Davis, United States; Dept. Pathology, Microbiology & Immunology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, United States. Electronic address:

B-1 cells represent an innate-like early-developing B cell population, whose existence as an independent lymphocyte subset has been questioned in the past. Recent molecular and lineage tracing studies have not only confirmed their unique origins and differentiation paths, they have also provided a rationale for their distinctive functionalities compared to conventional B cells. This review summarizes our current understanding of B-1 cell development, and the activation events that regulate B-1 cell responses to self and foreign antigens. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coi.2018.12.001DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Microbiome control of innate reactivity.

Curr Opin Immunol 2019 Jan 21;56:107-113. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA.

Numerous scientific disciplines, including immunology, are now positioned to fully realize the potential of the intestinal microbiome to modulate a wide array of basic processes. Increasingly, microbiota-derived metabolites are being recognized for mediating these effects. Coupled with advances in large scale sequencing and mass spectrometry, research into the microbiota and their metabolites has entered into an era of rapid discovery. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coi.2018.12.003DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Cellular pathways in the development of human and murine innate lymphoid cells.

Curr Opin Immunol 2018 Dec 19;56:100-106. Epub 2018 Dec 19.

Department of Hematology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, United States. Electronic address:

Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are critical to effective immune surveillance against pathogens, have malignant counterparts, and contribute to disease. Thus, it is important to understand ILC development. All ILCs are derived from the common lymphoid progenitor cell; however, the exact mechanisms and signals that initiate their divergence from T cells, B cells and one and other are incompletely understood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coi.2018.11.003DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Editorial overview: Autoimmunity: A new frontier awaits.

Authors:
Daniel B Stetson

Curr Opin Immunol 2018 Dec;55:iii-iv

Department of Immunology, University of Washington School of Medicine, 750 Republican St, Seattle, WA 98109, USA. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coi.2018.11.005DOI Listing
December 2018
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Neuronal regulation of innate lymphoid cells.

Curr Opin Immunol 2018 Dec 7;56:94-99. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Jill Roberts Institute for Research in Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Joan and Sanford I. Weill Department of Medicine, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Cornell Medicine, Cornell University, New York, NY 10021, USA. Electronic address:

The cardinal signs of inflammation suggest a close connection between the nervous system and the immune system. However, the cellular and molecular basis of these interactions remains incompletely defined. Recent research has demonstrated that tissue-resident innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) obtain neuronal signals, particularly at mucosal barriers, where ILCs regulate tissue homeostasis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coi.2018.11.002DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Innate lymphoid cell sensing of tissue vitality.

Curr Opin Immunol 2018 Dec 4;56:82-93. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, United States. Electronic address:

Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) constitute a heterogeneous population of cytokine-secreting cells that colonize different tissues and are heavily reliant on cytokines and other secreted factors for their development, maintenance and effector functions. Most ILCs are tissue resident and differentiate in non-lymphoid peripheral tissues. As tissue-resident sentinels, ILCs must rapidly identify pathogens or malignancy in an effort to return the tissue to homeostasis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coi.2018.11.004DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

ILC2s - resident lymphocytes pre-adapted to a specific tissue or migratory effectors that adapt to where they move?

Curr Opin Immunol 2018 Nov 22;56:76-81. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Laboratory of Immune System Biology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA. Electronic address:

A cardinal feature of the T-cell adaptive immune system is the antigen-dependent activation of naïve T cells in secondary lymphoid sites, followed by the migration of the resultant effector cells through the efferent lymph to the blood and then into a peripheral tissue site of infection or tumor growth. In contrast, the current view of innate lymphocytes (ILCs), the innate counterparts of T cells, is that they are tissue-resident cells, adapted to their specific environments during development and performing their effector functions locally upon cytokine stimulation. Here we present recent findings that challenge the latter as defining the properties of ILCs, at least ILC2s. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coi.2018.11.001DOI Listing
November 2018
8 Reads

Updates on autoinflammatory diseases.

Curr Opin Immunol 2018 Dec 16;55:97-105. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Translational Autoinflammatory Diseases Section, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD, USA. Electronic address:

Autoinflammatory diseases are hyperinflammatory, immune dysregulatory diseases caused by innate immune cells dysregulation that present typically in the perinatal period with systemic and organ-targeted inflammation, but with improved genetic testing and the development of diagnostic criteria, milder and later-onset forms are being detected in adulthood. While the discovery of gain-of-function mutations in innate sensors linked to the production of proinflammatory cytokines provided the bases for anti-cytokine therapies that changed disease and patient outcomes, the field is expanding with the increasing discovery of disease-causing loss-of-function mutations in genes with cellular house-keeping functions that affect cell homeostasis and when dysregulated trigger innate inflammatory pathways. This review focuses on updates on molecular pathways and diseases that cause predominantly IL-1β and Type-I IFN-mediated autoinflammatory diseases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coi.2018.09.014DOI Listing
December 2018
8 Reads

Bridging the gap between vaccination with Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) and immunological tolerance: the cases of type 1 diabetes and multiple sclerosis.

Curr Opin Immunol 2018 Dec 15;55:89-96. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Center for Experimental Neurological Therapies, Sant'Andrea Hospital, Department of Neurosciences, Mental Health and Sensory Organs, Sapienza University of Rome, S. Andrea Hospital, Via di Grottarossa 1035, 00189 Rome, Italy; IRCCS Istituto Neurologico Mediterraneo (INM) Neuromed, 86077 Pozzilli, IS, Italy. Electronic address:

At the end of past century, when the prevailing view was that treatment of autoimmunity required immune suppression, experimental evidence suggested an approach of immune-stimulation such as with the BCG vaccine in type 1 diabetes (T1D) and multiple sclerosis (MS). Translating these basic studies into clinical trials, we showed the following: BCG harnessed the immune system to 'permanently' lower blood sugar, even in advanced T1D; BCG appeared to delay the disease progression in early MS; the effects were long-lasting (years after vaccination) in both diseases. The recently demonstrated capacity of BCG to boost glycolysis may explain both the improvement of metabolic indexes in T1D, and the more efficient generation of inducible regulatory T cells, which counteract the autoimmune attack and foster repair mechanisms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coi.2018.09.016DOI Listing
December 2018
7 Reads

Lambda interferons come to light: dual function cytokines mediating antiviral immunity and damage control.

Curr Opin Immunol 2018 Nov 3;56:67-75. Epub 2018 Nov 3.

Laboratory of Immunobiology, Center for Clinical, Experimental Surgery and Translational Research, Biomedical Research Foundation of the Academy of Athens, 11527 Athens, Greece.

Lambda interferons (IFNλs, type III IFNs or interleukins-28/29) were described fifteen years ago as novel cytokines sharing structural and functional homology with IL-10 and type I IFNs, respectively. IFNλs engage a unique receptor complex comprising IFNLR1 and IL10R2, nevertheless they share signaling cascade and many functions with type I IFNs, questioning their possible non-redundant roles and overall biological importance. Here, we review the latest evidence establishing the primacy of IFNλs in front line protection at anatomical barriers, mediating antiviral immunity before type I IFNs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coi.2018.10.007DOI Listing
November 2018
2 Reads

The long and the short of it: insights into the cellular source of autoantibodies as revealed by B cell depletion therapy.

Curr Opin Immunol 2018 Dec 1;55:81-88. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

Seattle Children's Research Institute, Seattle, WA, United States; Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington, School of Medicine, United States. Electronic address:

High titers of pathogenic autoantibodies are a hallmark of many autoimmune diseases. However, much remains unknown about the self-reactive plasma cells that are key mediators of disease. We propose a model in which the varying efficacy of precursor B cell depletion for the treatment of humoral autoimmunity can be explained by differences in the relative contributions of pathogenic antibodies by short-lived versus long-lived plasma cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coi.2018.10.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6289281PMC
December 2018
9 Reads

Age (autoimmunity) associated B cells (ABCs) and their relatives.

Curr Opin Immunol 2018 Dec 31;55:75-80. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

Department of Biomedical Research, National Jewish Health, 1400, Jackson St., Denver, CO 80206, USA; Department of Immunology and Microbiology, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045, USA. Electronic address:

B cells affect human and animal health in numerous ways. They are the precursors for the antibody-secreting plasma cells and they also take up antigen, particularly antigen for which they bear-specific receptors, very efficiently and thus present antigen to T cells. The T cell-B cell interactions that thus occur serve not only to affect the B cell, but also, the T cell partner of the interaction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coi.2018.09.007DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Dead or alive: how the immune system detects microbial viability.

Curr Opin Immunol 2018 Oct 23;56:60-66. Epub 2018 Oct 23.

Department of Infectious Diseases and Pulmonary Medicine, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Corporate Member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Berlin, Germany; German Center for Lung Research (DZL), Berlin, Germany. Electronic address:

Immune detection of microbial viability is increasingly recognized as a potent driver of innate and adaptive immune responses. Here we describe recent mechanistic insights into the process of how the immune system discriminates between viable and non-viable microbial matter. Accumulating evidence suggests a key role for microbial RNA as a widely conserved viability associated PAMP (vita-PAMP) and a molecular signal of increased infectious threat. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coi.2018.09.018DOI Listing
October 2018
15 Reads

Antiviral resistance of stem cells.

Curr Opin Immunol 2018 Oct 20;56:50-59. Epub 2018 Oct 20.

Laboratory of Virology and Infectious Disease, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10065, United States. Electronic address:

Stem cells are important for growth and regeneration given their ability to self-renew and differentiate into mature cells. Resistance to certain viral infections has been established as a phenotype of stem cells, a protection in line with their important physiological function. Antiviral resistance is critical to all cells, but it is differentially regulated between stem cells and differentiated cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coi.2018.10.004DOI Listing
October 2018
10 Reads

Editorial overview: Tuning the innate immune response to pathogens.

Curr Opin Immunol 2018 Oct;54:vi-ix

Department of Immunology and Microbiology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, United States.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coi.2018.10.001DOI Listing
October 2018
1 Read

Editorial overview: Allergy and hypersensitivity: Emerging concepts in allergy and type 2 immunity.

Curr Opin Immunol 2018 Oct;54:iii-v

Institute of Pathology, Division of Experimental Pathology, University of Bern, 3008 Bern, Switzerland. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coi.2018.10.002DOI Listing
October 2018
1 Read

Innate immune priming of insulin secretion.

Authors:
Elise Dalmas

Curr Opin Immunol 2018 Oct 17;56:44-49. Epub 2018 Oct 17.

French Institute for Health and Medical Research (INSERM), Cordeliers Research Center UMR_S 1138, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris Descartes University, Paris Diderot University, Paris, France. Electronic address:

Increasing evidence suggests a role for the immune system to finely tune metabolic homeostasis. The possibility that the immune system can likewise regulate islet endocrine function has only commenced drawing attention. Islet beta cells are the main producers of insulin and have to dynamically respond to fluctuating insulin demands of the body. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coi.2018.10.005DOI Listing
October 2018
9 Reads

Oxeiptosis: a discreet way to respond to radicals.

Curr Opin Immunol 2018 Oct 17;56:37-43. Epub 2018 Oct 17.

Immunopathology of Virus Infections, Institute of Virology, Technical University of Munich, Schneckenburger Str. 8, 81675 Munich, Germany; German Center for Infection Research (DZIF), Munich Partner Site, Germany. Electronic address:

One of the best-studied cellular responses to toxic signals and pathogens is programmed cell death. Over the past years, it became apparent that the specific mechanisms of cell death have tremendous influence at both cellular and organismal level, highlighting the importance of sensors and pathways involved in this decision-making process. Central signalling molecules involved in a variety of cell death pathways are reactive oxygen species (ROS). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coi.2018.10.006DOI Listing
October 2018
10 Reads

Epigenetic dynamics in normal and malignant B cells: die a hero or live to become a villain.

Curr Opin Immunol 2018 Oct 17;57:15-22. Epub 2018 Oct 17.

Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA. Electronic address:

Normal B cell development, activation, and terminal differentiation depend on the intricate dynamics of cooperating epigenetic and non-coding components to control the level and timing of expression of thousands of genes. Recent genome-wide studies have integratively mapped changes in the chromatin landscape, DNA methylome, 3-dimensional interactome, and coding and non-coding transcriptomes of normal and malignant B cells. Genetic ablation in human cells and mouse models has begun to elucidate the coordinated roles of essential epigenetic modifiers, key transcription factors, and long non-coding RNAs in B cell biology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coi.2018.09.020DOI Listing
October 2018
6 Reads

Regulation of metabolic supply and demand during B cell activation and subsequent differentiation.

Curr Opin Immunol 2018 Oct 16;57:8-14. Epub 2018 Oct 16.

Department of Immunobiology, University of Arizona College of Medicine, Tucson, AZ 85724, USA. Electronic address:

B cell activation and differentiation are associated with marked changes in proliferative and effector functions. Each stage of B cell differentiation thus has unique metabolic demands. New studies have provided insight on how nutrient uptake and usage by B cells are regulated by B cell receptor signals, autophagy, mammalian target of rapamycin, and transcriptional control of transporters and rate-limiting enzymes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coi.2018.10.003DOI Listing
October 2018
1 Read

From zero to sixty and back to zero again: the metabolic life of B cells.

Curr Opin Immunol 2018 Oct 9;57:1-7. Epub 2018 Oct 9.

Laboratory of Immunogenetics, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, MD, USA. Electronic address:

Throughout their lifetimes B cells shift metabolic gears to move rapidly from quiescent states to full out proliferative expansion and back again. Here we discuss recent findings that shed light on how B cells rapidly shift gears to metabolically fuel expansion and then just as rapidly down shift during phases of receptor rearrangements to ensure genome stability. We also discuss the link between metabolic activity and fate decisions in B cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coi.2018.09.019DOI Listing
October 2018
2 Reads

Innate immunosensing of DNA in cellular senescence.

Curr Opin Immunol 2018 Oct 5;56:31-36. Epub 2018 Oct 5.

Global Health Institute, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Switzerland. Electronic address:

Senescence is a multistep cellular program featuring a stable cell cycle arrest, which occurs upon exposure to various stressors. Senescent cells exhibit metabolic activity and hypertrophy and produce a multitude of factors with both cell intrinsic as well as non-cell autonomous functions. These factors are collectively referred to as the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coi.2018.09.013DOI Listing
October 2018
2 Reads

Control of autoreactive B cells by IgM and IgD B cell receptors: maintaining a fine balance.

Curr Opin Immunol 2018 Dec 5;55:67-74. Epub 2018 Oct 5.

Rosalind Russell and Ephraim P. Engleman Arthritis Research Center, Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA, 94143, USA. Electronic address:

A substantial fraction of mature naïve B cells recognize endogenous antigens, and this autoreactivity must be controlled to prevent autoantibody secretion. Selective downregulation of the IgM BCR on autoreactive B cells has long been appreciated, and recent findings illustrate how this might impose tolerance. The BCR isotype maintained on autoreactive B cells, IgD, is less sensitive to endogenous antigens than IgM. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coi.2018.09.015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6291015PMC
December 2018
14 Reads

SAMHD1 and the innate immune response to cytosolic DNA during DNA replication.

Curr Opin Immunol 2018 Oct 4;56:24-30. Epub 2018 Oct 4.

Institut de Génétique Humaine, CNRS, Université de Montpellier, Equipe Labellisée Ligue contre le Cancer, Montpellier France. Electronic address:

Cytosolic DNA of endogenous or exogenous origin is sensed by the cGAS-STING pathway to activate innate immune responses. Besides microbial DNA, this pathway detects self-DNA in the cytoplasm of damaged or abnormal cells and plays a central role in antitumor immunity. The mechanism by which cytosolic DNA accumulates under genotoxic stress conditions is currently unclear, but recent studies on factors mutated in the Aicardi-Goutières syndrome cells, such as SAMHD1, RNase H2 and TREX1, are shedding new light on this key process. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coi.2018.09.017DOI Listing
October 2018
18 Reads

Natural regulatory plasma cells.

Authors:
Simon Fillatreau

Curr Opin Immunol 2018 Dec 4;55:62-66. Epub 2018 Oct 4.

Institut Necker-Enfants Malades, INSERM U1151-CNRS UMR 8253, Paris, France; Université Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Faculté de Médecine, Paris, France; AP-HP, Hôpital Necker Enfants Malades, Paris, France. Electronic address:

B cells can generate several types of antibody-secreting cells, including plasmablasts that divide and are short lived, as well as plasma cells that do not proliferate and can persist for extended time periods. Here, we discuss the identification of a novel subset of non-dividing plasma cells specialized in the production of interleukin(IL)-10. These cells develop at steady state, including in germ-free mice, via a mechanism dependent on the B cell receptor for antigen and possibly involving the recognition of damaged cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coi.2018.09.012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6290076PMC
December 2018
3 Reads

Reprogramming of mitochondrial metabolism by innate immunity.

Authors:
Johan Garaude

Curr Opin Immunol 2018 Oct 1;56:17-23. Epub 2018 Oct 1.

INSERM U1211, Rares Diseases: Genetics and Metabolism, University of Bordeaux, CHU Pellegrin, École de Sages-Femmes, 33000 Bordeaux, France. Electronic address:

The reprogramming of cellular metabolism has emerged as a major aspect of innate immune cell activation. Mitochondria, which are well known for their critical functions in cellular bioenergetics and metabolism, also serve innate immune purposes by providing specific signaling platforms. Latest advances in our understanding of innate immune receptor-mediated metabolic reprogramming have unraveled specific immune functions of mitochondrial metabolites that place mitochondrial metabolism and particularly the mitochondrial respiratory chain at the center of innate immunity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coi.2018.09.010DOI Listing
October 2018
13 Reads

LAP it up, fuzz ball: a short history of LC3-associated phagocytosis.

Curr Opin Immunol 2018 Dec 2;55:54-61. Epub 2018 Oct 2.

Immunity, Inflammation, and Disease Laboratory, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, 111 T.W. Alexander Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA. Electronic address:

LC3-associated phagocytosis (LAP) exists at the crossroads of the two evolutionary pathways of phagocytosis and autophagy. When a phagocyte engulfs an extracellular particle that engages receptor signaling, components of the autophagy machinery and Rubicon are recruited to the cargo-containing phagosome or LAPosome. Formation of the LAPosome is critical for both cargo clearance as well as mediating the proper signaling cascade. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coi.2018.09.011DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

Coagulopathies and inflammatory diseases: '…glimpse of a Snark'.

Curr Opin Immunol 2018 Dec 27;55:44-53. Epub 2018 Sep 27.

Department of Immunobiology, School of Medicine, Yale University, 300 Cedar Street, New Haven, CT 06520, United States; Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Yale University, 333 Cedar Street, New Haven, CT 06520, United States. Electronic address:

Coagulopathies and inflammatory diseases, ostensibly, have distinct underlying molecular bases. Notwithstanding, both are host defense mechanisms to physical injury. In invertebrates, clotting can function directly in anti-pathogen defense. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coi.2018.09.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6366937PMC
December 2018
14 Reads

Regulation of lymphocyte trafficking in central nervous system autoimmunity.

Curr Opin Immunol 2018 Dec 27;55:38-43. Epub 2018 Sep 27.

Benaroya Research Institute at Virginia Mason, Immunology Program, Seattle, WA, 98101, USA; University of Washington, Department of Immunology, Seattle, WA, 98105, USA. Electronic address:

CD4 T helper (Th) cells play a central role in orchestrating protective immunity but also in autoimmunity. Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a human autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by the infiltration of inflammatory lymphocytes and myeloid cells into the brain and spinal cord, leading to demyelination, axonal damage, and progressive loss of motor functions. The release of T cells in the circulation and their migration in the central nervous system are key and tightly regulated processes which have been targeted to decrease CD4 T cell presence in the CNS and limit disease progression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coi.2018.09.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6286213PMC
December 2018
1 Read

DNA as a self-antigen: nature and regulation.

Curr Opin Immunol 2018 Dec 24;55:31-37. Epub 2018 Sep 24.

Department of Pathology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA; Department of Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA. Electronic address:

High-affinity antibodies to double-stranded DNA are a hallmark of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and are thought to contribute to disease flares and tissue inflammation such as nephritis. Notwithstanding their clinical importance, major questions remain about the development and regulation of these pathogenic anti-DNA responses. These include the mechanisms that prevent anti-DNA responses in healthy subjects, despite the constant generation of self-DNA and the abundance of DNA-reactive B cells; the nature and physical form of antigenic DNA in SLE; the regulation of DNA availability as an antigen; and potential therapeutic strategies targeting the pathogenic DNA in SLE. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coi.2018.09.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6317730PMC
December 2018
14 Reads

IL-6: a cytokine at the crossroads of autoimmunity.

Curr Opin Immunol 2018 Dec 21;55:9-14. Epub 2018 Sep 21.

Translational Research Program, Benaroya Research Institute, Seattle, WA, 98101, USA. Electronic address:

IL-6 is implicated in the development and progression of autoimmune diseases in part by influencing CD4 T cell lineage and regulation. Elevated IL-6 levels drive inflammation in a wide range of autoimmune diseases, some of which are also characterized by enhanced T cell responses to IL-6. Notably, the impact of IL-6 on inflammation is contextual in nature and dependent on the cell type, cytokine milieu and tissue. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coi.2018.09.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6286200PMC
December 2018
1 Read

Extracellular matrix and the maintenance and loss of peripheral immune tolerance in autoimmune insulitis.

Curr Opin Immunol 2018 Dec 22;55:22-30. Epub 2018 Sep 22.

Division of Infectious Diseases and Geographic Medicine, Dept. of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Beckman Center, 279 Campus Drive, Stanford, CA, 94305, United States. Electronic address:

There is a growing appreciation that the extracellular matrix (ECM) contributes to both the maintenance of immune tolerance in healthy tissues and to its loss at sites of autoimmunity. Here, we review recent literature on the role of ECM and particularly the glycosaminoglycans hyaluronan and heparan sulfate in the development of autoimmune, type 1 diabetes (T1D). Data from transplant models suggest that healthy islets are embedded within an intact ECM that supports beta-cell homeostasis and provides physical and immunoregulatory barriers against immune infiltration. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coi.2018.09.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6286219PMC
December 2018
2 Reads

Microbiota - an amplifier of autoimmunity.

Curr Opin Immunol 2018 Dec 22;55:15-21. Epub 2018 Sep 22.

Laboratory for Mucosal Immunity, Center for Integrative Medical Sciences, RIKEN Yokohama Institute, Tsurumi Ward, Suehirocho, 1 Chome-7-22, Yokohama, Kanagawa Prefecture, 230-0045, Japan. Electronic address:

Many studies describe dysbiosis as a change in the microbiota that accompanies autoimmune illnesses, but little is known about whether these changes are a cause or consequence of an altered immune state. The immune system actively shapes the composition of the microbiota, with divergent outcomes in healthy or autoimmune-prone individuals. The gut microbiota in turn acts as an acquired endocrine organ, influencing the physiology of the host via release of nutrients and chemical messengers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coi.2018.09.003DOI Listing
December 2018
12 Reads

Emerging areas for therapeutic discovery in SLE.

Curr Opin Immunol 2018 Dec 21;55:1-8. Epub 2018 Sep 21.

Center for Autoimmunity, Musculoskeletal and Hematologic Diseases, Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, Manhasset, New York, NY 11030, United States. Electronic address:

Recent advances in the field of autoimmunity have identified numerous dysfunctional pathways in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE), including aberrant clearance of nucleic-acid-containing debris and immune complexes, excessive innate immune activation leading to overactive type I IFN signalling, and abnormal B and T cell activation. On the background of genetic polymorphisms that reset thresholds for immune responses, multiple immune cells contribute to inflammatory amplification circuits. Neutrophils activated by immune complexes are a rich source of immunogenic nucleic acids. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coi.2018.09.004DOI Listing
December 2018
4 Reads

Induction of innate immune memory: the role of cellular metabolism.

Curr Opin Immunol 2018 Sep 18;56:10-16. Epub 2018 Sep 18.

Department of Internal Medicine and Radboud Center for Infectious Diseases (RCI), Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Geert Grooteplein Zuid 8, 6525GA Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Department for Genomics & Immunoregulation, Life and Medical Sciences Institute (LIMES), University of Bonn, 53115 Bonn, Germany; Human Genomics Laboratory, Craiova University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Craiova, Romania. Electronic address:

The paradigm that only adaptive immunity can develop immunological memory has recently been challenged by studies showing that cells from the innate immune system can undergo functional reprogramming, facilitating a faster and enhanced response to secondary infections. This improved secondary response is not always specific, as it can also protect from infections caused by non-related pathogens. This has been termed innate immune memory or trained immunity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coi.2018.09.001DOI Listing
September 2018
2 Reads

Editorial overview: Lymphatic vessels: More than a draining pipeline.

Curr Opin Immunol 2018 Aug;53:vii-ix

Department of Molecular and Translational Medicine, University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coi.2018.08.004DOI Listing
August 2018
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Editorial overview: Tough targets.

Curr Opin Immunol 2018 Aug;53:iv-vi

Department of Medicine, Section of Rheumatology, the Knapp Center for Lupus and Immunology, Committee on Immunology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coi.2018.08.005DOI Listing
August 2018
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Corrigendum to 'Unusual antigen presentation offers new insight into HIV vaccine design' [Curr Opin Immunol 46 (2017) 75-81].

Curr Opin Immunol 2018 Aug;53:217

Vaccine and Gene Therapy Institute, Oregon Health & Science University, 505 NW 185th Avenue, Beaverton, OR 97006-3448, United States.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coi.2018.08.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6193200PMC
August 2018
1 Read

Modulation of the gut microbiota to improve innate resistance.

Curr Opin Immunol 2018 Oct 8;54:137-144. Epub 2018 Sep 8.

INSERM UMR 1163, Institut Imagine, Laboratory of Intestinal Immunity, Paris, France; Université Paris Descartes-Sorbonne Paris Cité, 75006 Paris, France. Electronic address:

One major benefit from the association of hosts with the complex microbial communities that establish at body surfaces is the resistance to pathogen infection. This protective role of symbiotic microbes is becoming ever more relevant, given the alarming rise of multidrug-resistant pathogens and severe infections in patients following extensive antibiotic treatment. Herein, we highlight some recent mechanistic studies that have provided insights into how the highly dynamic dialogue amongst intestinal bacteria and between intestinal bacteria and their host can contribute to protect the host against pathogens in and outside the gut. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coi.2018.08.003DOI Listing
October 2018
10 Reads

When designing vaccines, consider the starting material: the human B cell repertoire.

Curr Opin Immunol 2018 Aug 3;53:209-216. Epub 2018 Sep 3.

Division of Vaccine Discovery, La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA; Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology and Immunogen Discovery, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA; Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, UCSD School of Medicine, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA. Electronic address:

Most viral vaccines provide protection from infection through the generation of neutralizing antibodies (nAbs). The repertoire of B cells responding to immunization is the starting material from which nAbs eventually arise. Immunization strategies are increasingly targeting precise B cell specificities to mimic nAbs generated during natural infection, in an effort to maximize the potency of the vaccine-elicited Ab response. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coi.2018.08.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6148213PMC
August 2018
2 Reads

Loss of sterol metabolic homeostasis triggers inflammasomes - how and why.

Curr Opin Immunol 2018 Aug 29;56:1-9. Epub 2018 Aug 29.

Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA. Electronic address:

Proper regulation of sterol biosynthesis is critical for eukaryotic cellular homeostasis. Cholesterol and isoprenoids serve key roles in eukaryotic cells by regulating membrane fluidity and correct localization of proteins. It is becoming increasingly appreciated that dysregulated sterol metabolism engages pathways that lead to inflammation. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S09527915183007
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coi.2018.08.001DOI Listing
August 2018
12 Reads

Harnessing CRISPR to combat human viral infections.

Curr Opin Immunol 2018 Oct 26;54:123-129. Epub 2018 Jul 26.

Department of Medical Microbiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

CRISPR/Cas9 is a technology that allows for targeted and precise genome editing in eukaryotic cells. The technique has changed the landscape of molecular biology and may be applied to repair genetic disorders in future therapies. Besides targeting the human genome, it can be used to cleave and edit viral DNA present in infected cells, and as such provides a promising new strategy for anti-viral therapy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coi.2018.06.002DOI Listing
October 2018
4 Reads

New perspectives on the initiation of allergic immune responses at barrier sites.

Authors:
Mario Noti

Curr Opin Immunol 2018 Oct 18;54:130-136. Epub 2018 Jul 18.

Institute of Pathology, Division of Experimental Pathology, University of Bern, Bern 3008, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Although allergies exert a devastating global impact and often lack effective treatment strategies, our knowledge on the mechanisms that initiate and propagate type-2 immune responses remain enigmatic. Recent advances have highlighted additional roles for epithelial cells (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coi.2018.07.001DOI Listing
October 2018
15 Reads

Regulation of neutrophils in type 2 immune responses.

Curr Opin Immunol 2018 Oct 14;54:115-122. Epub 2018 Jul 14.

Department of Immunology, University Hospital Zurich, CH-8091 Zurich, Switzerland; Faculty of Medicine, University of Zurich, CH-8006 Zurich, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Type 2 immune responses contribute to the resistance to helminths and toxins as well as several physiological processes. Although they usually do not participate in type 2 immune responses, neutrophils have been shown in mice to enhance the anti-helminth response, but they also contribute to increased target tissue damage. Increased pathology and morbidity is also observed in type 2 immune-mediated disorders, such as allergic asthma, when neutrophils become a predominant subset of the infiltrate. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coi.2018.06.009DOI Listing
October 2018
3 Reads

Antiviral RNA interference in mammals.

Curr Opin Immunol 2018 Oct 17;54:109-114. Epub 2018 Jul 17.

Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, University of California, Riverside, USA.

Infection of plants and insects with RNA and DNA viruses triggers Dicer-dependent production of virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs), which subsequently guide specific virus clearance by RNA interference (RNAi). Consistent with a major antiviral function of RNAi, productive virus infection in these eukaryotic hosts depends on the expression of virus-encoded suppressors of RNAi (VSRs). The eukaryotic RNAi pathway is highly conserved, particularly between insects and mammals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coi.2018.06.010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6196099PMC
October 2018
4 Reads

An update on the NLRP3 inflammasome and influenza: the road to redemption or perdition?

Curr Opin Immunol 2018 Oct 30;54:80-85. Epub 2018 Jun 30.

Centre for Innate Immunity and Infectious Diseases, Hudson Institute of Medical Research, Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia; Department of Molecular and Translational Sciences, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia. Electronic address:

Inflammation is an integral aspect of influenza A virus (IAV) infection. It is critical to induce an antiviral environment to reduce viral replication and dissemination, while also being essential to the development and maturation of adaptive immunity, which ultimately resolves infection. Conversely, excessive pulmonary inflammation and cellular influx are characteristic of lethal IAV infections. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coi.2018.06.005DOI Listing
October 2018
8 Reads