1,136 results match your criteria Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS[Journal]


Coevolution of HIV-1 and broadly neutralizing antibodies.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

IAVI Neutralizing Antibody Center, Immunology and Microbiology Department, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Exploring the molecular details of the coevolution of HIV-1 Envelope with broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) in infected individuals over time provides insights for vaccine design. Since mid-2017, the number of individuals described in such publications has nearly tripled. New publications have extended such studies to new epitopes on Env and provided more detail on previously known sites. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000550DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

Presentation of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein trimers on diverse nanoparticle platforms.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Medical Microbiology, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Purpose Of Review: We will discuss recent advances in the development of nanoparticle vaccines presenting HIV-1 envelope trimer vaccines and the immunological mechanisms by which they act.

Recent Findings: The multivalent presentation of Env trimers on nanoparticles is a promising strategy to increase Env immunogenicity. Recent studies have shed light on how Env nanoparticles increase lymph node trafficking and germinal center formation by using the lectin-mediated complement pathway and enhancing the interaction with naïve B cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000549DOI Listing
April 2019
5 Reads

Germinal centers B-cell reaction and T follicular helper cells in response to HIV-1 infection.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Sorbonne Université, Inserm, CNRS, Centre d'Immunologie et des Maladies Infectieuses Cimi-Paris, Paris, France.

Purpose Of Review: This review aims to summarize the recent findings on germinal center B-cell reaction and Tfh cells in HIV-1 infection, with particular emphasis on the spatial organization of the germinal center, follicular cell regulation, and cellular alterations resulting from HIV infection.

Recent Findings: HIV-specific bNAbs are generated by iterative cycles of B-cell maturation supported by GC environment. Recent observations underline that germinal center structural alterations at the earliest stages of HIV infection could impact Tfh cell and germinal center B-cell homeostasis, thus preventing the rise of efficient humoral immunity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000557DOI Listing
April 2019
4 Reads

Vaccine-induced V1V2-specific antibodies control and or protect against infection with HIV, SIV and SHIV.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai.

Purpose Of Review: In humans, only one independent immunologic correlate of reduced risk of HIV infection has been identified: a robust antibody (Ab) response to the V1V2 domain of the gp120 envelope (Env) protein. In recent years, the presence and level of V1V2-specific Abs has also been correlated with protection from SIV and SHIV infections. Here, we review the multitude of studies showing the in-vivo protective effects of V1V2 Abs and review their immunologic characteristics and antiviral functions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000551DOI Listing

A role for antibodies in natural HIV control.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2019 Apr 9. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Virus and Immunity Unit, Control of Chronic Viral Infections (CIVIC) Group, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France.

Purpose Of Review: Rare patients naturally control HIV replication without antiretroviral therapy. Understanding the mechanisms implicated in natural HIV control will inform the development of immunotherapies against HIV. Elite controllers are known for developing efficient antiviral T-cell responses, but recent findings suggest that antibody responses also play a significant role in HIV control. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000554DOI Listing
April 2019
7 Reads

Vaccinal effect of HIV-1 antibody therapy.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2019 Apr 9. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Current address: IRMB, Univ Montpellier, INSERM, CHU Montpellier, Montpellier, France.

Purpose Of Review: The review recalls recent findings regarding the induction of vaccinal effects by HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) and highlights potential therapeutic strategies to exploit such immunomodulatory properties.

Recent Findings: Studies in different animal models have shown that mAbs can generate long-lasting protective immunity. Induction of this vaccinal effect by HIV-1 bNAbs has also been more recently reported in animal models of HIV-1 infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000555DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

B-cell abnormalities in HIV-1 infection: roles for IgG3 and T-bet.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2019 Apr 9. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Laboratory of Immunoregulation, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Numerous B-cell abnormalities in HIV-1 infection have been described over the past three decades yet have remained poorly defined mechanistically. We review recent studies that describe mechanisms of B-cell dysregulation in chronic HIV-1 infection associated with IgG3 and T-bet.

Recent Findings: HIV-1 infection causes hypergammaglobulinemia and dysregulation of B-cell populations, including the expansion during chronic viremia of functionally impaired tissue-like memory (TLM) B cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000547DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

HIV-1 antibodies in prevention of transmission.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2019 Apr 9. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

UMR Inserm U1259.

Purpose Of Review: To present the data that suggest that antibodies to HIV may prevent HIV-1 infection.

Recent Findings: Many human monoclonal broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) have been isolated over the last decade. Numerous experiments of passive immunization in nonhuman primate models have allowed to accumulate strong evidences that bnAbs, opposed to nonneutralizing antibodies, are the best candidates to prevent HIV-1 infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000553DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Ethical issues in HIV phylogenetics and molecular epidemiology.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2019 May;14(3):221-226

Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, San Diego, California, USA.

Purpose Of Review: HIV phylogenetic and molecular epidemiology analyses are increasingly being performed with a goal of improving HIV prevention efforts. However, ethical, legal and social issues are associated with these analyses, and should be considered when performed.

Recent Findings: Several working groups have recently outlined the major issues surrounding the use of molecular epidemiology for HIV prevention. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000538DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6450547PMC
May 2019
5 Reads

Understanding disclosed and cryptic HIV transmission risk via genetic analysis: what are we missing and when does it matter?

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2019 May;14(3):205-212

Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, California, USA.

Purpose Of Review: To discuss the recent HIV phylogenetic analyses examining HIV transmission patterns among and within risk groups.

Recent Findings: Phylodynamic analysis has recently been applied to multiple HIV outbreaks among people who inject drugs to determine whether HIV transmission is ongoing. Large-scale analyses of datasets of HIV sequences collected for drug-resistance testing provide population-level insights into transmission patterns. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000537DOI Listing
May 2019
3 Reads

PANGEA-HIV 2: Phylogenetics And Networks for Generalised Epidemics in Africa.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2019 05;14(3):173-180

Big Data Institute, Li Ka Shing Centre for Health Information and Discovery, Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Purpose Of Review: The HIV epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa is far from being under control and the ambitious UNAIDS targets are unlikely to be met by 2020 as declines in per-capita incidence being largely offset by demographic trends. There is an increasing number of proven and specific HIV prevention tools, but little consensus on how best to deploy them.

Recent Findings: Traditionally, phylogenetics has been used in HIV research to reconstruct the history of the epidemic and date zoonotic infections, whereas more recent publications focus on HIV diversity and drug resistance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000542DOI Listing
May 2019
2 Reads

Editorial: HIV-1 transmission and phylogenetics.

Authors:
Morgane Rolland

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2019 May;14(3):151-152

U.S. Military HIV Research Program, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000546DOI Listing
May 2019
1 Read

Targeting broadly neutralizing antibody precursors: a naïve approach to vaccine design.

Authors:
Andrew T McGuire

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2019 Apr 2. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Vaccine and Infectious Disease Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center.

Purpose Of Review: It is believed that broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) will be an important component of an effective HIV-1 vaccine. Several immunogens have been designed that can target specific precursor B cells as a first step in a vaccine strategy to elicit bNAbs.

Recent Findings: Germline-targeting immunogens have been developed that specifically engage precursors of reproducible classes of anti-HIV antibodies, such as VRC01-class and apex-directed bNAbs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000548DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

HIV-1 phylogenetics and vaccines.

Authors:
Morgane Rolland

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2019 May;14(3):227-232

U.S. Military HIV Research Program, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, MD.

Purpose Of Review: Although HIV-1 diversity is a critical barrier to HIV-1 vaccine development, implementing vaccine strategies that directly address HIV-1 genetic specificities has been challenging. Here, we discuss the intersection between HIV-1 phylogenetics and vaccine development.

Recent Findings: We describe the vaccine regimens that are currently tested in two vaccine efficacy trials and recent research highlighting HIV-1 genetic features that were associated with the development of broadly neutralizing antibodies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000545DOI Listing
May 2019
3 Reads

Clinical and evolutionary consequences of HIV adaptation to HLA: implications for vaccine and cure.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2019 May;14(3):194-204

Faculty of Health Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby.

Purpose Of Review: The purpose of this review is to summarize recent advances in our understanding of HIV adaptation to human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-associated immune pressures and its relevance to HIV prevention and cure research.

Recent Findings: Recent research has confirmed that HLA is a major driver of individual and population-level HIV evolution, that HIV strains are adapting to the immunogenetic profiles of the different human ethnic groups in which they circulate, and that HIV adaptation has substantial clinical and immunologic consequences. As such, adaptation represents a major challenge to HIV prevention and cure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000541DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6457261PMC

Phylogenetics in HIV transmission: taking within-host diversity into account.

Authors:
Thomas Leitner

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2019 May;14(3):181-187

Theoretical Biology & Biophysics Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Within-host diversity complicates transmission models because it recognizes that between-host virus phylogenies are not identical to the transmission history among the infected hosts. This review presents the biological and theoretical foundations for recent development in this field, and shows that modern phylodynamic methods are capable of inferring realistic transmission histories from HIV sequence data.

Recent Findings: Transmission of single or multiple genetic variants from a donor's HIV population results in donor-recipient phylogenies with combinations of monophyletic, paraphyletic, and polyphyletic patterns. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000536DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6449181PMC

Factors influencing HIV-1 phylogenetic clustering.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2019 May;14(3):161-172

KwaZulu-Natal Research Innovation and Sequencing Platform (KRISP), Nelson R Mandela School of Medicine, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa.

Purpose Of Review: A major goal of public health in relation to HIV/AIDS is to prevent new transmissions in communities. Phylogenetic techniques have improved our understanding of the structure and dynamics of HIV transmissions. However, there is still no consensus about phylogenetic methodology, sampling coverage, gene target and/or minimum fragment size. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000540DOI Listing
May 2019
4 Reads
4.680 Impact Factor

Comparative analysis of HIV sequences in real time for public health.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2019 May;14(3):213-220

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine.

Purpose Of Review: The purpose of this study is to summarize recent advances in public health applications of comparative methods for HIV-1 sequence analysis in real time, including genetic clustering methods.

Recent Findings: Over the past 2 years, several groups have reported the deployment of established genetic clustering methods to guide public health decisions for HIV prevention in 'near real time'. However, it remains unresolved how well the readouts of comparative methods like clusters translate to events that are actionable for public health. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000539DOI Listing
May 2019
2 Reads

Review: HIV-1 phylogeny during suppressive antiretroviral therapy.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2019 May;14(3):188-193

HIV Dynamics and Replication Program, CCR, National Cancer Institute (NCI), Frederick, Maryland, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Studies of HIV-1 genetic diversity can provide clues on the effect of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on viral replication, the mechanisms for viral persistence, and the efficacy of new interventions. This article reviews methods for interrogating intrahost HIV-1 diversity, addresses the ongoing debate regarding HIV-1 compartmentalization and replication during ART, and summarizes recent findings on the effects of curative strategies on HIV-1 populations.

Recent Findings: HIV-1 replication in the blood is virtually halted upon the initiation of ART. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000535DOI Listing
May 2019
4 Reads

HIV subtype diversity worldwide.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2019 May;14(3):153-160

Medical Research Council (MRC)/Uganda Virus Research Institute (UVRI) and London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (LSHTM) Uganda Research Unit.

Purpose Of Review: To provide a summary of the current data on the global HIV subtype diversity and distribution by region. HIV is one of the most genetically diverse pathogens due to its high-mutation and recombination rates, large population size and rapid replication rate. This rapid evolutionary process has resulted in several HIV subtypes that are heterogeneously globally distributed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000534DOI Listing

Delivery of gene therapy to resting immune cells for an HIV cure.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2019 Mar;14(2):129-136

The Kirby Institute, UNSW, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Purpose Of Review: The utilization of genetically modified T cells to therapeutically target to various previously incurable diseases such, as cancer, has expanded exponentially in recent years. This success now provides the motivating force in applying the same technology for incurable infectious diseases including HIV. The common bottleneck in gene therapy continues to be at the level of gene delivery. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000531DOI Listing
March 2019
14 Reads

Tissue issues: mucosal T-cell responses in HIV-1 infection.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2019 Mar;14(2):100-107

Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology.

Purpose Of Review: This review summarizes our current understanding of HIV-1-specific T-cell responses in mucosal tissues, emphasizing recent work and specifically highlighting papers published over the past 18 months.

Recent Findings: Recent work has improved the standardization of tissue sampling approaches and provided new insights on the abundance, phenotype and distribution of HIV-1-specific T-cell populations in mucosal tissues. In addition, it has recently been established that some lymphocytes exist in tissues as "permanent resident" memory cells that differ from their counterparts in blood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000530DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6355347PMC
March 2019
5 Reads

Role of T-cell trafficking in the pathogenesis of HIV disease.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2019 Mar;14(2):115-120

Laboratory of Immunoregulation, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Trafficking of lymphocytes into and between gut inductive and effector sites of the gut tissues is regulated by integrin α4β7. Recent findings that describe the central role of α4β7 CD4 T cells in HIV pathogenesis, and the possibility of targeting these cells to prevent or treat HIV infection will be reviewed.

Recent Findings: Recent reports indicate that the frequency of α4β7 CD4 T cells is directly correlated with the risk of HIV acquisition and CD4 T-cell decline post infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000529DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Perturbation of mucosal-associated invariant T cells and iNKT cells in HIV infection.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2019 Mar;14(2):77-84

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The University of Melbourne, Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Purpose Of Review: To analyze the possible role that the 'unconventional' T-cell populations mucosal-associated invariant T cell (MAIT) and iNKT cells play during HIV infection and following antiretroviral therapy (ART) treatment.

Recent Findings: A substantial body of evidence now demonstrates that both MAIT and iNKT cells are depleted in blood during HIV infection. The depletion and dysfunction of MAIT and iNKT cells are only partially restored by suppressive ART, potentially contributing to HIV-related comorbidities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000526DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Role of cytokine agonists and immune checkpoint inhibitors toward HIV remission.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2019 Mar;14(2):121-128

Yerkes National Primate Research Center (YNPRC), Emory Vaccine Center (EVC), Emory University.

Purpose Of Review: The current article describes the current status of the use of cytokines and immune-checkpoint inhibitors as therapeutic strategies toward HIV remission.

Recent Findings: Clinical trials using IL-2 and IL-7 showed increased levels of circulating T cells, although no reduction to the viral reservoir was observed. Studies in nonhuman primates (NHP) demonstrated that experimental IL-15 administration increased proliferation and cytotoxicity of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-specific CD8 T cells, and promoted their localization to the lymph node (LN) B cell follicles. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000528DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6469389PMC
March 2019
13 Reads

Follicular T-cell subsets in HIV infection: recent advances in pathogenesis research.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2019 Mar;14(2):71-76

Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, USA.

Purpose Of Review: T cells within B-cell follicles of secondary lymphoid tissues play key roles in HIV immunopathogenesis. This review highlights recent findings and identifies gaps in current knowledge.

Recent Findings: B-cell follicles are major sites of virus replication and demonstrate significant impairments in the generation of humoral immunity in HIV infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000525DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6355349PMC
March 2019
21 Reads

Current and future priorities for the development of optimal HIV drugs.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2019 Mar;14(2):143-149

Department of HIV and Global Hepatitis Programme, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.

Purpose Of Review: To summarize global efforts to accelerate access to simpler, safer and more affordable antiretroviral drugs and how this has shaped HIV treatment policy over the last decade, and outline future priorities. Several expert consultations aimed at aligning opportunities for optimization of antiretroviral drugs have been convened by WHO in partnership with academic institutions, international agencies, innovators and manufacturers. The increased access to lifelong treatment for people living with HIV also brings about new challenges in the long-term use of antiretrovirals (ARVs). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000527DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Human cytomegalovirus-vectored vaccines against HIV.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2019 Mar;14(2):137-142

UNC HIV Cure Center.

Purpose Of Review: CMV-vectored vaccines expressing SIV antigens have mediated unprecedented levels of virus control following SIV challenge in rhesus macaques. Remarkably, protection was dependent on nonclassically restricted CD8 T cells. Here, we review the latest research in CMV-vectored vaccines in both humans and nonhuman primates as well as recent advances in the understanding nonclassically restricted T cells, particularly MHC-E-restricted CD8 T cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000524DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

New Th17-specific therapeutic strategies for HIV remission.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2019 Mar;14(2):85-92

CHUM Research Centre.

Purpose Of Review: This review highlights current knowledge on the dichotomous role played by T helper 17 cells (Th17)-polarized CD4 T cells in maintaining mucosal immunity homeostasis versus fueling HIV/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) replication/persistence during antiretroviral therapy (ART), with a focus on molecular mechanisms underlying these processes.

Recent Finding: Th17 cells bridge innate and adaptive immunity against pathogens at mucosal barrier surfaces. Th17 cells are located at portal sites of HIV/SIV entry, express a unique transcriptional/metabolic status compatible with viral replication, and represent the first targets of infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000522DOI Listing
March 2019
18 Reads

HIV-1 reservoir dynamics in CD4+ T cells.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2019 Mar;14(2):108-114

Chan Zuckerberg Biohub, San Francisco, California, USA.

Purpose Of Review: To provide a summary of the recent data examining infected CD4+ T cell dynamics during ART and implications for cure strategies.

Recent Findings: HIV-1 cure is a worldwide unmet medical need. Although combination antiretroviral therapies effectively suppress HIV-1 replication in vivo, viral rebound occurs shortly after therapy cessation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000521DOI Listing
March 2019
4 Reads

Everything in its right place: resident memory CD8+ T cell immunosurveillance of HIV infection.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2019 Mar;14(2):93-99

Department of Microbiology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Purpose Of Review: To introduce emerging concepts in tissue resident CD8 T cell immunosurveillance and their relevance to control HIV infection.

Recent Findings: It is well appreciated that HIV preferentially infects and persists in CD4 T cells located in gut and in lymphoid tissue, yet the majority of known immunological correlates of HIV control are derived from peripheral blood. Instead, tissue-based immunological surveillance likely dictates the course of infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000523DOI Listing
March 2019
13 Reads

HIV/tuberculosis/hepatitis C virus services for incarcerated populations in Azerbaijan and the Eastern Europe Central Asia region.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2019 Jan;14(1):66-70

WHO Collaboration Center on Prevention and Control of Tuberculosis in Prisons, Ministry of Justice, Baku, Azerbaijan Republic.

Purpose Of Review: The tide of HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV) and drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) is a challenge for the penitentiary system in Eastern Europe Central Asia (EECA) region. We have analyzed the existing services for incarcerated individuals with HIV, HCV and TB to assess the current situation in the EECA region.

Recent Findings: Because of the current criminal-legal system, key risk population with strong linkage to the blood-borne and airborne infections has a high proportion among prisoners. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000513DOI Listing
January 2019
4 Reads

Civil society demand for accountability to achieve the 90-90-90 targets: lessons from Eastern and Southern Africa.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2019 Jan;14(1):41-45

Health Global Access Project, Kampala, Uganda and Nairobi, Kenya.

Purpose Of Review: Civil society demand for accountability has long been a critical component of the AIDS response. In the age of 90-90-90 HIV treatment goals, civil society advocacy has continued, but often in new forms. In particular, civil society accountability at the intersection of national policy and global health financing has taken on increasing importance, but has not been well documented. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000516DOI Listing
January 2019
5 Reads

Strategies for access to affordable hepatitis C testing and treatment in Asia.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2019 Jan;14(1):1-6

Médecins Sans Frontières Access Campaign, Geneva, Switzerland.

Purpose Of Review: With increasing availability of generic direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) and associated price reductions, various governments, multilateral institutions, and donors have started providing testing and treatment for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. More data on the quality of these generic medicines and on cost-effectiveness of their use are becoming widely available. This review seeks to describe some of the treatment programs for HCV that are evolving in Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, and Thailand. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000514DOI Listing
January 2019
18 Reads

Demand creation for primary biomedical prevention: identifying lessons across interventions to inform daily oral preexposure prophylaxis programs.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2019 Jan;14(1):28-40

R Loar Consulting, Cedar Creek, Texas, USA.

Purpose Of Review: At a moment when UNAIDS (Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS) has acknowledged a 'prevention crisis,' and multiple countries and implementers are emphasizing 'user-centered' and/or differentiated models of delivering HIV treatment and prevention, it is essential to understand and act on best practices from all relevant interventions to create effective oral preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) programs.

Recent Findings: It is possible to adapt private sector approaches to understanding and segmenting the preferences and mindsets of potential consumers to primary HIV prevention programs, as demonstrated by a voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC)-focused intervention that successfully trained and supported counselors to identify and deliver tailored messages to men potentially undergoing VMMC. Literature on PrEP and demand creation is less extensive and suggests uneven application of user-centered design and demand-side thinking; a recent analysis of condom programing demonstrates that failure to maintain resources for social marketing can drive a collapse in use and an increase in HIV incidence. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000518DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Community and activists demand for tenofovir/emtricitabine or lamivudine/dolutegravir and routine viral load testing.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2019 Jan;14(1):7-12

International Treatment Preparedness Coalition, Gaborone, Botswana.

Purpose Of Review: Since the beginning of the HIV epidemic, informed communities have demanded and fought for access to life-saving treatment. The last several years have seen interesting developments in this area - particularly with respect to the switch to dolutegravir (DTG)-based regimens and scale-up of routine viral load testing (RVLT), and how these directly and indirectly impact issues of treatment optimization, HIV drug resistance, and sexual and reproductive health. In this review, we present recent advances in antiretroviral treatment and monitoring in the context of how treatment education and community demand for them. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000515DOI Listing
January 2019
12 Reads

Demanding an end to tuberculosis: treatment of tuberculosis infection among persons living with and without HIV.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2019 Jan;14(1):21-27

Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Purpose Of Review: More than two billion people are infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and few of them are ever offered therapy in spite of such treatment being associated with reduced rates of morbidity and mortality. This article reviews the current recommendations on the diagnosis and treatment of TB infection (or what is commonly referred to as 'prophylaxis' or 'preventive therapy' of latent TB) and discusses barriers to implementation that have led to low demand for this life-saving therapeutic intervention.

Recent Findings: Treatment of infection for both TB and drug-resistant TB is well tolerated and effective, and several new, shorter regimens - including rfiapenitine-based regimens of 1 month and 12 weeks duration - have been shown to be effective. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000517DOI Listing
January 2019
17 Reads

Innovations and challenges in early infant diagnosis of HIV.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2019 Jan;14(1):55-59

Friends in Global Health, Maputo, Mozambique.

Purpose Of Review: This article aims at examining the key recent advances in the field of EID, as well as at discussing approaches for resolving the major bottlenecks faced by health systems in the identification and linkage to care of HIV-infected infants.

Recent Findings: Programmatic experience in South Africa and research in other high-burden countries showed that birth HIV testing is accurate, feasible and has the potential to decrease infant mortality. Substantial evidence has mounted on the accuracy of point-of-care testing for EID, including for birth testing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000511DOI Listing
January 2019
21 Reads

Creating demand for long-acting formulations for the treatment and prevention of HIV, tuberculosis, and viral hepatitis.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2019 Jan;14(1):13-20

University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Long-acting parenteral drug delivery is an established and widely accepted solution to the problem of poor adherence when daily oral medications are used to treat or prevent chronic medical conditions. Poor adherence to oral formulations remains a major barrier to successfully treating or preventing HIV, tuberculosis (TB), and viral hepatitis. The uptake of long-acting formulations developed for these infections is uncertain, despite their promise. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000510DOI Listing
January 2019
21 Reads

Differentiated service delivery: navigating the path to scale.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2019 Jan;14(1):60-65

ICAP at Columbia University.

Purpose Of Review: Differentiated service delivery (DSD) has emerged as an approach for HIV programs seeking to better serve the needs of people living with HIV, reduce unnecessary burdens on the health system, and improve client outcomes. We reviewed recent evidence that addresses the challenge of DSD scale-up.

Recent Findings: Most current evidence focuses on treatment of clinically stable adult clients in high HIV prevalence settings. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000509DOI Listing
January 2019
19 Reads

Diagnosing active tuberculosis in people living with HIV: an ongoing challenge.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2019 Jan;14(1):46-54

Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health.

Purpose Of Review: Diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in people living with HIV (PLHIV) remains a challenge, despite it being the most common comorbidity in this group. In this review, we provide an overview of tests for active TB, and their diagnostic performance in PLHIV.

Recent Findings: New and updated diagnostic tests have better performance than traditional bacterial culture or smear microscopy in PLHIV. Read More

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http://Insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=01222929-900000000-9927
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000512DOI Listing
January 2019
28 Reads

Identifying priorities for HIV-associated tuberculosis research through the WHO guidelines process.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2018 11;13(6):538-542

Global TB Programme, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.

Purpose Of Review: Guidelines developed by the WHO aim to provide recommendations to support best practice in health delivery, with a focus on low-income and middle-income countries. As part of the guideline development process, critical knowledge gaps are identified and one of the core functions of WHO guidelines is to set forth priorities for future research. A review of research priorities identified through the WHO guideline development has recently been promoted as one approach to building an overarching priority research agenda in a given area. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000499DOI Listing
November 2018
19 Reads

Preventive therapy for HIV-associated tuberculosis.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2018 11;13(6):507-511

Evandro Chagas National Institute of Infectious Diseases - Fiocruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Purpose Of Review: Tuberculosis (TB) remains the leading cause of death in people living with HIV (PLHIV) despite the achievements in antiretroviral therapy coverage. TB preventive therapy (TPT) has proved efficacy but has been neglected and poorly implemented. We reviewed recent publications and guidelines about TPT in PLHIV. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000504DOI Listing
November 2018
2 Reads

HIV-associated pediatric tuberculosis: prevention, diagnosis and treatment.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2018 11;13(6):501-506

The Global TB Program, Texas Children's Hospital and the Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA.

Purpose Of Review: The detrimental synergy of colliding HIV and tuberculosis (TB) epidemics is most devastating among children and adolescents living with HIV (CALWH) who shoulder a disproportionate burden of all child TB mortality.

Recent Findings: CALWH benefit less from Bacille-Calmette Guerin vaccination than HIV-uninfected children and are not receiving TB preventive therapy despite global recommendations. Further, the predictive utility of most diagnostic tools is reduced in CALWH. Read More

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http://Insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=01222929-201811000-0000
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000500DOI Listing
November 2018
25 Reads

Treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis among people living with HIV.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2018 11;13(6):478-485

St. Peter's Specialized TB Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Purpose Of Review: This review aims to describe the key principles in treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) in people living with HIV, including early access to timely diagnostics, linkage into care, TB treatment strategies including the use of new and repurposed drugs, co-management of HIV disease, and treatment complications and programmatic support to optimize treatment outcomes. These are necessary strategies to decrease the likelihood of poor treatment outcomes including lower treatment completion rates and higher mortality.

Recent Findings: Diagnosis of drug-resistant TB is the gateway into care; yet understanding the utility and the limitations of genotypic methods in this population is necessary. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000503DOI Listing
November 2018
22 Reads

Recent progress in understanding immune activation in the pathogenesis in HIV-tuberculosis co-infection.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2018 11;13(6):455-461

Wellcome Centre for Infectious Diseases Research in Africa, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine.

Purpose Of Review: Tuberculosis is the leading infectious cause of death worldwide, and HIV-1 the best recognized risk factor for active TB. This review focuses on immune complex formation; the interplay of type I and II interferon signaling; and T-cell activation in HIV-TB pathogenesis.

Recent Findings: Circulating immune complexes and complement, and Fcγ signaling in whole blood act as early markers of TB disease in HIV-1-infected persons. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000501DOI Listing
November 2018
4 Reads

Treatment of drug-susceptible tuberculosis among people living with human immunodeficiency virus infection: an update.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2018 11;13(6):469-477

Division of Infectious Diseases.

Purpose Of Review: The present review describes recent advances in the treatment of drug-susceptible tuberculosis (DS-TB) among people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLWH).

Recent Findings: Higher than standard rifampicin doses (>10 mg/kg/day) are well tolerated and have improved sterilizing activity. Standard pyrazinamide doses may result in low drug exposures; modeling reveals that higher doses (>25 mg/kg/day) may be required to reach target levels, although safety is unknown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000506DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6389504PMC
November 2018
2 Reads

Coordinating the prevention, treatment, and care continuum for HIV-associated tuberculosis in prisons: a health systems strengthening approach.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2018 11;13(6):492-500

Centre for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia (CIDRZ), Lusaka, Zambia.

Purpose Of Review: To advance a re-conceptualized prevention, treatment, and care continuum (PTCC) for HIV-associated tuberculosis (TB) in prisons, and to make recommendations for strengthening prison health systems and reducing HIV-associated TB morbidity and mortality throughout the cycle of pretrial detention, incarceration, and release.

Recent Findings: Despite evidence of increased HIV-associated TB burden in prisons compared to the general population, prisoners face entrenched barriers to accessing anti-TB therapy, antiretroviral therapy, and evidence-based HIV and TB prevention. New approaches, suitable for the complexities of healthcare delivery in prisons, have emerged that may address these barriers, and include: novel TB diagnostics, universal test and treat for HIV, medication-assisted treatment for opioid dependence, comprehensive transitional case management, and peer navigation, among others. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000505DOI Listing
November 2018
1 Read

90-90-90 HIV targets: implications for HIV-associated tuberculosis.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2018 11;13(6):528-537

International Public Health Consultant, Delhi, India.

Purpose Of Review: The HIV and Mycobacterium tuberculosis syndemic remains a major global public health threat. HIV and tuberculosis (TB) global targets have been set. Success will depend on achieving combined disease control. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000498DOI Listing
November 2018
19 Reads

The tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome: recent advances in clinical and pathogenesis research.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2018 11;13(6):512-521

Wellcome Centre for Infectious Diseases Research in Africa, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.

Purpose Of Review: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is an essential, life-saving intervention for HIV infection. However, ART initiation is frequently complicated by the tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS) in TB endemic settings. Here, we summarize the current understanding highlighting the recent evidence. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000502DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6181275PMC
November 2018
2 Reads