1,116 results match your criteria Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS[Journal]


Delivery of gene therapy to resting immune cells for an HIV cure.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2019 Mar;14(2):129-136

The Kirby Institute, UNSW, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Purpose Of Review: The utilization of genetically modified T cells to therapeutically target to various previously incurable diseases such, as cancer, has expanded exponentially in recent years. This success now provides the motivating force in applying the same technology for incurable infectious diseases including HIV. The common bottleneck in gene therapy continues to be at the level of gene delivery. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000531DOI Listing
March 2019
6 Reads

Tissue issues: mucosal T-cell responses in HIV-1 infection.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2019 Mar;14(2):100-107

Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology.

Purpose Of Review: This review summarizes our current understanding of HIV-1-specific T-cell responses in mucosal tissues, emphasizing recent work and specifically highlighting papers published over the past 18 months.

Recent Findings: Recent work has improved the standardization of tissue sampling approaches and provided new insights on the abundance, phenotype and distribution of HIV-1-specific T-cell populations in mucosal tissues. In addition, it has recently been established that some lymphocytes exist in tissues as "permanent resident" memory cells that differ from their counterparts in blood. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000530DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6355347PMC
March 2019
1 Read

Role of T-cell trafficking in the pathogenesis of HIV disease.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2019 Mar;14(2):115-120

Laboratory of Immunoregulation, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Trafficking of lymphocytes into and between gut inductive and effector sites of the gut tissues is regulated by integrin α4β7. Recent findings that describe the central role of α4β7 CD4 T cells in HIV pathogenesis, and the possibility of targeting these cells to prevent or treat HIV infection will be reviewed.

Recent Findings: Recent reports indicate that the frequency of α4β7 CD4 T cells is directly correlated with the risk of HIV acquisition and CD4 T-cell decline post infection. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000529DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Perturbation of mucosal-associated invariant T cells and iNKT cells in HIV infection.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2019 Mar;14(2):77-84

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The University of Melbourne, Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Purpose Of Review: To analyze the possible role that the 'unconventional' T-cell populations mucosal-associated invariant T cell (MAIT) and iNKT cells play during HIV infection and following antiretroviral therapy (ART) treatment.

Recent Findings: A substantial body of evidence now demonstrates that both MAIT and iNKT cells are depleted in blood during HIV infection. The depletion and dysfunction of MAIT and iNKT cells are only partially restored by suppressive ART, potentially contributing to HIV-related comorbidities. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000526DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Role of cytokine agonists and immune checkpoint inhibitors toward HIV remission.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2019 Mar;14(2):121-128

Yerkes National Primate Research Center (YNPRC), Emory Vaccine Center (EVC), Emory University.

Purpose Of Review: The current article describes the current status of the use of cytokines and immune-checkpoint inhibitors as therapeutic strategies toward HIV remission.

Recent Findings: Clinical trials using IL-2 and IL-7 showed increased levels of circulating T cells, although no reduction to the viral reservoir was observed. Studies in nonhuman primates (NHP) demonstrated that experimental IL-15 administration increased proliferation and cytotoxicity of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-specific CD8 T cells, and promoted their localization to the lymph node (LN) B cell follicles. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000528DOI Listing
March 2019
8 Reads

Follicular T-cell subsets in HIV infection: recent advances in pathogenesis research.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2019 Mar;14(2):71-76

Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, USA.

Purpose Of Review: T cells within B-cell follicles of secondary lymphoid tissues play key roles in HIV immunopathogenesis. This review highlights recent findings and identifies gaps in current knowledge.

Recent Findings: B-cell follicles are major sites of virus replication and demonstrate significant impairments in the generation of humoral immunity in HIV infection. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000525DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6355349PMC
March 2019
14 Reads

Current and future priorities for the development of optimal HIV drugs.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2019 Mar;14(2):143-149

Department of HIV and Global Hepatitis Programme, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.

Purpose Of Review: To summarize global efforts to accelerate access to simpler, safer and more affordable antiretroviral drugs and how this has shaped HIV treatment policy over the last decade, and outline future priorities. Several expert consultations aimed at aligning opportunities for optimization of antiretroviral drugs have been convened by WHO in partnership with academic institutions, international agencies, innovators and manufacturers. The increased access to lifelong treatment for people living with HIV also brings about new challenges in the long-term use of antiretrovirals (ARVs). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000527DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Human cytomegalovirus-vectored vaccines against HIV.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2019 Mar;14(2):137-142

UNC HIV Cure Center.

Purpose Of Review: CMV-vectored vaccines expressing SIV antigens have mediated unprecedented levels of virus control following SIV challenge in rhesus macaques. Remarkably, protection was dependent on nonclassically restricted CD8 T cells. Here, we review the latest research in CMV-vectored vaccines in both humans and nonhuman primates as well as recent advances in the understanding nonclassically restricted T cells, particularly MHC-E-restricted CD8 T cells. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000524DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

New Th17-specific therapeutic strategies for HIV remission.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2019 Mar;14(2):85-92

CHUM Research Centre.

Purpose Of Review: This review highlights current knowledge on the dichotomous role played by T helper 17 cells (Th17)-polarized CD4 T cells in maintaining mucosal immunity homeostasis versus fueling HIV/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) replication/persistence during antiretroviral therapy (ART), with a focus on molecular mechanisms underlying these processes.

Recent Finding: Th17 cells bridge innate and adaptive immunity against pathogens at mucosal barrier surfaces. Th17 cells are located at portal sites of HIV/SIV entry, express a unique transcriptional/metabolic status compatible with viral replication, and represent the first targets of infection. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000522DOI Listing
March 2019
8 Reads

HIV-1 reservoir dynamics in CD4+ T cells.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2019 Mar;14(2):108-114

Chan Zuckerberg Biohub, San Francisco, California, USA.

Purpose Of Review: To provide a summary of the recent data examining infected CD4+ T cell dynamics during ART and implications for cure strategies.

Recent Findings: HIV-1 cure is a worldwide unmet medical need. Although combination antiretroviral therapies effectively suppress HIV-1 replication in vivo, viral rebound occurs shortly after therapy cessation. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000521DOI Listing
March 2019
4 Reads

Everything in its right place: resident memory CD8+ T cell immunosurveillance of HIV infection.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2019 Mar;14(2):93-99

Department of Microbiology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Purpose Of Review: To introduce emerging concepts in tissue resident CD8 T cell immunosurveillance and their relevance to control HIV infection.

Recent Findings: It is well appreciated that HIV preferentially infects and persists in CD4 T cells located in gut and in lymphoid tissue, yet the majority of known immunological correlates of HIV control are derived from peripheral blood. Instead, tissue-based immunological surveillance likely dictates the course of infection. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000523DOI Listing
March 2019
7 Reads

HIV/tuberculosis/hepatitis C virus services for incarcerated populations in Azerbaijan and the Eastern Europe Central Asia region.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2019 Jan;14(1):66-70

WHO Collaboration Center on Prevention and Control of Tuberculosis in Prisons, Ministry of Justice, Baku, Azerbaijan Republic.

Purpose Of Review: The tide of HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV) and drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) is a challenge for the penitentiary system in Eastern Europe Central Asia (EECA) region. We have analyzed the existing services for incarcerated individuals with HIV, HCV and TB to assess the current situation in the EECA region.

Recent Findings: Because of the current criminal-legal system, key risk population with strong linkage to the blood-borne and airborne infections has a high proportion among prisoners. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000513DOI Listing
January 2019
4 Reads

Civil society demand for accountability to achieve the 90-90-90 targets: lessons from Eastern and Southern Africa.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2019 Jan;14(1):41-45

Health Global Access Project, Kampala, Uganda and Nairobi, Kenya.

Purpose Of Review: Civil society demand for accountability has long been a critical component of the AIDS response. In the age of 90-90-90 HIV treatment goals, civil society advocacy has continued, but often in new forms. In particular, civil society accountability at the intersection of national policy and global health financing has taken on increasing importance, but has not been well documented. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000516DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Strategies for access to affordable hepatitis C testing and treatment in Asia.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2019 Jan;14(1):1-6

Médecins Sans Frontières Access Campaign, Geneva, Switzerland.

Purpose Of Review: With increasing availability of generic direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) and associated price reductions, various governments, multilateral institutions, and donors have started providing testing and treatment for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. More data on the quality of these generic medicines and on cost-effectiveness of their use are becoming widely available. This review seeks to describe some of the treatment programs for HCV that are evolving in Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, and Thailand. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000514DOI Listing
January 2019
14 Reads

Demand creation for primary biomedical prevention: identifying lessons across interventions to inform daily oral preexposure prophylaxis programs.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2019 Jan;14(1):28-40

R Loar Consulting, Cedar Creek, Texas, USA.

Purpose Of Review: At a moment when UNAIDS (Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS) has acknowledged a 'prevention crisis,' and multiple countries and implementers are emphasizing 'user-centered' and/or differentiated models of delivering HIV treatment and prevention, it is essential to understand and act on best practices from all relevant interventions to create effective oral preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) programs.

Recent Findings: It is possible to adapt private sector approaches to understanding and segmenting the preferences and mindsets of potential consumers to primary HIV prevention programs, as demonstrated by a voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC)-focused intervention that successfully trained and supported counselors to identify and deliver tailored messages to men potentially undergoing VMMC. Literature on PrEP and demand creation is less extensive and suggests uneven application of user-centered design and demand-side thinking; a recent analysis of condom programing demonstrates that failure to maintain resources for social marketing can drive a collapse in use and an increase in HIV incidence. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000518DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Community and activists demand for tenofovir/emtricitabine or lamivudine/dolutegravir and routine viral load testing.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2019 Jan;14(1):7-12

International Treatment Preparedness Coalition, Gaborone, Botswana.

Purpose Of Review: Since the beginning of the HIV epidemic, informed communities have demanded and fought for access to life-saving treatment. The last several years have seen interesting developments in this area - particularly with respect to the switch to dolutegravir (DTG)-based regimens and scale-up of routine viral load testing (RVLT), and how these directly and indirectly impact issues of treatment optimization, HIV drug resistance, and sexual and reproductive health. In this review, we present recent advances in antiretroviral treatment and monitoring in the context of how treatment education and community demand for them. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000515DOI Listing
January 2019
8 Reads

Demanding an end to tuberculosis: treatment of tuberculosis infection among persons living with and without HIV.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2019 Jan;14(1):21-27

Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Purpose Of Review: More than two billion people are infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and few of them are ever offered therapy in spite of such treatment being associated with reduced rates of morbidity and mortality. This article reviews the current recommendations on the diagnosis and treatment of TB infection (or what is commonly referred to as 'prophylaxis' or 'preventive therapy' of latent TB) and discusses barriers to implementation that have led to low demand for this life-saving therapeutic intervention.

Recent Findings: Treatment of infection for both TB and drug-resistant TB is well tolerated and effective, and several new, shorter regimens - including rfiapenitine-based regimens of 1 month and 12 weeks duration - have been shown to be effective. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000517DOI Listing
January 2019
10 Reads

Innovations and challenges in early infant diagnosis of HIV.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2019 Jan;14(1):55-59

Friends in Global Health, Maputo, Mozambique.

Purpose Of Review: This article aims at examining the key recent advances in the field of EID, as well as at discussing approaches for resolving the major bottlenecks faced by health systems in the identification and linkage to care of HIV-infected infants.

Recent Findings: Programmatic experience in South Africa and research in other high-burden countries showed that birth HIV testing is accurate, feasible and has the potential to decrease infant mortality. Substantial evidence has mounted on the accuracy of point-of-care testing for EID, including for birth testing. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000511DOI Listing
January 2019
16 Reads

Creating demand for long-acting formulations for the treatment and prevention of HIV, tuberculosis, and viral hepatitis.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2019 Jan;14(1):13-20

University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Long-acting parenteral drug delivery is an established and widely accepted solution to the problem of poor adherence when daily oral medications are used to treat or prevent chronic medical conditions. Poor adherence to oral formulations remains a major barrier to successfully treating or preventing HIV, tuberculosis (TB), and viral hepatitis. The uptake of long-acting formulations developed for these infections is uncertain, despite their promise. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000510DOI Listing
January 2019
15 Reads

Differentiated service delivery: navigating the path to scale.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2019 Jan;14(1):60-65

ICAP at Columbia University.

Purpose Of Review: Differentiated service delivery (DSD) has emerged as an approach for HIV programs seeking to better serve the needs of people living with HIV, reduce unnecessary burdens on the health system, and improve client outcomes. We reviewed recent evidence that addresses the challenge of DSD scale-up.

Recent Findings: Most current evidence focuses on treatment of clinically stable adult clients in high HIV prevalence settings. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000509DOI Listing
January 2019
13 Reads

Diagnosing active tuberculosis in people living with HIV: an ongoing challenge.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2019 Jan;14(1):46-54

Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health.

Purpose Of Review: Diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in people living with HIV (PLHIV) remains a challenge, despite it being the most common comorbidity in this group. In this review, we provide an overview of tests for active TB, and their diagnostic performance in PLHIV.

Recent Findings: New and updated diagnostic tests have better performance than traditional bacterial culture or smear microscopy in PLHIV. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://Insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=01222929-900000000-9927
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000512DOI Listing
January 2019
23 Reads

Identifying priorities for HIV-associated tuberculosis research through the WHO guidelines process.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2018 Nov;13(6):538-542

Global TB Programme, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.

Purpose Of Review: Guidelines developed by the WHO aim to provide recommendations to support best practice in health delivery, with a focus on low-income and middle-income countries. As part of the guideline development process, critical knowledge gaps are identified and one of the core functions of WHO guidelines is to set forth priorities for future research. A review of research priorities identified through the WHO guideline development has recently been promoted as one approach to building an overarching priority research agenda in a given area. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000499DOI Listing
November 2018
10 Reads

Preventive therapy for HIV-associated tuberculosis.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2018 Nov;13(6):507-511

Evandro Chagas National Institute of Infectious Diseases - Fiocruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Purpose Of Review: Tuberculosis (TB) remains the leading cause of death in people living with HIV (PLHIV) despite the achievements in antiretroviral therapy coverage. TB preventive therapy (TPT) has proved efficacy but has been neglected and poorly implemented. We reviewed recent publications and guidelines about TPT in PLHIV. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000504DOI Listing
November 2018
2 Reads

HIV-associated pediatric tuberculosis: prevention, diagnosis and treatment.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2018 Nov;13(6):501-506

The Global TB Program, Texas Children's Hospital and the Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA.

Purpose Of Review: The detrimental synergy of colliding HIV and tuberculosis (TB) epidemics is most devastating among children and adolescents living with HIV (CALWH) who shoulder a disproportionate burden of all child TB mortality.

Recent Findings: CALWH benefit less from Bacille-Calmette Guerin vaccination than HIV-uninfected children and are not receiving TB preventive therapy despite global recommendations. Further, the predictive utility of most diagnostic tools is reduced in CALWH. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://Insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=01222929-201811000-0000
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000500DOI Listing
November 2018
19 Reads

Treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis among people living with HIV.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2018 Nov;13(6):478-485

St. Peter's Specialized TB Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Purpose Of Review: This review aims to describe the key principles in treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) in people living with HIV, including early access to timely diagnostics, linkage into care, TB treatment strategies including the use of new and repurposed drugs, co-management of HIV disease, and treatment complications and programmatic support to optimize treatment outcomes. These are necessary strategies to decrease the likelihood of poor treatment outcomes including lower treatment completion rates and higher mortality.

Recent Findings: Diagnosis of drug-resistant TB is the gateway into care; yet understanding the utility and the limitations of genotypic methods in this population is necessary. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000503DOI Listing
November 2018
17 Reads

Recent progress in understanding immune activation in the pathogenesis in HIV-tuberculosis co-infection.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2018 Nov;13(6):455-461

Wellcome Centre for Infectious Diseases Research in Africa, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine.

Purpose Of Review: Tuberculosis is the leading infectious cause of death worldwide, and HIV-1 the best recognized risk factor for active TB. This review focuses on immune complex formation; the interplay of type I and II interferon signaling; and T-cell activation in HIV-TB pathogenesis.

Recent Findings: Circulating immune complexes and complement, and Fcγ signaling in whole blood act as early markers of TB disease in HIV-1-infected persons. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000501DOI Listing
November 2018
3 Reads

Treatment of drug-susceptible tuberculosis among people living with human immunodeficiency virus infection: an update.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2018 Nov;13(6):469-477

Division of Infectious Diseases.

Purpose Of Review: The present review describes recent advances in the treatment of drug-susceptible tuberculosis (DS-TB) among people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLWH).

Recent Findings: Higher than standard rifampicin doses (>10 mg/kg/day) are well tolerated and have improved sterilizing activity. Standard pyrazinamide doses may result in low drug exposures; modeling reveals that higher doses (>25 mg/kg/day) may be required to reach target levels, although safety is unknown. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000506DOI Listing
November 2018
2 Reads

Coordinating the prevention, treatment, and care continuum for HIV-associated tuberculosis in prisons: a health systems strengthening approach.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2018 Nov;13(6):492-500

Centre for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia (CIDRZ), Lusaka, Zambia.

Purpose Of Review: To advance a re-conceptualized prevention, treatment, and care continuum (PTCC) for HIV-associated tuberculosis (TB) in prisons, and to make recommendations for strengthening prison health systems and reducing HIV-associated TB morbidity and mortality throughout the cycle of pretrial detention, incarceration, and release.

Recent Findings: Despite evidence of increased HIV-associated TB burden in prisons compared to the general population, prisoners face entrenched barriers to accessing anti-TB therapy, antiretroviral therapy, and evidence-based HIV and TB prevention. New approaches, suitable for the complexities of healthcare delivery in prisons, have emerged that may address these barriers, and include: novel TB diagnostics, universal test and treat for HIV, medication-assisted treatment for opioid dependence, comprehensive transitional case management, and peer navigation, among others. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000505DOI Listing
November 2018
1 Read

90-90-90 HIV targets: implications for HIV-associated tuberculosis.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2018 Nov;13(6):528-537

International Public Health Consultant, Delhi, India.

Purpose Of Review: The HIV and Mycobacterium tuberculosis syndemic remains a major global public health threat. HIV and tuberculosis (TB) global targets have been set. Success will depend on achieving combined disease control. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000498DOI Listing
November 2018
18 Reads

The tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome: recent advances in clinical and pathogenesis research.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2018 Nov;13(6):512-521

Wellcome Centre for Infectious Diseases Research in Africa, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.

Purpose Of Review: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is an essential, life-saving intervention for HIV infection. However, ART initiation is frequently complicated by the tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS) in TB endemic settings. Here, we summarize the current understanding highlighting the recent evidence. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000502DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6181275PMC
November 2018
2 Reads

Diagnosis of HIV-associated tuberculosis.

Authors:
Susan E Dorman

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2018 Nov;13(6):462-468

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, USA.

Purpose Of Review: The current review highlights recent advances in tuberculosis (TB) diagnostics that are relevant for clinicians engaged in the care of HIV-positive adults.

Recent Findings: The first section focuses on newly available tools, highlighting recent progress. The second section focuses on new diagnostic approaches that are not yet widely available or implemented, but have considerable potential to improve the management of TB/HIV coinfected persons. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000497DOI Listing
November 2018
2 Reads

Challenges of TB and HIV co-treatment: updates and insights.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2018 Nov;13(6):486-491

Division of Clinical Pharmacology & Infectious Diseases, Center for Tuberculosis Research, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Purpose Of Review: In the past few years, tuberculosis (TB) has overtaken HIV as the infectious disease with the highest global mortality. Successful management of this syndemic will require improved diagnostic tests, shorter preventive therapies, and more effective treatments, particularly in light of drug-resistant TB.

Recent Findings: Results from several major studies have been published or presented recently, including the development of a more sensitive rapid, molecular assay for TB; several new symptom-based screening tools; use of a 1-month regimen for TB prevention; the results of early vs. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000495DOI Listing
November 2018
2 Reads

Prospects for a vaccine to prevent HIV-related tuberculosis.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2018 Nov;13(6):522-527

South African Tuberculosis Vaccine Initiative, Institute of Infectious Disease & Molecular Medicine and Division of Immunology, Department of Pathology, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.

Purpose Of Review: To outline the need for a new tuberculosis (TB) vaccine; challenges for induction of vaccine-mediated protection in HIV-infected persons; and recent advances in clinical development.

Recent Findings: HIV has a detrimental effect on T-cell function, polarization and differentiation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb)-specific T cells, Mtb antigen presentation by dendritic cells, and leads to B-cell and antibody-response deficiencies. Previous observations of protection against TB disease in HIV-infected persons by Mycobacterium obuense suggest that an effective vaccine against HIV-related TB is feasible. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000496DOI Listing
November 2018
12 Reads

HIV DNA: a clinical marker of HIV reservoirs.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2018 Sep;13(5):389-394

Laboratoire de Virologie, APHP, Hôpital Necker Enfants Maladese.

Purpose Of Review: A number studies are currently underway to develop new drugs aimed at reducing the HIV reservoir or achieving ART-free control of HIV infection. Many markers of HIV reservoirs have been proposed, each one having a different meaning. Total HIV DNA dynamics during the course of HIV infection and its predictive value are now well known. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000483DOI Listing
September 2018
4 Reads

Ethical issues in HIV remission trials.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2018 Sep;13(5):422-427

Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California.

Purpose Of Review: Several promising experimental pathways exist for long-term control of HIV in the absence of antiretroviral therapy (HIV 'remission') and are now being tested in early clinical studies. These studies can be invasive and pose a host of distinctive risks to participants, as well as to nonparticipants, especially to participants' fetuses, and sexual partners.

Recent Findings: Ethical analyses of these studies have mainly focused on the risks to study participants. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000489DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6112842PMC
September 2018
30 Reads

Progress towards obtaining an HIV cure: slow but sure.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2018 Sep;13(5):381-382

Department of Clinical Immunology and Infectious Diseases - Henri Mondor Hospital.

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000492DOI Listing
September 2018
3 Reads

Therapeutic vaccination for HIV: hopes and challenges.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2018 Sep;13(5):408-415

Center for Virology and Vaccine Research, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center.

Purpose Of Review: This review summarizes the recent landscape of HIV therapeutic vaccine research, emphasizing the results of randomized controlled trials that included analytical treatment interruption (ATI) to assess efficacy.

Recent Findings: Therapeutic vaccines for HIV are designed to re-educate the host immune response in HIV-infected individuals to better control viral replication in the absence of antiretroviral therapy. No therapeutic vaccine has yet to induce long-term HIV remission following ATI in a randomized controlled trial. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000491DOI Listing
September 2018
2 Reads

Modeling HIV persistence and cure studies.

Authors:
Alison L Hill

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2018 Sep;13(5):428-434

Program for Evolutionary Dynamics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.

Purpose Of Review: To provide a summary of the contributions of mathematical modeling to understanding of HIV persistence during antiretroviral therapy.

Recent Findings: Although HIV persistence during therapy could be caused by continual viral replication or slow-decaying latent infection, most evidence points toward the latter mechanism. The latent reservoir is maintained by a balance of cell death, proliferation, and reactivation, and new methods to estimate the relative contributions of these rates use a wide range of experimental data. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000490DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6112843PMC
September 2018
3 Reads

Progress in achieving long-term HIV remission.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2018 Sep;13(5):435-445

Yerkes National Primate Research Center (YNPRC), Emory Vaccine Center (EVC), Emory University.

Purpose Of Review: The purpose of the present review is to describe the major barriers to HIV eradication and assess the most promising cure strategies under investigation.

Recent Findings: There are significant challenges to achieve HIV eradication. These include the establishment of persistent latently infected cells, systemic chronic immune activation, and immune dysfunction. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://Insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=01222929-900000000-9929
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000487DOI Listing
September 2018
12 Reads

Post-treatment and spontaneous HIV control.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2018 Sep;13(5):402-407

Nuffield Department of Medicine, Peter Medawar Building for Pathogen Research.

Purpose Of Review: The aim of the current review is to explore the evidence around virological remission in ART-treated and untreated individuals living with HIV. With increasing evidence and interest in post-treatment control within the HIV-cure field, it is now increasingly important to agree on definitions to allow different 'controller' phenotypes to be clearly distinguished and mechanisms compared.

Recent Findings: This review explores recent data on potential predictors and mechanisms driving spontaneous and post-treatment control. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000488DOI Listing
September 2018
2 Reads

Chimeric antigen receptor T-cell approaches to HIV cure.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2018 Sep;13(5):446-453

Stem Cell and Gene Therapy Program, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center.

Purpose Of Review: Combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) has enabled tremendous progress in suppressing HIV replication in infected patients. However, ART alone cannot eradicate HIV and its latent, persisting reservoirs. Novel approaches are needed to eradicate the virus or achieve functional cure in the absence of ART. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000485DOI Listing
September 2018
13 Reads

Lessons learned from HIV antiretroviral treatment interruption trials.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2018 Sep;13(5):416-421

Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

Purpose Of Review: Clinical trials with an antiretroviral therapy (ART) interruption remains indispensable for assessing strategies for ART-free HIV remission. This review highlights the lessons learned from ART interruption studies so far, including the risks to the participants and implications for HIV remission.

Recent Findings: Historically, analytic HIV treatment interruption (ATI) studies were commonly designed with a prolonged duration of ART interruption and with viral load set point as the primary outcome. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000484DOI Listing
September 2018
4 Reads

Editorial introduction.

Authors:

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2018 07;13(4)

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000477DOI Listing
July 2018
2 Reads

Genital reservoir: a barrier to functional cure?

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2018 Sep;13(5):395-401

APHP, Service des Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales, Hôpitaux Universitaires Paris Nord site Bichat-Claude Bernard.

Purpose Of Review: HIV functional cure requires the elimination or a major reduction of HIV reservoir pool including male and female genital HIV reservoirs. A comprehensive understanding of HIV dynamics in these compartments is mandatory.

Recent Findings: Data from chronically HIV-infected therapy-naïve individuals or fully suppressed on combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) or undergoing ART interruptions are now available. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000486DOI Listing
September 2018
2 Reads

Markers of the HIV-1 reservoir: facts and controversies.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2018 Sep;13(5):383-388

Institut Pasteur, Department of Virology, Virus & Immunity Unit.

Purpose Of Review: The HIV-1 reservoir is composed of infected cells poised to replicate and spread the virus upon treatment interruption. It constitutes the main obstacle toward an HIV-1 cure. Whether marker(s) may allow the detection of cells that form the reservoir is an outstanding question. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000482DOI Listing
September 2018
6 Reads

Rilpivirine long-acting for the prevention and treatment of HIV infection.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2018 07;13(4):300-307

St Stephen's Centre, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital and Foundation Trust.

Purpose Of Review: Rilpivirine is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor approved for the treatment of HIV in combination with other antiretrovirals (ARV). The development of the long-acting formulation of rilpivirine (RPV-LA) and its use in clinical settings is the subject of this review.

Recent Findings: In 2017, the results of the phase IIb study LATTE2 have been published. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000474DOI Listing
July 2018
1 Read

Doravirine: a review.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2018 07;13(4):308-314

Department of Infectious Diseases, Saint-Louis Hospital, Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris.

Purpose Of Review: The current review addresses the role of doravirine (DOR), a novel once-daily nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) in first-line therapy at a time in which multiple options are available, and issues of antiviral efficacy, safety, simplicity and cost are critical to make informed decisions.

Recent Findings: DOR combination regimens have been tested in two large randomized double-blinded clinical trials in treatment-naïve patients, showing noninferiority to ritonavir-boosted darunavir-based and efavirenz (EFV)-based regimens. The main features of DOR are reviewed in this report including its antiviral activity, genetic barrier to resistance, safety, once-daily dosing and coformulation in a single tablet with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and lamivudine. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000471DOI Listing
July 2018
2 Reads

Antiretroviral implants for treatment and prevention of HIV infection.

Authors:
Charles Flexner

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2018 07;13(4):374-380

Divisions of Clinical Pharmacology and Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine.

Purpose Of Review: Poor adherence to oral antiretroviral formulations remains the major barrier to the success of long-term treatment and prevention strategies. Although a number of approaches have been developed for long-acting parenteral delivery of antiretroviral drugs, subcutaneous implants are a particularly promising technology as they may be able to provide protective drugs concentrations for a year or longer following a single implant. This review addresses the current status of preclinical and clinical development of antiretroviral implants. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000470DOI Listing
July 2018
4 Reads

Inhibitors of the HIV-1 capsid, a target of opportunity.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2018 07;13(4):359-365

Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center.

Purpose Of Review: To summarize recent advances in the discovery of chemical inhibitors targeting the HIV capsid and research on their mechanisms of action.

Recent Findings: HIV infection is critically dependent on functions of the viral capsid. Numerous studies have reported the identification of a variety of compounds that bind to the capsid protein; some of these inhibit reverse transcription and nuclear entry, steps required for infection. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000472DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6075716PMC
July 2018
2 Reads

Fostemsavir: a new CD4 attachment inhibitor.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2018 07;13(4):341-345

Clinical Research Department, Fundacion Huésped, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Purpose Of Review: Even in the era of modern HAART, antiretroviral (ARV) failure and emergence of drug resistance is still a problem worldwide. New classes with different mechanisms of action are needed to overcome this challenge. After the integrase inhibitors were launched, more than a decade ago, no new classes were added to the ARV armamentarium. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000469DOI Listing
July 2018
5 Reads