1,796 results match your criteria Current Opinion in Gastroenterology[Journal]


The overlap of irritable bowel syndrome and noncoeliac gluten sensitivity.

Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2019 Feb 12. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Academic Unit of Gastroenterology, Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield Teaching Hospital NHS Foundation Trust.

Purpose Of Review: There has been significant interest in gluten over the last decade, with an increase in interest of gluten-related disorders outside coeliac disease. Particularly, there has been a focus on the role of gluten in noncoeliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). There is significant overlap between both of these conditions, with the aim of this review to explore their complex relationship. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOG.0000000000000517DOI Listing
February 2019

Demystifying autoimmune small bowel enteropathy.

Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2019 Feb 8. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

Division of Pathology, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy.

Purpose Of Review: We reviewed the current 'state of the art' on autoimmune enteropathy and small-bowel mucosal atrophy, with the aim of supporting clinicians in a frequently challenging diagnosis through different therapeutic options and prognosis.

Recent Findings: The diagnosis of small-bowel diseases has radically changed over the last 10 years. The possibility to 'easily' obtain bioptic samples from the jejunum and ileum by means of the enteroscopic techniques (particularly, device-assisted enteroscopy) and the novel cross-sectional imaging studies have opened the window to new insights on intestinal disorders. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOG.0000000000000515DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Genetics of polycystic liver diseases.

Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2019 Mar;35(2):65-72

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences, Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Purpose Of Review: This review provides an outline of the most recent insights and significant discoveries regarding the genetic mechanisms involved in polycystic liver disease.

Recent Findings: Polycystic liver disease includes a heterogeneous group of genetic disorders characterized by multiple hepatic cysts. Isolated liver cysts are caused by mutations in Protein Kinase C Substrate 80K-H (PRKCSH), SEC63, and LDL Receptor Related Protein 5 (LRP5), whereas Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD)1, PKD2, and PKHD1 mutations cause kidney cysts often accompanied by liver cysts. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOG.0000000000000514DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Monitoring long-term parenteral nutrition.

Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2019 Mar;35(2):119-125

Salford Royal Hospital, Salford, England, UK.

Purpose Of Review: This review discusses the monitoring aimed at achieving good long-term outcomes in people dependent on home parenteral nutrition (HPN).

Recent Findings: There have been recent studies highlighting the importance of treating low bone mineral density in HPN-dependent patients, methods of screening for liver disease, assessment of quality of life (QoL) and the need for early assessment for intestinal transplantation and growth factor therapy.

Summary: High-quality HPN services require expert multidisciplinary teams with a focus on strict aseptic catheter care protocols alongside regular monitoring and management of clinical, laboratory and patient-related factors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOG.0000000000000504DOI Listing
March 2019
11 Reads

Editorial: Genetics of cholangiopathies.

Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2019 Mar;35(2):63-64

Sorbonne Université, INSERM, Centre de Recherche Saint-Antoine (CRSA), Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Reference Center for Inflammatory Biliary Diseases and Autoimmune Hepatitis (CRMR, MIVB-H), Paris, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOG.0000000000000510DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Genetics of gallstone disease revisited: updated inventory of human lithogenic genes.

Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2019 Mar;35(2):82-87

Department of Medicine II, Saarland University Medical Center, Saarland University, Homburg, Germany.

Purpose Of Review: Gallstone disease is one of the most frequent diseases in gastroenterology and treatment by endoscopy and surgery causes high costs in our health-care systems. Family and twin studies have demonstrated that gallstones are, in part, genetically determined. Here we review all recent genome-wide and phenome-wide studies of gallstones in humans and provide an updated 'inventory of human lithogenic genes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOG.0000000000000511DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

The genetics of primary biliary cholangitis.

Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2019 Mar;35(2):93-98

Division of Rheumatology Allergy and Clinical Immunology, University of California Davis School of Medicine, Davis, California, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is a female predominant chronic autoimmune disease of the intrahepatic bile ducts and with a long latent period. It is crucial to understand how genetics contribute to the disease.

Recent Findings: Geo-epidemiological studies in PBC have provided evidence of familial risk; case-control studies and genome wide association studies have identified various human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and non-HLA alleles that are associated with PBC. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOG.0000000000000507DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Intestinal failure-associated liver disease: causes, manifestations and therapies.

Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2019 Mar;35(2):126-133

Department of Clinical Nutrition, 981200 Nebraska Medicine, Omaha, Nebraska, USA.

Purpose Of Review: The goal of this review is to provide updates on the causes, manifestations and therapies IFALD in adults with an emphasis on recent discoveries on pathways of pathogenesis and interventions to reduce the incidence of IFALD.

Recent Findings: IFALD is a multifactorial complication of long-term home parenteral therapy. Although exact pathways are unknown, altered bile acid metabolism, microbiome dysbiosis impact on the gut-liver axis and soybean-based lipid formulations are major drivers of IFALD development. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOG.0000000000000503DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Genetics in biliary atresia.

Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2019 Mar;35(2):73-81

INSERM U1151/CNRS UMR 8253, Institut Necker-Enfants Malades (INEM), Université Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris, France.

Purpose Of Review: Biliary atresia is a poorly understood deadly disease. Genetic predisposition factors are suspected albeit not firmly established. This review summarizes recent evidence of genetic alterations in biliary atresia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOG.0000000000000509DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Editorial: Thought for food: diet and gut health.

Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2019 Mar;35(2):99-100

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Lynda K and David M Underwood Center for Digestive Disorders, Houston Methodist Hospital and Weill Cornell Medical College, Houston, Texas, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOG.0000000000000505DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Modifier genes in cystic fibrosis-related liver disease.

Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2019 Mar;35(2):88-92

INSERM, Centre de Recherche Saint-Antoine (CRSA), Sorbonne Université.

Purpose Of Review: Cystic fibrosis (CF; OMIM 219700) is caused by variations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene. CF-related liver disease (CFLD) affects approximately one-third of patients with CF, but the severity of CFLD is highly variable. This review provides the latest knowledge in the pathophysiology and CF genetic modifier research in CFLD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOG.0000000000000508DOI Listing
March 2019
4 Reads

Food allergy: what it is and what it is not?

Authors:
Chen Hsing Lin

Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2019 Mar;35(2):114-118

Division of Allergy and Immunology, Department of Medicine, Houston Methodist Hospital, Houston, Texas, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Food allergy is defined as an adverse health effect arising from a specific immune response that occurs reproducibly on exposure to a given food. Food intolerance, certain gastrointestinal or systemic diseases are often confused with or mislabeled as food allergy because of symptomatic similarity and general improvement from food avoidance. The differences between these diseases are crucial. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOG.0000000000000506DOI Listing
March 2019
10 Reads

Alcohol and gastrointestinal cancers.

Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2019 Mar;35(2):107-113

Pancreato-Biliary Endoscopy Division and Endosonography Division, Pancreas Translational and Clinical Research Centre, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Vita Salute San Raffaele University, Milan.

Purpose Of Review: Alcohol is a type I carcinogen and the WHO stated that it caused 5% of all deaths in 2016, of which 13% because of cancers. Among digestive tract cancers, this association is clear for esophageal, liver and colorectal cancer, and more debated for gastric and pancreatic cancer. The present review will revise recent evidence on epidemiologic association and mechanisms linking alcohol with the risk of esophageal, gastric, colorectal and pancreatic cancers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOG.0000000000000502DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

Diet and colon: what matters?

Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2019 Mar;35(2):101-106

Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

Purpose Of Review: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers and the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Diet has a significant impact on the risk of developing CRC, but though processed meat is a known positive contributor, the effects of other dietary components are largely mixed. This review focuses on dietary patterns to describe the complexity of dietary diversity and overall food consumption and to examine the relationship between dietary patterns and risk of CRC. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOG.0000000000000501DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6349481PMC
March 2019
6 Reads

Bowel preparation for colonoscopy: what is best and necessary for quality?

Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2019 Jan;35(1):51-57

Department of Internal Medicine, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, Virginia, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Colonoscopy is recognizably, the best colon cancer prevention test, provided the quality of the preparation is adequate for detection of precancerous polyps but also allowing for accurate identification of margins, thereby facilitating complete endoscopic resection. As there are many aspects effecting colon prep outcomes, it is timely to review new standards for optimizing outcomes, including product selection based on patient demographics.

Recent Findings: New national guidelines have set a minimum quality threshold for adequacy and also defined a split day delivery for oral options as the "standard of care". Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOG.0000000000000494DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read
4.289 Impact Factor

Editorial: From eosinophils to serrated adenomas and beyond: late breaking news from the dark continent.

Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2019 Jan;35(1):25-26

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Lynda K and David M Underwood Center for Digestive Disorders, Houston Methodist Hospital and Weill Cornell Medical College, Houston, Texas, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOG.0000000000000496DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Helicobacter pylori resistance to current therapies.

Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2019 Jan;35(1):6-13

School of Medicine, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2, Ireland.

Purpose Of Review: Helicobacter pylori eradication rates have fallen in recent years, mainly because of the emergence of antibiotic-resistant infections. Indeed the WHO has recently designated clarithromycin-resistant H. pylori infection a high priority for antibiotic resistance research and development. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOG.0000000000000497DOI Listing
January 2019
13 Reads

Eosinophilic colitis and colonic eosinophilia.

Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2019 Jan;35(1):42-50

Faculty of Health and Medicine, School of Medicine & Public Health, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, Australia.

Purpose Of Review: Eosinophilic colitis is a rare condition, with a prevalence rate in the USA of 2-3/100 000 persons (0.003%), but diagnosed in 0.1% of biopsies in those colonoscoped for diarrhoea. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOG.0000000000000492DOI Listing
January 2019
23 Reads

The dark side of the colon: current issues surrounding the significance, prevalence, detection, diagnosis and management of serrated polyps.

Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2019 Jan;35(1):34-41

Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Hyperplastic polyps, once considered to have no malignant potential, are now recognized to be part of a larger group of polyps known as serrated polyps. Serrated polyps can progress to CRC through an epigenetic pathway known as CpG Island Methylator Phenotype (CIMP), characterized by hypermethylation of specific DNA regions such as the promoter regions of the DNA mismatch repair genes like MLH1. The CIMP pathway is tightly linked with mutations of the oncogene BRAF. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOG.0000000000000495DOI Listing
January 2019
4 Reads

Excluding irritable bowel syndrome in the inflammatory bowel disease patient: how far to go?

Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2019 Jan;35(1):58-62

Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, Texas, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is among the most commonly encountered conditions in primary care and gastroenterology. There is ample evidence that an IBS diagnosis based on symptom-based criteria and exclusion of alarm features that would otherwise support diagnostic testing is accurate and durable. For many clinicians, however, IBS remains a diagnosis of exclusion because of concern surrounding missed diagnoses of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) or other organic gastrointestinal diseases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOG.0000000000000493DOI Listing
January 2019
5 Reads

Irritable bowel syndrome and colonic diverticular disease: overlapping symptoms and overlapping therapeutic approaches.

Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2019 Jan;35(1):27-33

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Lynda K and David M Underwood Center for Digestive Disorders, Houston Methodist Hospital and Weill Cornell Medical College, Houston, Texas, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common symptomatic disorder in the Western world and colonic diverticula are also prevalent; however, relationships between IBS-type symptoms and diverticula have been a source of much debate. Our goal was to reassess these relationships in the light of new data.

Recent Findings: On removing from consideration clinical scenarios which are directly related to diverticula (i. Read More

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http://Insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00001574-900000000-9923
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOG.0000000000000499DOI Listing
January 2019
8 Reads

Comparison of the 2010 and 2017 Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of Clostridium difficile infection.

Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2019 Jan;35(1):20-24

Microbiology, Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust & University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.

Purpose Of Review: To highlights the key changes in the updated Infectious Diseases Society of America and Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America guidelines with respect to the diagnosis and treatment of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI).

Recent Findings: CDI continues as a major threat to healthcare institutions and as a community-associated infection related primarily to antibiotic exposure. Infectious Diseases Society of America/Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America produced extensive CDI guidelines in 2010; in 2018, updated guidance has been published. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOG.0000000000000489DOI Listing
January 2019
6 Reads

Control of norovirus infection.

Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2019 Jan;35(1):14-19

Modelling, Evidence and Policy Research Group, School of Natural and Environmental Sciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne.

Purpose Of Review: The purpose of the review is to provide an update on control measures for norovirus (NoV), which is the most commonly implicated pathogen in acute gastroenteritis and outbreaks, causing major disruption in nurseries, schools, hospitals and care homes.

Recent Findings: Important developments include the discovery that virus particles, previously considered to be the infectious unit, also occur in clusters, which appear to be more virulent than individual virus particles; a working culture system using human stem-cell derived enteroids; promising results from early phase clinical trials of candidate NoV vaccines, which appear to be safe and immunogenic; chronic NoV affects patients with primary and secondary immune deficiencies. Although several treatments have been used none are supported by well designed clinical trials; infection control procedures are effective if properly implemented. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOG.0000000000000491DOI Listing
January 2019
23 Reads

Irritable bowel syndrome following Clostridium difficile infection.

Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2019 Jan;35(1):1-5

Microbiology, Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust and University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.

Purpose Of Review: The aim of this review was to provide an overview of the current understanding of the diagnosis, pathophysiology, and the role of the gut microbiome in Clostridium difficile infection (CDI)-related postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS).

Recent Findings: PI-IBS is a recognized pathological entity and was estimated to affect 1 in 10 patients with infectious enteritis. CDI remains a major healthcare burden worldwide with a one in four chance of recurrence of symptoms following treatment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOG.0000000000000490DOI Listing
January 2019
9 Reads

Stomach and duodenum.

Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2018 Nov;34(6):420-421

Gastroenterology Section, Department of Medicine, McGuire VAMC and Virginia Commonwealth University's Medical College of Virginia, Richmond, Virginia, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOG.0000000000000477DOI Listing
November 2018
2 Reads

Advances in the treatment of gastric cancer.

Authors:
David H Ilson

Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2018 Nov;34(6):465-468

Gastrointestinal Oncology Service, Weill Cornell Medical College, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York, USA.

Purpose Of Review: To review the recent literature regarding treatment of gastric cancer.

Recent Findings: Addition of postoperative radiation therapy to perioperative chemotherapy offers no survival benefit. Fluoropyrimidines, in particular 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), are the backbone for gastric cancer chemotherapy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOG.0000000000000475DOI Listing
November 2018
3 Reads

Mucosal immune responses to fungi and the implications for inflammatory bowel disease.

Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2018 Nov;34(6):398-403

Department of Biomedical Sciences, and the F. Widjaja Foundation Inflammatory Bowel and Immunobiology Research Institute.

Purpose Of Review: The intestinal microbiota plays a central role in inflammatory diseases of the gut. Although most investigations regarding how the mucosal immune system interacts with the microbiota have focused on bacteria, recent studies are elucidating the additional role of commensal fungi in health and disease in the gut.

Recent Findings: New technical approaches are defining the makeup of the fungal communities in the intestines of humans and mice. Read More

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http://Insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00001574-900000000-9924
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOG.0000000000000483DOI Listing
November 2018
2 Reads

Xenobiotic and endobiotic handling by the mucosal immune system.

Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2018 Nov;34(6):404-412

Department of Immunology and Microbiology, Scripps Research, Jupiter, Florida, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Mucosal immune cells in the intestinal tract are continuously exposed to a barrage of both foreign and endogenously generated metabolites, termed xenobiotics, and endobiotics, respectively. This review summarizes recent insights into the mechanisms by which xenobiotics and endobiotics regulate intestinal immunity and inflammation.

Recent Findings: The community of enteric microbes (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOG.0000000000000478DOI Listing
November 2018
1 Read

Advances in management of nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2018 Nov;34(6):436-443

Department of Gastroenterology and Advanced Endosocpy, University of Massachusetts Memorial Medical Center, Worcester, Massachusetts, USA.

Purpose Of Review: To review new advances in managing nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage.

Recent Findings: Implementation of various scoring systems in combination with video capsule endoscopy assists in stratifying and managing nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding. New techniques such as thermocoagulation and hemoclips are useful to treat bleeding. Read More

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http://Insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00001574-900000000-9924
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOG.0000000000000487DOI Listing
November 2018
18 Reads

Updates in mucosal immunology for inflammatory bowel diseases.

Authors:
Maria T Abreu

Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2018 Nov;34(6):375-376

Crohn's & Colitis Center, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOG.0000000000000484DOI Listing
November 2018
5 Reads

Macrophage interactions with fungi and bacteria in inflammatory bowel disease.

Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2018 Nov;34(6):392-397

Gastroenterology and Hepatology Division, Joan and Sanford I. Weill Department of Medicine.

Purpose Of Review: In this review, we discuss recent advances into delineating the dual role of intestinal phagocytes in health and during intestinal disease. We further discuss the key role of gut-resident macrophages in recognition of bacterial and fungal microbiota in the gut.

Recent Findings: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) commonly manifests with pathologic changes in the composition of gut bacterial and fungal microbiota. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOG.0000000000000479DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6309698PMC
November 2018
8 Reads

Evolving techniques for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in gastric bypass patients.

Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2018 Nov;34(6):444-450

Harvard Medical School.

Purpose Of Review: The present review describes the current and evolving techniques available in approaching endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) for patients with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) anatomy.

Recent Findings: Recent studies have demonstrated that device-assisted enteroscopy (DAE) approaches have high failures rates when performing ERCP, but are currently considered the first-line approach for patients with RYGB anatomy because of lower costs and risks compared to surgery. In contrast, laparoscopicy-assisted-ERCP (LA-ERCP) exhibits high technical success rates but carries surgical risks and requires a high degree of scheduling coordination. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOG.0000000000000474DOI Listing
November 2018
1 Read

Gastroduodenal motility disorders.

Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2018 Nov;34(6):428-435

Translational Research Center for Gastrointestinal Diseases (TARGID), University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Purpose Of Review: This review summarizes recent progress in the epidemiology, pathophysiology and treatment of gastroduodenal motility disorders with an emphasis on functional dyspepsia and gastroparesis.

Recent Findings: Pathophysiological research has focused on the association of delayed emptying and impaired accommodation with symptom pattern. Studies also confirmed the presence of altered mucosal integrity and low-grade immune activation in the duodenum in functional dyspepsia, while changes in numbers of interstitial cells of Cajal and myenteric neurons were confirmed in gastroparesis. Read More

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http://Insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00001574-201811000-0001
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOG.0000000000000473DOI Listing
November 2018
19 Reads

Endoscopic treatment of pain in chronic pancreatitis.

Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2018 Nov;34(6):469-476

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Pain is the most common symptom of chronic pancreatitis, having a profound effect on patients and a broad socioeconomic impact. Endoscopy is guideline recommended as first-line management for chronic pancreatitis pain in certain clinical scenarios. Herein, we provide an evidence-based review of the endoscopic treatment of pain due to chronic pancreatitis while highlighting some important confounders in the measurement of this outcome in clinical practice and research. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOG.0000000000000480DOI Listing
November 2018
15 Reads
4.290 Impact Factor

Reproducing the human mucosal environment ex vivo: inflammatory bowel disease as a paradigm.

Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2018 Nov;34(6):384-391

Preclinical Drug Evaluation Unit, Division of Gastroenterology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Purpose Of Review: The medical management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) remains problematic with a pressing need for innovation in drug development as well as delivery of personalized therapies. Both the disease's inherent pathophysiologic complexity and heterogeneity in its etiology conspire in making it difficult to accurately model for either the purposes of basic research or drug development. Multiple attempts at creating meaningful experimental models have fallen short of adequately recapitulating the disease and most do not capture any aspect of the cause or the effects of patient heterogeneity that underlays most of the difficulties faced by physicians and their patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOG.0000000000000485DOI Listing
November 2018
32 Reads

On cell death in the intestinal epithelium and its impact on gut homeostasis.

Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2018 Nov;34(6):413-419

The Jill Roberts Institute for Research in Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

Purpose Of Review: Both apoptotic and nonapoptotic cell extrusion preserve the barrier functions of epithelia. Live cell extrusion is the paradigm for homeostatic renewal of intestinal epithelial cells (IEC). By extension, as extruded cells are not apoptotic, this form of cell shedding is thought to be largely ignored by lamina propria phagocytes and without immune consequence. Read More

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http://Insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00001574-201811000-0000
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOG.0000000000000481DOI Listing
November 2018
19 Reads

Checkpoint inhibitor colitis: a new model of inflammatory bowel disease?

Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2018 Nov;34(6):377-383

Gastroenterology Unit, Third Academic Department of Internal Medicine, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Sotiria Hospital, Athens, Greece.

Purpose Of Review: Immune checkpoint inhibitors are monoclonal antibodies against the inhibitory, co-stimulatory molecules CTLA-4 and PD-1/PD-L1. Their use in oncology has been associated with frequent and diverse immune-related adverse events. In the digestive tract, such toxicity presents primarily as colonic inflammation, resembling inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOG.0000000000000482DOI Listing
November 2018
21 Reads

Guilt by association: intestinal metaplasia does not progress to gastric cancer.

Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2018 Nov;34(6):458-464

Department of Medicine, Michael E. DeBakey VA Medical Center, and Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA.

Purpose Of Review: This review integrates the new thinking about relationships between gastric cancer and intestinal metaplasia/pseudopyloric metaplasia (SPEM). We address whether recent studies have closed or widened the knowledge gap regarding gastric cancer pathogenesis in mice or humans.

Recent Findings: Recent studies in mouse models have provided a variety of new insights into the cellular origin and progression of events resulting in gastric cancer. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOG.0000000000000472DOI Listing
November 2018
2 Reads

Duodenal chemosensing.

Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2018 Nov;34(6):422-427

Veterans Affair Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System.

Purpose Of Review: Luminal chemosensing is a term used to describe how small molecules in the gut lumen interact with the host through surface receptors or via transport into the submucosa. In this review, we have summarized recent advances of understanding luminal chemosensing in the gastroduodenal mucosa, with a particular emphasis on how chemosensing affects mucosal protective responses and the metabolic syndrome.

Recent Findings: In the past decade, data have supported the hypothesis that gut luminal chemosensing not only is important for the local or remote regulation of gut function but also contributes to the systemic regulation of metabolism, energy balance and food intake. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOG.0000000000000476DOI Listing
November 2018
20 Reads

Adverse effects of proton pump inhibitors: fact or fake news?

Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2018 Nov;34(6):451-457

Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University Health System.

Purpose Of Review: The present review summarizes the past year's literature, both clinical and basic science, regarding potential adverse effects of proton pump inhibitors.

Recent Findings: Proton pump inhibitors are amongst the most widely prescribed and overprescribed medications worldwide. Although generally considered well tolerated, epidemiologic studies mining large databases have reported a panoply of purported serious adverse effects associated with proton pump inhibitors, including chronic kidney disease, cognitive decline, myocardial infarction, stroke, bone fracture and even death. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOG.0000000000000471DOI Listing
November 2018
27 Reads

Endoscopic techniques for full thickness intestinal biopsy.

Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2018 Sep;34(5):295-300

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland.

Purpose Of Review: Accurate diagnosis of gastrointestinal neuromuscular diseases requires full thickness biopsy for adequate histologic evaluation of the enteric neuromuscular and ancillary cells. Historically, this has been achieved by surgical approaches. An overview of procedure evolution and current techniques of endoscopic full thickness biopsy (EFTB) for diagnosis of gastrointestinal neuromuscular disorders will be presented. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOG.0000000000000464DOI Listing
September 2018
3 Reads

Endoscopic techniques for treating gastroesophageal reflux.

Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2018 Sep;34(5):288-294

Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Nearly, a third of patients with medically refractory gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) will desire an additional nonsurgical treatment option. Recently, endoscopic therapy has been reintroduced as a minimally invasive antireflux barrier treatment, after addressing prior efficacy and safety concerns. Over the last two decades, additional experience and new technologies have resulted in devices and protocols with favorable short-term outcomes and safety profiles. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOG.0000000000000468DOI Listing
September 2018
1 Read

Evolution of surgery to endoscopy.

Authors:
Anthony N Kalloo

Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2018 Sep;34(5):281

Division of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, The Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOG.0000000000000467DOI Listing
September 2018
1 Read

Introducing…the pancreas!

Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2018 Sep;34(5):316

Section of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, One Medical Center Drive, Lebanon, New Hampshire, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOG.0000000000000465DOI Listing
September 2018
1 Read

Myths and realities about alcohol and smoking in chronic pancreatitis.

Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2018 Sep;34(5):355-361

Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Alcohol and smoking play an important role in pancreatitis. The present review will address the myths and evidences about alcohol and smoking with pancreatitis to help improve the approach of healthcare professionals when managing of these patients.

Recent Findings: There is a growing recognition that chronic pancreatitis is a multifactorial disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOG.0000000000000466DOI Listing
September 2018
2 Reads

Management of acute pancreatitis in the first 72 hours.

Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2018 Sep;34(5):330-335

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Acute pancreatitis is a common condition that affects patients with varying degrees of severity and may lead to significant morbidity and mortality. The present article will review the current paradigm in acute pancreatitis management within the first 72 h of diagnosis.

Recent Findings: Patients presenting with acute pancreatitis should be evaluated clinically for signs and symptoms of organ failure in order to appropriately triage. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOG.0000000000000456DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6245573PMC
September 2018
25 Reads

Sphincter of Oddi dysfunction: sphincter of Oddi dysfunction or discordance? What is the state of the art in 2018?

Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2018 Sep;34(5):282-287

Digestive Disease Institute, Virginia Mason Medical Center, Seattle, Washington, USA.

Purpose Of Review: To review important manuscripts published over the previous 2 years relative to sphincter of Oddi dysfunction (SOD).

Recent Findings: The long-term outcomes of the Evaluating Predictors and Interventions of SOD (EPISOD) trial further substantiated results from the initial EPISOD study, reinforcing that neither endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography-manometry nor endoscopic sphincterotomy are appropriate for SOD type III. Pain management in the latter patients has reverted to neuromodulating agents, and recent studies have suggested a role for duloxetine and potentially acupuncture. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOG.0000000000000455DOI Listing
September 2018
12 Reads

To resect or not to resect: a review of pancreatic cyst disease management.

Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2018 Sep;34(5):343-348

Department of GI and General Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Purpose Of Review: With recent advances in radiographic testing, there have been increases in the incidental identification of pancreatic cysts. Determining management, specifically, which cysts can be watched versus intervened upon has significant impact on at the patient-physician level as well as globally on resource allocation and healthcare expenditures. This review focuses on the three main guidelines (Fukuoka guidelines, European consensus, and American Gastroenterological Association recommendations) for management of pancreatic cystic disease after incidental identification. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOG.0000000000000463DOI Listing
September 2018
3 Reads

Chronic pancreatitis: an update on genetic risk factors.

Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2018 Sep;34(5):322-329

Department of Medicine A, University Medicine Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany.

Purpose Of Review: Genetic mutations in genes within and outside of the trypsin-dependent pathologic pathway have been found to be associated with chronic pancreatitis. This review highlights recent developments.

Recent Findings: CTRB1-CTRB2 has been identified as a new risk locus for chronic pancreatitis and the disease mechanism may involve trypsin degradation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOG.0000000000000461DOI Listing
September 2018
3 Reads

Surgical treatment of pain in chronic pancreatitis.

Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2018 Sep;34(5):317-321

Department of Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Patients suffering from chronic pancreatitis often require surgical intervention to treat their disease. This review discusses surgical options as well as reviews current trends and research in the operative management of chronic pancreatitis.

Recent Findings: Relevant current topics in the field include the appropriate timing of surgery as well as the relative benefits of various procedures, particularly duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resection versus pancreaticoduodenectomy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOG.0000000000000460DOI Listing
September 2018
1 Read