2,061 results match your criteria Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care[Journal]


Lipoprotein lipase: new roles for an 'old' enzyme.

Authors:
Chuchun L Chang

Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2019 Mar;22(2):111-115

Institute of Human Nutrition, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, New York, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Lipoprotein lipase (LpL) is well known for its lipolytic action in blood lipoprotein triglyceride catabolism. This article summarizes the recent mechanistic and molecular studies on elucidating the 'unconventional' roles of LpL in mediating biological events related to immune cell response and lipid transport in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and tissue degenerative disorders.

Recent Findings: Several approaches to inactivate the inhibitors that block LpL enzymatic activity have reestablished the importance of systemic LpL activity in reducing CVD risk. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCO.0000000000000536DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6355338PMC
March 2019
4 Reads

Editorial: Introduction to the 2018 ESPEN guidelines on clinical nutrition in the intensive care unit: food for thought and valuable directives for clinicians!

Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2019 Mar;22(2):141-145

Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Amsterdam University Medical Centers.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCO.0000000000000545DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Which type of exercise keeps you young?

Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2019 Mar;22(2):167-173

Centre of Inflammation and Metabolism (CIM)/Centre for Physical Activity Research (CFAS), Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Purpose Of Review: Robust epidemiological evidence exists that lifelong regular exercise contributes to longevity. The aim of this review is to discuss recent findings regarding, which dose and type of physical activity promotes a long healthy life, free of disease.

Recent Findings: Meeting the currently recommended amounts of leisure time physical aerobic activity of moderate intensity of at least 150 min/week provides most of the longevity benefit. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCO.0000000000000546DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Nutrition risk screening in the ICU.

Authors:
Jens Kondrup

Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2019 Mar;22(2):159-161

Clinical Nutrition Unit, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Denmark.

Purpose Of Review: To review recent studies that may help to identify patients in the ICU who benefit from nutrition support.

Recent Findings: One recent controlled trial did not show any clinical benefit of nutrition support among a sample of ICU patients who were hitherto believed to benefit from nutrition support. Several recent observational studies suggest benefit of nutrition support among patients who have a high nutric score, in itself derived from an observational study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCO.0000000000000551DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Omega-3 fatty acids and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in adults and children: where do we stand?

Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2019 Mar;22(2):103-110

Nutrition Program, School of Biological and Population Health Sciences, Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic fatty liver disease worldwide. The incidence of NAFLD parallels the prevalence of obesity. Moreover, NAFLD can progress to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), cirrhosis and primary hepatocellular cancer (HCC). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCO.0000000000000539DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6355343PMC
March 2019
6 Reads

Nutritional support in the recovery phase of critically ill children.

Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2019 Mar;22(2):152-158

Paediatric Intensive Care, Department of Paediatrics and Paediatric Surgery, Erasmus MC - Sophia Children's Hospital, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

Purpose Of Review: The metabolic stress response of a critically ill child evolves over time and thus it seems reasonable that nutritional requirements change during their course of illness as well. This review proposes strategies and considerations for nutritional support during the recovery phase to gain optimal (catch-up) growth with preservation of lean body mass.

Recent Findings: Critical illness impairs nutritional status, muscle mass and function, and neurocognition, but early and high intakes of artificial nutrition during the acute phase cannot resolve this. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCO.0000000000000549DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Can exercise and nutrition stimulate muscle protein gain in the ICU patient?

Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2019 Mar;22(2):146-151

Department of Perioperative Medicine and Intensive Care, Karolinska University Hospital.

Purpose Of Review: The intended purpose of nutritional and exercise interventions during ICU stay is often to limit the muscle loss associated with critical illness. Unfortunately, direct measurements of muscle protein turnover or potential surrogates have often been neglected in clinical trials.

Recent Findings: We discuss the potential advantages and drawbacks of common outcome measures for assessing changes in muscle structure and function over time, and how temporal changes in patient physiology require consideration. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCO.0000000000000548DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Sarcopenic obesity in the ICU.

Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2019 Mar;22(2):162-166

Unité de Nutrition Humaine, INRA, CRNH Auvergne, CHU Clermont-Ferrand, Service de Nutrition Clinique, Université Clermont Auvergne, Clermont-Ferrand, France.

Purpose Of Review: Sarcopenic obese in older ICU patients may have a higher risk of poor recovery during and after ICU stay, which may lead to longer hospital stay and poor quality of life. In this review, causes, consequences, and nutrition strategies to combat sarcopenic obesity in the ICU are discussed.

Recent Findings: Physical inactivity, inflammation, anabolic resistance, as well as disturbances in hormone levels are, important causes for the strongly accelerated decline in muscle mass and muscle strength in ICU patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCO.0000000000000547DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Editorial: Omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular outcomes: an update.

Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2019 Mar;22(2):97-102

Department of Pediatrics, Institute of Human Nutrition, Columbia University Irving Medical, Center, New York, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCO.0000000000000543DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

Intravenous n-3 fatty acids in the critically ill.

Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2019 Mar;22(2):124-128

University of Giessen and Marburg Lung Center (UGMLC), University Hospital of Giessen and Marburg, Justus Liebig University, Giessen, Germany.

Purpose Of Review: Lipid emulsions are an integral part of parenteral nutrition. Enteral nutrition is the preferred route to feed critically ill patients and parenteral nutrition is used in case of contraindications or when enteral nutrition does not reach the nutritional goals. n-3 Lipids are included into some newer lipid emulsions including fish oil or may be added by a fish oil-based lipid emulsion to lipid emulsion without fish oil. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCO.0000000000000550DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Strategies to improve bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids from ethyl ester concentrates.

Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2019 Mar;22(2):116-123

Midwest Biomedical Research, Center for Metabolic & Cardiovascular Health, Glen Ellyn, Illinois, USA.

Purpose Of Review: To describe recent strategies that have been developed to enhance absorption of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) from dietary supplements.

Recent Findings: The long-chain omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA have important physiologic functions, and numerous potential health benefits have been suggested by results from observational studies and randomized, controlled trials. EPA and DHA intakes in the average American diet are substantially below recommended levels. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCO.0000000000000537DOI Listing
March 2019
8 Reads

Vitamin K: a nutrient which plays a little-known role in glucose metabolism.

Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2019 Mar;22(2):174-181

Sorbonne Université, Diabetes Department, Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris.

Purpose Of Review: Type 2 diabetes is one of the most important public health diseases. Type 2 diabetes pathophysiology involves multiple pathways, in which micronutrients could play a role. Among them, interest has grown concerning vitamin K. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCO.0000000000000541DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Special Commentary: Is diet management helpful in familial hypercholesterolemia?

Authors:
Samuel S Gidding

Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2019 Mar;22(2):135-140

FH Foundation, Pasadena, California, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Familial hypercholesterolemia is a genetic condition where low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor defects cause severe elevations of LDL cholesterol. As significant LDL-lowering effects are needed, medication is considered the cornerstone of therapy, and dietary therapy has received less emphasis. This review will re-visit older studies of diet intervention and new insights from genetic and mechanistic studies to determine the value of diet management for familial hypercholesterolemia patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCO.0000000000000538DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

The emerging role of ketogenic diets in cancer treatment.

Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2019 Mar;22(2):129-134

Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Leopoldina Hospital Schweinfurt, Schweinfurt, Germany.

Purpose Of Review: Altered glucose metabolism in cancer cells is an almost ubiquitous observation, yet hardly exploited therapeutically. However, ketogenic diets have gained growing attention in recent years as a nontoxic broad-spectrum approach to target this major metabolic difference between normal and cancer cells. Although much research still needs to be done, new knowledge has been gained about the optimal utilization of ketogenic diets for cancer treatment that this review aims to summarize. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCO.0000000000000540DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate and sarcopenia: from biological plausibility to clinical evidence.

Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2019 Jan;22(1):37-43

Department of Geriatrics, Neurosciences and Orthopedics, Teaching Hospital 'Fondazione Policlinico Agostino Gemelli' IRCCS at the Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Rome, Italy.

Purpose Of Review: Given the role of leucine as a major regulator of muscle protein turnover, the consumption of protein sources enhanced with this essential amino acid, or its metabolite beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB), is assumed to give the greatest benefit in terms of maintenance of muscle mass and function during aging. The aim of this review is to discuss recent literature about HMB metabolism, its pharmacokinetics compared with the metabolite leucine, effectiveness of HMB to improve outcomes in older adults, and novel approaches for HMB use.

Recent Findings: Overall, this review article highlights the potential relationship between HMB dietary supplementation and parameters related to maintenance of muscle mass and strength in older people. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCO.0000000000000524DOI Listing
January 2019
7 Reads

Dysphagia and pharmacotherapy in older adults.

Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2019 Jan;22(1):25-29

Department of Neurology, University Hospital Münster, Münster, Germany.

Purpose Of Review: The review summarizes current knowledge and recent findings about how to practically apply medication in patients with dysphagia and how swallowing function may be positively or negatively affected by drugs.

Recent Findings: Oropharyngeal dysphagia is a major health problem in older persons and was recently classified as a geriatric syndrome. Although the knowledge about an effective diagnostic approach increased during the last years, comparatively little is known about how to effectively manage and treat dysphagia and hardly anything is implemented in clinical routine. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCO.0000000000000523DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

The intestinal microbiome and its relevance for functionality in older persons.

Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2019 Jan;22(1):4-12

Geriatric-Rehabilitation Department, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Parma.

Purpose Of Review: This article summarizes the advances of research on the role of the intestinal microbiota in influencing sarcopenia, frailty, and cognitive dysfunction in older individuals, and thus its relevance for healthy active ageing.

Recent Findings: Age-related alterations of intestinal microbiota composition may negatively influence muscle protein synthesis and function by promoting chronic systemic inflammation, insulin resistance, oxidative stress, and reducing nutrient bioavailability. However, this 'gut-muscle axis' hypothesis is not supported by human data to date. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCO.0000000000000521DOI Listing
January 2019
10 Reads

Sarcopenia and obesity.

Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2019 Jan;22(1):13-19

Geriatric Division, Department of Medicine, University of Verona.

Purpose Of Review: Together with age-related body composition changes, the increased prevalence of obesity observed in the past few decades in older individuals has led to a condition called sarcopenic obesity, characterized by a mismatch between muscle mass and fat mass. The operative definition of sarcopenic obesity is still under discussion and creates difficulties in clinical practice. Muscle weakness, rather than low muscle mass, was previously proposed as an alternative criterion and, more recently, the dynapenic abdominal obese phenotype is of increasing interest because of its unfavorable health consequences and usability in clinical practice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCO.0000000000000519DOI Listing
January 2019
15 Reads

Glutamine and type 1 diabetes mellitus: is there a role in glycemic control?

Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2019 Jan;22(1):91-95

Department of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism, Nemours Children's Health System, Jacksonville, Florida, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Recent literature suggests dietary glutamine supplementation may lower blood glucose in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D), who have no residual insulin secretion. The mechanisms and potential relevance to the care of T1D remain unclear.

Recent Findings: Glutamine is involved in multiple pathways including gluconeogenesis, lipolysis, antioxidant defense, the production of nitric oxide, the secretion of peptides (e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCO.0000000000000530DOI Listing
January 2019
9 Reads

Contraction and nutrition interaction promotes anabolism in cachectic muscle.

Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2019 Jan;22(1):60-67

Clinica Medica ASUITs, Department of Medical, Surgical and Health Sciences, University of Trieste, Cattinara University Hospital, Trieste, Italy.

Purpose Of Review: Cachexia is a disease-related multifactorial syndrome characterized by inflammation, massive muscle protein catabolism and carbohydrate and lipid metabolism disorder.Several studies tried to define the impact of either nutrition or physical exercise (single approach strategy) or their combination (multimodal approach strategy) on prevention and/or treatment of muscle wasting in cachectic patients.

Recent Findings: Single approach strategies (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCO.0000000000000527DOI Listing
January 2019
10 Reads

Cysteine-derived hydrogen sulfide and gut health: a matter of endogenous or bacterial origin.

Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2019 Jan;22(1):68-75

Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Daegu Catholic University, Gyeongsan, South Korea.

Purpose Of Review: Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is produced in the gut from cysteine by epithelial cells and by the intestinal microbiota. Initially considered as a toxic gas, the pleiotropic effects of H2S are now recognized, especially in the colonic mucosa. The aim of this review is to present new experimental data indicating that cysteine-derived H2S is emerging as a key regulator of gut health. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCO.0000000000000526DOI Listing
January 2019
33 Reads

Editorial: The future of sarcopenia.

Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2019 Jan;22(1):1-3

Center for Geriatric Medicine, Heidelberg University, Germany.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCO.0000000000000531DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Human milk protein vs. formula protein and their use in preterm infants.

Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2019 Jan;22(1):76-81

Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Fondazione I.R.C.C.S. Ca Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico.

Purpose Of Review: We review the current available evidence on the metabolic fate of human milk proteins and their potential clinical implications for growth and body composition development vs. those of formula proteins in preterm infants.

Recent Findings: The decreased content of human milk protein in preterm mothers throughout lactation might contribute to the reduced growth reported in exclusively human milk-fed infants compared with that of formula-fed infants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCO.0000000000000528DOI Listing
January 2019
21 Reads

Emerging role for kynurenines in metabolic pathologies.

Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2019 Jan;22(1):82-90

Laboratoire B2PE (Biologie et Pathologie du Pancréas Endocrine), Unité BFA (Biologie Fonctionnelle et Adaptive), Université Paris-Diderot, Sorbonne-Paris-Cité, Paris, France.

Purpose Of Review: So far, the tryptophan catabolites generated in the kynurenine pathway have been mainly studied in relation to oncologic and mental health disorders. The current review provides an update on the emerging biomedical interest for kynurenine pathway activity in the field of energy homeostasis and metabolic diseases.

Recent Findings: Kynurenine pathway enzymes are expressed in tissues relevant for energy homeostasis such as fat, skeletal muscle, liver and endocrine pancreas, blood vessel and heart, and are regulated by nutritional and inflammatory signals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCO.0000000000000529DOI Listing
January 2019
6 Reads

The diversity of healthy diets for older persons across the world.

Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2019 Jan;22(1):20-24

National Research Council, Neuroscience Institute, Aging Branch, Padua, Italy.

Purpose Of Review: To examine eating patterns, and with a particular focus on the different healthy diets followed by older persons across the world and the factors that can limit accessibility to healthy foods.

Recent Findings: Recent evidence has demonstrated that older people are, generally speaking, following less healthy diets with respect to the past. The only exception seems to be China, but the quality of the food there appears to be less than optimal. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCO.0000000000000522DOI Listing
January 2019
6 Reads

New insights into the anorexia of ageing: from prevention to treatment.

Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2019 Jan;22(1):44-51

School of Human Movement and Nutrition Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Purpose Of Review: Undernutrition in older adults is associated with frailty, functional decline, and mortality. The 'anorexia of ageing' is the age-related appetite and weight loss underpinning such undernutrition. This review examines the latest evidence for its prevention and treatment. Read More

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http://Insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00075197-900000000-9917
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCO.0000000000000525DOI Listing
January 2019
10 Reads
3.990 Impact Factor

Diabetes and frailty.

Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2019 Jan;22(1):52-57

Fundación Para la Investigación Biomédica del Hospital Universitario de Getafe.

Purpose Of Review: Disability and its preceding condition, frailty, are outstanding issues for achieving healthy aging. Diabetes is a very prevalent chronic disease among older patients that favours frailty status. This review will analyse the relationship between diabetes and frailty in the elderly and summarize the current strategies to improve physical function in diabetic older patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCO.0000000000000535DOI Listing
January 2019
10 Reads

Editorial: From old to new: roles of protein sources and individual amino acids in clinical nutrition.

Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2019 Jan;22(1):58-59

Department of Clinical Medicine, Sapienza University, Rome, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCO.0000000000000532DOI Listing
January 2019
17 Reads

Therapeutic and lifestyle approaches to obesity in older persons.

Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2019 Jan;22(1):30-36

Center for Translational Research on Inflammatory Diseases (CTRID), Michael E. DeBakey VA Medical Center.

Purpose Of Review: Obesity rates worldwide continue to increase and will disproportionately affect older adults because of population aging. This review highlights recent progress pertaining to therapeutic approaches to obesity in older adults.

Recent Findings: Caloric restriction alone improves physical function and quality of life in older adults with obesity but is associated with loss of lean mass and increases fracture risk. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCO.0000000000000520DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6265116PMC
January 2019
19 Reads

Genetic factors involved in the bioavailability of tomato carotenoids.

Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2018 Nov;21(6):489-497

Purpose Of Review: To provide an update on the genetic factors recently associated with the interindividual variability of tomato carotenoid bioavailability.

Recent Findings: Several clinical studies have demonstrated that the main carotenoids found in tomatoes (lycopene, phytoene, phytofluene, β-carotene, lutein) all display relatively large interindividual variabilities of their bioavailability, with coefficients of variations more than 70%. The bioavailability of the parent molecules, and the blood/tissue appearance of their metabolites, is modulated by numerous proteins, involved in intestinal absorption and metabolism, blood lipoprotein transport or tissue uptake. Read More

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http://Insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00075197-201811000-0001
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCO.0000000000000515DOI Listing
November 2018
11 Reads

Dietary supplement intake among the elderly: hazards and benefits.

Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2018 Nov;21(6):465-470

Université Clermont Auvergne, INRA, UNH, Unité de Nutrition Humaine, CRNH Auvergne.

Purpose Of Review: A large percentage of older adults do not receive recommended amounts of many nutrients from food alone. Accordingly, the routine use of dietary supplements has become common among older persons. Although supplement use provides potential benefits by increasing nutrient intakes, there are potential drawbacks. Read More

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http://Insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00075197-201811000-0001
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCO.0000000000000512DOI Listing
November 2018
2 Reads

Isoflavones and bone health in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women.

Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2018 Nov;21(6):475-480

Department of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus N, Denmark.

Purpose Of Review: Isoflavones exert estrogenic activity distinct from estrogen, they have the potential to treat diseases and symptoms related to estrogen deficiency with minimal side effects and risks. Isoflavone supplementation, in general, is shown to exert beneficial effects against estrogen-deficient bone loss in women, however, some clinical trials still produce conflicting findings. The purpose of this review is to highlight and summarize the most recent and up-to-date research in the field and to bring attention to factors that play a major role in the outcomes of clinical trials that investigate phytoestrogens. Read More

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http://Insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00075197-201811000-0001
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCO.0000000000000513DOI Listing
November 2018
3 Reads

Crucifers and related vegetables and supplements for neurologic disorders: what is the evidence?

Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2018 Nov;21(6):451-457

Cullman Chemoprotection Center.

Purpose Of Review: Neurologic disorders have varied pathophysiology, yet many of them appear to have core molecular pathways that are aberrant. We review the evidence that a dietary component may have utility in ameliorating or preventing at least some of them.

Recent Findings: The weight of evidence supporting prescriptive dietary recommendations to promote or enhance healthspan has been building for decades. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCO.0000000000000511DOI Listing
November 2018
13 Reads

Beneficial effects of walnut consumption on human health: role of micronutrients.

Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2018 Nov;21(6):498-504

Lipid Clinic, Endocrinology and Nutrition Service, Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi Sunyer, Hospital Clínic, Barcelona.

Purpose Of Review: Nuts in general and walnuts in particular are in the limelight for the association of their consumption with improved health outcomes. Walnuts have an optimal composition in bioactive nutrients and recent clinical and experimental studies have uncovered a number of beneficial effects of walnut micronutrients, working in isolation or in concert, on metabolic pathways and clinical outcomes that make this review timely and relevant.

Recent Findings: Alpha-linolenic acid, a critical walnut component, is metabolized into bioactive oxylipins, has been shown to protect microglial cells from inflammation, and is associated with lower fatal myocardial infarction rates through a putative antiarrhythmic effect. Read More

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http://Insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00075197-201811000-0001
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCO.0000000000000508DOI Listing
November 2018
5 Reads

Regulation of muscle atrophy by microRNAs: 'AtromiRs' as potential target in cachexia.

Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2018 Nov;21(6):423-429

Department of Respiratory Medicine, NUTRIM.

Purpose Of Review: To provide an overview and describe the mode of action of miRNAs recently implicated in muscle atrophy, and discuss the challenges to explore their potential as putative therapeutic targets in cachexia.

Recent Findings: Recent work showed differentially expressed miRNAs in skeletal muscle of patients with cachexia-associated diseases. Studies using experimental models revealed miRNA regulation of the anabolic IGF-1 and catabolic TGF- β/myostatin pathways, and downstream protein synthesis and proteolysis signaling in control of muscle mass. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCO.0000000000000503DOI Listing
November 2018
23 Reads

Benefits and risk management of functional foods in the context of chronic diseases.

Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2018 Nov;21(6):449-450

The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCO.0000000000000517DOI Listing
November 2018
3 Reads

Dietary vitamin D, vitamin D receptor, and microbiome.

Authors:
Jun Sun

Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2018 Nov;21(6):471-474

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Purpose Of Review: The current review is to summarize the recent progress of vitamin D/vitamin D receptor (VDR) and microbiome in intestinal homeostasis, airway function, and other organs.

Recent Findings: Microbiome is considered as a newly discovered human organ. It is critical in the synthesis of vitamins and harvest of otherwise inaccessible nutrients, metabolism of xenobiotics, body fat storage, renewal of gut epithelial cells, and mature of immune system. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCO.0000000000000516DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6168421PMC
November 2018
2 Reads

Spaceflight-related ocular changes: the potential role of genetics, and the potential of B vitamins as a countermeasure.

Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2018 Nov;21(6):481-488

NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Within the last decade, it was realized that during and after long-duration spaceflight, some astronauts experience ophthalmic abnormalities including refractive changes, optic disc edema, globe flattening, choroidal folds, and cotton wool spots. Much research has been initiated and conducted, but little evidence is available to differentiate affected crewmembers.

Recent Findings: The first published data to distinguish between affected and nonaffected crewmembers identified biochemical differences in affected astronauts: one-carbon pathway metabolite concentrations were higher in these individuals than in nonaffected astronauts, even before flight. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCO.0000000000000510DOI Listing
November 2018
13 Reads

Emerging outcome measures for nutrition trials in the critically ill.

Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2018 Nov;21(6):417-422

Centre for Human and Applied Physiological Sciences, King's College London.

Purpose Of Review: Mortality has long been the gold-standard outcome measure for intensive care clinical trials. However, as the critical care community begins to understand and accept that survivorship is associated with functional disability and a health and socioeconomic burden, the clinical and research focus has begun to shift towards long-term physical function RECENT FINDINGS: To use mortality as a primary outcome measure, one would either have to choose an improbable effect (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCO.0000000000000507DOI Listing
November 2018
3 Reads

Fighting obesity by targeting factors regulating beige adipocytes.

Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2018 Nov;21(6):437-443

Metabolic Biology Graduate Program and Department of Nutritional Sciences and Toxicology, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley.

Purpose Of Review: The current review provides an update on secreted factors and mechanisms that promote a thermogenic program in beige adipocytes, and their potential roles as therapeutic targets to fight obesity.

Recent Findings: We outline recent studies revealing unrecognized mechanisms controlling beige adipocyte physiology, and summarize in particular those that underlie beige thermogenesis independently of classical uncoupling. We also update strategies aimed at fostering beige adipogenesis and white-to beige adipocyte conversion. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCO.0000000000000509DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6196736PMC
November 2018
27 Reads

Telomere length as a biomarker of accelerated aging: is it influenced by dietary intake?

Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2018 Nov;21(6):430-436

Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, Barcelona.

Purpose Of Review: There is increasing interest in exploring whether age-related diseases can be prevented by dietary means through nutrients or food bioactives, whole foods, or specific dietary patterns. Because of the slow nature of the aging process, biomarkers such as telomere length are helpful for this purpose. Here we update the developments in the area during the last 2 years. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCO.0000000000000506DOI Listing
November 2018
2 Reads

Polyunsaturated fatty acids, polyphenols, amino acids, prebiotics: can they help to tackle cancer cachexia and related inflammation?

Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2018 Nov;21(6):458-464

Metabolism and Nutrition Research Group, Louvain Drug Research Institute, Université catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium.

Purpose Of Review: Recent studies have highlighted the importance of developing a multimodal therapeutic strategy for cancer cachectic patients. Considering the central role of metabolism and anorexia in this disease, optimized nutritional advice should be an integral part of this strategy. Current recommendations mainly focus on meeting caloric requirements. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCO.0000000000000505DOI Listing
November 2018
6 Reads

The dynamic nature of food reward processing in the brain.

Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2018 Nov;21(6):444-448

Faculty of Psychology and Neuroscience, Maastricht University, Maastricht, the Netherlands.

Purpose Of Review: The dominant view in the literature is that increased neural reactivity to high-caloric palatable foods in the mesocorticolimbic system is a stable-specific characteristic of obese people. In this review, we argue that this viewpoint may not be justified, and we propose that the neural response to food stimuli is dynamic, and in synchrony with the current motivational and cognitive state of an individual. We will further motivate why a clear mental task in the scanner is a necessity for drawing conclusions from neural activity, and why multivariate approaches to functional MRI (fMRI) data-analysis may carry the field forward. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCO.0000000000000504DOI Listing
November 2018
4 Reads

Nutritional interventions to improve recovery from postoperative ileus.

Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2018 Sep;21(5):394-398

Department of Surgery, Catharina Hospital, Eindhoven.

Purpose Of Review: Postoperative ileus (POI) is an important contributor to postoperative morbidity. However, postoperative outcomes have improved by enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) programs. Enteral nutrition is an essential part of ERAS and many studies suggest a therapeutic effect of nutrition on POI. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCO.0000000000000494DOI Listing
September 2018
3 Reads

Nutrition in gastroenterology - clinical implications of current interdisciplinary innovations.

Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2018 Sep;21(5):375-376

Norwich Medical School, Norwich, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCO.0000000000000500DOI Listing
September 2018
2 Reads

Long-term nutritional follow-up post bariatric surgery.

Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2018 Sep;21(5):388-393

Department of Endocrinology, Metabolic Diseases and Nutrition, Toulouse University Hospital.

Purpose Of Review: Bariatric surgery is an effective treatment for classes II and III obesity and its associated diseases. However, many important long-term outcomes of bariatric surgery are still poorly understood, such as neurological and psychological complications, bone health, and so on. This review summarizes the current evidence and expert opinions on nutritional care in the long-term postoperative period. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCO.0000000000000490DOI Listing
September 2018
3 Reads

Assessment of nutritional status: what does it mean?

Authors:
Luc Cynober

Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2018 Sep;21(5):319-320

Clinical Chemistry Department, Cochin Hospital, AP-HP.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCO.0000000000000501DOI Listing
September 2018
2 Reads

Bioelectrical impedance analysis in the assessment of sarcopenia.

Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2018 Sep;21(5):366-374

Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is an accepted technique to estimate low muscle mass for sarcopenia diagnosis. However, muscularity assessment from BIA relies on prediction equations, estimating different compartments according to the calibration method. Low muscle mass can be defined using different approaches. Read More

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http://Insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00075197-900000000-9919
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCO.0000000000000496DOI Listing
September 2018
11 Reads

Analysis of mitochondrial respiratory function in tissue biopsies and blood cells.

Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2018 Sep;21(5):336-342

Department of Physiological Sciences, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

Purpose Of Review: The review provides an overview on latest methodological strategies to assess mitochondrial respiratory function in tissue biopsies or blood cells. In addition, it summarizes the recent literature related to this topic.

Recent Findings: Today, the study of mitochondrial function in key metabolic active tissues has been become more relevant, with increasing focus in clinical applications. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCO.0000000000000486DOI Listing
September 2018
2 Reads

Fructooligosaccharides and appetite.

Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2018 Sep;21(5):377-380

Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Dietary fiber may play a role in obesity prevention through reduction of body weight and control of appetite, however, not all fibers are created equally, and characteristics of fiber such as viscosity, fermentability and solubility may affect appetite differently.

Recent Findings: Although early studies supported that fructan fibers, including inulin, fructooligosaccharides, and oligofructose affected satiety, more recent studies are less supportive. We found that a higher dose of fiber such as oligofructose (16 g/day) is needed and for a longer duration (12-16 weeks) to detect differences in appetite and subsequent energy intake, whereas, practical amounts of fructooligosaccharides, less than 10 g/day, generally do not affect satiety or food intake. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCO.0000000000000502DOI Listing
September 2018
4 Reads