3,224 results match your criteria Current Opinion in Cell Biology [Journal]


Regulation of Drosophila germline stem cells.

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2019 Apr 20;60:27-35. Epub 2019 Apr 20.

Department of Biology, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA. Electronic address:

The asymmetric division of adult stem cells into one self-renewing stem cell and one differentiating cell is critical for maintaining homeostasis in many tissues. One paradigmatic model of this division is the Drosophila male and female germline stem cell, which provides two model systems not only sharing common features but also having distinct characteristics for studying asymmetric stem cell division in vivo. This asymmetric division is controlled by a combination of extrinsic signaling molecules and intrinsic factors that are either asymmetrically segregated or regulated differentially following division. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2019.03.008DOI Listing

Role of nuclear RNA in regulating chromatin structure and transcription.

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2019 Apr 19;58:120-125. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

MRC Human Genetics Unit, Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, UK. Electronic address:

The importance of three-dimensional chromatin organisation in genome regulation has never been clearer. But in spite of the enormous technological advances to probe chromatin organisation in vivo, there is still a lack of mechanistic understanding of how such an arrangement is achieved. Here we review emerging evidence pointing to an intriguing role of nuclear RNA in shaping large-scale chromatin structure and regulating genome function. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2019.03.007DOI Listing

And three's a party: lysosomes, lipid droplets, and the ER in lipid trafficking and cell homeostasis.

Authors:
Mike Henne

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2019 Apr 16;59:40-49. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Department of Cell Biology, Dallas, TX, 75390, USA.

Sterols and fatty acids (FAs) are essential lipids that play fundamental roles in membrane dynamics and cellular homeostasis. Synthesized at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and cytoplasm, trafficked by proteins, and stored in lipid droplets (LDs), much work has been conducted examining how these lipids are shuttled from one location to another. Recent work has highlighted the importance of inter-organelle crosstalk in the regulation of sterol and FA homeostasis. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2019.02.011DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

The nucleus feels the force, LINCed in or not!

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2019 Apr 16;58:114-119. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Molecular Cell Biomechanics Laboratory, Departments of Bioengineering and Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, United States; Molecular Biophysics and Integrated Bioimaging Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, United States. Electronic address:

Mechanical signals affect many aspects of biological processes. Physical forces from the extracellular microenvironment are ultimately transmitted to the nucleus and elicit a response that result in the deformation and remodeling of the nucleus. Recent studies have shown that nuclear deformation has several consequences such as reorganization of chromatin, changes in gene expression, and nuclear envelope rupture. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S09550674183015
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2019.02.012DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Plant cell division - defining and finding the sweet spot for cell plate insertion.

Authors:
Sabine Müller

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2019 Apr 15;60:9-18. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Center for Plant Molecular Biology, Auf der Morgenstelle 32, 72076 Tübingen, Germany. Electronic address:

The plant microtubules form unique arrays using acentrosomal microtubule nucleation pathways, yet utilizing evolutionary conserved centrosomal proteins. In cytokinesis, a multi-component cytoskeletal apparatus, the phragmoplast mediates the biosynthesis of the new cell plate by dynamic centrifugal expansion, a process that demands exquisite coordination of microtubule turnover and endomembrane trafficking. At the same time, the phragmoplast is guided to meet with the parental wall at a cortical site that is predefined before mitotic entry and transiently marked by the preprophase band of microtubules. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S09550674193001
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2019.03.006DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Folding the genome into mitotic chromosomes.

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2019 Apr 15;60:19-26. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Division of Experimental Pathology, Cancer Institute of the Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research (JFCR), Tokyo, Japan. Electronic address:

How linear DNA molecules are packaged into compact cylindrical chromosomes in preparation for cell division has remained one of the central outstanding questions in cell biology. Condensin is a highly conserved protein complex that universally determines large-scale DNA geometry during mitotic chromosome assembly. A wide range of recently developed approaches, including super resolution microscopy, single molecule imaging, Hi-C analyses and computational modeling, have profoundly changed how we view mitotic chromosomes. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S09550674193002
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2019.03.005DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Rab regulation by GEFs and GAPs during membrane traffic.

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2019 Apr 10;59:34-39. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QU, UK. Electronic address:

Rab GTPases and their regulatory proteins play a crucial role in vesicle-mediated membrane trafficking. During vesicle membrane tethering Rab GTPases are activated by GEFs (guanine nucleotide exchange factors) and then inactivated by GAPs (GTPase activating proteins). Recent evidence shows that in addition to activating and inactivating Rab GTPases, both Rab GEFs and GAPs directly contribute to membrane tethering events during vesicle traffic. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2019.03.004DOI Listing

Editorial overview: Signaling dynamics moving to the nanoscale.

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2019 Apr;57:iii-vi

Section on Molecular Signal Transduction, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA. Electronic address:

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S09550674193002
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2019.03.002DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

The cortical force-generating machinery: how cortical spindle-pulling forces are generated.

Authors:
Tomomi Kiyomitsu

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2019 Apr 4;60:1-8. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Division of Biological Science, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602, Japan. Electronic address:

The cortical force-generating machinery pulls on dynamic plus-ends of astral microtubules to control spindle position and orientation, which underlie division type specification and cellular patterning in many eukaryotic cells. A prior work identified cytoplasmic dynein, a minus-end directed microtubule motor, as a key conserved unit of the cortical force-generating machinery. Here, I summarize recent structural, biophysical, and cell-biological studies that advance our understanding of how dynein is activated and organized at the mitotic cell cortex to generate functional spindle-pulling forces. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2019.03.001DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Motor-cargo adaptors at the organelle-cytoskeleton interface.

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2019 Apr 2;59:16-23. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

School of Biochemistry, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Bristol, University Walk, BS8 1TD, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Cytoskeletal motors of the dynein, kinesin and myosin superfamilies maintain and adapt subcellular organelle organization to meet functional demands and support the vesicular transport of material between organelles. These motors require the capacity to specifically recognize the vesicle/organelle to be transported and are capable of selective recognition of multiple cargo. Recent studies have begun to uncover the molecular basis for motor recruitment and have highlighted the role of organelle-associated 'cargo-adaptor' proteins in cellular transport. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2019.02.010DOI Listing

Physical principles and functional consequences of nuclear compartmentalization in budding yeast.

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2019 Mar 28;58:105-113. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Institut Curi-PSL Research University, CNRS, Sorbonne Université, UMR3664, F-75005, Paris, France. Electronic address:

One striking feature of eukaryotic nuclei is the existence of discrete regions, in which specific factors concentrate while others are excluded, thus forming microenvironments with different molecular compositions and biological functions. These domains are often referred to as subcompartments even though they are not membrane enclosed. Despite their functional importance the physical nature of these structures remains largely unknown. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2019.02.005DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Trafficking mechanisms of P-type ATPase copper transporters.

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2019 Mar 28;59:24-33. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Department of Cell Biology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, United States. Electronic address:

Copper is an essential micronutrient required for oxygen-dependent enzymes, yet excess of the metal is a toxicant. The tug-of-war between these copper activities is balanced by chaperones and membrane transporters, which control copper distribution and availability. The P-type ATPase transporters, ATP7A and ATP7B, regulate cytoplasmic copper by pumping copper out of cells or into the endomembrane system. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2019.02.009DOI Listing

Dynamic chromatin organization without the 30-nm fiber.

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2019 Mar 22;58:95-104. Epub 2019 Mar 22.

Genome Dynamics Laboratory, National Institute of Genetics, Mishima, Shizuoka 411-8540, Japan.

Chromatin in eukaryotic cells is a negatively charged polymer composed of DNA, histones, and various associated proteins. Over the past ten years, our view of chromatin has shifted from a static regular structure to a dynamic and highly variable configuration. While the details are not fully understood yet, chromatin forms numerous compact domains that act as dynamic functional units of the genome in higher eukaryotes. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2019.02.003DOI Listing

Nuclear deubiquitination in the spotlight: the multifaceted nature of USP7 biology in disease.

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2019 Mar 18;58:85-94. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Simpson Querrey Center for Epigenetics; Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL. Electronic address:

Ubiquitination is a versatile and tightly regulated post-translational protein modification with many distinct outcomes affecting protein stability, localization, interactions, and activity. Ubiquitin chain linkages anchored on substrates can be further modified by additional post-translational modifications, including phosphorylation and SUMOylation. Deubiquitinases (DUBs) reverse these ubiquitin marks with matched levels of precision. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2019.02.008DOI Listing

Phospholipid flippases in membrane remodeling and transport carrier biogenesis.

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2019 Mar 18;59:8-15. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Department of Biological Sciences, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, United States.

Molecular mechanisms underlying the formation of multiple classes of transport carriers or vesicles from Golgi and endosomal membranes remain poorly understood. However, one theme that has emerged over three decades is the dramatic influence of membrane lipid remodeling on transport mechanisms. A large cohort of lipid transfer proteins, lipid transporters, and lipid modifying enzymes are linked to protein sorting, carrier formation and SNARE-mediated fusion events. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2019.02.004DOI Listing

Chromatin's physical properties shape the nucleus and its functions.

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2019 Mar 16;58:76-84. Epub 2019 Mar 16.

Department of Molecular Biosciences, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208, United States; Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208, United States. Electronic address:

The cell nucleus encloses, organizes, and protects the genome. Chromatin maintains nuclear mechanical stability and shape in coordination with lamins and the cytoskeleton. Abnormal nuclear shape is a diagnostic marker for human diseases, and it can cause nuclear dysfunction. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2019.02.006DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

The dynamic lifecycle of mRNA in the nucleus.

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2019 Mar 16;58:69-75. Epub 2019 Mar 16.

The Mina & Everard Goodman Faculty of Life Sciences and the Institute of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan, Israel. Electronic address:

The mRNA molecule roams through the nucleus on its way out to the cytoplasm. mRNA encounters and is bound by many protein factors, from the moment it begins to emerge from RNA polymerase II and during its travel in the nucleoplasm, where it will come upon chromatin and nuclear bodies. Some of the protein factors that engage with the mRNA can process it, until finally reaching a mature state fit for export through the nuclear pore complex (NPC). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2019.02.007DOI Listing

Function and regulation of chromatin insulators in dynamic genome organization.

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2019 Mar 12;58:61-68. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

Nuclear Organization and Gene Expression Section, Laboratory of Cellular and Developmental Biology, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA. Electronic address:

Chromatin insulators are DNA-protein complexes that play a crucial role in regulating chromatin organization. Within the past two years, a plethora of genome-wide conformation capture studies have helped reveal that insulators are necessary for proper genome-wide organization of topologically associating domains, which are formed in a manner distinct from that of compartments. These studies have also provided novel insights into the mechanics of how CTCF/cohesin-dependent loops form in mammals, strongly supporting the loop extrusion model. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2019.02.001DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Innate immunity signalling and membrane trafficking.

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2019 Mar 12;59:1-7. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

Laboratory of Organelle Pathophysiology, Department of Integrative Life Sciences, Graduate School of Life Sciences, Tohoku University, Aobayama, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi, 980-8578, Japan.

The mammalian innate immune system serves as the front line of the host to eliminate invading pathogens. The receptors that sense invading pathogens or the pathogen-associated molecules localized at various membrane compartments that include the plasma membrane, endosomes, and the endoplasmic reticulum. Intriguingly, growing evidence indicates that the sites of pathogen detection do not always represent the site where innate immune signal is triggered. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2019.02.002DOI Listing

Non-canonical processes that shape the cell migration landscape.

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2019 Apr 7;57:123-134. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

Department of Pharmacology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA; Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA; Rogel Cancer Center Michigan Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA. Electronic address:

Migration is a vital, intricate, and multi-faceted process that involves the entire cell, entails the integration of multiple external cues and, at times, necessitates high-level coordination among fields of cells that can be physically attached or not, depending on the physiological setting. Recent advances have highlighted the essential role of cellular components that have not been traditionally considered when studying cell migration. This review details how much we recently learned by studying the role of intermediate filaments, the nucleus, extracellular vesicles, and mitochondria during cell migration. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2018.12.013DOI Listing

Nanobodies detecting and modulating GPCRs outside in and inside out.

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2019 Apr 5;57:115-122. Epub 2019 Mar 5.

Amsterdam Institute for Molecules, Medicines and Systems (AIMMS), Division of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, VU University, De Boelelaan 1108, 1081 HZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), belonging to the largest class of membrane proteins, play a prominent role in many (patho)physiological processes and are, therefore, important drug targets. Although most often targeted by small molecules, these receptors have become interesting targets for antibodies and antibody fragments, especially camelid-derived heavy chain-only antibodies and fragments thereof (nanobodies). The small size and molecular structure of nanobodies allow GPCR-binding and modulation, from both the intracellular and extracellular sides. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2019.01.003DOI Listing

Inhibitors of nuclear transport.

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2019 Feb 28;58:50-60. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Nuclear Signaling Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Biomedicine Discovery Institute, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.

Central to eukaryotic cell function, transport into and out of the nucleus is largely mediated by members of the Importin (IMP) superfamily of transporters of α- and β-types. The first inhibitor of nuclear transport, leptomycin B (LMB), was shown to be a specific inhibitor of the IMPβ homologue Exportin 1 (EXP1) almost 20 years ago, but it has only been in the last five or so years that new inhibitors of nuclear export as well as import have been identified and characterised. Of utility in biological research, these inhibitors include those that target-specific EXPs/IMPs, with accompanying toxicity profiles, as well as agents that specifically target particular nuclear import cargoes. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2019.01.001DOI Listing
February 2019

Regulation of targeting determinants in interorganelle communication.

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2019 Apr 23;57:106-114. Epub 2019 Feb 23.

UCL Institute of Ophthalmology, 11-43 Bath Street, London EC1V 9EL, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

The field of interorganelle communication is now established as a major aspect of intracellular organisation, with a profusion of material and signals exchanged between organelles. One way to address interorganelle communication is to study the interactions of the proteins involved, particularly targeting interactions, which are a key way to regulate activity. While most peripheral membrane proteins have single determinants for membrane targeting, proteins involved in interorganelle communication have more than one such determinant, sometimes as many as four, as in Vps13. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2018.12.010DOI Listing

Poring over chromosomes: mitotic nuclear pore complex segregation.

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2019 Feb 21;58:42-49. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Department of Molecular Genetics, The Ohio State University, 484 West 12th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.

Eukaryotic cells rely on flux of macromolecules between the nucleus and the cytoplasm for growth and survival. Bidirectional transport is achieved through Nuclear Pore Complexes (NPCs) embedded in the Nuclear Envelope (NE). NPC proteins perform other cellular functions during mitosis, chromatin organization, DNA repair and gene regulation. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2019.01.002DOI Listing
February 2019

Recent insights into mammalian ER-PM junctions.

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2019 Apr 8;57:99-105. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

Department of Physiology, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA. Electronic address:

ER-PM junctions are subcellular sites where the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the plasma membrane (PM) are kept in close appositions, providing a platform for inter-organelle contact. These membrane contact sites are important for many physiological functions in mammalian cells, including excitation-contraction coupling, store-operated Ca entry, and non-vesicular transfer of lipids between the ER and the PM. Here we review recent insights into the 3D structure and spatial organization of ER-PM junctions in mammalian cells as well as molecular mechanisms underlying the formation and functions of mammalian ER-PM junctions. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2018.12.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6462233PMC
April 2019
3 Reads

Structural features of STIM and Orai underlying store-operated calcium entry.

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2019 Apr 1;57:90-98. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, United States. Electronic address:

Store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) through Orai channels is triggered by receptor-stimulated depletion of Ca from the ER. Orai1 is unique in terms of its activation mechanism, biophysical properties, and structure, and its precise regulation is essential for human health. Recent studies have begun to reveal the structural basis of the major steps in the SOCE pathway and how the system is reliably suppressed in resting cells but able to respond robustly to ER Ca depletion. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2018.12.012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6462238PMC

Spatial encoding of GPCR signaling in the nervous system.

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2019 Apr 29;57:83-89. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Department of Pharmacology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, United States; Program in Cellular and Molecular Biology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, United States. Electronic address:

Several GPCRs, including receptors previously thought to signal primarily from the cell surface, have been recently shown to signal from many intracellular compartments. This raises the idea that signaling by any given receptor is spatially encoded in the cell, with distinct sites of signal origin dictating distinct downstream consequences. We will discuss recent developments that address this novel facet of GPCR physiology, focusing on the spatial segregation of signaling from the cell surface, endosomes, and the Golgi by receptors relevant to the nervous system. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2018.12.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6462236PMC
April 2019
2 Reads

Correcting aberrant kinetochore microtubule attachments: a hidden regulation of Aurora B on microtubules.

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2019 Jan 22;58:34-41. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Laboratory of Chromosome and Cell Biology, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065, USA. Electronic address:

For equal chromosome segregation, a pair of kinetochores on each duplicated chromosome must attach to microtubules connecting to opposite poles. The protein kinase Aurora B plays a critical role in destabilizing microtubules attached in a wrong orientation through phosphorylating kinetochore proteins. The mechanism behind this selective destabilization of aberrant attachments remains elusive. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2018.12.007DOI Listing
January 2019

Hardwiring wire-less networks: spatially encoded GPCR signaling in endocrine systems.

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2019 Apr 23;57:77-82. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

Institute of Reproductive and Developmental Biology, Dept. Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College, London, UK. Electronic address:

The pivotal and diverse roles G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) play in physiology are matched by the increasingly complex signal systems they activate. Over the past decade, our models of GPCR signaling systems also include a vital role of location in controlling GPCR signaling, whereby plasma membrane, clathrin-associated structures and a diverse endomembrane network provide highly specialized signal platforms for this superfamily of receptors. The aim of this review is to highlight the recent developments in this fast-evolving field, with particular emphasis on endocrine-relevant GPCRs. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2018.12.009DOI Listing

Non-coding RNAs and chromatin domains.

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2019 Jan 22;58:26-33. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Division of Cancer Biology, The Cancer Institute of JFCR, Tokyo 135-8550, Japan. Electronic address:

Large-scale transcriptome analyses have identified a variety of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) that are not translated into proteins. Many of them are in the nucleus, where they associate with chromatin and regulate its structure and function. Interphase chromosomes are intricately folded into multiple layers and composed of domains. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2018.12.005DOI Listing
January 2019

De novo formation and epigenetic maintenance of centromere chromatin.

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2019 Jan 14;58:15-25. Epub 2019 Jan 14.

Laboratory of Chromosome Engineering, Department of Frontier Research and Development, Kazusa DNA Research Institute, 2-6-7 Kazusa-Kamatari, Kisarazu 292-0818, Japan. Electronic address:

Accurate chromosome segregation is essential for cell proliferation. The centromere is a specialized chromosomal locus, on which the kinetochore structure is formed. The centromere/kinetochore is required for the equal separation of sister chromatids to daughter cells. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2018.12.004DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Feeling the force: formin's role in mechanotransduction.

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2019 Feb 11;56:130-140. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

The University of Chicago, Department of Molecular Genetics and Cell Biology, 90 E. 58th Street, CSLC 212, Chicago, IL 60637, United States. Electronic address:

Fundamental cellular processes such as division, polarization, and motility require the tightly regulated spatial and temporal assembly and disassembly of the underlying actin cytoskeleton. The actin cytoskeleton has been long viewed as a central player facilitating diverse mechanotransduction pathways due to the notion that it is capable of receiving, processing, transmitting, and generating mechanical stresses. Recent work has begun to uncover the roles of mechanical stresses in modulating the activity of key regulatory actin-binding proteins and their interactions with actin filaments, thereby controlling the assembly (formin and Arp2/3 complex) and disassembly (ADF/Cofilin) of actin filament networks. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2018.12.008DOI Listing
February 2019
10 Reads

Nuclear positioning as an integrator of cell fate.

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2019 Feb 26;56:122-129. Epub 2018 Dec 26.

CIRB, Collège de France, and CNRS-UMR7241 and INSERM-U1050, Equipe Labellisée FRM, Paris F-75005, France.

Cells are the building units of living organisms and consequently adapt to their environment by modulating their intracellular architecture, in particular the position of their nucleus. Important efforts have been made to decipher the molecular mechanisms involved in nuclear positioning. The LINC complex at the nuclear envelope is a very important part of the molecular connectivity between the cell outside and the intranuclear compartment, and thus emerged as a central player in nuclear mechanotransduction. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2018.12.002DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Editorial overview: Cell architecture: Integrating physics and chemistry in emergent cellular properties.

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2019 Feb 21;56:iii-iv. Epub 2018 Dec 21.

University of Paris-Diderot, France.

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2018.12.003DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Lipid exchange at ER-mitochondria contact sites: a puzzle falling into place with quite a few pieces missing.

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2019 Apr 14;57:71-76. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Institute of Biochemistry, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Over the last years, the importance of inter-organelle communication has become more and more evident, attested by the fast growing number of newly-identified membrane contact sites (MCS). At MCSs two organelles are connected via protein tethers that bring them in close proximity to facilitate metabolite exchange. In this review, we will focus on the MCSs connecting the ER and mitochondria, which have been implicated in phospholipid transport. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S09550674183010
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2018.11.005DOI Listing
April 2019
10 Reads

Mechanical regulation of genome architecture and cell-fate decisions.

Authors:
G V Shivashankar

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2019 Feb 13;56:115-121. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Mechanobiology Institute, National University of Singapore, Singapore & FIRC Institute of Molecular Oncology (IFOM), Milan, Italy. Electronic address:

Landmark experiments in vitro showed that somatic cells can be reprogrammed to stem-cells by the constitutive expression of particular transcription factors. However, in vivo cells naturally exhibit de-differentiation and trans-differentiation programs, thereby suggesting that the signals from the local mechanical microenvironment may be sufficient to induce stem-cell state transitions. In this review, we discuss recent evidence for the biophysical regulation of genome architecture and nuclear programs. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S09550674183003
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2018.12.001DOI Listing
February 2019
21 Reads

Cohesion and cohesin-dependent chromatin organization.

Authors:
Tomoko Nishiyama

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2018 Dec 10;58:8-14. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Division of Biological Science, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Japan. Electronic address:

Cohesin, one of structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) complexes, forms a ring-shaped protein complex, and mediates sister chromatid cohesion for accurate chromosome segregation and precise genome inheritance. The cohesin ring entraps one or two DNA molecules to achieve cohesion, which is further regulated by cohesin-binding proteins and modification enzymes in a cell cycle-dependent manner. Recent significant advancements in Hi-C technologies have revealed numerous cohesin-dependent higher-order chromatin structures. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2018.11.006DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

The cargo spectrum of nuclear transport receptors.

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2018 Dec 6;58:1-7. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Göttingen Center of Biosciences (GZMB), Georg-August-University Göttingen, Humboldtallee 23, 37073 Göttingen, Germany. Electronic address:

The molecular mechanisms of nuclear transport have been described in great detail and we are beginning to understand the structures of transport complexes and even of subcomplexes of the nuclear pore at an atomic or near-atomic resolution. The complexity of the clients that use the transport machinery, by contrast, is less well understood, although some transport receptors are reported to have hundreds of different cargoes and others only a few. Here, we review the recent attempts to define the cargo spectrum of individual nuclear transport receptors using bioinformatic, biochemical and cell biological approaches and compare the results obtained by these complementary methods. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2018.11.004DOI Listing
December 2018
4 Reads

Hot spots for GPCR signaling: lessons from single-molecule microscopy.

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2019 Apr 3;57:57-63. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Institute of Pharmacology and Bio-Imaging Center, University of Würzburg, Germany.

G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are among the best-studied membrane receptors, mainly due to their central role in human physiology, involvement in disease and relevance as drug targets. Although biochemical and pharmacological studies have characterized the main steps in GPCR signaling, how GPCRs produce highly specific responses in our cells remains insufficiently understood. New developments in single-molecule microscopy have made it possible to study the protein-protein interactions at the basis of GPCR signaling in previously inconceivable detail. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S09550674183010
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2018.11.003DOI Listing
April 2019
12 Reads

From cytoskeletal assemblies to living materials.

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2019 Feb 28;56:109-114. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Science, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA; Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA.

Many subcellular structures contain large numbers of cytoskeletal filaments. Such assemblies underlie much of cell division, motility, signaling, metabolism, and growth. Thus, understanding cell biology requires understanding the properties of networks of cytoskeletal filaments. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2018.10.010DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Moving out but keeping in touch: contacts between endoplasmic reticulum and lipid droplets.

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2019 Apr 23;57:64-70. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Faculty of Medicine, Dept. of Anatomy and HiLIFE, Univ. of Helsinki, Finland; Minerva Foundation Institute for Medical Research, Helsinki, Finland.

The formation of neutral lipid filled and phospholipid monolayer engulfed lipid droplets (LDs) from the bilayer of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an active area of investigation. This process harnesses the biophysical properties of the lipids involved and necessitates cooperation of protein machineries in both organelle membranes. Increasing evidence suggests that once formed, LDs keep close contact to the mother organelle and that this may be achieved via several, morphologically distinct and potentially functionally specialized connections. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2018.11.002DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Localised GPCR signalling as revealed by FRET biosensors.

Authors:
Michelle L Halls

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2019 Apr 22;57:48-56. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Drug Discovery Biology Theme, Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University, 389 Royal Parade, Parkville, 3052, Victoria, Australia. Electronic address:

Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) biosensors have provided much evidence for compartmentalised signalling following activation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). This localised signalling occurs within distinct plasma membrane microdomains and at sub cellular locations including endosomes, mitochondria, Golgi and the nucleus. Notable advances linking compartmentalisation to physiology have been made in two major areas: linking compartmentalised cAMP production by the β-adrenoceptor to excitation-contraction coupling in the heart; and selectively antagonising GPCRs within early endosomes to provide more efficacious inhibition of pain transmission. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2018.11.001DOI Listing
April 2019
20 Reads

How cells exploit tubulin diversity to build functional cellular microtubule mosaics.

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2019 Feb 20;56:102-108. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Cell Biology and Biophysics Unit, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA; Biophysics Center, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, MD 20892, USA. Electronic address:

Cellular microtubules are mosaic polymers assembled from multiple αβ-tubulin isoforms bearing chemically diverse posttranslational modifications. This tubulin diversity constitutes a combinatorial code that regulates microtubule interactions with cellular effectors and alters their intrinsic dynamic and mechanical properties. Cells generate stereotyped and complex tubulin modification patterns that are important for their specialized functions. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2018.10.009DOI Listing
February 2019
21 Reads

Rescuing microtubules from the brink of catastrophe: CLASPs lead the way.

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2019 Feb 16;56:94-101. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37240, United States; Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37240, United States; Department of Biochemistry, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37240, United States. Electronic address:

Microtubules are cytoskeletal polymers that dynamically remodel to perform essential cellular functions. Individual microtubules alternate between phases of growth and shrinkage via sudden transitions called catastrophe and rescue, driven by losing and regaining a stabilizing cap at the dynamic microtubule end. New in vitro studies now show that a conserved family of CLASP proteins specifically modulate microtubule catastrophe and rescue transitions. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S09550674183003
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2018.10.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6370552PMC
February 2019
16 Reads

GPCR homo-oligomerization.

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2019 Apr 16;57:40-47. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Centre for Translational Pharmacology, Institute of Molecular, Cell and Systems Biology, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Scotland, United Kingdom.

G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are an extensive class of trans-plasma membrane proteins that function to regulate a wide range of physiological functions. Despite a general perception that GPCRs exist as monomers an extensive literature has examined whether GPCRs can also form dimers and even higher-order oligomers, and if such organization influences various aspects of GPCR function, including cellular trafficking, ligand binding, G protein coupling and signalling. Here we focus on recent studies that employ approaches ranging from computational methods to single molecule tracking and both quantal brightness and fluorescence fluctuation measurements to assess the organization, stability and potential functional significance of dimers and oligomers within the class A, rhodopsin-like GPCR family. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2018.10.007DOI Listing
April 2019
12 Reads

Definition of phosphoinositide distribution in the nanoscale.

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2019 Apr 10;57:33-39. Epub 2018 Nov 10.

Department of Anatomy and Molecular Cell Biology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550, Japan. Electronic address:

New functionalities of phosphoinositides (PIs) are being revealed continuously, and the scale of the membrane area studied is becoming smaller, from the micrometer range like the entire surface of organelles to the nanometer range as in subdomains of organelles. Concurrently, function of less abundant PIs, such as PI(3,4)P and PI(3,5)P, attracts increasing attention. In accordance with the progress, finer and more accurate information on PI distribution is required. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2018.10.008DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Microtubule lattice plasticity.

Authors:
Robert A Cross

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2019 Feb 8;56:88-93. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Centre for Mechanochemical Cell Biology, Warwick Medical School, Gibbet Hill, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK. Electronic address:

In classical microtubule dynamic instability, the dynamics of the built polymer depend only on the nucleotide state of its individual tubulin molecules. Recent work is overturning this view, pointing instead towards lattice plasticity, in which the fine-structure and mechanics of the microtubule lattice are emergent properties that depend not only on the nucleotide state of each tubulin, but also on the nucleotide states of its neighbours, on its and their isotypes, and on interacting proteins, drugs, local mechanical strain, post translational modifications, packing defects and solvent conditions. In lattice plasticity models, the microtubule is an allosteric molecular collective that integrates multiple mechanochemical inputs and responds adaptively by adjusting its conformation, stiffness and dynamics. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2018.10.004DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Autoregulation and repair in microtubule homeostasis.

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2019 Feb 8;56:80-87. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Department of Systems Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Even in the face of damaging insults, most cells maintain stability over time through multiple homeostatic pathways, including maintenance of the microtubule cytoskeleton that is fundamental to numerous cellular processes. The dynamic instability-perpetual growth and shrinkage-is the best-known microtubule regulatory pathway, which allows rapid rebuilding of the microtubule cytoskeleton in response to internal or external cues. Much less investigated is homeostatic regulation through availability of α-β tubulin heterodimers-microtubules' main building blocks-which influences total mass and dynamic behavior of microtubules. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S09550674183004
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2018.10.003DOI Listing
February 2019
16 Reads

Seeing and sensing single G protein-coupled receptors by atomic force microscopy.

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2019 Apr 6;57:25-32. Epub 2018 Nov 6.

ETH Zürich, Department of Biosystems Science and Engineering, Mattenstrasse 26, 4058 Basel, Switzerland. Electronic address:

G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) relay extracellular information across cell membranes through a continuum of conformations that are not always captured in structures. Hence, complementary approaches are required to quantify the physical and chemical properties of the dynamic conformations linking to GPCR function. Atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based high-resolution imaging and force spectroscopy are unique methods to scrutinize GPCRs and to sense their interactions. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2018.10.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6472649PMC
April 2019
8 Reads

To sense or not to sense-new insights from GPCR-based and arrestin-based biosensors.

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2019 Apr 5;57:16-24. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Institut für Molekulare Zellbiologie, CMB-Center for Molecular Biomedicine, Universitätsklinikum Jena, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Hans-Knöll Straße 2, D-07745 Jena, Germany. Electronic address:

Advances in resolving crystal structures of GPCRs and their binding partners as well as improvements in live-cell microscopy and the fluorescent proteins pallet has greatly driven new ideas for designing optical sensors for the same. Sensors have been developed to monitor ligand binding as well as the ensuing ligand-induced conformational changes in GPCRs, G-proteins and arrestins. In this review we will highlight the functionality of such sensor designs starting from monitoring ligand binding to receptor activation and interaction with arrestins. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2018.10.005DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read