3,200 results match your criteria Current Opinion in Cell Biology [Journal]


Recent insights into mammalian ER-PM junctions.

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2019 Feb 7;57:99-105. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Department of Physiology, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA. Electronic address:

ER-PM junctions are subcellular sites where the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the plasma membrane (PM) are kept in close appositions, providing a platform for inter-organelle contact. These membrane contact sites are important for many physiological functions in mammalian cells, including excitation-contraction coupling, store-operated Ca entry, and non-vesicular transfer of lipids between the ER and the PM. Here we review recent insights into the 3D structure and spatial organization of ER-PM junctions in mammalian cells as well as molecular mechanisms underlying the formation and functions of mammalian ER-PM junctions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2018.12.011DOI Listing
February 2019

Structural features of STIM and Orai underlying store-operated calcium entry.

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2019 Feb 1;57:90-98. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, United States. Electronic address:

Store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) through Orai channels is triggered by receptor-stimulated depletion of Ca from the ER. Orai1 is unique in terms of its activation mechanism, biophysical properties, and structure, and its precise regulation is essential for human health. Recent studies have begun to reveal the structural basis of the major steps in the SOCE pathway and how the system is reliably suppressed in resting cells but able to respond robustly to ER Ca depletion. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2018.12.012DOI Listing
February 2019

Spatial encoding of GPCR signaling in the nervous system.

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2019 Jan 29;57:83-89. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Department of Pharmacology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, United States; Program in Cellular and Molecular Biology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, United States. Electronic address:

Several GPCRs, including receptors previously thought to signal primarily from the cell surface, have been recently shown to signal from many intracellular compartments. This raises the idea that signaling by any given receptor is spatially encoded in the cell, with distinct sites of signal origin dictating distinct downstream consequences. We will discuss recent developments that address this novel facet of GPCR physiology, focusing on the spatial segregation of signaling from the cell surface, endosomes, and the Golgi by receptors relevant to the nervous system. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2018.12.006DOI Listing
January 2019

Correcting aberrant kinetochore microtubule attachments: a hidden regulation of Aurora B on microtubules.

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2019 Jan 22;58:34-41. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Laboratory of Chromosome and Cell Biology, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065, USA. Electronic address:

For equal chromosome segregation, a pair of kinetochores on each duplicated chromosome must attach to microtubules connecting to opposite poles. The protein kinase Aurora B plays a critical role in destabilizing microtubules attached in a wrong orientation through phosphorylating kinetochore proteins. The mechanism behind this selective destabilization of aberrant attachments remains elusive. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2018.12.007DOI Listing
January 2019

Hardwiring wire-less networks: spatially encoded GPCR signaling in endocrine systems.

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2019 Jan 22;57:77-82. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Institute of Reproductive and Developmental Biology, Dept. Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College, London, UK. Electronic address:

The pivotal and diverse roles G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) play in physiology are matched by the increasingly complex signal systems they activate. Over the past decade, our models of GPCR signaling systems also include a vital role of location in controlling GPCR signaling, whereby plasma membrane, clathrin-associated structures and a diverse endomembrane network provide highly specialized signal platforms for this superfamily of receptors. The aim of this review is to highlight the recent developments in this fast-evolving field, with particular emphasis on endocrine-relevant GPCRs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2018.12.009DOI Listing
January 2019

Non-coding RNAs and chromatin domains.

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2019 Jan 22;58:26-33. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Division of Cancer Biology, The Cancer Institute of JFCR, Tokyo 135-8550, Japan. Electronic address:

Large-scale transcriptome analyses have identified a variety of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) that are not translated into proteins. Many of them are in the nucleus, where they associate with chromatin and regulate its structure and function. Interphase chromosomes are intricately folded into multiple layers and composed of domains. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2018.12.005DOI Listing
January 2019

De novo formation and epigenetic maintenance of centromere chromatin.

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2019 Jan 14;58:15-25. Epub 2019 Jan 14.

Laboratory of Chromosome Engineering, Department of Frontier Research and Development, Kazusa DNA Research Institute, 2-6-7 Kazusa-Kamatari, Kisarazu 292-0818, Japan. Electronic address:

Accurate chromosome segregation is essential for cell proliferation. The centromere is a specialized chromosomal locus, on which the kinetochore structure is formed. The centromere/kinetochore is required for the equal separation of sister chromatids to daughter cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2018.12.004DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Feeling the force: formin's role in mechanotransduction.

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2019 Feb 11;56:130-140. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

The University of Chicago, Department of Molecular Genetics and Cell Biology, 90 E. 58th Street, CSLC 212, Chicago, IL 60637, United States. Electronic address:

Fundamental cellular processes such as division, polarization, and motility require the tightly regulated spatial and temporal assembly and disassembly of the underlying actin cytoskeleton. The actin cytoskeleton has been long viewed as a central player facilitating diverse mechanotransduction pathways due to the notion that it is capable of receiving, processing, transmitting, and generating mechanical stresses. Recent work has begun to uncover the roles of mechanical stresses in modulating the activity of key regulatory actin-binding proteins and their interactions with actin filaments, thereby controlling the assembly (formin and Arp2/3 complex) and disassembly (ADF/Cofilin) of actin filament networks. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2018.12.008DOI Listing
February 2019
5 Reads

Nuclear positioning as an integrator of cell fate.

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2019 Feb 26;56:122-129. Epub 2018 Dec 26.

CIRB, Collège de France, and CNRS-UMR7241 and INSERM-U1050, Equipe Labellisée FRM, Paris F-75005, France.

Cells are the building units of living organisms and consequently adapt to their environment by modulating their intracellular architecture, in particular the position of their nucleus. Important efforts have been made to decipher the molecular mechanisms involved in nuclear positioning. The LINC complex at the nuclear envelope is a very important part of the molecular connectivity between the cell outside and the intranuclear compartment, and thus emerged as a central player in nuclear mechanotransduction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2018.12.002DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Editorial overview: Cell architecture: Integrating physics and chemistry in emergent cellular properties.

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2019 Feb 21;56:iii-iv. Epub 2018 Dec 21.

University of Paris-Diderot, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2018.12.003DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Lipid exchange at ER-mitochondria contact sites: a puzzle falling into place with quite a few pieces missing.

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2018 Dec 13;57:71-76. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Institute of Biochemistry, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Over the last years, the importance of inter-organelle communication has become more and more evident, attested by the fast growing number of newly-identified membrane contact sites (MCS). At MCSs two organelles are connected via protein tethers that bring them in close proximity to facilitate metabolite exchange. In this review, we will focus on the MCSs connecting the ER and mitochondria, which have been implicated in phospholipid transport. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2018.11.005DOI Listing
December 2018
5 Reads

Mechanical regulation of genome architecture and cell-fate decisions.

Authors:
G V Shivashankar

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2019 Feb 13;56:115-121. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Mechanobiology Institute, National University of Singapore, Singapore & FIRC Institute of Molecular Oncology (IFOM), Milan, Italy. Electronic address:

Landmark experiments in vitro showed that somatic cells can be reprogrammed to stem-cells by the constitutive expression of particular transcription factors. However, in vivo cells naturally exhibit de-differentiation and trans-differentiation programs, thereby suggesting that the signals from the local mechanical microenvironment may be sufficient to induce stem-cell state transitions. In this review, we discuss recent evidence for the biophysical regulation of genome architecture and nuclear programs. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S09550674183003
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2018.12.001DOI Listing
February 2019
12 Reads

Cohesion and cohesin-dependent chromatin organization.

Authors:
Tomoko Nishiyama

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2018 Dec 10;58:8-14. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Division of Biological Science, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Japan. Electronic address:

Cohesin, one of structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) complexes, forms a ring-shaped protein complex, and mediates sister chromatid cohesion for accurate chromosome segregation and precise genome inheritance. The cohesin ring entraps one or two DNA molecules to achieve cohesion, which is further regulated by cohesin-binding proteins and modification enzymes in a cell cycle-dependent manner. Recent significant advancements in Hi-C technologies have revealed numerous cohesin-dependent higher-order chromatin structures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2018.11.006DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

The cargo spectrum of nuclear transport receptors.

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2018 Dec 6;58:1-7. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Göttingen Center of Biosciences (GZMB), Georg-August-University Göttingen, Humboldtallee 23, 37073 Göttingen, Germany. Electronic address:

The molecular mechanisms of nuclear transport have been described in great detail and we are beginning to understand the structures of transport complexes and even of subcomplexes of the nuclear pore at an atomic or near-atomic resolution. The complexity of the clients that use the transport machinery, by contrast, is less well understood, although some transport receptors are reported to have hundreds of different cargoes and others only a few. Here, we review the recent attempts to define the cargo spectrum of individual nuclear transport receptors using bioinformatic, biochemical and cell biological approaches and compare the results obtained by these complementary methods. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2018.11.004DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

Hot spots for GPCR signaling: lessons from single-molecule microscopy.

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2018 Dec 3;57:57-63. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Institute of Pharmacology and Bio-Imaging Center, University of Würzburg, Germany.

G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are among the best-studied membrane receptors, mainly due to their central role in human physiology, involvement in disease and relevance as drug targets. Although biochemical and pharmacological studies have characterized the main steps in GPCR signaling, how GPCRs produce highly specific responses in our cells remains insufficiently understood. New developments in single-molecule microscopy have made it possible to study the protein-protein interactions at the basis of GPCR signaling in previously inconceivable detail. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S09550674183010
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2018.11.003DOI Listing
December 2018
8 Reads

From cytoskeletal assemblies to living materials.

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2019 Feb 28;56:109-114. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Science, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA; Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA.

Many subcellular structures contain large numbers of cytoskeletal filaments. Such assemblies underlie much of cell division, motility, signaling, metabolism, and growth. Thus, understanding cell biology requires understanding the properties of networks of cytoskeletal filaments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2018.10.010DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Moving out but keeping in touch: contacts between endoplasmic reticulum and lipid droplets.

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2018 Nov 23;57:64-70. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Faculty of Medicine, Dept. of Anatomy and HiLIFE, Univ. of Helsinki, Finland; Minerva Foundation Institute for Medical Research, Helsinki, Finland.

The formation of neutral lipid filled and phospholipid monolayer engulfed lipid droplets (LDs) from the bilayer of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an active area of investigation. This process harnesses the biophysical properties of the lipids involved and necessitates cooperation of protein machineries in both organelle membranes. Increasing evidence suggests that once formed, LDs keep close contact to the mother organelle and that this may be achieved via several, morphologically distinct and potentially functionally specialized connections. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2018.11.002DOI Listing
November 2018
1 Read

Localised GPCR signalling as revealed by FRET biosensors.

Authors:
Michelle L Halls

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2018 Nov 21;57:48-56. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Drug Discovery Biology Theme, Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University, 389 Royal Parade, Parkville, 3052, Victoria, Australia. Electronic address:

Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) biosensors have provided much evidence for compartmentalised signalling following activation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). This localised signalling occurs within distinct plasma membrane microdomains and at sub cellular locations including endosomes, mitochondria, Golgi and the nucleus. Notable advances linking compartmentalisation to physiology have been made in two major areas: linking compartmentalised cAMP production by the β-adrenoceptor to excitation-contraction coupling in the heart; and selectively antagonising GPCRs within early endosomes to provide more efficacious inhibition of pain transmission. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2018.11.001DOI Listing
November 2018
12 Reads

How cells exploit tubulin diversity to build functional cellular microtubule mosaics.

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2019 Feb 20;56:102-108. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Cell Biology and Biophysics Unit, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA; Biophysics Center, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, MD 20892, USA. Electronic address:

Cellular microtubules are mosaic polymers assembled from multiple αβ-tubulin isoforms bearing chemically diverse posttranslational modifications. This tubulin diversity constitutes a combinatorial code that regulates microtubule interactions with cellular effectors and alters their intrinsic dynamic and mechanical properties. Cells generate stereotyped and complex tubulin modification patterns that are important for their specialized functions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2018.10.009DOI Listing
February 2019
16 Reads

Rescuing microtubules from the brink of catastrophe: CLASPs lead the way.

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2019 Feb 16;56:94-101. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37240, United States; Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37240, United States; Department of Biochemistry, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37240, United States. Electronic address:

Microtubules are cytoskeletal polymers that dynamically remodel to perform essential cellular functions. Individual microtubules alternate between phases of growth and shrinkage via sudden transitions called catastrophe and rescue, driven by losing and regaining a stabilizing cap at the dynamic microtubule end. New in vitro studies now show that a conserved family of CLASP proteins specifically modulate microtubule catastrophe and rescue transitions. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S09550674183003
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2018.10.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6370552PMC
February 2019
11 Reads

GPCR homo-oligomerization.

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2018 Nov 16;57:40-47. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Centre for Translational Pharmacology, Institute of Molecular, Cell and Systems Biology, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Scotland, United Kingdom.

G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are an extensive class of trans-plasma membrane proteins that function to regulate a wide range of physiological functions. Despite a general perception that GPCRs exist as monomers an extensive literature has examined whether GPCRs can also form dimers and even higher-order oligomers, and if such organization influences various aspects of GPCR function, including cellular trafficking, ligand binding, G protein coupling and signalling. Here we focus on recent studies that employ approaches ranging from computational methods to single molecule tracking and both quantal brightness and fluorescence fluctuation measurements to assess the organization, stability and potential functional significance of dimers and oligomers within the class A, rhodopsin-like GPCR family. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2018.10.007DOI Listing
November 2018
7 Reads

Definition of phosphoinositide distribution in the nanoscale.

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2018 Nov 10;57:33-39. Epub 2018 Nov 10.

Department of Anatomy and Molecular Cell Biology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550, Japan. Electronic address:

New functionalities of phosphoinositides (PIs) are being revealed continuously, and the scale of the membrane area studied is becoming smaller, from the micrometer range like the entire surface of organelles to the nanometer range as in subdomains of organelles. Concurrently, function of less abundant PIs, such as PI(3,4)P and PI(3,5)P, attracts increasing attention. In accordance with the progress, finer and more accurate information on PI distribution is required. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2018.10.008DOI Listing
November 2018
1 Read

Microtubule lattice plasticity.

Authors:
Robert A Cross

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2019 Feb 8;56:88-93. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Centre for Mechanochemical Cell Biology, Warwick Medical School, Gibbet Hill, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK. Electronic address:

In classical microtubule dynamic instability, the dynamics of the built polymer depend only on the nucleotide state of its individual tubulin molecules. Recent work is overturning this view, pointing instead towards lattice plasticity, in which the fine-structure and mechanics of the microtubule lattice are emergent properties that depend not only on the nucleotide state of each tubulin, but also on the nucleotide states of its neighbours, on its and their isotypes, and on interacting proteins, drugs, local mechanical strain, post translational modifications, packing defects and solvent conditions. In lattice plasticity models, the microtubule is an allosteric molecular collective that integrates multiple mechanochemical inputs and responds adaptively by adjusting its conformation, stiffness and dynamics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2018.10.004DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Autoregulation and repair in microtubule homeostasis.

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2019 Feb 8;56:80-87. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Department of Systems Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Even in the face of damaging insults, most cells maintain stability over time through multiple homeostatic pathways, including maintenance of the microtubule cytoskeleton that is fundamental to numerous cellular processes. The dynamic instability-perpetual growth and shrinkage-is the best-known microtubule regulatory pathway, which allows rapid rebuilding of the microtubule cytoskeleton in response to internal or external cues. Much less investigated is homeostatic regulation through availability of α-β tubulin heterodimers-microtubules' main building blocks-which influences total mass and dynamic behavior of microtubules. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S09550674183004
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2018.10.003DOI Listing
February 2019
12 Reads

Seeing and sensing single G protein-coupled receptors by atomic force microscopy.

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2018 Nov 6;57:25-32. Epub 2018 Nov 6.

ETH Zürich, Department of Biosystems Science and Engineering, Mattenstrasse 26, 4058 Basel, Switzerland. Electronic address:

G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) relay extracellular information across cell membranes through a continuum of conformations that are not always captured in structures. Hence, complementary approaches are required to quantify the physical and chemical properties of the dynamic conformations linking to GPCR function. Atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based high-resolution imaging and force spectroscopy are unique methods to scrutinize GPCRs and to sense their interactions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2018.10.006DOI Listing
November 2018
3 Reads

To sense or not to sense-new insights from GPCR-based and arrestin-based biosensors.

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2018 Nov 5;57:16-24. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Institut für Molekulare Zellbiologie, CMB-Center for Molecular Biomedicine, Universitätsklinikum Jena, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Hans-Knöll Straße 2, D-07745 Jena, Germany. Electronic address:

Advances in resolving crystal structures of GPCRs and their binding partners as well as improvements in live-cell microscopy and the fluorescent proteins pallet has greatly driven new ideas for designing optical sensors for the same. Sensors have been developed to monitor ligand binding as well as the ensuing ligand-induced conformational changes in GPCRs, G-proteins and arrestins. In this review we will highlight the functionality of such sensor designs starting from monitoring ligand binding to receptor activation and interaction with arrestins. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2018.10.005DOI Listing
November 2018
1 Read

Lipid exchange and signaling at ER-Golgi contact sites.

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2018 Oct 31;57:8-15. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

Interfaculty Institute of Bioengineering, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland; Istituto di Biochimica delle Proteine, CNR, Naples, Italy. Electronic address:

Meticulous observations of the cell perinuclear region where the Golgi and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) networks intermingle have revealed close contact sites of barely 20 nm between these two organelles. Recent studies demonstrate that molecular machineries, including lipid-transfer proteins, enriched in membrane contact sites between ER and trans-Golgi are capable of bridging membranes and exchanging key lipids such as sphingolipid precursors and cholesterol while bypassing the early secretory compartments. This occurs at the cost of an intense phosphoinositide turnover in order to prepare a membrane environment conducive to the signaling and trafficking functions of the trans-Golgi network. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S09550674183007
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2018.10.002DOI Listing
October 2018
12 Reads

Editorial Overview: Integration of dynamic processes in cell behaviour and tissue architecture.

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2018 Oct;54:iii-v

Departments of Cell Biology, Oncology, and Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, United States.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2018.09.005DOI Listing
October 2018
2 Reads

IP receptors and store-operated Ca entry: a license to fill.

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2018 Oct 24;57:1-7. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar, Education City, Qatar Foundation, P.O. Box 24144, Doha, Qatar.

Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IPRs) are widely expressed intracellular Ca channels that evoke large local increases in cytosolic Ca concentration. By depleting the ER of Ca, IPRs also activate store-operated Ca entry (SOCE). Immobile IPRs close to the plasma membrane (PM) are the only IPRs that respond to physiological stimuli. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2018.10.001DOI Listing
October 2018
10 Reads

Cancer associated fibroblasts: is the force the path to the dark side?

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2019 Feb 9;56:71-79. Epub 2018 Oct 9.

Institut Curie, PSL Research University, CNRS UMR 144, F-75005 Paris, France.

The most abundant cell type in the tumor microenvironment are cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs). CAFs play an important role in tumor growth and progression. Besides direct communication with cancer cells via secreted molecules or cell-cell adhesions, CAFs also indirectly affect cancer cell behavior by remodeling the extracellular matrix (ECM). Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S09550674183013
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2018.09.002DOI Listing
February 2019
4 Reads

Control of adhesion and protrusion in cell migration by Rho GTPases.

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2019 Feb 3;56:64-70. Epub 2018 Oct 3.

Wellcome Trust Centre for Cell-Matrix Research, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, University of Manchester, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Manchester, UK. Electronic address:

Cell migration is a critical process that underpins a number of physiological and pathological contexts such as the correct functioning of the immune system and the spread of metastatic cancer cells. Central to this process are the Rho family of GTPases, which act as core regulators of cell migration. Rho GTPases are molecular switches that associate with lipid membranes and act to choreograph molecular events that underpin cell migration. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2018.09.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6368645PMC
February 2019
1 Read

Editorial overview: New concepts and experimental approaches to understand development, tissue regeneration, and human disease.

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2018 Dec 1;55:iii-v. Epub 2018 Oct 1.

Centro de Investigación del Cáncer, Instituto de Biología Molecular y Celular del Cáncer, and Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Cáncer (CIBERONC), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)-University of Salamanca, Campus Unamuno s/n, 37007 Salamanca, Spain. Electronic address:

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S09550674183015
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2018.09.006DOI Listing
December 2018
3 Reads

Assembling actin filaments for protrusion.

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2019 Feb 1;56:53-63. Epub 2018 Oct 1.

Zoological Institute, Braunschweig University of Technology, Spielmannstrasse 7, 38106 Braunschweig, Germany; Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Inhoffenstrasse 7, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany.

Cell migration entails a plethora of activities combining the productive exertion of protrusive and contractile forces to allow cells to push and squeeze themselves through cell clumps, interstitial tissues or tissue borders. All these activities require the generation and turnover of actin filaments that arrange into specific, subcellular structures. The most prominent structures mediating the protrusion at the leading edges of cells include lamellipodia and filopodia as well as plasma membrane blebs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2018.09.004DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

The balance between adhesion and contraction during cell division.

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2019 Feb 28;56:45-52. Epub 2018 Sep 28.

Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232, USA. Electronic address:

The ability to divide is a fundamental property of a living cell. The 3D orientation of cell division is essential for embryogenesis, maintenance of tissue organization and architecture, as well as controlling cell fate. Much attention has been placed on the mitotic spindle's role in placing itself along the cell's longest axis, where a shape sensing mechanism between a population of microtubules extending from mitotic centrosomes to the cell cortex occurs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2018.09.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6363874PMC
February 2019
1 Read

Intracellular mechanics: connecting rheology and mechanotransduction.

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2019 Feb 22;56:34-44. Epub 2018 Sep 22.

Institut Curie, PSL Research University, CNRS, UMR 144, 26 rue d'Ulm, F-75005, Paris, France; Sorbonne Université, UPMC University Paris 06, CNRS, UMR 144, 26 rue d'Ulm, F-75005, Paris, France. Electronic address:

Cell mechanics is crucial for a wide range of cell functions, including proliferation, polarity, migration and differentiation. Cells sense external physical cues and translate them into a cellular response. While force sensing occurs in the vicinity of the plasma membrane, forces can reach deep in the cell interior and to the nucleus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2018.08.007DOI Listing
February 2019
9 Reads

Actin-dependent endosomal receptor recycling.

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2019 Feb 15;56:22-33. Epub 2018 Sep 15.

School of Biochemistry, Biomedical Sciences Building, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TD, UK. Electronic address:

Endosomes constitute major sorting compartments within the cell. There, a myriad of transmembrane proteins (cargoes) are delivered to the lysosome for degradation or retrieved from this fate and recycled through tubulo-vesicular transport carriers to different cellular destinations. Retrieval and recycling are orchestrated by multi-protein assemblies that include retromer and retriever, sorting nexins, and the Arp2/3 activating WASH complex. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2018.08.006DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Cell competition in development: information from flies and vertebrates.

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2018 Dec 9;55:150-157. Epub 2018 Sep 9.

Champalimaud Centre for the Unknown, 1400-038 Lisbon, Portugal. Electronic address:

Cell competition is a biological mechanism conserved from Drosophila to vertebrates wherein neighboring cells compare their relative fitness status resulting in the elimination of less fit cells by those with higher fitness. This is an active process that is essential for embryonic and organ development, tissue homeostasis, delay of ageing and in various disease models such as cancer. Recent research is beginning to unravel the various mechanisms of cell competition and the sensing of fitness status. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2018.08.002DOI Listing
December 2018
4 Reads

Signal transduction via integrin adhesion complexes.

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2019 Feb 5;56:14-21. Epub 2018 Sep 5.

Wellcome Trust Centre for Cell-Matrix Research, Faculty of Biology, Medicine & Health, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PT, UK. Electronic address:

Integrin adhesion complexes (IACs) have evolved over millions of years to integrate metazoan cells physically with their microenvironment. It is presumed that the simultaneous interaction of thousands of integrin receptors to binding sites in anisotropic extracellular matrix (ECM) networks enables cells to assemble a topological description of the chemical and mechanical properties of their surroundings. This information is then converted into intracellular signals that influence cell positioning, differentiation and growth, but may also influence other fundamental processes, such as protein synthesis and energy regulation. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S09550674183003
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2018.08.004DOI Listing
February 2019
5 Reads

Regulation of actin dynamics by PI(4,5)P in cell migration and endocytosis.

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2019 Feb 5;56:7-13. Epub 2018 Sep 5.

Institute of Biotechnology, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland. Electronic address:

The actin cytoskeleton is indispensable for several cellular processes, including migration, morphogenesis, polarized growth, endocytosis, and phagocytosis. The organization and dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton in these processes are regulated by Rho family small GTPases and kinase-phosphatase pathways. Moreover, membrane phospholipids, especially the phosphatidylinositol phosphates have emerged as important regulators of actin dynamics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2018.08.003DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Dynamizing nuclear actin filaments.

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2019 Feb 5;56:1-6. Epub 2018 Sep 5.

Institute of Pharmacology, Medical Faculty, University of Marburg, Karl-von-Frisch-Str. 2, 35043 Marburg, Germany. Electronic address:

While it is long known that actin is part of the nuclear proteome, its properties and functions as regulated, functional and dynamically assembled actin filaments are only recently emerging. Thus, newly uncovered roles for intranuclear actin filaments are opening new perspectives on how the nucleus and its genomic content may be organized in particular with regard to a given stage of the cell cycle. Here, we summarize recent studies on actin filament polymerization and turnover within the nuclear compartment of mammalian cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2018.08.005DOI Listing
February 2019
14 Reads

The complexity of the cilium: spatiotemporal diversity of an ancient organelle.

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2018 Dec 20;55:139-149. Epub 2018 Aug 20.

Center for Human Disease Modeling, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27705, USA. Electronic address:

Cilia are microtubule-based appendages present on almost all vertebrate cell types where they mediate a myriad of cellular processes critical for development and homeostasis. In humans, impaired ciliary function is associated with an ever-expanding repertoire of phenotypically-overlapping yet highly variable genetic disorders, the ciliopathies. Extensive work to elucidate the structure, function, and composition of the cilium is offering hints that the `static' representation of the cilium is a gross oversimplification of a highly dynamic organelle whose functions are choreographed dynamically across cell types, developmental, and homeostatic contexts. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S09550674183010
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2018.08.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6269220PMC
December 2018
13 Reads

Measuring and modeling interventions in aging.

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2018 Dec 10;55:129-138. Epub 2018 Aug 10.

Centre for Genomic Regulation (CRG), The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology, Dr. Aiguader 88, Barcelona 08003, Spain; Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF), Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address:

Many dietary, pharmaceutical, and genetic interventions have been found to increase the lifespan of laboratory animals. Several are now being explored for clinical application. To understand the physiologic action and therapeutic potential of interventions in aging, researchers must build quantitative models. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2018.07.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6284105PMC
December 2018
9 Reads

Trans-scale mechanotransductive cascade of biochemical and biomechanical patterning in embryonic development: the light side of the force.

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2018 Dec 1;55:111-118. Epub 2018 Aug 1.

Mechanics and Genetics of Embryonic Development group, Institut Curie, PSL Research University, CNRS, UMR168, Inserm, Marie Curie UnivParis 06, Institut Curie, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris, France. Electronic address:

Embryonic development is made of complex tissue shape changes and cell differentiation tissue patterning. Both types of morphogenetic processes, respectively biomechanical and biochemical in nature, were historically long considered as disconnected. Evidences of the biochemical patterning control of morphogenesis accumulated during the last 3 decades. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S09550674183009
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2018.07.003DOI Listing
December 2018
8 Reads

In vivo somatic cell reprogramming for tissue regeneration: the emerging role of the local microenvironment.

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2018 Dec 30;55:119-128. Epub 2018 Jul 30.

Centre for Genomic Regulation (CRG), The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology, 08003 Barcelona, Spain; Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF), Dr Aiguader 88, 08003 Barcelona, Spain; ICREA, Pg. Lluís Companys 23, 08010 Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address:

The past few years have witnessed an exponential increase of interest in the reprogramming process. This has been motivated by the enthusiasm of unravelling key aspects not only of cell identity and dedifferentiation, but also of the endogenous regenerative capacities of mammalian organs. Here, we present the most recent advances in the field of reprogramming, stressing how they are re-defining the rules of cell fate and plasticity in vivo. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2018.07.002DOI Listing
December 2018
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Advancing insights into stem cell niche complexities with next-generation technologies.

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2018 Dec 19;55:87-95. Epub 2018 Jul 19.

Black Family Stem Cell Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Atran Building AB7-10C, Box 1020, 1428 Madison Ave, New York, NY 10029, USA; Department of Cell, Developmental and Regenerative Biology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Atran Building AB7-10C, Box 1020, 1428 Madison Ave, New York, NY 10029, USA; Department of Dermatology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Box 1047, One Gustave L. Levy Place, New York, NY 10029, USA,; Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Box 1022, One Gustave L. Levy Place, New York, NY 10029, USA. Electronic address:

Adult tissue-specific stem cells are essential for homeostatic tissue maintenance and key to regeneration during injury repair or disease. Many critical stem cell functions rely on the presence of well-timed cues from the microenvironment or niche, which includes a diverse range of components, including neuronal, circulating and extracellular matrix inputs as well as an array of neighboring niche cells directly interacting with the stem cells. However, studies of stem cells and their niche have been challenging due to the complexity of adult stem cell functions, their intrinsic controls and the multiple regulatory niche components. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2018.06.012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6269204PMC
December 2018
17 Reads

The journey of cells through regeneration.

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2018 Dec 19;55:36-41. Epub 2018 Jul 19.

Department of Cell and Systems Biology, University of Toronto, 25 Harbord Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G5, Canada. Electronic address:

The process of building an organ, appendage, or organism requires the precise coordination of cells in space and time. Regeneration of those same tissues adds an additional element of complexity, emerging from the chaos of disease or injury to build a mass of progenitors from mature tissue. Translating insights from natural examples of tissue regeneration into engineered regenerative therapies requires a deep understanding of the journey of a cell directly following injury to its contribution to functional, scaled replacement tissue. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2018.05.008DOI Listing
December 2018
3 Reads

Alignment of cytoskeletal structures across cell boundaries generates tissue cohesion during organ formation.

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2018 Dec 18;55:104-110. Epub 2018 Jul 18.

MRC-Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Francis Crick Avenue, Cambridge CB2 0QH, UK. Electronic address:

One of the most fascinating aspects of development is the complexity and diversity of tissues and organs that are formed from simple primordia, involving complex coordination between large groups of cells. Lack of coordination leads to developmental defects and failure in organ formation. The simple primordia are often polarised epithelial sheets, with cells connected to neighbours apically via Cadherin-based cell-cell junctions that intracellularly link to the cytoskeleton. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2018.07.001DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

Quantitative imaging of clathrin-mediated endocytosis.

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2018 Aug 17;53:105-110. Epub 2018 Jul 17.

Department of Biochemistry and NCCR Chemical Biology, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Clathrin-mediated endocytosis is a process by which eukaryotic cells bend a small region of their plasma membrane to form a transport vesicle that carries specific cargo molecules into the cell. Endocytosis controls the composition of the plasma membrane, imports nutrients and regulates many signalling pathways. The roles of most of the proteins involved in endocytosis have been thoroughly characterised. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2018.06.005DOI Listing
August 2018
11 Reads

Novel lipid tools and probes for biological investigations.

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2018 Aug 14;53:97-104. Epub 2018 Jul 14.

Dept. of Physiology & Pharmacology, Oregon Health and Science University (OHSU), Portland, OR, USA; European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), Cell Biology and Biophysics Unit, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany. Electronic address:

We present the latest advances in lipid tool development for studying cellular membrane trafficking and metabolism. We focus on chemical modifications that are introduced to natural lipid structures. The new functionalities are used to follow and interfere with lipid dynamics in intact cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2018.06.013DOI Listing
August 2018
6 Reads