1,665 results match your criteria Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology[Journal]


New findings, pathophysiology, and antigen analysis in pollen-food allergy syndrome.

Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2019 Mar 28. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Clinical Research Center for Allergy and Rheumatology, National Hospital Organization, Sagamihara National Hospital, Kanagawa, Japan.

Purpose Of Review: PFAS shows various cross-reactivities with antigens because of the area in which the patient resides and dietary habits, and progress in component allergen analysis in recent years has clarified the pathogenesis. This review describes newly identified findings for antigens involved in PFAS.

Recent Findings: We describe recent findings for PR-10 family, profilin and LTP, as known major antigens for PFAS. Read More

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http://Insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00130832-900000000-9917
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ACI.0000000000000533DOI Listing
March 2019
4 Reads

An update on shellfish allergy.

Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2019 Mar 18. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Department of Paediatrics, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.

Purpose Of Review: Shellfish is an important cause of food allergy worldwide, and a major cause of food-triggered anaphylaxis. Despite the wide variety of shellfish, there is considerable serological and clinical cross-reactivity of major shellfish allergens, and accurate diagnosis remains a challenge in the management of shellfish allergy.

Recent Findings: Novel minor allergens have been discovered and characterized, and advances in component resolved diagnostics have provided insights into the prevalence of sensitization and their clinical importance in shellfish allergy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ACI.0000000000000532DOI Listing
March 2019
13 Reads

Food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis.

Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2019 Mar 18. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Children's Allergy Service, Evelina London Children's Hospital, Guy's and St. Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust.

Purpose Of Review: The following article provides an overview of food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FD-EIAn). The review focuses on the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and clinical findings of FD-EIAn and details current practice in terms of the investigation, management, and treatment options available.

Recent Findings: The management of FD-EIAn has not changed significantly over the last few years and still requires careful investigation by an experienced clinician to ensure that the correct diagnosis is made and appropriate treatment is given. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ACI.0000000000000531DOI Listing
March 2019
6 Reads

Gender aspects in food allergy.

Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2019 Mar 18. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Comparative Medicine, Interuniversity Messerli Research Institute of the University of Veterinary Medicine, Medical University Vienna and University Vienna.

Purpose Of Review: The difference of food allergy prevalence between male and female individuals is well documented and should have more impact for personalized diagnosis and management. Although in younger age male sex dominates, in adults more women are affected by food allergies. This sex disparity diminishes again around menopause, underlining the influence of sex hormones, but in addition, also metabolic gender-specific factors and differences in microbiome composition might contribute to the different expression of food allergy in the two genders. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ACI.0000000000000529DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

Adults are not big children.

Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2019 Mar 15. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Department of Allergy, Clinical Research Center for Allergy and Rheumatology, Sagamihara National Hospital, Sagamihara, Kanagawa, Japan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ACI.0000000000000527DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Occupational food allergy.

Authors:
Yuma Fukutomi

Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2019 Mar 15. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Clinical Research Center for Allergy and Rheumatology, National Hospital Organization Sagamihara National Hospital, Sagamihara, Kanagawa, Japan.

Purpose Of Review: Occupation is an important contributing factor in the presentation of allergic disease in adults. This review article focuses on the contribution of occupation to the development and presentation of food allergies.

Recent Findings: A variety of occupations involve repeated transdermal and respiratory exposures to food-related allergens, which can result in sensitization. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ACI.0000000000000530DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

Allergy to food additives.

Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2019 Mar 15. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Division of Allergy, University Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Hospital Bambino Gesù, Rome, Vatican City, Italy.

Purpose Of Review: To provide an update of the studies concerning the diagnosis and management of food additives allergy.

Recent Findings: Additives improve specific characteristics of food products, but they may induce allergic even life-threatening reactions. Physical examination and medical history are basic to assess specific in-vivo and in-vitro tests. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ACI.0000000000000528DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Clinical outcomes related to molecular allergy diagnosis.

Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2019 Mar 5. Epub 2019 Mar 5.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Humanitas University, Pieve Emanuele.

Purpose Of Review: Aim of this review is the description of the medical conditions in which the support of molecular allergy diagnostics (MAD) has an impact on the clinical outcomes, such as laboratory diagnostics, prognosis, and therapy of allergic diseases.

Recent Findings: The review of the literature of the last 2 years generated a wide number of results on this topic. As expected, not all were obtained by the use of MAD, but, in general, a clear trend is evident. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ACI.0000000000000526DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Red meat allergy in children and adults.

Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2019 Mar 5. Epub 2019 Mar 5.

Division of Allergy and Immunology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA.

Purpose Of Review: To highlight recent advances in our understanding of the clinical features, prevalence, and pathophysiology of red meat allergy.

Recent Findings: Allergic reactions to red (i.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ACI.0000000000000523DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Outcome measures to be considered on asthma in elderly.

Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2019 Feb 8. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

Regional Center of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo León.

Purpose Of Review: Asthma is a chronic heterogeneous respiratory disease which is characterized by airflow limitation and variable respiratory symptoms. Asthma in patients more than 65 years of age has an important negative impact on quality of life. The pathophysiology and treatment of asthma in older patients are not as well identified as in younger groups of ages. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ACI.0000000000000525DOI Listing
February 2019
3 Reads

Are outcome measures in allergic diseases relevant for the WHO's International Classification of Diseases in allergology?

Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2019 Feb 5. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Division of Allergy, Department of Pulmonology, Hôpital Arnaud de Villeneuve, University Hospital of Montpellier, Montpellier.

Purpose Of Review: To review and understand the impact of the outcome measures of allergic and hypersensitivity conditions for the WHO's International Classification of Diseases (ICD) and its impact in the management of anaphylaxis and identify potential strategies to improve patients' care and prevention.

Recent Findings: The pioneer chapter addressed to allergic and hypersensitivity conditions in the 11th version of the WHO's ICD is the result of the evidence-based academic technical actions consistently following of collaborations of the allergy community and integrated international initiatives in order to reach quality outcomes measures of allergies worldwide.

Summary: Allergic and hypersensitivity conditions are increasing worldwide, however, they have never been well represented in the international classification systems, such as the ICD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ACI.0000000000000524DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Severe asthma in children: therapeutic considerations.

Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2019 Apr;19(2):132-140

Department of Respiratory Paediatrics, Royal Brompton Hospital.

Purpose Of Review: Children with poor asthma control despite maximal maintenance therapy have problematic severe asthma (PSA). A step-wise approach including objective adherence monitoring and a detailed multidisciplinary team assessment to identify modifiable factors contributing to poor control is needed prior to considering therapy escalation. Pathophysiological phenotyping in those with true severe therapy-resistant asthma (STRA) and the current array of add-on therapies will be discussed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ACI.0000000000000521DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

Advances in the pathogenesis representing definite outcomes in chronic urticaria.

Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2019 Jan 22. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Universidad de Antioquia, Colombia.

Purpose Of Review: We reviewed in this article, the recent advances in CSU physiopathology and potential clinical and laboratory biomarkers in CSU.

Recent Findings: In addition to the central role of mast cells in urticaria physiopathology, increased interest in basophils has arisen. Recent data corroborate the autoimmunity pathway as one of the main pathways in mast cell activation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ACI.0000000000000519DOI Listing
January 2019
6 Reads

Contributions of innate lymphocytes to allergic responses.

Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2019 Apr;19(2):175-184

Center for Immunity and Inflammation.

Purpose Of Review: Allergic diseases represent a growing global health concern, especially among pediatric populations. Current strategies for the treatment of allergies and asthma focus on limiting the severity of the symptoms; however, additional research investigating the mechanisms promoting inflammation in the context of allergic reactions may lead to the development of more effective therapeutic strategies.

Recent Findings: Novel studies have highlighted the contributions of innate lymphocytes to the induction of inflammatory responses to allergens. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ACI.0000000000000515DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6442462PMC
April 2019
4 Reads

Precision medicine in childhood asthma.

Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2019 Apr;19(2):141-147

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Respiratory Medicine and Allergology, Erasmus MC - Sophia, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Purpose Of Review: Childhood asthma is a heterogeneous disease and many children have uncontrolled disease. Therefore an individualized approach is needed to improve asthma outcomes in children. Precision medicine using clinical characteristics, biomarkers, and the rapidly involving field of genomics and pharmacogenomics aims to achieve asthma control and reduce future risks with less side-effects in individual children with asthma. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ACI.0000000000000517DOI Listing
April 2019
5 Reads

Management of acute loss of asthma control: yellow zone strategies.

Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2019 Apr;19(2):154-160

Allergy, Immunology, and Pulmonary Medicine, Stanford University, Palo Alto, California, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Asthma exacerbations are associated with a significant burden to both the individual patient and to the healthcare system. Patients often step-up home therapies in response to increased asthma symptoms, and the asthma action plan was created to empower patients to self-manage their asthma care. The yellow (intermediate) zone of the asthma action plan is frequently poorly defined, and current Expert Panel Report 3 guideline recommendations are not effective for all patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ACI.0000000000000512DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Diagnosis of occupational hypersensitivity pneumonitis.

Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2019 Apr;19(2):105-110

Vall d'Hebron Institut de Recerca (VHIR).

Purpose Of Review: To discuss the diagnostic methods currently used in the study of patients with hypersensitivity pneumonitis, with special emphasis on the most recent contributions published in the medical literature regarding the diagnosis of occupational hypersensitivity pneumonitis (OHP). This review presents an update of the use of these diagnostic tests, a controversial issue among experts.

Recent Findings: In spite of the multiple attempts at systematization and the publication of expert consensus statements, standardizing and diagnostic methods and criteria remain particularly difficult. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ACI.0000000000000511DOI Listing
April 2019
7 Reads

Symptom-based patient-reported outcomes in adults with eosinophilic esophagitis: value for treatment monitoring and randomized controlled trial design.

Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2019 Apr;19(2):169-174

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois/CHUV, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Purpose Of Review: In adults with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), a chronic, inflammatory immune-mediated condition of the esophagus, both inflammation and fibrosis are likely associated with symptom generation. Therefore, assessing symptom-based patient-reported outcomes (PROs), defined by US Food and Drug Administration as 'any report of the status of a patient's health condition that comes directly from the patients, without interpretation of the patient's response by a clinician or anyone else', is important in the context of trials and observational studies of emerging therapies.

Recent Findings: For purposes of treatment monitoring, lack of symptoms does not predict the absence of biologic inflammation; hence, endoscopy with esophageal biopsies should be performed to check for residual inflammation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ACI.0000000000000514DOI Listing
April 2019
10 Reads

Phenotypes of wheezing and asthma in preschool children.

Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2019 Apr;19(2):148-153

Department of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, USA.

Purpose Of Review: The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the identified phenotypes of preschool wheezing.

Recent Findings: Early life wheezing patterns have been described in multiple populations, with several commonalities found between cohorts. Early life environmental exposures have been found to be differentially associated with preschool wheezing phenotypes and their future trajectories. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ACI.0000000000000516DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6395501PMC
April 2019
9 Reads

Single inhaler maintenance and reliever therapy in pediatric asthma.

Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2019 Apr;19(2):111-117

Division of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology, Children's Mercy Hospital, Kansas City, Missouri, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Asthma affects more than 25 million people worldwide and continues to grow in prevalence. According to a center for disease control and prevention (CDC) report, the total annual cost of asthma in the United States between 2008 and 2013, including medical care, absenteeism, and mortality, was $81.9 billion. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ACI.0000000000000518DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

How guideline can shape clinical practice globally: the diagnosis and rationale for action against cow's milk allergy experience.

Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2019 Apr;19(2):185-191

Division of Allergy, University Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Hospital Bambino Gesù, Rome, Vatican City.

Purpose Of Review: Allergic diseases are increasing worldwide and are considered an important public health problem causing severe and even life-threatening reactions. The creation of guidelines aims to help clinicians improving the quality of diagnosis and management of such diseases. Clinical practice guidelines alone are not sufficient and there is a need for implementation strategies for their introduction into daily practice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ACI.0000000000000513DOI Listing
April 2019
10 Reads

Vitamin D and childhood asthma: causation and contribution to disease activity.

Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2019 Apr;19(2):126-131

Division of Pediatric Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Golisano Children's Hospital at Strong, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York, USA.

Purpose Of Review: To review the literature of the past 18 months (April 2017 through September, 2018) relating to vitamin D and childhood asthma.

Recent Findings: A combined analysis of two clinical trials of maternal vitamin D supplementation trials showed a significant protective effect of vitamin D supplementation trials in the primary prevention of asthma and recurrent wheeze up to age 3 years. Secondary analyses from these trials have also suggested that initial maternal vitamin D status could affect the response to supplementation during pregnancy, with the biggest protective effect in children born to mothers with initial 25hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels of at least 30 ng/ml. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ACI.0000000000000509DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6395509PMC
April 2019
12 Reads

The impact of exercise on asthma.

Authors:
Jason E Lang

Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2019 Apr;19(2):118-125

Division of Allergy/Immunology and Pulmonary Medicine, Duke Children's Hospital and Health Center, Durham, North Carolina, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases in children and adults in developed countries around the world. Despite international treatment guidelines, poor asthma control remains a frequent problem leading to missed school and work, and emergency room visits and hospitalizations. Many patients with asthma report exercise as a trigger for their asthma, which likely leads to exercise avoidance as a means to control symptoms. Read More

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http://Insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00130832-900000000-9919
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ACI.0000000000000510DOI Listing
April 2019
17 Reads

Use of population data for assessing trends in work-related asthma mortality.

Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2019 Apr;19(2):98-104

Respiratory Health Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Morgantown, West Virginia, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Work-related asthma has been associated with poorer asthma control and frequent unscheduled healthcare visits, and can be fatal. Case reports of work-related asthma deaths are rare, but can initiate efforts to prevent additional cases. We reviewed relevant literature and data sources to evaluate whether analyzing mortality data at the population level can help identify potential sources of exposures that contribute to work-related asthma. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ACI.0000000000000508DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Neutrophil activation in occupational asthma.

Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2019 Apr;19(2):81-85

Department of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Korea.

Purpose Of Review: The aim of this review is to emphasize the role of neutrophils in patients with occupational asthma. This review facilitates a better understanding, accurate diagnosis, and proper management of asthmatic reactions provoked at the workplace.

Recent Findings: Increased recruitment and infiltration of neutrophils are found in patients with occupational asthma. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ACI.0000000000000507DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Basophil activation testing in occupational respiratory allergy to low molecular weight compounds.

Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2019 Apr;19(2):92-97

Department of Occupational Lung Disease, Royal Brompton Hospital, London SW3 6LR.

Purpose Of Review: There is an unmet need for better immunological tests in cases of suspected occupational asthma to many workplace chemicals; here we consider the basophil activation test (BAT), a potential alternative to the detection of specific IgE antibodies.

Recent Findings: BAT is fairly widely used in general allergy services; and there is increasing experience of its use in the diagnosis of occupational allergy to low molecular weight agents and chemicals including wood dusts, persulphates, antibiotics and latex.

Summary: There is potential for BAT to become a useful tool in the clinical consideration of occupational asthma and of its mechanisms, and even to take a place in a Bayesian-based diagnostic algorithm. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ACI.0000000000000506DOI Listing
April 2019
10 Reads

Microbiome and disease in the upper airway.

Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2019 Feb;19(1):1-6

Department of Head and Neck Surgery, University of Colorado Medical Center, Denver, California, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Microbiome refers to the genetic potential of resident microorganisms that inhabit a given niche. The exact role of the microbiome and its relation to chronic disease processes remains largely unknown, although various associations have been observed. We reviewed current literature investigating the microbiome of the upper airway by subsite (nasal cavity, sinus cavities, nasopharynx, and larynx) and its relation to chronic inflammatory disease processes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ACI.0000000000000495DOI Listing
February 2019
5 Reads

Preventing the development of asthma: stopping the allergic march.

Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2019 Apr;19(2):161-168

Division of Immunology, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Purpose Of Review: To describe important precipitants of asthma and allergic disease, to highlight the links between these triggers and modifications within the immune system, and to examine innovative research regarding asthma prevention with focus on attenuating the atopic march.

Recent Findings: Allergen avoidance, allergen immunotherapy, IgE antagonists, prevention and treatment of respiratory infections, as well as management of gastrointestinal and respiratory dysbiosis have been considered as strategies in asthma prevention. Antenatal vitamin D supplementation in expectant mothers and aggressive control of atopic dermatitis to prevent the development of other allergic conditions were carefully studied as well. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ACI.0000000000000501DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6395504PMC
April 2019
4 Reads

Impact of occupational exposure on human microbiota.

Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2019 Apr;19(2):86-91

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital.

Purpose Of Review: Recent evidence suggests that environmental exposures change the adult human microbiome. Here, we review recent evidence on the impact of the work microbiome and work-related chemical, metal and particulate exposures on the human microbiome.

Recent Findings: Prior literature on occupational microbial exposures has focused mainly on the respiratory effects of endotoxin, but a recent study suggests that not all endotoxin is the same; endotoxin from some species is proinflammatory, whereas endotoxin from other species is anti-inflammatory. Read More

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http://Insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00130832-900000000-9920
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ACI.0000000000000502DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6395503PMC
April 2019
3 Reads

Role of IL-35 in sublingual allergen immunotherapy.

Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2019 Feb;19(1):12-17

Immunomodulation and Tolerance Group, Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Inflammation, Repair and Development, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, and the MRC & Asthma UK Centre in Allergic Mechanisms of Asthma, London, United Kingdom.

Purpose Of Review: Sublingual allergen immunotherapy (SLIT), a disease-modifying treatment for allergic rhinitis, can induce long-term clinical benefits which are mediated by immune responses that include generation of regulatory B (Breg) and T (Treg) cells. The newest member of the IL-12 superfamily, IL-35, is an anti-inflammatory cytokine known to be produced by Breg and Treg cells. Limited studies are available on the role of IL-35 on allergic rhinitis and during SLIT. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ACI.0000000000000499DOI Listing
February 2019
3 Reads

The role of surfactant protein-A in sinusitis.

Authors:
Eugene H Chang

Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2019 Feb;19(1):26-29

Department of Otolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery, University of Arizona College of Medicine, Tucson, Arizona, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Surfactant protein-A (SP-A) is a collectin protein expressed in airway epithelia that is critical in the modulation of both innate and adaptive immunity against inhaled pathogens. In this review, we highlight associations of altered SP-A function in asthma and chronic rhinosinusitis, and its potential role as a targeted therapy for sinusitis.

Recent Findings: SP-A has been shown to bind and opsonize inhaled pathogens, thereby clearing bacteria through phagocytosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ACI.0000000000000500DOI Listing
February 2019
3 Reads

Obesity and adiposity indicators in asthma and allergic rhinitis in children.

Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2019 Feb;19(1):7-11

Department of Pediatrics, Nippon Medical School, Kanagawa, Tokyo.

Purpose Of Review: The prevalence of obesity and allergic diseases, such as asthma and allergic rhinitis, is increasing worldwide not only in adults, but also in children. Experimental and clinical studies have demonstrated the effect of obesity not only on asthma, but also on other allergic diseases.

Recent Findings: Allergic diseases, such as asthma and allergic rhinitis, are common chronic inflammatory diseases of the airways. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ACI.0000000000000504DOI Listing
February 2019
5 Reads

Group 2 innate lymphoid cells and eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis.

Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2019 Feb;19(1):18-25

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Japan.

Purpose Of Review: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a heterogeneous disease and is recently classified into two phenotypes, eosinophilic CRS (ECRS) and non-ECRS. ECRS is characterized by Th2-biased eosinophilic inflammation, and non-ECRS is characterized by Th1-biased neutrophilic inflammation. Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) rapidly produce large amounts of Th2 cytokines and exert critical roles in Th2-type immune responses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ACI.0000000000000496DOI Listing
February 2019
3 Reads

Innate lymphoid cells in asthma: pathophysiological insights from murine models to human asthma phenotypes.

Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2019 Feb;19(1):53-60

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Laboratory of Clinical Immunology, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Purpose Of Review: The current review describes the role of different types of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) in the pathogenesis of asthma inflammatory phenotypes by linking findings from murine asthma models with human studies. Novel treatment options are needed for patients with steroid-insensitive asthma. Strategies targeting ILCs, or their upstream or downstream molecules are emerging and discussed in this review. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ACI.0000000000000497DOI Listing
February 2019
3 Reads

Prostaglandin E2 in NSAID-exacerbated respiratory disease: protection against cysteinyl leukotrienes and group 2 innate lymphoid cells.

Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2019 Feb;19(1):38-45

Division of Allergy, Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee, USA.

Purpose Of Review: The purpose of this review is to describe the recent advances that have been made in understanding the protective role of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD), known in Europe as NSAID-exacerbated respiratory disease (N-ERD).

Recent Findings: Decreased PGE2 signaling through the EP2 receptor in patients with AERD leads to an increase in leukotriene synthesis and signaling. Leukotriene signaling not only directly activates group 2 innate lymphoid cells and mast cells, but it also increases production of IL-33 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ACI.0000000000000498DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6296891PMC
February 2019
1 Read

Bronchiectasis and asthma: a dangerous liaison?

Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2019 Feb;19(1):46-52

Respiratory Medicine Unit, A.O.U. 'Policlinico-Vittorio Emanuele', Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.

Purpose Of Review: To explore the latest insight of the literature on the asthma/bronchiectasis phenotype providing an updated overview about epidemiological, clinical and biological evidence linking these two conditions.

Recent Findings: An increasing body of literature has shown that the association of asthma and bronchiectasis is a frequent phenomenon leading to a more severe disease with frequent exacerbations. The mechanisms by which the two diseases are linked are still not well established but they share several clinical and immunological features and many comorbidities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ACI.0000000000000492DOI Listing
February 2019
5 Reads

Asthma, obesity and targeted interventions: an update.

Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2019 Feb;19(1):68-74

Institute of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, University of Glasgow.

Purpose Of Review: Obese asthma is now widely recognized as a phenotype of difficult asthma that is common and less responsive to traditional asthma treatments, so identifying specific treatments is increasingly important.

Recent Findings: Obesity can lead to asthma through a complex relationship of causes including mechanical, inflammatory, metabolic and genetic factors. Exercise programmes including pulmonary rehabilitation, weight loss via dietary restriction, exercise and bariatric surgery, or combinations of all of these can improve quality of life, symptoms, and exercise capacity, with reductions in medication use and exacerbations, and represent tailored treatment for this phenotype of severe difficult to treat asthmatic patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ACI.0000000000000494DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Strategies to reduce corticosteroid-related adverse events in asthma.

Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2019 Feb;19(1):61-67

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Humanitas University.

Purpose Of Review: Severe asthmatics, despite the chronic use of high inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) doses and frequent intake of systemic corticosteroids, remains clinically and/or functionally uncontrolled. These patients are also often affected by rhinitis or chronic rhinosinusitis requiring frequent use of intranasal corticosteroids. Therefore, severe asthmatics are exposed to an overload of corticosteroids that is frequently associated with relevant and costly adverse events. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ACI.0000000000000493DOI Listing
February 2019
7 Reads

Interleukin-4/interleukin-13 versus interleukin-5: a comparison of molecular targets in biologic therapy for the treatment of severe asthma.

Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2019 Feb;19(1):30-37

Allergy and Immunology Division, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Asthma is a chronic, inflammatory disorder of the airways caused by a complex interplay of various biologic mechanisms. Several monoclonal antibody therapies targeting interleukin (IL)-4/IL-13 and IL-5 cytokine pathways have been developed for the treatment of severe eosinophilic asthma. As individuals can display biomarkers and clinical features characteristic of several asthma phenotypes, selection of anoptimal biologic can be difficult. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ACI.0000000000000490DOI Listing
February 2019
8 Reads

Will precision medicine be available for all patients in the near future?

Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2019 Feb;19(1):75-80

Humanitas University and Research Hospital, Milano, Italy.

Purpose Of Review: Evidence-based medicine and guidelines directing the diagnosis and treatment of patients are changing. General recommendations are moving towards an individual focus, where technology evolution allows identification of specific patterns and where 'one size fits all' no longer has a place.

Recent Findings: Emerging innovations on health technology include useful tools for individualizing patients' specific conditions and follow-up. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ACI.0000000000000491DOI Listing
February 2019
8 Reads

Advances in site-specific gene editing for primary immune deficiencies.

Authors:
Caroline Y Kuo

Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2018 12;18(6):453-458

Division of Allergy, Immunology, and Rheumatology, Department of Pediatrics, David Geffen School of Medicine at the University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Conventional gene therapy has been a successful, curative treatment modality for many primary immune deficiencies with significant improvements in the last decade. However, the risk of leukemic transformation with viral-mediated gene addition still remains, and unregulated gene addition is not an option for certain diseases in which the target gene is closely controlled. The recent bloom in genome modification platforms has created the opportunity to site-specifically correct mutated DNA base pairs or insert a corrective cDNA minigene while maintaining gene expression under control of endogenous regulatory elements. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ACI.0000000000000483DOI Listing
December 2018
41 Reads

Secondary antibody deficiency in neurology.

Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2018 12;18(6):481-488

University Hospital of Wales.

Purpose Of Review: Induction of lymphocyte depletion is increasingly used as a therapeutic strategy for central and peripheral neuroinflammatory disease. However, there is also a growing recognition of the treatment-related complication of secondary antibody deficiency (SAD). Although the occurrence of hypogammaglobulinaemia is a recognized phenomenon during immunomodulation, robust data on the coexistence of impaired responses to immunization, and significant and/or atypical infections is scarce. Read More

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http://Insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00130832-900000000-9921
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ACI.0000000000000485DOI Listing
December 2018
12 Reads

Biological treatments for severe asthma: where do we stand?

Authors:
William W Busse

Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2018 12;18(6):509-518

Division of Allergy, Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.

Purpose Of Review: For patients with severe asthma, disease control is not achieved resulting in persistent morbidity and risks for exacerbations. The advent of biologics is providing a new form of treatment for many with severe asthma.

Recent Findings: Four mAb biologics are approved for clinical use: omalizumab (anti-IgE) and three antieosinophilic interventions (mepolizumab, reslizumab, and benralizumab). Read More

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http://Insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00130832-900000000-9921
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ACI.0000000000000487DOI Listing
December 2018
3 Reads

Very early onset IBD: novel genetic aetiologies.

Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2018 12;18(6):470-480

SickKids Inflammatory Bowel Disease Center and Cell Biology Program, Research Institute, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Purpose Of Review: To summarize the current understanding and recent advances on the genetic aetiology in the pathogenesis of very early onset inflammatory bowel disease (VEO-IBD).

Recent Findings: IBD is a chronic disorder of the gastrointestinal tract whose manifestation is a result of complex interactions between genetics, environment, immune system and microbial flora. Over 230 IBD risk loci have been reported in genome wide association studies but the genetic contribution of the majority of these loci in the manifestation of IBD is very low. Read More

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http://Insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00130832-201812000-0000
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ACI.0000000000000486DOI Listing
December 2018
3 Reads

Very early-onset inflammatory bowel disease: an integrated approach.

Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2018 12;18(6):459-469

The Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Immune dysregulation disorders are among the most rapidly growing set of inborn errors of immunity. One particular subset is the category where early-onset inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is the most common manifestation. These disorders are being increasingly appreciated although there has been minimal effort to articulate a unified approach to their diagnosis and management. Read More

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http://Insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00130832-201812000-0000
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ACI.0000000000000484DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

Nasal challenges in allergen immunotherapy trials.

Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2018 12;18(6):489-494

Department of Biomedical and Molecular Sciences, Queen's University.

Purpose Of Review: The nasal allergen challenge (NAC) model can be a valuable diagnostic tool for allergic rhinitis. Alongside its clinical use, NACs can be used as primary and secondary endpoints in studies evaluating allergen immunotherapy (AIT) products for allergic rhinitis treatment. This review will discuss the technical aspects of the NAC model and provide a summary of recent studies using NACs to assess existing and new AIT treatments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ACI.0000000000000482DOI Listing
December 2018
16 Reads

What is new in HIES? Recent insights from the interface of primary immune deficiency and atopy.

Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2018 12;18(6):445-452

Department of Immunology, 2nd Faculty of Medicine, Charles University and Motol University Hospital, Prague, Czech Republic.

Purpose Of Review: Understanding the pathophysiology of monogenic primary immunodeficiency (PID) with atopic presentation has pivotal implications for intervention strategies and potentially wider polygenic atopic-related traits. This review will discuss advances in gene discovery arising from monogenic defects at the interface between PID and atopy, notably the hyper-IgE syndromes.

Recent Findings: Key molecular pathways underlying development of primary atopic diseases have recently been proposed. Read More

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http://Insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00130832-900000000-9921
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ACI.0000000000000481DOI Listing
December 2018
20 Reads

Allergen immunotherapy as add-on to biologic agents.

Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2018 12;18(6):502-508

Allergy and Respiratory Diseases, Policlinico San Martino, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy.

Purpose Of Review: In this review, we sought to outline many of the recent evidences about the available clinical trials in which biologic agents [i.e. omalizumab (OMA)] were associated as add-on to allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ACI.0000000000000479DOI Listing
December 2018
25 Reads

Role of allergen-specific T-follicular helper cells in immunotherapy.

Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2018 12;18(6):495-501

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, People's Republic of China.

Purpose Of Review: The discovery of novel T-cell subsets including follicular helper T (Tfh) cells has broadened our knowledge on the complex immune networks in allergic diseases. This review summarizes the evidence for Tfh cells in controlling immune responses to allergens with a particular focus on immunoglobulin E (IgE) production and discusses the implication of such regulation in allergen-specific immunotherapy.

Recent Findings: Tfh cells support the production of IgE in animal models for allergic diseases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ACI.0000000000000480DOI Listing
December 2018
21 Reads

Noninvasive measures in atopic dermatitis.

Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2018 10;18(5):417-424

Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Acibadem City Clinic Tokuda Hospital, Sofia.

Purpose Of Review: To summarize the current knowledge on the morphology, functionality and biochemical composition of the skin in allergic reactions. We address novel noninvasive techniques that promise to disclose intimate mechanisms of skin allergy in vivo. Epidermal barrier is not just a static wrap of the organism but rather a dynamic field for immunological, biophysical and biochemical processes and serves as a bio-sensor for exogenous danger signals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ACI.0000000000000476DOI Listing
October 2018
8 Reads