1,399 results match your criteria Current Infectious Disease Reports[Journal]


Diagnosis and Management of CMV Colitis.

Curr Infect Dis Rep 2019 Feb 15;21(2). Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Pediatric Gastroenterology Unit, Pediatrics Department, "Dana-Dwek" Children's Hospital, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, 6 Weizman Street, 6423906, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Purpose Of Review: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) colitis is a relatively common end-organ infectious complication in immunocompromised hosts which negatively affects clinical outcomes. This paper presents the contemporary approaches to the diagnosis and management of CMV colitis and discusses some of the controversies of this condition, focusing on methods of diagnosis.

Recent Findings: While certain risk factors for CMV colitis are well recognized, the clinical as well as endoscopic features of this condition are nonspecific. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11908-019-0664-yDOI Listing
February 2019

Recent Innovations in Diagnosis and Treatment of Pediatric Tuberculosis.

Curr Infect Dis Rep 2019 Feb 15;21(1). Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Medicine-Pediatric Residency Training Program, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Tuberculosis is leading cause of global morbidity and mortality and a significant proportion of the burden of disease occurs in children. In the past 5 years, a number of innovations have improved the diagnosis and treatment for children with both latent tuberculosis infection and active disease.

Recent Findings: This review discusses three key areas of innovation. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11908-019-0662-0
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11908-019-0662-0DOI Listing
February 2019
3 Reads

Zika Virus-Associated Aseptic Meningitis and Guillain-Barre Syndrome in a Traveler Returning from Latin America: a Case Report and Mini-Review.

Curr Infect Dis Rep 2019 Feb 15;21(1). Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.

ZIKV-associated Guillain-Barré syndrome presents with an accelerated clinical course compared to classic post-infectious Guillain-Barré syndrome. Clinicians should anticipate and screen patients with ZIKV infection for neurologic complications bearing in mind that these may manifest during the acute viremic phase or during early convalescence. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11908-019-0661-1DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Hospital Infection Prevention: How Much Can We Prevent and How Hard Should We Try?

Curr Infect Dis Rep 2019 Feb 2;21(1). Epub 2019 Feb 2.

Virginia Commowealth University Hospital Infection Prevention Program, North Hospital, 2nd Floor, Room 2-073, 1300 East Marshall Street, Richmond, VA, 23298-0019, USA.

Purpose Of Review: To summarize the extent to which hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) are preventable and to assess expectations, challenges, and barriers to improve patient outcomes.

Recent Findings: HAIs cause significant morbidity and mortality. Getting to zero HAIs is a commonly stated goal yet leads to unrealistic expectations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11908-019-0660-2DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Clostridioides difficile-Associated Diarrhea: Infection Prevention Unknowns and Evolving Risk Reduction Strategies.

Curr Infect Dis Rep 2019 Jan 23;21(1). Epub 2019 Jan 23.

Virginia Commonwealth University Medical Center, 1300 E. Marshall Street, Richmond, VA, 23298-0019, USA.

Purpose Of Review: New controversies in the diagnosis and prevention of Clostridiodes difficile are challenging and at times changing infection control practice at many medical centers.

Recent Findings: Molecular epidemiologic studies are changing our understanding of C. difficile and its spectrum of disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11908-019-0659-8DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads

Risk of Dengue in Travelers: Implications for Dengue Vaccination.

Curr Infect Dis Rep 2018 Oct 29;20(12):50. Epub 2018 Oct 29.

Department of Disease Control, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Bloomsbury, UK.

Purpose Of Review: Dengue is found in tropics and subtropics that are considered to be popular travel destinations. We set out to review the burden of dengue on international travelers.

Recent Findings: GeoSentinel, a global network of travel medicine providers, has seen an increasing trend of dengue in returning travelers over the past decades. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11908-018-0656-3DOI Listing
October 2018
1 Read

An Update on Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Tests.

Curr Infect Dis Rep 2018 Oct 23;20(12):49. Epub 2018 Oct 23.

University of Toronto, Institute of Medical Sciences, Toronto, Canada.

Purpose Of Review: Modern advances in malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT) technology have increased demand for low-cost, easy-to-use assays in areas endemic for malaria. Substantial developments in diagnostic sensitivity and specificity, improvements in non-falciparum RDTs, and novel biotechnological innovations are gradually aligning the performance of RDTs with reference-level diagnostics including PCR and expert microscopy gold standards.

Recent Findings: Trends have emerged in recent malaria RDT literature: (1) improvements in the sensitivity and specificity of RDTs for Plasmodium falciparum diagnosis, making them comparable to expert microscopic examination; (2) reduced false-positive and false-negative reactions with novel antibody development; (3) improved sensitivity and specificity capabilities of Plasmodium vivax-specific RDTs; (4) developing RDTs for co-endemic mixed infection differentiation; (5) significant improvements of RDTs for Plasmodium knowlesi; (6) a global push towards assessing and confronting the growing concerns of widespread pfhrp2 gene deletions; and (7) original innovation in loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) biotechnological RDT-like platforms that demonstrate promising performance characteristics for P. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11908-018-0655-4DOI Listing
October 2018
1 Read

Acinetobacter Infections in Neonates.

Curr Infect Dis Rep 2018 Oct 10;20(12):48. Epub 2018 Oct 10.

Department of Public Health, University of Naples 'Federico II', Via Pansini 5, 80131, Naples, Italy.

Purpose Of Review: MDR-Gram-negative bacteria are a great concern in the neonatal population, with a worldwide rise in the reported incidence and with very limited therapeutic options. Acinetobacter baumannii is responsible for many infections in neonates and outbreaks in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU); also, outbreaks caused by other Acinetobacter species have been reported. The aim of this review is to document the epidemiology of Acinetobacter spp. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11908-018-0654-5DOI Listing
October 2018
1 Read

Antimicrobial Therapy in Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Children.

Curr Infect Dis Rep 2018 Sep 20;20(11):47. Epub 2018 Sep 20.

Department of Pediatrics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, 110029, India.

Purpose Of Review: Empirical antibiotic therapy remains the cornerstone of treatment in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). However, the best option for empirical antibiotics for treatment on an ambulatory basis, as well as in those requiring hospitalization, is still unclear. This review tries to answer the question regarding the most appropriate antibiotics in different settings in children with CAP as well as duration of therapy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11908-018-0653-6DOI Listing
September 2018
3 Reads

Treating HIV-Positive/Non-AIDS Patients for Community-Acquired Pneumonia with ART.

Curr Infect Dis Rep 2018 Sep 10;20(11):46. Epub 2018 Sep 10.

Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Institut Clinic del Tórax, Hospital Clinic of Barcelona - Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), University of Barcelona (UB) - SGR 911- Ciber de Enfermedades Respiratorias (Ciberes), C/ Villarroel 170, 08036, Barcelona, Spain.

Purpose Of Review: This article reviews the most recent publications on community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in the HIV-infected population on antiretroviral therapy (ART), focusing on epidemiology, prognostic factors, etiology, and antimicrobial therapy. The data discussed here were mainly obtained from a non-systematic review using Medline and references from relevant articles.

Recent Findings: CAP remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality among HIV-infected patients and incurs high health costs despite the introduction of ART. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11908-018-0652-7DOI Listing
September 2018
3 Reads

Moving Past the Routine Use of Macrolides-Reviewing the Role of Combination Therapy in Community-Acquired Pneumonia.

Curr Infect Dis Rep 2018 Sep 6;20(11):45. Epub 2018 Sep 6.

Department of Critical Care Medicine and Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.

Purpose Of Review: Despite advances in diagnostic microbiology and sepsis management, community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Current recommendations regarding the use of beta-lactams in combination with macrolides published in clinical practice guidelines are variable and based on low-quality evidence that is frequently retrospective, observational, and heterogeneous in nature. While population-based studies have historically suggested improved clinical outcomes with the routine use of macrolide combination therapy in hospitalized patients with CAP, emerging evidence from recent randomized controlled trials has challenged this practice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11908-018-0651-8DOI Listing
September 2018
5 Reads

Infectious Diseases and Mass Gatherings.

Curr Infect Dis Rep 2018 Aug 28;20(11):44. Epub 2018 Aug 28.

IRD, AP-HM, SSA, VITROME, Institut Hospitalo-Universitaire Méditerranée Infection, Aix Marseille University, 19-21 Boulevard Jean Moulin, 13385, Marseille Cedex 05, France.

Purpose Of Review: Mass gatherings (MGs) are characterized by a high concentration of people at a specific time and location. Infectious diseases are of particular concern at MGs. The aim of this review was to summarize findings in the field of infectious diseases with a variety of pathogens associated with international MGs in the last 5 years. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11908-018-0650-9
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11908-018-0650-9DOI Listing
August 2018
17 Reads

Candida parapsilosis Vaginal Infection-a New Site of Azole Drug Resistance.

Curr Infect Dis Rep 2018 Aug 27;20(11):43. Epub 2018 Aug 27.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Wayne State University School of Medicine, 540 E. Canfield St., 1241 Scott Hall, Detroit, MI, 48201, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Evaluation of pathogenicity of an uncommon vaginal Candida species, Candida parapsilosis with particular references to susceptibility to conventional antifungal agents.

Recent Findings: C. parapsilosis vaginal isolates usually present in asymptomatic women as commensals but may induce vulvovaginal symptoms indistinguishable from C. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11908-018-0649-2DOI Listing
August 2018
13 Reads

Sink-Related Outbreaks and Mitigation Strategies in Healthcare Facilities.

Curr Infect Dis Rep 2018 Aug 20;20(10):42. Epub 2018 Aug 20.

Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Purpose Of Review: In this review, we summarize recent outbreaks attributed to hospital sinks and examine design features and behaviors that contributed to these outbreaks. The effectiveness of various risk mitigation strategies is presented. Finally, we examine investigational strategies targeted at reducing the risk of sink-related infections. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11908-018-0648-3DOI Listing
August 2018
2 Reads

The Effect of Spray Cryotherapy on Microbial Biofilms in Chronic Rhinosinusitis.

Curr Infect Dis Rep 2018 Aug 13;20(10):41. Epub 2018 Aug 13.

Second Department of Otolaryngology, University of Medicine and Pharmacy Cluj-Napoca, Str. Republicii no. 18, 3400, Cluj-Napoca, Romania.

Purpose Of Review: Microbial biofilms seem to play an active role in the pathogenesis of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). They represent an adaptive defense resource enabling resistance to antibiotics and host defense mechanisms. Biofilms are thought to be accountable for refractory cases of sinusitis by perpetuating local inflammation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11908-018-0647-4DOI Listing
August 2018
15 Reads

Pediatric Antimicrobial Stewardship: State of the Art.

Curr Infect Dis Rep 2018 Aug 1;20(10):39. Epub 2018 Aug 1.

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Disease, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Virginia Commonwealth University Health System, Richmond, VA, USA.

Purpose Of Review: We aim to systematically review the literature on the effectiveness of pediatric antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) and antimicrobial stewardship (AS) strategies in the United States (US) inpatient setting. Furthermore, we review current gaps and challenges for unique pediatric populations and those in ambulatory settings.

Recent Findings: Misuse and overuse of antimicrobials have been identified as key factors for antimicrobial resistance (AR). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11908-018-0644-7DOI Listing
August 2018
3 Reads

Zoonotic Influenza and Human Health-Part 2: Clinical Features, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention Strategies.

Curr Infect Dis Rep 2018 Aug 1;20(10):38. Epub 2018 Aug 1.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Paediatrics, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Purpose Of Review: Zoonotic influenza viruses are those influenza viruses that cross the animal-human barrier and can cause disease in humans, manifesting from minor respiratory illnesses to multiorgan dysfunction. The increasing incidence of infections caused by these viruses worldwide has necessitated focused attention to improve both diagnostic as well as treatment modalities. In this second part of a two-part review, we discuss the clinical features, diagnostic modalities, and treatment of zoonotic influenza, and provide an overview of prevention strategies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11908-018-0643-8DOI Listing
August 2018
4 Reads

Zoonotic Influenza and Human Health-Part 1: Virology and Epidemiology of Zoonotic Influenzas.

Curr Infect Dis Rep 2018 Aug 1;20(10):37. Epub 2018 Aug 1.

Public Health Ontario Laboratory, 661 University Avenue, Suite 1701, Toronto, ON, M5G 1M1, Canada.

Purpose Of Review: Zoonotic influenza viruses are those that cross the animal-human barrier and can cause disease in humans, manifesting from minor respiratory illnesses to multiorgan dysfunction. They have also been implicated in the causation of deadly pandemics in recent history. The increasing incidence of infections caused by these viruses worldwide has necessitated focused attention to improve both diagnostic as well as treatment modalities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11908-018-0642-9DOI Listing
August 2018
4 Reads

Diabetic Foot Infections: Update on Management.

Curr Infect Dis Rep 2018 Aug 1;20(10):40. Epub 2018 Aug 1.

Diabetes Center, First Department of Propaedeutic Internal Medicine, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Laiko General Hospital, 17 Agiou Thoma Street, Athens, Greece.

Purpose Of Review: Diabetic foot infections (DFIs) are common in patients with diabetes mellitus complicated by foot ulcers and can be classified in different categories based on their severity. In this report, we present the diagnosis and management of DFIs according to their classification.

Recent Findings: While appropriate antibiotic regiments and surgical techniques for the treatment of DFIs are well established, new technologies and techniques for example in medical imaging, wound care modalities, and supplementary therapy approaches show potentially promising results in preventing DFIs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11908-018-0645-6DOI Listing
August 2018
17 Reads

Substance Use and Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy: What Is Known and What Is Unknown.

Curr Infect Dis Rep 2018 Jul 31;20(9):36. Epub 2018 Jul 31.

British Columbia Centre on Substance Use, 400-1045 Howe Street, Vancouver, BC, V6Z 2A9, Canada.

Purpose Of Review: People who use drugs face multiple challenges to achieve optimal HIV treatment outcomes. This review discusses the current knowledge in substance use and antiretroviral therapy adherence, highlighting recent findings and potential interventions.

Recent Findings: Studies continue to demonstrate the negative impacts of substance use and related disorders on antiretroviral therapy adherence, with the exception of cannabis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11908-018-0636-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6375705PMC
July 2018
9 Reads

Hospital-Acquired Infections Under Pay-for-Performance Systems: an Administrative Perspective on Management and Change.

Curr Infect Dis Rep 2018 Jul 26;20(9):35. Epub 2018 Jul 26.

Department of Health Administration, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA.

Purpose Of Review: The purpose of this review is to explore the impact of hospital-acquired infection on payment under pay-for-performance systems, and provide perspective on the role of administrators in infection prevention.

Recent Findings: Hospital-acquired infections continue to pose a serious threat to patient safety and to the fiscal viability of healthcare facilities under pay-for-performance systems. There is mixed evidence that use of pay-for-performance systems leads to prevention of hospital-acquired conditions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11908-018-0638-5DOI Listing
July 2018
11 Reads

Primary Prevention of Clostridium difficile-Associated Diarrhea: Current Controversies and Future Tools.

Curr Infect Dis Rep 2018 Jun 29;20(9):32. Epub 2018 Jun 29.

Division of Infectious Diseases, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 924 Westwood Blvd, Suite 900, Los Angeles, CA, 90095, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients and rates in most places have not decreased significantly despite broad efforts by both hospitals and public health entities. This review aims to provide readers with a better understanding of the limitations of current prevention strategies. We also review potential future tools that may be available for the primary prevention of CDI in the next decade. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11908-018-0639-4DOI Listing
June 2018
22 Reads

Acute Flaccid Paralysis and Enteroviral Infections.

Curr Infect Dis Rep 2018 Jun 29;20(9):34. Epub 2018 Jun 29.

Division of Neurology, The Hospital for Sick Children and Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neurosciences and Mental Health, SickKids Research Institute, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.

Purpose Of Review: The focus of this review is on enterovirus (EV)-associated acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) due to spinal cord anterior horn cell disease. Emphasis is placed on the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, and outcome of AFP caused by polioviruses, vaccine-derived polioviruses, EV-D68, and EV-A71.

Recent Findings: Since the launch of The Global Polio Eradication Initiative in 1988, the worldwide incidence of polio has been reduced by 99. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11908-018-0641-xDOI Listing
June 2018
61 Reads

Evolving Epidemiology of Japanese Encephalitis: Implications for Vaccination.

Curr Infect Dis Rep 2018 Jun 29;20(9):30. Epub 2018 Jun 29.

Department of Global Health, Boston University School of Public Health (BUSPH), Boston, MA, USA.

Purpose Of Review: We examine the present global burden of Japanese encephalitis (JE) in endemic populations, summarize published cases in travelers since 2009, examine current guidelines for vaccination for international travelers, and consider challenges in prevention of this vector-borne disease.

Recent Findings: We identified 11 JE cases in travelers that were published in peer-reviewed literature since 2009. JE incidence in endemic countries appears to be declining but the number of JE cases reported to the World Health Organization (WHO) varied from estimates derived from other published reports based on serosurveys or sentinel surveillance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11908-018-0635-8DOI Listing
June 2018
9 Reads

Ureaplasma urealyticum: the Role as a Pathogen in Women's Health, a Systematic Review.

Curr Infect Dis Rep 2018 Jun 29;20(9):33. Epub 2018 Jun 29.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Shaare Zedek Medical Center, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel.

Purpose Of Review: To evaluate the role of Ureaplasma urealyticum as a genital pathogen in women's health. Three aspects were analyzed: (1) preterm delivery (PTD); (2) female infertility; and (3) lower genital tract pathology including pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), cervicitis, and genital discomfort (discharge, burning).

Recent Findings: A systematic review was performed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11908-018-0640-yDOI Listing
June 2018
38 Reads

The Current State of Antimicrobial Stewardship: Challenges, Successes, and Future Directions.

Curr Infect Dis Rep 2018 Jun 29;20(9):31. Epub 2018 Jun 29.

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Hunter Holmes McGuire Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Virginia Commonwealth University Medical Center, Richmond, VA, USA.

Purpose Of Review: The aim of this study is to examine the current state of the field of antimicrobial stewardship (AS) by highlighting key challenges and successes, as well as exciting future directions.

Recent Findings: AS mandates from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid (CMS) and the Joint Commission (TJC) will stimulate increased compliance with current AS standards, but overall compliance is currently poor. Key challenges to progress in the field of AS include insufficient workforce and monetary resources, poorly defined AS metrics, and much needed expansion beyond the inpatient hospital setting. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11908-018-0637-6
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11908-018-0637-6DOI Listing
June 2018
6 Reads

Travel and the Spread of Drug-Resistant Bacteria.

Curr Infect Dis Rep 2018 Jun 29;20(9):29. Epub 2018 Jun 29.

Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Purpose Of Review: The rise in antimicrobial resistance is an urgent public health threat which, in the absence of intervention, may result in a post-antibiotic era limiting the effectiveness of antibiotics to treat both common and serious infections. Globalization and human migration have profoundly contributed to the spread of drug-resistant bacteria. In this review, we summarize the recent literature on the importance of travelers in the spread of drug-resistant bacterial organisms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11908-018-0634-9DOI Listing
June 2018
20 Reads

Correction to: Improving Dengue Diagnostics and Management Through Innovative Technology.

Curr Infect Dis Rep 2018 Jun 27;20(8):28. Epub 2018 Jun 27.

Department of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UK.

In the original publication, the Table 2 contains an error. The original article has been corrected. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11908-018-0646-5DOI Listing
June 2018
28 Reads

Improving Dengue Diagnostics and Management Through Innovative Technology.

Curr Infect Dis Rep 2018 Jun 7;20(8):25. Epub 2018 Jun 7.

Department of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UK.

Purpose Of Review: Dengue continues to be a major global public health threat. Symptomatic infections can cause a spectrum of disease ranging from a mild febrile illness to severe and potentially life-threatening manifestations. Management relies on supportive treatment with careful fluid replacement. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11908-018-0633-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5992235PMC
June 2018
3 Reads

Antimicrobial Resistance to Agents Used for Staphylococcus aureus Decolonization: Is There a Reason for Concern?

Curr Infect Dis Rep 2018 Jun 7;20(8):26. Epub 2018 Jun 7.

Division of Infectious Diseases & International Health, Department of Medicine, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, VA, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) and mupirocin are increasingly used for Staphylococcus aureus decolonization to prevent healthcare-associated infections; however, increased use of these agents has led to concerns for growing resistance and reduced efficacy. In this review, we describe current understanding of reduced susceptibility to CHG and mupirocin in S. aureus and their potential clinical implications. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11908-018-0630-0DOI Listing
June 2018
4 Reads

The Intersection Between Colonization Resistance, Antimicrobial Stewardship, and Clostridium difficile.

Curr Infect Dis Rep 2018 Jun 7;20(8):27. Epub 2018 Jun 7.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Colonization resistance refers to the innate defense provided by the indigenous microbiota against colonization by pathogenic organisms. We aim to describe how this line of defense is deployed against Clostridium difficile and what the implications are for interventions directed by Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs.

Recent Findings: The indigenous microbiota provides colonization resistance through depletion of nutrients, prevention of access to adherence sites within the gut mucosa, production of inhibitory substances, and stimulation of the host's immune system. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11908-018-0631-zDOI Listing
June 2018
3 Reads

Comparative Study of Molecular Approaches for the Detection of Influenza Virus from Patient Samples Using Real-time PCR: Prospective Disease Burden Study in Kerala (India) from 2010 to 2016.

Curr Infect Dis Rep 2018 Jun 7;20(8):24. Epub 2018 Jun 7.

Laboratory Medicine and Molecular Diagnostics, Rajiv Gandhi Center for Biotechnology, Bio-Innovation Center (BIC), KINFRA Film & Video Park, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, 695585, India.

Purpose Of Review: Acute respiratory infections caused by influenza virus are a major cause of viral respiratory diseases globally. Surveillance of circulating subtypes and estimation of disease burden is of utmost clinical importance. Molecular surveillance and proper disease burden estimates are scarce in India although clinical influenza infections are on the rise. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11908-018-0632-yDOI Listing
June 2018
17 Reads

Multidrug-Resistant Pseudomonas Infections: Hard to Treat, But Hope on the Horizon?

Curr Infect Dis Rep 2018 Jun 6;20(8):23. Epub 2018 Jun 6.

Department of Clinical Pharmacy, University of California San Francisco School of Pharmacy, 533 Parnassus Ave, U-585, Box 0622, San Francisco, CA, 94143-0622, USA.

Purpose Of Review: As the sixth most common nosocomial pathogen in the USA, Pseudomonas aeruginosa poses a significant threat to patients within the healthcare system. Its intrinsic and acquired resistance mechanisms also significantly limit the choices for antimicrobial therapy, prompting an increase in the research and development of antibacterial agents with enhanced activity against multidrug-resistant (MDR) P. aeruginosa. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11908-018-0629-6DOI Listing
June 2018
2 Reads

Current Evidence for the Management of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases Using Fecal Microbiota Transplantation.

Curr Infect Dis Rep 2018 May 26;20(8):21. Epub 2018 May 26.

University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada.

Purpose Of Review: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been investigated as a potential treatment for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This review examines current evidence around the efficacy and safety of FMT for patients with IBD.

Recent Findings: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and meta-analyses have suggested that FMT may facilitate clinical and endoscopic remission in patients with active ulcerative colitis (UC). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11908-018-0627-8DOI Listing
May 2018
4 Reads

Are Non-HIV Malignancies Increased in the HIV-Infected Population?

Curr Infect Dis Rep 2018 May 26;20(8):22. Epub 2018 May 26.

Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA.

Purpose Of Review: The introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has revolutionized HIV infection management, resulting in improved outcomes and survival for people living with HIV (PLWH). However, as PLWH are living longer and aging, non-AIDS-defining cancers (NADCs) represent a significant source of morbidity and mortality in the HIV-infected population. Here, we review the epidemiology of NADCs in PLWH. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11908-018-0626-9DOI Listing
May 2018
1 Read

Benefits and Risks of Statin Therapy in the HIV-Infected Population.

Curr Infect Dis Rep 2018 May 26;20(8):20. Epub 2018 May 26.

Divisions of Infectious Diseases and General Internal Medicine, Harvard Medical School & Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.

Purpose Of Review: HIV-infected patients face an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD), estimated at 1.5- to 2-fold as compared to HIV-uninfected persons. This review provides a recent (within preceding 5 years) summary of the role of statin therapy and associated role in CVD risk reduction among HIV-infected patients on anti-retroviral therapy. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11908-018-0628-7
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11908-018-0628-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6186398PMC
May 2018
7 Reads

Illnesses Associated with Freshwater Recreation During International Travel.

Curr Infect Dis Rep 2018 May 22;20(7):19. Epub 2018 May 22.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.

Purpose Of Review: International travel, adventure travel, and eco-tourism are increasing over the past few decades. This review aims to summarize the spectrum of infections associated with recreational freshwater activities and international travel.

Recent Findings: Recreational water activities can be associated with a wide range of infections. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11908-018-0623-zDOI Listing
May 2018
2 Reads

Cutaneous Manifestations of Infections in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients.

Curr Infect Dis Rep 2018 May 22;20(7):16. Epub 2018 May 22.

Division of Dermatology, Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Post-transplant infections present a formidable challenge to the physician due to their varied presentation. Many of these infections begin by inoculation following skin compromise or disseminate to the skin hematogenously, making cutaneous manifestations of infection an important diagnostic clue in the immunocompromised. Quality research in this field is lacking, and this articles seeks to review the literature and present a guide to physicians in order for them to suspect certain infections by their cutaneous presentation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11908-018-0621-1DOI Listing
May 2018
1 Read

Prosthetic Joint Infections: an Update.

Authors:
C L Abad A Haleem

Curr Infect Dis Rep 2018 May 22;20(7):15. Epub 2018 May 22.

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics, Madison, WI, 53705, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a rare but serious complication that is frequently misdiagnosed. We aimed to highlight the nuances of PJI diagnosis and antimicrobial therapies and provide clarity in key areas of management.

Recent Findings: Current research in PJI centers on a potential role for diagnostic biomarkers, molecular techniques, and implant sonication to reduce culture-negativity rates. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11908-018-0622-0DOI Listing
May 2018
1 Read

Hepatitis C: Current Controversies and Future Potential in Solid Organ Transplantation.

Curr Infect Dis Rep 2018 May 22;20(7):18. Epub 2018 May 22.

Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Alberta, CSB 1-139, 11350 83 Avenue, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2G3, Canada.

Purpose Of Review: To highlight the changing landscape of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in the context of organ transplantation. This focuses on areas of controversy and future potential in the era of highly effective direct-acting antiviral (DAA) agents.

Recent Findings: Since the advent of safe and highly effective DAA therapy, HCV infection is now curable in virtually all cases, including organ transplant recipients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11908-018-0625-xDOI Listing
May 2018
2 Reads

Update on Tick-Borne Bacterial Diseases in Travelers.

Curr Infect Dis Rep 2018 May 22;20(7):17. Epub 2018 May 22.

Aix Marseille University, IRD, AP-HM, SSA, Vecteurs-Infections Tropicales et Méditerranéennes (VITROME), IHU-Méditerranée Infection, 19-21 Boulevard Jean Moulin, 13005, Marseille, France.

Purpose Of Review: Ticks are the second most important vectors of infectious diseases after mosquitoes worldwide. The growth of international tourism including in rural and remote places increasingly exposes travelers to tick bite. Our aim was to review the main tick-borne infectious diseases reported in travelers in the past 5 years. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11908-018-0624-y
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11908-018-0624-yDOI Listing
May 2018
9 Reads

Non-tuberculous Mycobacterial Infections in Thoracic Transplant Candidates and Recipients.

Curr Infect Dis Rep 2018 May 12;20(6):14. Epub 2018 May 12.

Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Pittsburgh, 3601 Fifth Avenue Suite 3A, Pittsburgh, PA, 15213, USA.

Purpose Of Review: To review and discuss the epidemiology, risk factors, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in thoracic transplantation.

Recent Findings: Non-tuberculous mycobacteria are ubiquitous but are an uncommon cause of disease after solid organ transplantation. The incidence of infection is higher in thoracic transplant recipients than in abdominal transplant recipients, with most cases seen after lung transplantation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11908-018-0619-8DOI Listing
May 2018
6 Reads

The Epidemiology, Evolution, and Treatment of KPC-Producing Organisms.

Curr Infect Dis Rep 2018 May 5;20(6):13. Epub 2018 May 5.

Temple University School of Pharmacy, 3307 North Broad Street, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Purpose Of Review: The purpose of this review is to investigate the evolution and epidemiology of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing organisms and the current and future treatment options for infections caused by KPC-producing isolates.

Recent Findings: The emergence of resistance in Enterobacteriaceae producing carbapenemases globally has increased the challenges in treating infections caused by these organisms. One of the prominent mechanisms of resistance is the production of KPC enzymes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11908-018-0617-xDOI Listing
May 2018
2 Reads

The Role of Environmental Contamination in the Transmission of Nosocomial Pathogens and Healthcare-Associated Infections.

Curr Infect Dis Rep 2018 Apr 27;20(6):12. Epub 2018 Apr 27.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Henry Ford Health System, 2799 West Grand Blvd CFP3, Detroit, MI, 48202, USA.

Purpose Of Review: The aim of this review is to highlight the role of environmental contamination in healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) and to discuss the most commonly implicated nosocomial pathogens.

Recent Findings: Recent studies suggest that environmental contamination plays a significant role in HAIs and in the unrecognized transmission of nosocomial pathogens during outbreaks, as well as ongoing sporadic transmission. Several pathogens can persist in the environment for extended periods and serve as vehicles of transmission and dissemination in the hospital setting. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11908-018-0620-2DOI Listing
April 2018
4 Reads

Biomedical Approaches to HIV Prevention in Women.

Curr Infect Dis Rep 2018 Apr 17;20(6):11. Epub 2018 Apr 17.

Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Effective HIV prevention techniques for women are of critical importance, as nearly half of all HIV infections globally are in women. This article reviews the recent literature on biomedical approaches to HIV prevention in women.

Recent Findings: In trials in which women were adherent to oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), PrEP was equally efficacious in men and women. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11908-018-0618-9DOI Listing
April 2018
4 Reads

Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Considerations of Antibiotics of Last Resort in Treating Gram-Negative Infections in Adult Critically Ill Patients.

Curr Infect Dis Rep 2018 Apr 5;20(5):10. Epub 2018 Apr 5.

Department of Pharmacy Practice and Science, University of Maryland School of Pharmacy, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Purpose Of Review: We provide an overview of antimicrobials that are considered last resort for the treatment of resistant gram-negative infections in adult critically ill patients. The role in therapy, pharmacodynamic (PD) goals, and pharmacokinetic (PK) changes in critical illness for aminoglycosides, polymyxins, tigecycline, fosfomycin, and fluoroquinolones are summarized.

Recent Findings: Altered PK in septic patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) is observed with many of our agents of last resort. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11908-018-0614-0DOI Listing
April 2018
6 Reads

Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Considerations of Beta-Lactam Antibiotics in Adult Critically Ill Patients.

Curr Infect Dis Rep 2018 Apr 4;20(5). Epub 2018 Apr 4.

Department of Pharmacy Practice and Science, University of Maryland School of Pharmacy, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Beta-lactam antibiotics are commonly prescribed in critically ill patients for a variety of infectious conditions. Our understanding of how critical illness alters beta-lactam pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) is rapidly evolving.

Recent Findings: There is a growing body of literature in adult patients demonstrating that physiological alterations occurring in critically ill patients may limit our ability to optimally dose beta-lactam antibiotics to reach these PK/PD targets. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11908-018-0613-1DOI Listing
April 2018
6 Reads

Device Utilization Ratios in Infection Prevention: Process or Outcome Measure?

Curr Infect Dis Rep 2018 Mar 23;20(5). Epub 2018 Mar 23.

University of Connecticut School of Medicine, 263 Farmington Avenue, Farmington, CT, USA.

Purpose Of Review: The purpose of this review is to describe the role of device utilization as a component of surveillance for healthcare-associated infections and describe its potential role as a measurement of healthcare quality.

Recent Findings: Device utilization, while primarily a process-based measure in the prevention of device-associated infections can also serve as an important outcome in the evaluation of an infection prevention program. Device utilization can be an important and resource-efficient measurement when coupled with measurements of risk-adjusted infection rates. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11908-018-0616-yDOI Listing
March 2018
6 Reads

Fluoroquinolone Restriction as an Effective Antimicrobial Stewardship Intervention.

Curr Infect Dis Rep 2018 Mar 23;20(5). Epub 2018 Mar 23.

Department of Pharmacy Practice and Science, University of Maryland School of Pharmacy, N423, Baltimore, MD, 21201, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Fluoroquinolones are a commonly prescribed antibiotic class that has come under scrutiny in recent years due to mounting evidence of association between adverse drug events, C. difficile infection and isolation of antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

Recent Findings: Inpatient antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) programs have a toolbox of potential interventions to curb inappropriate antibiotic use, prevent antibiotic-associated adverse drug events, and avoid unnecessary costs of care. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11908-018-0615-zDOI Listing
March 2018
3 Reads

Skin and Soft Tissue Infections Due to Nontuberculous Mycobacteria.

Curr Infect Dis Rep 2018 Mar 19;20(4). Epub 2018 Mar 19.

Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA.

Purpose Of Review: This review describes recent trends in the epidemiology of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), emerging pathogens, new insights into NTM pathogenesis, and advances in diagnosis and treatment.

Recent Findings: Emerging pathogens include Mycobacterium chimaera and drug-resistant subspecies of Mycobacterium abscessus. Important virulence mechanisms of pathogenic NTM include the ability to alter the macrophage's permissiveness to intracellular bacterial growth. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11908-018-0611-3DOI Listing
March 2018
3 Reads