945 results match your criteria Current HIV Research[Journal]


HIV-specific T-cell responses and generalized activation in HIV-1 infected long-term non-progressors and progressors from South India.

Curr HIV Res 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Y. R. Gaitonde Centre for AIDS Research and Education, VHS Hospital Campus, Taramani, Chennai. India.

Background: Anti-viral cytokine expressions by cytotoxic T-cells and lower activation rates have been reported to correlate with suppressed HIV replication in long-term non-progressors (LTNP). Immune mechanisms underlying disease non-progression in LTNP might vary with HIV-1 subtype and geographical locations.

Objective: This study evaluates cytokine expression and T-cells activation in relation to disease non-progression in LTNP. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1570162X17666181212122607DOI Listing
December 2018

The Effect of MSM and CD4+ Count on the Development of Cancer AIDS (AIDS-defining Cancer) and Non-cancer AIDS in the HAART Era.

Curr HIV Res 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Community Health and Epidemiology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan . Canada.

Background: The HIV epidemic is increasing among Men who have Sex with Men (MSM) and the risk for AIDSdefining cancer (ADC) is higher among them.

Objective: To examine the effect of MSM and CD4+ count on time to cancer AIDS (ADC) and non-cancer AIDS in competing risks setting in the HAART era.

Method: Using Ontario HIV Treatment Network Cohort Study data, HIV-positive adults diagnosed between January 1997 and October 2012 having baseline CD4+ counts ≤ 500 cells/mm3 were evaluated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1570162X17666181205130532DOI Listing
December 2018
6 Reads

M918: A novel cell penetrating peptide for effective delivery of HIV-1 Nef and Hsp20-Nef proteins into eukaryotic cell lines.

Curr HIV Res 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Pilot Nano-Biotechnology Department, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran. Iran.

Background: HIV-1 Nef protein is a possible attractive target in development of therapeutic HIV vaccines including protein-based vaccines. The most important disadvantage of protein-based vaccines is their low immunogenicity which can be improved by heat shock proteins (Hsps) as an immunomodulator, and cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) as a carrier.

Methods: In this study, the HIV-1 Nef and Hsp20-Nef proteins were generated in E. Read More

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http://www.eurekaselect.com/168113/article
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1570162X17666181206111859DOI Listing
December 2018
5 Reads

Prevalence of HIV in patients with malignancy and of malignancy in HIV patients in a tertiary care center from North India.

Curr HIV Res 2018 Oct 18. Epub 2018 Oct 18.

Department of Medicine, UCLA CARE Center, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA. United States.

Background and objectives People living with HIV/AIDS are at increased risk of developing cancer. The goals of this study were to obtain data on the prevalence of HIV in the cancer population and vice versa at a major tertiary care cancer and HIV center in North India. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted over a 3-year period from July 2013 to June 2016, wherein successive HIV positive patients from an anti-retroviral therapy (ART) center were screened for malignancy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1570162X16666181018161616DOI Listing
October 2018
2.130 Impact Factor

Correlation of apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3G genetic variant rs8177832 with HIV-1 predisposition in Pakistani Population.

Curr HIV Res 2018 Oct 18. Epub 2018 Oct 18.

Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Imperial College of Business Studies Lahore. Pakistan.

Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a global health burden which ultimately results in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). There are multiple host factors which are capable of limiting HIV-1 replication. One of the most important host factors which inhibit HIV-1 DNA synthesis is apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3G (APOBEC3G). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1570162X16666181018155827DOI Listing
October 2018
1 Read
2.135 Impact Factor

HHIV Associated Neurodegenerative Disorders: A New Perspective on the Role of Lipid Rafts in Gp120-Mediated Neurotoxicity.

Curr HIV Res 2018 Oct 3. Epub 2018 Oct 3.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO. United States.

The implementation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) as the primary means of treatment for HIV infection has achieved a dramatic decline in deaths attributed to AIDS and the reduced incidence of severe forms of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) in infected individuals. Despite these advances, milder forms of HAND persist and prevalence of these forms of neurocognitive impairment are rising with the aging population of HIV infected individuals. HIV enters the CNS early in the pathophysiology establishing persistent infection in resident macrophages and glial cells. Read More

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http://www.eurekaselect.com/165912/article
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1570162X16666181003144740DOI Listing
October 2018
4 Reads

Formulation and in-vivo Evaluation of Novel Topical Gel of Lopinavir for Targeting HIV.

Curr HIV Res 2018 09 23. Epub 2018 Sep 23.

Department of Pharmaceutics, Mumbai University, Mumbai, India

Background: Lopinavir is specific reversible inhibitors of the enzyme HIV protease with mean oral bioavailability of less than 20% due to extensive hepatic metabolism by cytochrome P450 3A4. The reported half-life of Lopinavir is 5-6 hours and the maximum recommended daily dose is 400 mg/day. All the marketed tablet and capsule formulations of lopinavir are generally combined with Ritonavir, a potent inhibitor of cytochrome P450 3A4, to minimize presystemic metabolism of lopinavir. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1570162X16666180924101650DOI Listing
September 2018
3 Reads

Assessment of Transmitted HIV-1 Drug Resistance Mutations Using Ultra- Deep Pyrosequencing in a Turkish Cohort.

Curr HIV Res 2018 ;16(3):216-221

Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, School of Medicine, Marmara University, Istanbul, Turkey.

Background: Antiretroviral treatment (ART) reduces morbidity and mortality caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection; however, the emergence of drug-resistant strains poses an important obstacle to treatment success. Using conventional sequencing methods to determine antiretroviral resistance, mutations present in ≥20% of quasispecies can be identified, but drug-resistant minority variants can lead to virologic failure.

Objective: We aimed to assess transmitted drug resistance mutations (TDRMs) within minority variants using ultra-deep pyrosequencing (UDPS). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1570162X16666180910130112DOI Listing
January 2018
2 Reads

Host Restriction Factors and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV-1): A Dynamic Interplay Involving All Phases of the Viral Life Cycle.

Curr HIV Res 2018 ;16(3):184-207

Retrovirus Laboratory, Operative Unit of Clinical Microbiology, S. Orsola-Malpighi University Hospital, Bologna, Italy.

Mammalian cells have evolved several mechanisms to prevent or block lentiviral infection and spread. Among the innate immune mechanisms, the signaling cascade triggered by type I interferon (IFN) plays a pivotal role in limiting the burden of HIV-1. In the presence of IFN, human cells upregulate the expression of a number of genes, referred to as IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), many of them acting as antiviral restriction factors (RFs). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1570162X16666180817115830DOI Listing
January 2018

Structural Barriers to Pre-exposure Prophylaxis Use Among Young Sexual Minority Men: The P18 Cohort Study.

Curr HIV Res 2018 ;16(3):237-249

Center for Health, Identity, Behavior & Prevention Studies, New York University, 715 Broadway, New York, NY 10012, United States.

Background: Despite decreasing rates of HIV among many populations, HIV-related health disparities among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men persist, with disproportional percentages of new HIV diagnoses among racial and ethnic minority men. Despite increasing awareness of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), PrEP use remains low. In addition to exploring individual-level factors for this slow uptake, structural drivers of PrEP use must also be identified in order to maximize the effectiveness of biomedical HIV prevention strategies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1570162X16666180730144455DOI Listing
January 2018

PrEP Eligibility and Interest Among Clinic- and Community-Recruited Young Black Women in Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Curr HIV Res 2018 ;16(3):250-255

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, 30322, United States.

Background: Atlanta has been identified as an HIV "hot spot" for Black women and ranks 5th in the US with new infections. Yet little is known about PrEP eligibility or interest among young Black women in Atlanta.

Methods: A convenience sample of 1,261 Black women (ages 14-24 years) were recruited from two settings: community venues and sexual health clinics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1570162X16666180731143756DOI Listing
January 2018
4 Reads

Microbial Translocation and Immune Activation in HIV-1 Infected Pregnant Women.

Curr HIV Res 2018 ;16(3):208-215

Departments of Pediatrics, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, FL 33136, United States.

Background: Immune Activation (IA) has been previously documented in both pregnant (PG) and non-PG HIV-1 infected (HIV+) women as well as in HIV- uninfected PG women; the latter as a result of the fetal allograft. To determine whether the combined effects of HIV and pregnancy result in increased IA and whether IA is associated with Microbial Translocation (MT), we performed a prospective, longitudinal, controlled study during pregnancy and the postpartum (PP) period.

Methods: HIV+ PG women had biomarkers of IA and MT tested at 12-20 weeks (T1), and 24-36 weeks (T2) of pregnancy and at 6-8 weeks Postpartum (T3). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1570162X16666180731145011DOI Listing
January 2018
7 Reads

Comparison of Demographic, Epidemiological, Immunological, and Clinical Characteristics of Patients with HIV Mono-infection Versus Patients Co-infected with HCV or/and HBV: A Serbian Cohort Study.

Curr HIV Res 2018 ;16(3):222-230

University of Belgrade Faculty of Medicine, University Hospital for Infectious and Tropical Diseases, Clinical Centre of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia.

Objective: The study aimed to correlate the status of hepatitis C (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) co-infection in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection with clinical and demographic data prior to starting highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and assess the impact of HCV and HBV co-infection on the natural history of HIV infection.

Patients And Methods: The study involved a total of 836 treatment-naive patients with available serological status for HBV and HCV at the point of therapy initiation. Patients were stratified into four groups: HIV mono-infection, HIV/HCV, HIV/HBV, and HIV/HCV/HBV co-infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1570162X16666180717115614DOI Listing
January 2018
8 Reads

Therapeutic Outcomes in AIDS-Associated Kaposi's Sarcoma Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy Treated with Chemotherapy at Two Tertiary Hospitals in Lusaka, Zambia.

Curr HIV Res 2018 ;16(3):231-236

Dermatology and Venereology Section, Adult Hospital of University Teaching Hospitals, Lusaka, Zambia.

The incidence of HIV-associated Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) remains high in Zambia in the antiretroviral therapy era. The most efficacious treatment regimen for KS has yet to be established. In both developed and developing countries, treatment regimens have had limited efficacy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1570162X16666180711103610DOI Listing
January 2018
15 Reads
2.135 Impact Factor

Sexual Roles, Risk Sexual Behaviours, and HIV Prevalence among Men who Have Sex with Men Seeking HIV Testing in Changsha, China.

Curr HIV Res 2018 ;16(2):174-181

Xiangya School of Nursing of Central South University, 172 Tong Zi Po Road, Changsha 410013, Hunan, China.

Background: HIV infection is prevalent among men who have sex with men (MSM), and sexual roles may be important factors related to it. This study aims to describe the sexual roles, risky sexual behaviors and HIV prevalence among MSM, and to determine associated factors for HIV prevalence.

Methods: A convenient sampling method was used to recruit participants in a non-government organization in Changsha, China. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1570162X16666180711101643DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6182933PMC
January 2018

Drug Use is Associated with Anti-CD4 IgG-mediated CD4+ T Cell Death and Poor CD4+ T Cell Recovery in Viral-suppressive HIV-infected Individuals Under Antiretroviral Therapy.

Curr HIV Res 2018 ;16(2):143-150

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, 29425, United States.

Background: The role and mechanism of drug use or abuse in Antiretroviral Therapy (ART)-treated HIV disease are not completely known.

Methods: To investigate the impact of drug use on HIV pathogenesis without confounding by HIV replication and ART adherence, we first analyzed the data from our clinical database in 103 HIV+ subjects with viral-suppressed ART treatment by a multiple regression test.

Results: We found that HIV+ drug users had lower CD4+ T cell counts but higher CD8+ T cell counts compared to HIV+ non-drug users, and both drug use and nadir CD4+ T cell counts was independently associated with CD4+ T cell recovery after controlling for sex and age. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1570162X16666180703151208DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6115301PMC
January 2018
2.130 Impact Factor

PCR Amplification Strategies Towards Full-length HIV-1 Genome Sequencing.

Curr HIV Res 2018 ;16(2):98-105

National Microbiology Laboratory at JC Wilt Infectious Diseases Research Center, Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, Canada.

The advent of next-generation sequencing has enabled greater resolution of viral diversity and improved feasibility of full viral genome sequencing allowing routine HIV-1 full genome sequencing in both research and diagnostic settings. Regardless of the sequencing platform selected, successful PCR amplification of the HIV-1 genome is essential for sequencing template preparation. As such, full HIV-1 genome amplification is a crucial step in dictating the successful and reliable sequencing downstream. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1570162X16666180626152252DOI Listing
January 2018

Serum and Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid 25(OH)Vitamin D3 Levels in HIV-1 and Tuberculosis: A Cross-Sectional Study from a Tertiary Care Center in North India.

Curr HIV Res 2018 ;16(2):167-173

Department of Biostatistics, Biostatistics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi 110029, India.

Background: Vitamin D is an immunomodulator, and its deficiency is associated with Tuberculosis (TB) infection. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) is a rich milieu of macrophages that form the first line of defense against invading TB bacilli. As there is an increased prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in TB and human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) subjects, we intend exploring the possibility of a localized deficiency of vitamin D metabolites in BALF of these patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1570162X16666180528112924DOI Listing
January 2018

Lopinavir/Ritonavir Treatment Induces Oxidative Stress and Caspaseindependent Apoptosis in Human Glioblastoma U-87 MG Cell Line.

Curr HIV Res 2018 ;16(2):106-112

Institute for Maternal and Child Health "Burlo Garofolo", via dell`Istria 65/1, 34137 Trieste, Italy.

Background: Lopinavir and Ritonavir (LPV/r) treatment is widely used to prevent HIV mother-to-child transmission. Nevertheless, studies related to the impact of these compounds on patients, in particular in the foetus and newborns, are strictly required due to the controversial findings reported in the literature concerning possible neurologic side effects following the administration of these drugs.

Objectives: In our study, we evaluated the impact of LPV/r treatment on the human glioblastoma U- 87 MG cell line. Read More

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http://www.eurekaselect.com/162504/article
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1570162X16666180528100922DOI Listing
January 2018
2 Reads

Coreceptor Tropism and Maraviroc Sensitivity of Clonally Derived Ethiopian HIV-1C Strains Using an in-house Phenotypic Assay and Commonly Used Genotypic Methods.

Curr HIV Res 2018 ;16(2):113-120

Division of Clinical Microbiology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.

Objectives: Genotypic Tropism Testing (GTT) tools are generally developed based on HIV-1 subtype B (HIV-1B) and used for HIV-1C as well but with a large discordance of prediction between different methods. We used an established phenotypic assay for comparison with GTT methods and for the determination of in vitro maraviroc sensitivity of pure R5-tropic and dual-tropic HIV-1C.

Methods: Plasma was obtained from 58 HIV-1C infected Ethiopians. Read More

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http://www.eurekaselect.com/162158/article
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1570162X16666180515124836DOI Listing
January 2018
10 Reads

Appearance of Drug Resistance Mutations Among the Dominant HIV-1 Subtype, CRF01_AE in Maumere, Indonesia.

Curr HIV Res 2018 ;16(2):158-166

Department of International Health, Kobe University Graduate School of Health Sciences, Hyogo, Japan.

Background And Objectives: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is still a major health issue in Indonesia. In recent years, the appearance of drug resistance-associated mutations has reduced the effectiveness of Antiretroviral Therapy (ART). We conducted genotypic studies, including the detection of drug resistance-associated mutations (from first-line regimen drugs), on HIV-1 genes derived from infected individuals in Maumere, West Nusa Tenggara. Read More

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http://www.eurekaselect.com/161781/article
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1570162X16666180502114344DOI Listing
January 2018
8 Reads

Editorial: The HIV/SIV Envelope Protein: From Structure To Function To Host Evasion.

Curr HIV Res 2018 ;16(1):3-4

Department of Microbiology and Immunology University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Chapel Hill, NC, United States.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1570162X1601180419095704DOI Listing
January 2018
2 Reads

Preface.

Curr HIV Res 2018 ;16(1)

National Institute of Health Building 10, Room 7C103 10 Center Drive Bethesda, MD 20892, United States.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1570162X1601180419095425DOI Listing
January 2018
2 Reads

Identification of Adjacent NNRTI Binding Pocket in Multi-mutated HIV1- RT Enzyme Model: An in silico Study.

Curr HIV Res 2018 ;16(2):121-129

Medicinal and Process Chemistry Division, CSIR- Central Drug Research Institute Lucknow 226031, India.

Introduction: A possible strategy to combat mutant strains is to have a thorough structural evaluation before and after mutations to identify the diversity in the non-nucleoside inhibitor binding pocket and their effects on enzyme-ligand interactions to generate novel NNRTI's accordingly.

Objective: The primary objective of this study was to find effects of multiple point mutations on NNRTI binding pocket. This study included the contribution of each individual mutation in NNIBP that propose an adjacent binding pocket which can be used to discover novel NNRTI derivatives. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1570162X16666180412165004DOI Listing
January 2018
3 Reads
2.130 Impact Factor

The Effect of Combination Antiretroviral Therapy Use Among HIV Positive Children on the Hazard of AIDS Using Calendar Year as an Instrumental Variable.

Curr HIV Res 2018 ;16(2):151-157

Pediatrics-Infectious Diseases, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States.

Background: Instrumental variable (IV) analyses are a common causal inference technique used in the absence of randomized data. Combination Antiretroviral Therapy (cART) was first introduced in 1996 and calendar periods have been used as a proxy for cART use. However, cART use misclassification can bias IV analyses. Read More

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http://www.eurekaselect.com/161132/article
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1570162X16666180409150826DOI Listing
January 2018
2 Reads

Identification and Characterization of Positively Selected Mutations in Nef of Four HIV-1 Major Subtypes from Los Alamos National Laboratory.

Curr HIV Res 2018 ;16(2):130-142

Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.

Background: Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) mutates rapidly to escape host immune pressure. This results in the generation of positively selected mutations (PSM) throughout the viral genome. Escape mutations in Nef, one of the accessory proteins of HIV-1, which plays an important role in viral pathogenicity have previously been identified in several large cohort studies, but the evolution of PSMs overtime in various HIV-1 subtypes remains unknown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1570162X16666180330140807DOI Listing
January 2018
3 Reads

Investigating HIV-Human Interaction Networks to Unravel Pathogenic Mechanism for Drug Discovery: A Systems Biology Approach.

Curr HIV Res 2018 ;16(1):77-95

Laboratory of Control and Systems Biology, Department of Electrical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan.

Background: Two big issues in the study of pathogens are determining how pathogens infect hosts and how the host defends itself against infection. Therefore, investigating host-pathogen interactions is important for understanding pathogenicity and host defensive mechanisms and treating infections.

Methods: In this study, we used omics data, including time-course data from high-throughput sequencing, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and human microRNA (miRNA) and protein-protein interaction to construct an interspecies protein-protein and miRNA interaction (PPMI) network of human CD4+ T cells during HIV-1 infection through system modeling and identification. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1570162X16666180219155324DOI Listing
January 2018
2 Reads

IL-10 Promoter -592 Polymorphism may Influence Susceptibility to HIV Infection in South Indian Population.

Curr HIV Res 2018 ;16(1):58-63

Department of Immunology, National Institute for Research in Tuberculosis, Chennai, India.

Background: Genetic factors play an important role in the development of disease susceptibility or protection. Cytokine gene polymorphisms are reported to be associated with altered levels of cytokine production that can impact disease progression in HIV and TB.

Objective: In this study, we studied IL-10 -592(C/A) and TGF-β -509 (C/T) promoter polymorphisms to understand their role in susceptibility or resistance to HIV and TB in a South Indian population. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1570162X16666180219153752DOI Listing
January 2018
1 Read

Comparative Genetic Variability in HIV-1 Subtype C vpu Gene in Early Age Groups of Infants.

Curr HIV Res 2018 ;16(1):64-76

Molecular Virology Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Jamia Millia Islamia, Central University, New Delhi - 110025, India.

Objective: Identifying the genetic variability in vertically transmitted viruses in early infancy is important to understand the disease progression. Being important in HIV-1 disease pathogenesis, vpu gene, isolated from young infants was investigated to understand the viral characteristics.

Method: Blood samples were obtained from 80 HIV-1 positive infants, categorized in two age groups; acute (<6 months) and early (>6-18 months). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1570162X16666180219154601DOI Listing
January 2018
3 Reads

Editorial: Challenges in HIV Epidemiology, Prevention and Treatment.

Curr HIV Res 2017 ;15(6):384-385

Department of Biomedical Sciences Humanitas University Milan, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1570162X1505180117092959DOI Listing
January 2017
1 Read

Probing Structural Variation and Dynamics in the HIV-1 Env Fusion Glycoprotein.

Curr HIV Res 2018 ;16(1):5-12

Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Biological Physics Structure and Design Program, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States.

Background: Recent advances in structural characterization of the HIV envelope glycoprotein (Env) have provided a high-resolution glimpse of the architecture of this target for neutralizing antibodies and the machinery responsible for mediating receptor binding and membrane fusion. These structures primarily capture the detailed organization of the receptor-naive, prefusion conformation of Env, but under native solution conditions Env is highly dynamic, sampling multiple conformational states as well as exhibiting local protein flexibility.

Methods: Special emphasis is placed on the use of biophysical methods, including single-molecule fluorescence microscopy and hydrogen/deuterium-exchange mass spectrometry. Read More

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http://www.eurekaselect.com/158536/article
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1570162X16666171222110025DOI Listing
January 2018
4 Reads

Evolution of Host Target Cell Specificity During HIV-1 Infection.

Curr HIV Res 2018 ;16(1):13-20

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, United States.

Background: Many details of HIV-1 molecular virology have been translated into lifesaving antiviral drugs. Yet, we have an incomplete understanding of the cells in which HIV-1 replicates in untreated individuals and persists in during antiretroviral therapy.

Methods: In this review we discuss how viral entry phenotypes have been characterized and the insights they have revealed about the target cells supporting HIV-1 replication. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1570162X16666171222105721DOI Listing
January 2018
6 Reads

Impact of Different Antiretroviral Strategies on Total HIV-DNA Level in Virologically Suppressed HIV-1 Infected Patients.

Curr HIV Res 2017 ;15(6):448-455

Microbiology Section of the Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Bologna, Via Massarenti, 9, Bologna, Italy.

Background: Total HIV-DNA load in peripheral blood cell (PBMCs) reflects the global viral reservoir that seems not to be affected by antiretroviral treatment. However, some studies reported a different permeability of different drugs in cellular compartments.

Objective: To investigate the relation between the amount of total HIV-1 DNA and different treatment strategies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1570162X16666171206121026DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5876918PMC
January 2017
28 Reads

Host Factor Predictors in Long-term Nonprogressors HIV-1 Infected with Distinct Viral Clades.

Curr HIV Res 2017 ;15(6):440-447

Postgraduate Program in Internal Medicine and Health Science, Universidade Federal do Parana, Parana, Brazil.

Background: HIV-1+ long-term nonprogressors (LTNPs) maintain natural control of viral infection. This study sought to identify and characterize HIV- LTNPs series case, regarding the presence of possible host factors that may be associated with this status.

Methods: We evaluated the plasma levels of IP-10/IL-8 chemokines, HLA-B alleles, and IL28B rs12979860 polymorphism in 24 LTNPs who presented with infection by different clades of HIV-1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1570162X16666171206120024DOI Listing
January 2017
7 Reads

The Neutralizing Antibody Response to the HIV-1 Env Protein.

Authors:
Penny L Moore

Curr HIV Res 2018 ;16(1):21-28

Centre for HIV and STIs, National Institute for Communicable Diseases of the National Health Laboratory Service, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Background: A vaccine able to elicit broadly neutralizing antibodies capable of blocking infection by global viruses has not been achieved, and remains a key public health challenge.

Objective: During infection, a robust strain-specific neutralizing response develops in most people, but only a subset of infected people develop broadly neutralizing antibodies. Understanding how and why these broadly neutralizing antibodies develop has been a focus of the HIV-1 vaccine field for many years, and has generated extraordinary insights into the neutralizing response to HIV-1 infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1570162X15666171124122044DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6234226PMC
January 2018
9 Reads

SIV Coreceptor Specificity in Natural and Non-Natural Host Infection: Implications for Cell Targeting and Differential Outcomes from Infection.

Curr HIV Res 2018 ;16(1):41-51

Department of Medicine and Penn Center for AIDS Research, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, United States.

Pathogenic HIV-1 infection of humans and SIVmac infection of macaques are the result of zoonotic transfer of primate immunodeficiency viruses from their natural hosts into non-natural host species. Natural host infections do not result in pathogenesis despite high levels of virus replication, and evidence suggests that differences in anatomical location and specific subsets of CD4+ T cells infected may underlie distinct outcomes from infection. The coreceptor CCR5 has long been considered the sole pathway for SIV entry and the key determinant of CD4+ cell targeting, but it has also been known that natural hosts express exceedingly low levels of CCR5 despite maintaining high levels of virus replication. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1570162X15666171124121805DOI Listing
January 2018
5 Reads

Knowledge, Normative Beliefs and Attitudes Related to Recent HIV Infection among People who Inject Drugs in Athens, Greece.

Curr HIV Res 2017 ;15(6):386-395

Department of Hygiene, Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.

Background: Despite great improvements in prevention over the last years, much has to be done to reduce new human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections. Substantial evidence shows that the six-month period of recent HIV infection contributes disproportionately to HIV transmission.

Objective: This study aims to investigate knowledge, normative beliefs, and attitudes of people who inject drugs (PWID) regarding recent HIV infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1570162X15666171122165636DOI Listing
January 2017
7 Reads

Integrase Strand Transfer Inhibitors and the Emergence of Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome (IRIS).

Curr HIV Res 2017 ;15(6):405-410

1st Internal Medicine Department, Laiko General Hospital, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece.

Background: Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is a major concern when starting highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) in new patients and especially late presenters. This study attempts to identify risk factors for IRIS and investigate whether certain treatment regimens increase the probability of IRIS for patients at risk.

Methods: Retrospective single-centre study of HIV patients treated with HAART. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1570162X15666171122155708DOI Listing
January 2017
13 Reads

The SIV Envelope Glycoprotein, Viral Tropism, and Pathogenesis: Novel Insights from Nonhuman Primate Models of AIDS.

Curr HIV Res 2018 ;16(1):29-40

Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, United States.

Background: Cellular tropism of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) is closely linked to interactions between the viral envelope glycoprotein (Env) with CD4 and chemokine receptor family members, CCR5 and CXCR4. This interaction plays a key role in determining anatomic sites that are infected in vivo and the cascade of early and late events that result in chronic immune activation, immunosuppression and ultimately, AIDS. CD4+ T cells are critical to adaptive immune responses, and their early and rapid infection in gut lamina propria and secondary lymphoid tissues in susceptible hosts likely contributes to viral persistence and progression to disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1570162X15666171124123116DOI Listing
January 2018
7 Reads

Detailed Molecular Surveillance of the HIV-1 Outbreak Among People who Inject Drugs (PWID) in Athens During a Period of Four Years.

Curr HIV Res 2017 ;15(6):396-404

Department of Hygiene, Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.

Background: New diagnoses of HIV-1 infection among people who inject drugs (PWID) increased significantly during 2011 in Athens.

Objective: Our aim was to investigate the patterns of HIV epidemic spread among PWID and to estimate the transmission dynamics for the major local transmission networks (LTNs).

Methods: We analyzed sequences from 2,274 HIV-infected subjects sampled in Greece during 01/01/2011-31/10/2014. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1570162X15666171120104048DOI Listing
January 2017
13 Reads

Nucleotide Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors: A Thorough Review, Present Status and Future Perspective as HIV Therapeutics.

Curr HIV Res 2017 ;15(6):411-421

Creighton University School of Pharmacy & Health Professions, Omaha, NE, United States.

Background: Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) infection leads to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), a severe viral infection that has claimed approximately 658,507 lives in the US between the years 2010-2014. Antiretroviral (ARV) therapy has proven to inhibit HIV-1, but unlike other viral illness, not cure the infection.

Objective: Among various Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved ARVs, nucleoside/ nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) are most effective in limiting HIV-1 infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1570162X15666171120110145DOI Listing
January 2017
6 Reads

Association Between LTF Polymorphism and Risk of HIV-1 Transmission Among Zambian Seropositive Mothers.

Curr HIV Res 2018 ;16(1):52-57

Department of Medicine, Surgery and Health Sciences, University of Trieste, Trieste, Italy.

Background: Lactoferrin is a member of the innate immune system acting in the first line of defence against pathogens, and it is known for its antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral activity, including HIV-1. Two polymorphisms, T29A and R47K, in the exon 1 region of the LTF gene (encoding for the lactoferrin protein) were previously described as able to influence the lactoferrin antimicrobial function.

Objectives: LTF T29A and R47K genetic variants were analysed in a Zambian population to unravel if these polymorphisms could play a role in HIV-1 mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1570162X15666171120105752DOI Listing
January 2018
7 Reads

Direct-acting Antivirals for HIV/HCV Co-infected Individuals: As Good as it Gets?

Curr HIV Res 2017 ;15(6):422-433

Clinic of Infectious Diseases, University of Bari, Bari, Italy.

Although HIV/HCV co-infected individuals were historically considered a "difficult to treat" population in the era of Interferon (IFN)-based anti-HCV treatment, the introduction of directacting antivirals, characterized by excellent efficacy and good safety profile, has widely revolutionized the HCV treatment scenario. Recent real life studies reported excellent sustained virological response rates in HIV/HCV coinfected subjects, thus confirming data obtained in randomized clinical trials. However, certain issues have recently emerged in this population. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1570162X15666171108125255DOI Listing
January 2017
3 Reads

Construction and Production of HIV-VLP Harboring MPER-V3 for Potential Vaccine Study.

Curr HIV Res 2017 ;15(6):434-439

Shiraz Transplant Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Background: Vaccine against HIV-1 is not currently available. In present, Virus like particles (VLPs) as effective strategy was used in several vaccine developing. Two conserved sequences; V3 loop of gp120 and the membrane-proximal external region (MPER) of gp41 are dominant sites for vaccine studies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1570162X15666171017122229DOI Listing
January 2017
4 Reads

Pilot Integration of HIV Screening and Healthcare Settings with Multi- Component Social Network and Partner Testing for HIV Detection.

Curr HIV Res 2017 Nov;15(5):372-381

Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, USA.

Background: Healthcare settings screen broadly for HIV. Public health settings use social network and partner testing ("Transmission Network Targeting (TNT)") to select high-risk individuals based on their contacts. HIV screening and TNT systems are not integrated, and healthcare settings have not implemented TNT. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1570162X15666171017121301DOI Listing
November 2017
18 Reads

Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision to Prevent HIV in Tanah Papua, Indonesia: Field Trial to Assess Acceptability and Feasibility.

Curr HIV Res 2017 Nov;15(5):361-371

Clinton Health Access Initiative (CHAI), Jakarta, Indonesia.

Background: Relatively little attention has been paid to the significant HIV prevention role that voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) can play in populations with moderate levels of HIV prevalence. One such location is Tanah Papua, Indonesia, which in 2013 had a general population having HIV prevalence of 2.3% concentrated among indigenous Papuans (2. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1570162X15666171005170849DOI Listing
November 2017
42 Reads
2.130 Impact Factor

Association between Vitamin D Status, Oxidative Stress Biomarkers and Viral Load in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infection.

Curr HIV Res 2017 Nov;15(5):336-344

Department of Pathology, Clinical and Toxicological Analysis, Health Sciences Center, State University of Londrina, Londrina, Brazil.

Background: The role of vitamin D in the pathophysiology of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is still unclear.

Objective: To evaluate the associations between vitamin D and immunological, virological, and oxidative stress biomarkers in individuals with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection.

Methods: The serum levels of 25 hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] were determined in 314 HIV-1- infected individuals and 127 controls and the values ≥30 ng/mL defined a vitamin D sufficient (VDS) status, and <30 ng/mL defined the presence of hypovitaminosis D (HD). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1570162X15666171005170227DOI Listing
November 2017
16 Reads

Long-Term Treatment With Raltegravir is Associated with Lower Triglycerides and Platelets Count in the Older HIV+ Population: Results from the Ral-Age Study.

Curr HIV Res 2017 Nov;15(5):355-360

Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

Background: Raltegravir (RAL) is considered one of the better-tolerated antiretroviral medications, due to limited side effects and minimal drug-drug interactions. Matherials and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated 96 HIV+, over 60 years old, experienced patients who had switched from any antiretroviral drug to raltegravir-based nuc-sparing or standard nucleoside-backbone regimens. A control group with patients aged under 60 years old was included. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1570162X15666170927124558DOI Listing
November 2017
11 Reads

Impact of High Protein Intake on Viral Load and Hematological Parameters in HIV-infected Patients.

Curr HIV Res 2017 Nov;15(5):345-354

Municipal Center of HIV/AIDS prophylaxis, P.O. Box 500, 628412, Surgut. Russian Federation.

Background: The impact of protein intake level leads to considerable alterations of the host essential amino acid profiles in the context of chronic viral infectious process. Amino acids play an important role in the pathogenesis of virus-related infections both as basic substrates for constant protein synthesis and as regulators in many metabolic pathways. The excess or deficiency of these host essential nutritional elements can play a limiting role in the life cycle of some viruses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1570162X15666171002121209DOI Listing
November 2017
4 Reads