555 results match your criteria Current HIV/AIDS Reports[Journal]


Physiological Changes from Violence-Induced Stress and Trauma Enhance HIV Susceptibility Among Women.

Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Division of Infectious Diseases and Global Public Health, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, MC 0507, La Jolla, CA, 92093-0507, USA.

Purpose Of Review: This theoretical review identifies physiological mechanisms by which violence against women (VAW) may increase women's susceptibility to HIV through trauma, stress, and immune dysfunction.

Recent Findings: Research documents systemic and local immune responses are related to stress and trauma from abuse across the life course (i.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11904-019-00435-8DOI Listing
February 2019

The Impact of ACA and Medicaid Expansion on Progress Toward UNAIDS 90-90-90 Goals.

Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Department of Health Services, University of Washington, Seattle, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Passage of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) in 2010 and subsequent Medicaid expansion has influenced access to HIV treatment and care in the USA. This review aims to evaluate whether the implementation of these policies has impacted progress toward UNAIDS 90-90-90 goals.

Recent Findings: Preliminary evidence has emerged suggesting that the ACA and Medicaid expansion has increased the likelihood of HIV testing and diagnosis, reduced the number of people unaware of HIV infection, and increased the number of people on antiretroviral therapy (ART) who are virally suppressed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11904-019-00429-6DOI Listing
February 2019

Interventions to Reduce Drug Use Among Methamphetamine Users at Risk for HIV.

Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Colorado School of Medicine, 1557 Ogden St., Denver, CO, 80218, USA.

Purpose Of Review: This paper reports on the results of a study comparing two behavioral treatments for methamphetamine users. The outcome was the effectiveness of the interventions in reducing meth use. The interventions were contingency management (CM) and contingency management plus strengths-based case management (CM/SBCM). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11904-019-00423-yDOI Listing
February 2019

Substance Use Screening in HIV Care Settings: a Review and Critique of the Literature.

Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 2019 Feb 12. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Addiction Sciences Division, Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Neuroscience, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, USA.

Purpose Of Review: People living with human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS (PLWHA) experience high prevalence of substance use disorders (SUD). HIV care settings represent a unique opportunity to identify possible SUD, to provide SUD interventions, and to improve linkage to SUD treatment. The aims of this paper are to (a) review and critique the extant literature examining substance use screening approaches among PLWHA in HIV care settings and (b) provide recommendations for future clinical practice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11904-019-00434-9DOI Listing
February 2019

Substance Use and HIV Among Justice-Involved Youth: Intersecting Risks.

Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 2019 Feb 8. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

Department of Psychiatry, Weill Institute for Neurosciences, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Purpose Of Review: This review discusses recent advances in research on the intersection of HIV prevention and substance use among youth involved with the justice system. We discuss current themes of recent findings and provide guidance for researchers, policymakers, and clinicians on the next steps in advancing work in this nascent area.

Recent Findings: Of the 46 studies that measured HIV risk and substance use among justice-involved youth, 56% were cross-sectional designs, 22% were intervention trials, and 22% were longitudinal designs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11904-019-00424-xDOI Listing
February 2019

HIV Eradication Strategies: Implications for the Central Nervous System.

Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 2019 Feb 8. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

Department of Molecular and Comparative Pathobiology, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Purpose Of Review: In addition to preventive protocols and antiretroviral therapy, HIV-1 eradication has been considered as an additional strategy to help fight the AIDS epidemic. With the support of multiple funding agencies, research groups worldwide have been developing protocols to achieve either a sterilizing or a functional cure for HIV-infection.

Recent Findings: Most of the studies focus on the elimination or suppression of circulating CD4+ T cells, the best characterized HIV-1 latent reservoir. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11904-019-00428-7DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Breaking the Glyco-Code of HIV Persistence and Immunopathogenesis.

Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 2019 Feb 1. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

The Wistar Institute, 3601 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Glycoimmunology is an emerging field focused on understanding how immune responses are mediated by glycans (carbohydrates) and their interaction with glycan-binding proteins called lectins. How glycans influence immunological functions is increasingly well understood. In a parallel way, in the HIV field, it is increasingly understood how the host immune system controls HIV persistence and immunopathogenesis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11904-019-00433-wDOI Listing
February 2019

HIV Prevention Interventions for Adolescents.

Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 2019 Feb 1. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

Purpose Of Review: The goal of this paper is to review recent data on biomedical, behavioral, and structural HIV prevention interventions for adolescents and young adults.

Recent Findings: While it is accepted that HIV prevention interventions must take an integrated approach to achieve maximum effectiveness, to date, there have been limited, rigorously evaluated combination prevention interventions for adolescents. There are currently a range of effective biomedical, behavioral, and structural approaches that can be integrated into prevention packages to address the prevention needs of adolescents, including oral PrEP, male circumcision, rapid HIV testing, numerous behavioral interventions, and structural interventions such as cash transfers and community mobilization to address gender-based violence. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11904-019-00431-yDOI Listing
February 2019

A Review of Telehealth Innovations for HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP).

Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 2019 Jan 30. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

Division of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

Purpose Of Review: This review summarizes novel interventions that employ technology to improve HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) availability, uptake, and adherence.

Recent Findings: Several notable technology-based programs are increasing access to PrEP in unique ways. We identified multiple models for using telehealth to bolster PrEP dissemination and adherence, such as mobile applications that offer PrEP prescribing without an in-person visit, longitudinal distance telementoring for community provider PrEP education and clinical guidance, and electronic consults for PrEP specialist support in the primary care setting. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11904-019-00430-zDOI Listing
January 2019

Medications for Treatment of Opioid Use Disorder among Persons Living with HIV.

Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 2019 Jan 25. Epub 2019 Jan 25.

Section of Addiction Medicine, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Recent HIV outbreaks have occurred as a result of the current US opioid epidemic. Providing medications for opioid use disorder (MOUD) with methadone, buprenorphine, and extended-release naltrexone is essential to achieving optimal HIV treatment outcomes including viral suppression and retention in treatment. This review describes the pharmacology of MOUD with specific attention to interactions with antiretroviral therapy, and to the effect of MOUD on HIV treatment outcomes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11904-019-00436-7DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

The Association Between Marijuana Use and HIV Continuum of Care Outcomes: a Systematic Review.

Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 2019 Jan 22. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Division of Prevention and Community Research, Yale School of Medicine, The Consultation Center, 389 Whitney Avenue, New Haven, CT, 06511, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Approximately 77% of HIV-infected adults report lifetime marijuana use. Given the high rates and social acceptability of marijuana use among HIV-infected individuals, it is important to gain a stronger understanding of if, and how, marijuana impacts HIV care cascade outcomes. The purpose of this study is to systematically review recent articles that assess the relationship between marijuana use and HIV continuum of care outcomes. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11904-019-00422-z
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11904-019-00422-zDOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

HIV, Depression, and Cognitive Impairment in the Era of Effective Antiretroviral Therapy.

Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 2019 Jan 19. Epub 2019 Jan 19.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Mental health disorders, especially depression, are prevalent among people living with HIV (PLWH) and are associated with cognitive impairment (CI) among HIV-uninfected (HIV-) individuals. We conducted a comprehensive review of the link between depression and cognition among PLWH.

Recent Findings: Studies examining depression and cognition in PLWH report high rates of current (median = 24%) and lifetime depression (42%). Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11904-019-00421-0
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11904-019-00421-0DOI Listing
January 2019
6 Reads

Social Networks of Substance-Using Populations: Key Issues and Promising New Approaches for HIV.

Authors:
Brooke S West

Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 2019 Jan 18. Epub 2019 Jan 18.

School of Social Work, Columbia University, 1255 Amsterdam Avenue, New York, NY, 10027, USA.

Purpose Of Review: This paper presents recent literature on substance using networks and HIV, highlighting renewed and emerging themes in the field. The goal is to draw attention to research that holds considerable promise for advancing our understanding of the role of networks in shaping behaviors, while also providing critical information for the development of interventions, programs, and policies to reduce HIV and other drug-related harms.

Recent Findings: Recent research advances our understanding of networks and HIV, including among understudied populations, and provides new insight into how risk environments shape the networks and health of substance-using populations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11904-019-00425-wDOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Cerebrospinal Fluid Concentrations of the Synaptic Marker Neurogranin in Neuro-HIV and Other Neurological Disorders.

Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 2019 Jan 16. Epub 2019 Jan 16.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Institute of Biomedicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, 416 45, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Purpose Of Review: The aim of this study was to examine the synaptic biomarker neurogranin in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in different stages of HIV infection and in relation to what is known about CSF neurogranin in other neurodegenerative diseases.

Recent Findings: CSF concentrations of neurogranin are increased in Alzheimer's disease, but not in other neurodegenerative disorder such as Parkinson's disease, frontotemporal dementia, and Lewy body dementia. Adults with HIV-associated dementia have been found to have decreased levels of neurogranin in the frontal cortex, which at least to some extent, may be mediated by the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-8. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11904-019-00420-1DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Health Behavior Theory to Enhance eHealth Intervention Research in HIV: Rationale and Review.

Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 2018 Dec;15(6):423-430

Department of Psychology, University of Washington, 3909 Stevens Way NE, Box 351525, Seattle, WA, 98195, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Optimal design and evaluation of eHealth interventions requires the specification of behavioral targets and hypothesized mechanisms of action-both of which can be enhanced with the use of established health behavior theories (HBTs). In this paper, we describe the major HBTs and examine their use in studies of eHealth interventions for HIV prevention and treatment and assess the contribution of HBT in developing and evaluating eHealth interventions.

Recent Findings: Based on our review of the literature, we argue the field can benefit from more systematic selection, application, and reporting of HBT. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11904-018-0418-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6324197PMC
December 2018
1 Read

A Missing Link: HIV-/AIDS-Related mHealth Interventions for Health Workers in Low- and Middle-Income Countries.

Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 2018 Dec;15(6):414-422

Department of Global Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, 98105, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Through a review of the peer-reviewed and gray literature on HIV mobile health (mHealth) tools for health workers and in-depth interviews with mHealth leaders in the field, we provide a synthesis of current work and propose mHealth research priorities for HIV prevention, care, and treatment.

Recent Findings: Significant investment in implementation research and bringing together researchers capable of identifying drivers of successful implementation and industry leaders capable of bringing efficacious tools to scale are needed to move this area forward. Effective and appropriate technologies to support health systems in the prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS in low- and middle-income countries are needed to improve the efficiency and quality of health service delivery and ultimately improve health outcomes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11904-018-0416-xDOI Listing
December 2018
15 Reads

eHealth for Stigma Reduction Efforts Designed to Improve Engagement in Care for People Living with HIV.

Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 2018 Dec;15(6):397-402

Department of Psychology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

Purpose Of Review: HIV-related stigma remains a significant barrier to engagement in care for persons living with HIV (PLWH) worldwide. This review examines the use of eHealth technologies for reducing stigma as a pathway toward improved engagement in care for PLWH. We provide a brief overview of effective stigma reduction interventions for PLWH, both eHealth and others; identify gaps in the research on use of eHealth technologies for stigma reduction; and suggest potential research avenues moving forward. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11904-018-0414-zDOI Listing
December 2018
6 Reads

Actionable Adherence Monitoring: Technological Methods to Monitor and Support Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy.

Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 2018 Oct;15(5):388-396

Center for Global Health, Massachusetts General Hospital, 125 Nashua St, Suite 722, Boston, MA, 02114, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Current digital technologies are being used for "actionable adherence monitoring"; that is, technologies that can be used to identify episodes of non-adherence to ART in a timely manner such that tailored interventions based on adherence data can be provided when and where they are needed most.

Recent Findings: Current digital communication technologies used to monitor ART adherence include electronic adherence monitors (EAMs), digital ingestion monitors, cellular phones, and electronic pharmacy refill tracking systems. Currently available real-time adherence monitoring approaches based on cellular technology allow for the delivery of interventions precisely when and where they are needed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11904-018-0413-0DOI Listing
October 2018
1 Read

Human Genetic Variation and HIV/AIDS in Papua New Guinea: Time to Connect the Dots.

Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 2018 Dec;15(6):431-440

Center for Global Health and Diseases, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Biomedical Research Building, #409A, 2109 Adelbert Rd., Cleveland, OH, 44106, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Human genetic polymorphisms known to influence HIV acquisition and disease progression occur in Papua New Guinea (PNG). However, no genetic association study has been reported so far. In this article, we review research findings, with a view to stimulate genotype-to-phenotype research. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11904-018-0417-9DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

Implementation of eHealth Interventions Across the HIV Care Cascade: a Review of Recent Research.

Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 2018 Dec;15(6):403-413

Department of Global Health, University of Washington, Ninth and Jefferson Building, 13th Floor, Box 359932, 908 Jefferson Street, Seattle, WA, 98104, USA.

Purpose Of Review: We review recent implementation science focusing on eHealth interventions to improve outcomes along the HIV care cascade. We highlight several gaps in the eHealth implementation literature and propose areas for future study.

Recent Findings: We identified 17 studies conducted in North America, Europe, and sub-Saharan Africa assessing the acceptability, appropriateness, adoption, cost, feasibility, fidelity, penetration, or sustainability of eHealth interventions targeting the HIV care cascade. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11904-018-0415-y
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11904-018-0415-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6289676PMC
December 2018
13 Reads

CNS Persistence of HIV-1 in Children: the Untapped Reservoir.

Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 2018 Oct;15(5):382-387

Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 720 Rutland Avenue, Ross Building 1170, Baltimore, MD, 21205, USA.

Purpose Of Review: The central nervous system (CNS) represents a potential HIV-1 reservoir that may need to be specifically targeted by remission strategies. Perinatally HIV-1-infected children and youth are exposed to HIV-1 at a critical period of brain development. This review summarizes the current literature regarding HIV-1 and the CNS in perinatal infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11904-018-0412-1DOI Listing
October 2018
14 Reads

A Dissemination and Implementation Science Approach to the Epidemic of Opioid Use Disorder in the United States.

Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 2018 Oct;15(5):359-370

College of Public Health, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN, USA.

Purpose Of Review: This review aims to (1) conceptualize the complexity of the opioid use disorder epidemic using a conceptual model grounded in the disease continuum and corresponding levels of prevention and (2) summarize a select set of interventions for the prevention and treatment of opioid use disorder.

Recent Findings: Epidemiologic data indicate non-medical prescription and illicit opioid use have reached unprecedented levels, fueling an opioid use disorder epidemic in the USA. A problem of this magnitude is rooted in multiple supply- and demand-side drivers, the combined effect of which outweighs current prevention and treatment efforts. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11904-018-0409-9DOI Listing
October 2018
7 Reads

Inflammation and Metabolic Complications in HIV.

Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 2018 Oct;15(5):371-381

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, A2200-MCN, 1161 21st Avenue South, Nashville, TN, 37232-2582, USA.

Purpose Of Review: We aim to provide an in-depth review of recent literature highlighting the role of inflammation involving the adipose tissue, liver, skeletal muscles, and gastrointestinal tract in the development of metabolic complications among persons living with HIV (PLWH).

Recent Findings: Recent studies in PLWH have demonstrated a significant association between circulating inflammatory markers and development of insulin resistance and metabolic complications. In adipose tissue, pro-inflammatory cytokine expression inhibits adipocyte insulin signaling, which alters lipid and glucose homeostasis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11904-018-0411-2DOI Listing
October 2018
1 Read

Federal Response to the Opioid Crisis.

Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 2018 Aug;15(4):293-301

Substance Abuse Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), Rockville, MD, USA.

Purpose Of Review: In light of the current crisis in opioid involved overdose deaths, the federal Department of Health and Human Services operating divisions are working together to implement a data-driven, research-based strategy to reduce opioid misuse and its consequences.

Recent Findings: The strategy has five elements: (1) strengthening public health data collection and reporting; (2) advancing the practice of pain management; (3) improving access to addiction prevention, treatment, and recovery support services; (4) increasing availability of overdose-reversing drugs; and (5) supporting cutting-edge research in treatment of pain, opioid use disorder, and associated conditions. The Department of Health and Human Services has developed a concerted, coordinated evidence-based effort across department divisions to reduce opioid misuse, prevalence of opioid use disorder, and reduce deaths due to opioid use. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11904-018-0398-8DOI Listing
August 2018
3 Reads

eHealth to Enhance Treatment Adherence Among Youth Living with HIV.

Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 2018 Aug;15(4):336-349

Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 130 Mason Farm Road, Bioinformatics Building CB# 7030, Chapel Hill, NC, 27599-7030, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Multiple reviews have examined eHealth/mHealth interventions to address treatment adherence, including those focusing on youth living with HIV (YLWH). This review synthesizes results of prior reviews and recent studies (last 5 years) to provide a path forward for future research, acknowledging both lessons learned and gaps to be addressed.

Recent Findings: Recent studies provide further evidence for the feasibility and acceptability of technology-based HIV interventions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11904-018-0407-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6086132PMC
August 2018
3 Reads

Working With Persons Who Inject Drugs and Live in Rural Areas: Implications From China/Vietnam for the USA.

Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 2018 Aug;15(4):302-307

The Baron Edmond de Rothschild Chemical Dependency Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, 39 Broadway 5th Floor Suite 530, New York, NY, 10006, USA.

Purpose Of Review: To describe a small city/rural area HIV prevention project (the Cross Border Project) implemented in Ning Ming County, Guangxi Province, China, and Lang Son province, Vietnam, and consider its implications for addressing the opioid/heroin epidemic in small cities/rural areas in the USA. The description and the outcomes of the Cross Border project were taken from published reports, project records, and recent data provided by local public health authorities. Evaluation included serial cross-sectional surveys of people who inject drugs to assess trends in risk behaviors and HIV prevalence. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11904-018-0405-0DOI Listing
August 2018
3 Reads

Implementing Treatment of Opioid-Use Disorder in Rural Settings: a Focus on HIV and Hepatitis C Prevention and Treatment.

Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 2018 Aug;15(4):315-323

Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.

Purpose Of Review: To describe the epidemiology of opioid-use disorder in the rural United States (U.S.) as it pertains to HIV and hepatitis C transmission and treatment resources. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11904-018-0402-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6260984PMC
August 2018
6 Reads

Young Drug Users: a Vulnerable Population and an Underutilized Resource in HIV/HCV Prevention.

Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 2018 Aug;15(4):324-335

National Development Research Institutes, Inc., 71 West 23rd Street, 4th Floor, New York, NY, 10010, USA.

Purpose Of Review: The social networks of people who inject drugs (PWID) have long been studied to understand disease transmission dynamics and social influences on risky practices. We illustrate how PWID can be active agents promoting HIV, HCV, and overdose prevention.

Recent Findings: We assessed drug users' connections and interactions with others at risk for HIV/HCV in three cities: New York City (NYC), USA (n = 539); Pereira, Colombia (n = 50); and St. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11904-018-0406-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6309604PMC
August 2018
2 Reads

eHealth and Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV.

Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 2018 Aug;15(4):350-357

Departments of Global Health, Epidemiology, Medicine, and Pediatrics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

Purpose Of Review: The goal of this paper is to describe areas in prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) programs that could benefit from ehealth and to summarize current evidence of ehealth effectiveness in PMTCT.

Recent Findings: PMTCT programs require maternal retention, adherence to antiretroviral treatment (ART), and return for infant diagnosis of HIV. eHealth systems for PMTCT could either be integrated within MCH ehealth systems or within HIV adherence ehealth systems. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11904-018-0408-xDOI Listing
August 2018
19 Reads

HIV/HCV Co-infection: Burden of Disease and Care Strategies in Appalachia.

Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 2018 Aug;15(4):308-314

Department of Community and Behavioral Health, College of Public Health, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN, USA.

Purpose Of Review: The purpose of this review is to address infection with HIV and hepatitis C in the Appalachian region of the USA and the driving forces underlying this epidemic. We seek to discuss epidemiology of disease and the possible interventions to reduce incidence and burden of disease in this resource-limited area.

Recent Findings: The rise of the opioid crisis has fueled a rise in new hepatitis C infection, and a rise in new HIV infection is expected to follow. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11904-018-0404-1DOI Listing
August 2018
27 Reads

Network Research Experiences in New York and Eastern Europe: Lessons for the Southern US in Understanding HIV Transmission Dynamics.

Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 2018 06;15(3):283-292

Medical School, University of Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus.

Purpose: This paper presents an overview of different kinds of risk and social network methods and the kinds of research questions each can address.

Recent Findings: It also reviews what network research has discovered about how network characteristics are associated with HIV and other infections, risk behaviors, preventive behaviors, and care, and discusses some ways in which network-based public health interventions have been conducted. Based on this, risk and social network research and interventions seem both feasible and valuable for addressing the many public health and social problems raised by the widespread use of opioids in the US South. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11904-018-0403-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6010197PMC
June 2018
5 Reads

Challenges Facing a Rural Opioid Epidemic: Treatment and Prevention of HIV and Hepatitis C.

Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 2018 06;15(3):245-254

Division of Epidemiology, Ohio State University College of Public Health, 302 Cunz Hall, 1841 Neil Avenue, Columbus, OH, 43220, USA.

Purpose Of Review: This article reviews recent epidemiologic trends in HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) and strategies for treatment and prevention of these infections as they relate to the opioid epidemic.

Recent Findings: Among people who inject drugs (PWID) in the United States (US), HIV diagnoses are decreasing, while HCV is increasing. Care for HIV and HCV relies heavily on specialist infrastructure, which is lacking in rural areas. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11904-018-0393-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6085134PMC
June 2018
4 Reads

Integrated Models of Care for Individuals with Opioid Use Disorder: How Do We Prevent HIV and HCV?

Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 2018 06;15(3):266-275

Departments of Behavioral Medicine & Psychiatry and Medicine, West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown, WV, USA.

Purpose Of Review: To describe models of integrated and co-located care for opioid use disorder (OUD), hepatitis C (HCV), and HIV.

Recent Findings: The design and scale-up of multidisciplinary care models that engage, retain, and treat individuals with HIV, HCV, and OUD are critical to preventing continued spread of HIV and HCV. We identified 17 models within primary care (N = 3), HIV specialty care (N = 5), opioid treatment programs (N = 6), transitional clinics (N = 2), and community-based harm reduction programs (N = 1), as well as two emerging models. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11904-018-0396-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6003996PMC
June 2018
4 Reads

HIV and Cardiovascular Disease: Update on Clinical Events, Special Populations, and Novel Biomarkers.

Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 2018 Jun;15(3):233-244

School of Medicine, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA.

Purpose Of Review: The objective of this review is to provide an update on the link between HIV infection and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We will focus our review mainly on literature describing clinical CVD events and understudied topics of importance.

Recent Findings: Heart failure, peripheral artery disease, and stroke are CVD modalities deserving more attention in the context of HIV infection in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11904-018-0400-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6230511PMC
June 2018
1 Read

Opioid Use Among Those Who Have Criminal Justice Experience: Harm Reduction Strategies to Lessen HIV Risk.

Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 2018 Jun;15(3):255-258

Fay W. Boozman College of Public Health, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR, USA.

Purpose Of Review: We reviewed the HIV and opioid literature relevant to harm reduction strategies for those with criminal justice experience.

Recent Findings: Opioid use in the United States has risen at an alarming rate recently. This has led to increased numbers of people who inject drugs, placing new populations at risk for HIV, including those who have criminal justice experience. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11904-018-0394-zDOI Listing
June 2018
1 Read

Syringe Decriminalization Advocacy in Red States: Lessons from the North Carolina Harm Reduction Coalition.

Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 2018 Jun;15(3):276-282

North Carolina Harm Reduction Coalition, Wilmington, NC, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Syringe access programs (SAPs) are cornerstone harm reduction interventions for combatting the national opioid epidemic. The goal of this paper is to describe effective advocacy strategies for enacting syringe decriminalization legislation to foster the expansion of SAPs in high-need areas amidst political opposition.

Recent Findings: Decades or research shows that SAPs prevent the transmission of HIV among people who inject drugs (PWID) and are a cost-effective tool for linking PWID to medical care, health education, and social services. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11904-018-0397-9
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11904-018-0397-9DOI Listing
June 2018
2 Reads

Continued Interest and Controversy: Vitamin D in HIV.

Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 2018 06;15(3):199-211

Division of Infectious Diseases, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Vitamin D (VitD) deficiency is highly prevalent among HIV-infected individuals. Given the overlapping risk for several chronic disease and immunomodulatory outcomes from both long-standing HIV and VitD deficiency, there is great interest in clarifying the clinical role of VitD for this population.

Recent Findings: Recent studies have expanded our knowledge regarding the epidemiology and mechanisms of VitD deficiency-associated outcomes in the setting of HIV. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11904-018-0401-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6003869PMC
June 2018
1 Read

Factors Associated With Insulin Resistance in Adults With HIV Receiving Contemporary Antiretroviral Therapy: a Brief Update.

Authors:
Todd Hulgan

Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 2018 06;15(3):223-232

Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Tennessee Valley Veterans Health System/Nashville Veterans Affairs Hospital, A2200 MCN, 1161 21st Ave S, Nashville, TN, 37232, USA.

Purpose Of Review: This narrative review summarizes recent data on factors associated with insulin resistance (IR) in adults with HIV, including contemporary antiretroviral therapy (ART).

Recent Findings: IR remains common in persons with HIV, even those receiving contemporary ART. Generalized and abdominal obesity and ectopic fat are correlates of IR, and emerging data have identified associations with biomarkers of inflammation and immune activation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11904-018-0399-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6003865PMC
June 2018
1 Read

NAFLD and HIV: Do Sex, Race, and Ethnicity Explain HIV-Related Risk?

Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 2018 06;15(3):212-222

Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Colorado-Anschutz Medical Campus, 12700 E. 19th Avenue, Mail Stop B168, Aurora, CO, 80045, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Here, we review the epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in the general population, discuss HIV-specific differences in NAFLD pathogenesis, and summarize what is known regarding differences in NAFLD by race/ethnicity and sex.

Recent Findings: The reported prevalence of NAFLD among people living with HIV varies by age, body mass index, comorbidity, and method of NAFLD diagnosis, but is generally thought to be greater among HIV-infected compared to HIV-uninfected populations. Minorities and women tend to experience poorer HIV treatment outcomes (Meditz et al. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11904-018-0392-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6003864PMC
June 2018
4 Reads

The Policy-Driven HIV Epidemic Among Opioid Users in the Russian Federation.

Authors:
Robert Heimer

Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 2018 06;15(3):259-265

Department of Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases and Center for Interdisciplinary Research on AIDS, Yale University School of Public Health, New Haven, CT, 06520-8034, USA.

Purpose Of Review: To explore the consequences of policies implemented in the Russian Federation in response to syndemic of HIV-1 and opioid use disorder and compare the responses to the concomitant syndemic in rural America.

Recent Findings: The syndemic spread has not been reduced by policies implemented by the Russian government, which continues to underfund harm reduction efforts to reduce HIV transmission, refuses to approve evidence-based opioid agonist treatments for opioid use disorder, and relies on criminal justice and abstinence approaches to control illicit opioids. When effective measures have been undertaken locally, the lessons learned have not been transferred to other parts of the country and local programs have been allowed to wither. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11904-018-0395-y
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11904-018-0395-yDOI Listing
June 2018
18 Reads

Significance and Management of Isolated Hepatitis B Core Antibody (Anti-HBc) in HIV and HCV: Strategies in the DAA Era.

Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 2018 04;15(2):172-181

UCLA CARE Center, Division of Infectious Diseases, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, 37-121 CHS, Los Angeles, CA, 90095, USA.

Purpose Of Review: The purpose of this review is to summarize the prevalence and clinical implications of the isolated anti-HBc serologic profile in HIV-infected individuals. We highlight the rare but important issue of HBV reactivation in the setting of HCV therapy and describe an approach to management.

Recent Findings: The isolated anti-HBc pattern, a profile that most often indicates past exposure to HBV with waning anti-HBs immunity, is found commonly in HIV-infected individuals, particularly those with HCV. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11904-018-0379-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6039383PMC
April 2018
4 Reads

The Influence of Cervicovaginal Microbiota on Mucosal Immunity and Prophylaxis in the Battle against HIV.

Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 2018 02;15(1):30-38

Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT, and Harvard, Massachusetts General Hospital, 400 Technology Square, Cambridge, MA, 02139, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Young women in sub-Saharan Africa bear a disproportionate burden of the global HIV epidemic. In this review, we examine how cervicovaginal microbiota modulate structural and immune defenses in the female genital tract and influence HIV susceptibility.

Recent Findings: Highly diverse, anaerobic cervicovaginal microbiota prevalent in sub-Saharan African women increase HIV acquisition risk by over fourfold. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11904-018-0380-5DOI Listing
February 2018
4 Reads

The Dual Role of Neutrophils in HIV Infection.

Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 2018 02;15(1):1-10

Department of Pharmaceutics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

Purpose Of Review: We summarize what is known about neutrophils in HIV infection, focusing on their potential roles in HIV protection, acquisition, and pathogenesis.

Recent Findings: Recent studies have demonstrated that neutrophil-associated proteins and cytokines in genital tissue pre-infection associate with HIV acquisition. However, recent in vivo assessment of highly exposed seronegative individuals and in vitro studies of anti-HIV functions of neutrophils add to older literature evidence that neutrophils may be important in a protective response to HIV infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11904-018-0370-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6086572PMC
February 2018
2 Reads

Serious Non-AIDS Conditions in HIV: Benefit of Early ART.

Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 2018 04;15(2):162-171

Division of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Optimal control of HIV can be achieved by early diagnosis followed by the initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Two large randomised trials (TEMPRANO and START) have recently been published documenting the clinical benefits to HIV-positive adults of early ART initiation. Main findings are reviewed with a focus on serious non-AIDS (SNA) conditions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11904-018-0387-yDOI Listing
April 2018
4 Reads

Sex Differences in HIV Infection.

Authors:
Eileen P Scully

Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 2018 04;15(2):136-146

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Pre-Clinical Teaching Building, Suite 211, 725 N Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD, 21205, USA.

Purpose Of Review: This review will outline the multilevel effects of biological sex on HIV acquisition, pathogenesis, treatment response, and prospects for cure. Potential mechanisms will be discussed along with future research directions.

Recent Findings: HIV acquisition risk is modified by sex hormones and the vaginal microbiome, with the latter acting through both inflammation and local metabolism of pre-exposure prophylaxis drugs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11904-018-0383-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5882769PMC
April 2018
2 Reads

Quarter Century of Anti-HIV CAR T Cells.

Authors:
Thor A Wagner

Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 2018 04;15(2):147-154

Seattle Children's Research Institute, 1900 Ninth Ave, 8th Floor, Seattle, WA, 98101, USA.

Purpose Of Review: A therapy that might cure HIV is a very important goal for the 30-40 million people living with HIV. Chimeric antigen receptor T cells have recently had remarkable success against certain leukemias, and there are reasons to believe they could be successful for HIV. This manuscript summarizes the published research on HIV CAR T cells and reviews the current anti-HIV chimeric antigen receptor strategies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11904-018-0388-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5884727PMC
April 2018
1 Read

The Role of Integrin αβ in HIV Pathogenesis and Treatment.

Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 2018 04;15(2):127-135

Laboratory of Immunoregulation, National Institutes of Allergy & Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 10 Center Drive Rm 6A08, Bethesda, MD, 20814, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Acute HIV infection is characterized by high-level viral replication throughout the body's lymphoid system, particularly in gut-associated lymphoid tissues resulting in damage to structural components of gut tissue. This damage is irreversible and believed to contribute to the development of immune deficiencies. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) does not restore gut structure and function. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11904-018-0382-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5882766PMC
April 2018
3 Reads

Treatment of Hepatitis C during Pregnancy-Weighing the Risks and Benefits in Contrast to HIV.

Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 2018 04;15(2):155-161

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics UNC School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC, 27599-7231, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Increasing hepatitis C virus (HCV) cases over the past decade have raised concerns about subsequent increased cases in infants due to mother to child transmission (MTCT). Many are reminded of the early days of HIV and the rationale for using antiretroviral agents during pregnancy.

Recent Findings: Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) that are highly potent, all-oral, short-duration regimens that cure HCV have led many to consider what it would entail to use DAAs for pregnant women. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11904-018-0386-zDOI Listing
April 2018
1 Read

Genetic Cluster Analysis for HIV Prevention.

Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 2018 04;15(2):182-189

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Western University, London, ON, Canada.

Purpose Of Review: This review summarizes the use of genetic similarity clusters to understand HIV transmission and inform prevention efforts.

Recent Findings: Recent emphases include the development of real-time cluster identification in order to interrupt transmission chains, the use of clusters to estimate rates of transmission along the HIV care cascade, and the extension of cluster analyses to understand transmission in the generalized epidemics of sub-Saharan Africa. Importantly, this recent empirical work has been accompanied by theoretical work that elucidates the processes that underlie HIV genetic similarity clusters; multiple studies suggest that clusters are not necessarily enriched with individuals with high transmission rates, but rather can reflect variation in sampling times within a population, with individuals sampled early in infection more likely to cluster. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11904-018-0384-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5882762PMC
April 2018
2 Reads