3,791 results match your criteria Current Genetics [Journal]


Not quite the SSAme: unique roles for the yeast cytosolic Hsp70s.

Curr Genet 2019 Apr 24. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Department of Biological Sciences, The University of North Carolina At Charlotte, Charlotte, NC, 28223, USA.

The Heat Shock Protein 70s (Hsp70s) are an essential family of proteins involved in folding of new proteins and triaging of damaged proteins for proteasomal-mediated degradation. They are highly conserved in all organisms, with each organism possessing multiple highly similar Hsp70 variants (isoforms). These isoforms have been previously thought to be identical in function differing only in their spatio-temporal expression pattern. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00294-019-00978-8DOI Listing

Rapid and extensive karyotype diversification in haploid clinical Candida auris isolates.

Curr Genet 2019 Apr 24. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Institute of Medical Sciences (IMS), University of Aberdeen, Foresterhill, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZD, UK.

Candida auris is a newly emerged pathogenic microbe, having been identified as a medically relevant fungus as recently as 2009. It is one of the most drug-resistant yeast species known to date and its emergence and population structure are unusual. Because of its recent emergence, we are largely ignorant about fundamental aspects of its general biology, life cycle, and population dynamics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00294-019-00976-wDOI Listing

Patrolling the nucleus: inner nuclear membrane-associated degradation.

Curr Genet 2019 Apr 24. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Stowers Institute for Medical Research, 1000 E. 50th Street, Kansas City, MO, 64110, USA.

Protein quality control and transport are important for the integrity of organelles such as the endoplasmic reticulum, but it is largely unknown how protein homeostasis is regulated at the nuclear envelope (NE) despite the connection between NE protein function and human disease. Elucidating mechanisms that regulate the NE proteome is key to understanding nuclear processes such as gene expression, DNA replication and repair as NE components, particularly proteins at the inner nuclear membrane (INM), are involved in the maintenance of nuclear structure, nuclear positioning and chromosome organization. Nuclear pore complexes control the entry and exit of proteins in and out of the nucleus, restricting movement across the nuclear membrane based on protein size, or the size of the extraluminal-facing domain of a transmembrane protein, providing one level of INM proteome regulation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00294-019-00971-1DOI Listing

The Goldilocks effect of respiration on canavanine tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Curr Genet 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Department of Plant Pathology and Microbiology, Robert H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, Hebrew University, 76100, Rehovot, Israel.

When glucose is available, Saccharomyces cerevisiae prefers fermentation to respiration. In fact, it can live without respiration at all. Here, we study the role of respiration in stress tolerance in yeast. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00294-019-00974-y
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00294-019-00974-yDOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Transcriptional silencing of centromere repeats by heterochromatin safeguards chromosome integrity.

Curr Genet 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka, 560-0043, Japan.

The centromere region of chromosomes consists of repetitive DNA sequences, and is, therefore, one of the fragile sites of chromosomes in many eukaryotes. In the core region, the histone H3 variant CENP-A forms centromere-specific nucleosomes that are required for kinetochore formation. In the pericentromeric region, histone H3 is methylated at lysine 9 (H3K9) and heterochromatin is formed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00294-019-00975-xDOI Listing

(p)ppGpp: the magic governor of bacterial growth economy.

Curr Genet 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

School of Life Sciences, Central China Normal University, Wuhan, Hubei, China.

A fundamental question in microbiology is how bacterial cells manage to coordinate gene expression with cell growth during adapting to various environmental conditions. Although the cellular responses to changing environments have been extensively studied using transcriptomic and proteomic approaches, it remains poorly understood regarding the molecular strategy enabling bacteria to manipulate the global gene expression patterns. The alarmone (p)ppGpp is a key secondary messenger involved in regulating various biochemical and physiological processes of bacterial cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00294-019-00973-zDOI Listing

Cross-talk in NAD metabolism: insights from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Curr Genet 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, College of Biological Sciences, University of California, One Shields Ave., Davis, CA, 95616, USA.

NAD (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) is an essential metabolite involved in a myriad of cellular processes. The NAD pool is maintained by three biosynthesis pathways, which are largely conserved from bacteria to human with some species-specific differences. Studying the regulation of NAD metabolism has been difficult due to the dynamic flexibility of NAD intermediates, the redundancy of biosynthesis pathways, and the complex interconnections among them. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00294-019-00972-0DOI Listing

The Bax inhibitor UvBI-1, a negative regulator of mycelial growth and conidiation, mediates stress response and is critical for pathogenicity of the rice false smut fungus Ustilaginoidea virens.

Curr Genet 2019 Apr 11. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Department of Plant Pathology, College of Plant Science and Technology and the Key Lab of Crop Disease Monitoring and Safety Control in Hubei Province, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, China.

Bax inhibitor-1 (BI-1), an evolutionarily conserved protein, is a suppressor of cell death induced by the proapoptotic protein Bax and is involved in the response to biotic and abiotic stress in animals, plants and yeast. Rice false smut caused by Ustilaginoidea virens is one of the destructive rice diseases worldwide. Although BI-1 proteins are widely distributed across filamentous fungi, few of them are functionally characterized. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00294-019-00970-2DOI Listing
April 2019
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Histone stress: an unexplored source of chromosomal instability in cancer?

Curr Genet 2019 Apr 11. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Marseille Cancer Research Centre (CRCM), U1068 Inserm, UMR7258, CNRS, Aix-Marseille Université, Institut Paoli-Calmettes, Equipe labellisée Ligue, Marseille, 13273, France.

Ploidy is stably maintained in most human somatic cells by a sequential and tight coordination of cell cycle events. Undesired whole genome doublings or duplications are frequent in tumours and have been quite recently described as macro-evolutionary events associated with poor prognosis. In vitro and in vivo studies suggest that polyploidy can favour genome instability, facilitate the formation and progression of tumours, and modify their sensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00294-019-00967-x
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00294-019-00967-xDOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

The evolution of peptide mating pheromones in fission yeast.

Authors:
Taisuke Seike

Curr Genet 2019 Apr 9. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Center for Biosystems Dynamics Research, RIKEN, Osaka, Japan.

In fungi, sexual reproduction primarily depends on the interaction between peptide pheromones and their receptors. Most ascomycete fungi produce two classes of peptide mating pheromones, a simple peptide and a modified peptide. These peptides are recognized by their corresponding receptors on the surface of cells of the opposite mating type to induce the mating reaction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00294-019-00968-wDOI Listing

Interaction studies on bacterial stringent response protein RelA with uncharged tRNA provide evidence for its prerequisite complex for ribosome binding.

Curr Genet 2019 Apr 9. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Transcription Regulation Group, International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (ICGEB), Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi, 110067, India.

The bacterial stringent response is regulated by the synthesis of (p)ppGpp which is mediated by RelA in a complex with uncharged tRNA and ribosome. We intended to probe RelA-uncharged tRNA interactions off the ribosome to understand the sequential activation mechanism of RelA. Stringent response is a key regulatory pleiotropic mechanism which allows bacteria to survive in unfavorable conditions. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00294-019-00966-y
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00294-019-00966-yDOI Listing
April 2019
5 Reads

Hydrogen peroxide, a potent inducer of global genomic instability.

Curr Genet 2019 Apr 8. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Ocean College, Zhejiang University, Zhoushan, 316021, China.

Oxidative stress has been implicated in a variety of human diseases. One plausible mechanism is that reactive active species can induce DNA damages and jeopardize genome integrity. To explore how oxidative stress results in global genomic instability in cells, our current study examined the genomic alterations caused by HO exposure at the whole genome level in yeast. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00294-019-00969-9DOI Listing

Regulation of centromeric heterochromatin in the cell cycle by phosphorylation of histone H3 tyrosine 41.

Curr Genet 2019 Apr 8. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Department of Biochemistry, National University of Singapore, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, Singapore, 117597, Singapore.

Constitutive heterochromatin packages long stretches of repetitive DNA sequences at the centromere and telomere, and ensures genomic integrity at these loci by preventing aberrant recombination and transcription. The chromatin scaffold of heterochromatin is dynamically regulated in the cell cycle, and inheritance of the epigenetically silenced state is dependent on a transcriptional event imposed on the underlying non-coding RNA in conjunction with the DNA replicative phase. Heterochromatin becomes transiently loosened in response to a reduction in the binding of Swi6, a heterochromatin protein, and this allows RNA polymerase II access to the underlying sequence. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00294-019-00962-2
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00294-019-00962-2DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

The endocytic cargo adaptor complex is required for cell-wall integrity via interacting with the sensor FgWsc2B in Fusarium graminearum.

Curr Genet 2019 Apr 5. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Institute of Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, 866 Yuhangtang Road, Hangzhou, 310058, China.

AP2 is a heterotetrameric clathrin adaptor complex that owns important roles in vesicle generation and cargo recognition. Cell-wall integrity (CWI) pathway is essential for fungal development, virulence, and adaptation to environment stresses. To date, the relationship between AP2 and CWI is largely unknown in phytopathogenic fungi. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00294-019-00961-3DOI Listing

Splicing, genome stability and disease: splice like your genome depends on it!

Curr Genet 2019 Apr 5. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Terry Fox Laboratory, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, Canada.

The spliceosome has been implicated in genome maintenance for decades. Recently, a surge in discoveries in cancer has suggested that the oncogenic mechanism of spliceosomal defects may involve defective genome stability. The action of the core spliceosome prevents R-loop accumulation, and regulates the expression of genome stability factors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00294-019-00964-0DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Mitochondrial porin links protein biogenesis to metabolism.

Curr Genet 2019 Apr 3. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, ZBMZ, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, 79104, Freiburg, Germany.

In this report, we summarize recent findings about a role of the outer membrane metabolite channel VDAC/porin in protein import into mitochondria. Mitochondria fulfill key functions for cellular energy metabolism. Their biogenesis involves the import of about 1000 different proteins that are produced as precursors on cytosolic ribosomes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00294-019-00965-zDOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Intron-mediated regulation of β-tubulin genes expression affects the sensitivity to carbendazim in Fusarium graminearum.

Curr Genet 2019 Apr 2. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

College of Plant Protection, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, 210095, China.

The plant pathogenic fungus, Fusarium graminearum, is known to have two β-tubulin genes (named Fg-βtub and Fg-βtub). Mutations in Fg-βtub rather than in Fg-βtub have been shown to confer resistance to carbendazim (MBC), even though Fg-βtub has higher homology than Fg-βtub to the β-tubulin isotypes related to benzimidazole resistance in other fungi. However, sequence alignment of β-tubulin isotypes related to benzimidazole resistance showed that the number and position of introns in Fg-βtub are more consistent than Fg-βtub to those in other β-tubulin genes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00294-019-00960-4DOI Listing

High-energy guanine nucleotides as a signal capable of linking growth to cellular energy status via the control of gene transcription.

Curr Genet 2019 Apr 1. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Cambridge Systems Biology Centre and Department of Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 1GA, UK.

This mini-review considers the idea that guanylate nucleotide energy charge acts as an integrative signal for the regulation of gene expression in eukaryotic cells and discusses possible routes for that signal's transduction. Gene expression is intimately linked with cell nutrition and diverse signaling systems serve to coordinate the synthesis of proteins required for growth and proliferation with the prevailing cellular nutritional status. Using short pathways for the inducible and futile consumption of ATP or GTP in engineered cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we have recently shown that GTP levels can also play a role in determining how genes act to respond to changes in cellular energy supply. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00294-019-00963-1DOI Listing
April 2019
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ESCRT-III accessory proteins regulate fungal development and plant infection in Fusarium graminearum.

Curr Genet 2019 Mar 29. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Key Laboratory of Biopesticide and Chemical Biology of Education Ministry, College of Plant Protection, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, 350002, Fuzhou, China.

Ubiquitinated biosynthetic and surface proteins destined for degradation are sorted into the lysosome/vacuole via the multivesicular body sorting pathway, which depends on the function of ESCRT machinery. Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium graminearum is one of the most devastating diseases for wheat and barley worldwide. To better understand the role of ESCRT machinery in F. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00294-019-00949-zDOI Listing

Meiotic prophase-like pathway for cleavage-independent removal of cohesin for chromosome morphogenesis.

Curr Genet 2019 Mar 28. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Institute for Protein Research, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871, Japan.

Sister chromatid cohesion is essential for chromosome segregation both in mitosis and meiosis. Cohesion between two chromatids is mediated by a protein complex called cohesin. The loading and unloading of the cohesin are tightly regulated during the cell cycle. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00294-019-00959-xDOI Listing

Insights into the DNA sequence elements required for partitioning and copy number control of the yeast 2-micron plasmid.

Curr Genet 2019 Mar 26. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, B3H 4R2, Canada.

The yeast 2-micron plasmid is an almost perfect selfish DNA. The entire coding capacity of the plasmid is dedicated to ensuring its own inheritance, with no benefit to its host. Despite high copy number, the plasmid confers no phenotype. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00294-019-00958-yDOI Listing

MaPmt4, a protein O-mannosyltransferase, contributes to cell wall integrity, stress tolerance and virulence in Metarhizium acridum.

Curr Genet 2019 Mar 25. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Genetic Engineering Research Center, School of Life Sciences, Chongqing University, Chongqing, 401331, People's Republic of China.

In eukaryotic cells, protein O-glycosylation is an essential protein modification. Analysis of the Metarhizium acridum genome database revealed a total of three O-glycoside mannosyltransferase homologs (Pmt1, Pmt2 and Pmt4), closely related to Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pmt1, Pmt2, and Pmt4. In this study, the functions of MaPmt4, encoding a protein O-mannosyltransferase in M. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00294-019-00957-zDOI Listing
March 2019
5 Reads

How do cells count multi-copy genes?: "Musical Chair" model for preserving the number of rDNA copies.

Curr Genet 2019 Mar 23. Epub 2019 Mar 23.

Laboratory of Genome Regeneration, Research Center for Biological Visualization, The Institute for Quantitative Biosciences (IQB), 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-0032, Japan.

To supply abundant ribosomes, multiple copies of ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA) are conserved from bacterial to human cells. In eukaryotic genomes, clusters of tandemly repeated rDNA units are present, and their number is stably maintained. Due to high level of transcription of rRNA genes, the repetitive structure is prone to rearrangement. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00294-019-00956-0DOI Listing

Impaired GCR1 transcription resulted in defective inositol levels, vacuolar structure and autophagy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Curr Genet 2019 Mar 16. Epub 2019 Mar 16.

Department of Biochemistry, School of Life Sciences, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu, 620 024, India.

In yeast, the GCR1 transcription factor is involved in the regulation of glycolysis and its deletion exhibited growth defect, reduced inositol and phosphatidylinositol (PI) levels compared to WT cells. We observed a down regulation of the INO1 and PIS1 expression in gcr1∆ cells under both I- and I+ conditions and the over expression of GCR1 in gcr1∆ cells restored the growth, retrieved the expression of INO1, and PIS1 comparable to WT cells. In the gel shift assay, the Gcr1p binds to its consensus sequence CTTCC in PIS1 promoter and regulates its expression but not in INO1 transcription. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00294-019-00954-2DOI Listing

Autophagy-related gene ATG7 participates in the asexual development, stress response and virulence of filamentous insect pathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana.

Curr Genet 2019 Mar 16. Epub 2019 Mar 16.

Institute of Microbiology, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058, China.

Autophagy is a sophisticated mechanism for maintaining cellular homeostasis, in which E1-like enzyme (ATG7) controls the activation of ubiquitin-like conjugation system in the autophagy pathway. In the insect pathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana, a yeast ortholog of ATG7 was identified and functionally analyzed. Ablation of BbATG7 gene blocks the autophagic process under starvation stress. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00294-019-00955-1DOI Listing

The putative histone-like transcription factor FgHltf1 is required for vegetative growth, sexual reproduction, and virulence in Fusarium graminearum.

Curr Genet 2019 Mar 9. Epub 2019 Mar 9.

State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology and Ministry of Agriculture Key Lab of Molecular Biology of Crop Pathogens and Insects, Institute of Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310029, China.

The target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling pathway plays critical roles in regulating vegetative development and virulence in Fusarium graminearum. Previously, we have demonstrated that the putative type 2A phosphatase FgPpg1, a downstream component of the pathway, is important for hyphal growth, sporulation, DON biosynthesis and virulence. Here, we report the identification of FgHLTF1 putatively encoding a histone-like transcription factor by the transcriptome analysis of an ΔFgppg1 mutant. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00294-019-00953-3DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

A brief review of bioluminescent systems (2019).

Curr Genet 2019 Mar 8. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

Synthetic Biology Group, MRC London Institute of Medical Sciences, London, UK.

Despite being widely used in reporter technologies, bioluminescent systems are largely understudied. Of at least forty different bioluminescent systems thought to exist in nature, molecular components of only seven light-emitting reactions are known, and the full biochemical pathway leading to light emission is only understood for two of them. Here, we provide a succinct overview of currently known bioluminescent systems highlighting available tools for research and discussing future applications. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00294-019-00951-5DOI Listing

Botcinic acid biosynthesis in Botrytis cinerea relies on a subtelomeric gene cluster surrounded by relics of transposons and is regulated by the ZnCys transcription factor BcBoa13.

Curr Genet 2019 Mar 8. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

UMR BIOGER, INRA, AgroParisTech, Université Paris-Saclay, 78850, Thiverval-Grignon, France.

Botcinic acid is a phytotoxic polyketide involved in the virulence of the gray mold fungus Botrytis cinerea. Here, we aimed to investigate the specific regulation of the cluster of Bcboa genes that is responsible for its biosynthesis. Our analysis showed that this cluster is located in a subtelomeric genomic region containing alternating G + C/A + T-balanced regions, and A + T-rich regions made from transposable elements that underwent RIP (Repeat-Induced Point mutation). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00294-019-00952-4DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Regulation of conidiation and antagonistic properties of the soil-borne plant beneficial fungus Trichoderma virens by a novel proline-, glycine-, tyrosine-rich protein and a GPI-anchored cell wall protein.

Curr Genet 2019 Mar 6. Epub 2019 Mar 6.

Nuclear Agriculture and Biotechnology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai, 400085, India.

Trichoderma spp. are widely used as commercial biofungicides, and most commercial formulations are conidia based. Identification of genes that regulate conidiation would thus be of help in genetic reprogramming of these species to optimize sporulation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00294-019-00948-0DOI Listing
March 2019
4 Reads

Spx, a versatile regulator of the Bacillus subtilis stress response.

Curr Genet 2019 Mar 4. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

Institute of Microbiology, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Herrenhäuser Str. 2, 30419, Hannover, Germany.

Spx is a central regulator of the Bacillus subtilis stress response. By binding to the alpha subunits of RNA polymerase, it regulates the expression of many stress response genes, while concurrently interfering with various developmental processes. The recent observation that Spx also represses transcription of ribosomal RNA adds a direct link between stress response and the control of translation in B. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00294-019-00950-6DOI Listing

Stress-induced protein aggregates shape population heterogeneity in bacteria.

Curr Genet 2019 Mar 1. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

Department of Microbial and Molecular Systems (M²S), KU Leuven, 3001, Leuven, Belgium.

The concept of phenotypic heterogeneity preparing a subpopulation of isogenic cells to better cope with anticipated stresses has been well established. However, less is known about how stress itself can drive subsequent cellular individualization in clonal populations. In this perspective, we focus on the impact of stress-induced cellular protein aggregates, and how their segregation and disaggregation can act as a deterministic incentive for heterogeneity in the population emerging from a stressed ancestor. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00294-019-00947-1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00294-019-00947-1DOI Listing
March 2019
21 Reads

CreA-independent carbon catabolite repression of cellulase genes by trimeric G-protein and protein kinase A in Aspergillus nidulans.

Curr Genet 2019 Feb 22. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Department of Applied Biosciences, Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi, 464-8601, Japan.

Cellulase production in filamentous fungi is repressed by various carbon sources. In our preliminary survey in Aspergillus nidulans, degree of de-repression differed depending on carbon sources in a mutant of creA, encoding the transcriptional repressor for carbon catabolite repression (CCR). To further understand mechanisms of CCR of cellulase production, we compared the effects of creA deletion with deletion of protein kinase A (pkaA) and G (ganB) genes, which constitute a nutrient sensing and signaling pathway. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00294-019-00944-4DOI Listing
February 2019

Chaperoning RPA during DNA metabolism.

Curr Genet 2019 Feb 22. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

State Key Laboratory of Protein and Plant Gene Research, School of Life Sciences and Peking-Tsinghua Center for Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, 100871, China.

Single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) is widely generated during DNA metabolisms including DNA replication, repair and recombination and is susceptible to digestion by nucleases and secondary structure formation. It is vital for DNA metabolism and genome stability that ssDNA is protected and stabilized, which are performed by the major ssDNA-binding protein, and replication protein A (RPA) in these processes. In addition, RPA-coated ssDNA also serves as a protein-protein-binding platform for coordinating multiple events during DNA metabolisms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00294-019-00945-3DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Spindle pole power in health and disease.

Curr Genet 2019 Feb 20. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Dipartimento di Biotecnologie e Bioscienze, Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 2, 20126, Milan, Italy.

Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been widely used as a model system for the study of basic biological processes which are usually evolutionarily conserved from yeasts to multicellular eukaryotes. These studies are very important because they shed light on mechanisms that are altered in human diseases and help the development of new biomarkers and therapies. The mitotic spindle is a conserved apparatus that governs chromosome segregation during mitosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00294-019-00941-7DOI Listing
February 2019

Towards understanding mRNA-binding protein specificity: lessons from post-transcriptional regulation of ATG mRNA during nitrogen starvation-induced autophagy.

Curr Genet 2019 Feb 19. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, USA.

In this report, we discuss recent discoveries concerning the effects and specificity of different RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) as they pertain to macroautophagy/autophagy. Autophagy is a fundamental cellular degradation and recycling pathway, which has attracted substantial attention because defects in this process are associated with a wide range of human disorders including cancer, neurodegeneration, and metabolic diseases. Autophagy must be tightly controlled-either too much or too little can be deleterious. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00294-019-00943-5DOI Listing
February 2019

Mdivi-1 and mitochondrial fission: recent insights from fungal pathogens.

Curr Genet 2019 Feb 19. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Infection and Immunity Program and the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Monash University, Clayton, VIC, 3800, Australia.

Mitochondrial fission shows potential as a therapeutic target in non-infectious human diseases. The compound mdivi-1 was identified as a mitochondrial fission inhibitor that acts against the evolutionarily conserved mitochondrial fission GTPase Dnm1/Drp1, and shows promising data in pre-clinical models of human pathologies. Two recent studies, however, found no evidence that mdivi-1 acts as a mitochondrial fission inhibitor and proposed other mechanisms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00294-019-00942-6DOI Listing
February 2019

Tuning the sequence specificity of a transcription terminator.

Curr Genet 2019 Feb 9. Epub 2019 Feb 9.

Department of Biophysics and Biophysical Chemistry, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, 21205, USA.

The bacterial hexameric helicase known as Rho is an archetypal sequence-specific transcription terminator that typically halts the synthesis of a defined set of transcripts, particularly those bearing cytosine-rich 3'-untranslated regions. However, under conditions of translational stress, Rho can also terminate transcription at cytosine-poor sites when assisted by the transcription factor NusG. Recent structural, biochemical, and computational studies of the Rho·NusG interaction in Escherichia coli have helped establish how NusG reprograms Rho activity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00294-019-00939-1DOI Listing
February 2019

An aggregation-prone mutant of eIF3a forms reversible assemblies escaping spatial control in exponentially growing yeast cells.

Curr Genet 2019 Feb 4. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Laboratory of Cell Reproduction, Institute of Microbiology of the CAS, Videnska 1083, 14220, Prague 4, Czech Republic.

Cells have elaborated a complex strategy to maintain protein homeostasis under physiological as well as stress conditions with the aim to ensure the smooth functioning of vital processes and producing healthy offspring. Impairment of one of the most important processes in living cells, translation, might have serious consequences including various brain disorders in humans. Here, we describe a variant of the translation initiation factor eIF3a, Rpg1-3, mutated in its PCI domain that displays an attenuated translation efficiency and formation of reversible assemblies at physiological growth conditions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00294-019-00940-8DOI Listing
February 2019

Whi2: a new player in amino acid sensing.

Curr Genet 2019 Jan 30. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

W. Harry Feinstone Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, 21205, USA.

A critical function of human, yeast, and bacterial cells is the ability to sense and respond to available nutrients such as glucose and amino acids. Cells must also detect declining nutrient levels to adequately prepare for starvation conditions by inhibiting cell growth and activating autophagy. The evolutionarily conserved protein complex TORC1 regulates these cellular responses to nutrients, and in particular to amino acid availability. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00294-018-00929-9
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00294-018-00929-9DOI Listing
January 2019
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Synergy of Hir1, Ssn6, and Snf2 global regulators is the functional determinant of a Mac1 transcriptional switch in S. cerevisiae copper homeostasis.

Curr Genet 2019 Jan 28. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas, N. Plastira 100, 700 13, Heraklion, Crete, Greece.

To gain insights on the transcriptional switches that modulate proper copper homeostasis in yeast, we have examined in detail functional interactions of the relevant transcriptional activator Mac1. We identified Hir1 transcriptional repressor and histone chaperone as a Mac1-interacting protein. This association directly recruits Hir1 on a Mac1 target, CTR1 promoter, quantitatively under induction conditions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00294-019-00935-5DOI Listing
January 2019

Basal transcription profiles of the rhamnose-inducible promoter P and the development of efficient P-based systems for markerless gene deletion and a mutant library in Pichia pastoris.

Curr Genet 2019 Jan 24. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

Biotechnology Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, No. 12 Zhongguancun South Street, Beijing, 100081, China.

An ideal inducible promoter presents inducibility with an inducer and no basal transcription without inducer. Previous studies have shown that P in Pichia pastoris is a strong rhamnose-inducible promoter for driving the industrial production of recombinant proteins. However, another important profile of P, the basal transcription, was not investigated yet. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00294-019-00934-6DOI Listing
January 2019
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Down-regulation of Cdk1 activity in G1 coordinates the G1/S gene expression programme with genome replication.

Curr Genet 2019 Jan 24. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

Institute of Functional Biology and Genomics, CSIC, University of Salamanca, 37007, Salamanca, Spain.

Cell division is regulated by cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) and requires the periodic activation and inactivation of transcription factors that generate waves of gene expression in different cell-cycle phases. In fission yeast, the MCB-binding transcription factor (MBF) is activated at the end of G1 and regulates the expression of a set of genes that encode for proteins involved in the G1/S transition and DNA replication. Here, we review the importance of controlling MBF by Cdk activity at the onset of S phase. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00294-018-00926-yDOI Listing
January 2019
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Is Gcn4-induced autophagy the ultimate downstream mechanism by which hormesis extends yeast replicative lifespan?

Curr Genet 2019 Jan 23. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY, 10065, USA.

The number of times a cell divides before irreversibly arresting is termed replicative lifespan. Despite discovery of many chemical, dietary and genetic interventions that extend replicative lifespan, usually first discovered in budding yeast and subsequently shown to apply to metazoans, there is still little understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms involved. One unifying theme is that most, if not all, interventions that extend replicative lifespan induce "hormesis", where a little inflicted damage makes cells more able to resist similar challenges in the future. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00294-019-00936-4DOI Listing
January 2019

The meiotic-specific Mek1 kinase in budding yeast regulates interhomolog recombination and coordinates meiotic progression with double-strand break repair.

Curr Genet 2019 Jan 22. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, 11794, USA.

Recombination, along with sister chromatid cohesion, is used during meiosis to physically connect homologous chromosomes so that they can be segregated properly at the first meiotic division. Recombination is initiated by the introduction of programmed double strand breaks (DSBs) into the genome, a subset of which is processed into crossovers. In budding yeast, the regulation of meiotic DSB repair is controlled by a meiosis-specific kinase called Mek1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00294-019-00937-3DOI Listing
January 2019

On the duration of the microbial lag phase.

Curr Genet 2019 Jan 21. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

VIB Laboratory for Systems Biology, VIB-KU Leuven Center for Microbiology, Gaston Geenslaan 1, 3001, Leuven, Belgium.

When faced with environmental changes, microbes enter a lag phase during which cell growth is arrested, allowing cells to adapt to the new situation. The discovery of the lag phase started the field of gene regulation and led to the unraveling of underlying mechanisms. However, the factors determining the exact duration and dynamics of the lag phase remain largely elusive. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00294-019-00938-2
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00294-019-00938-2DOI Listing
January 2019
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Disturbance in biosynthesis of arachidonic acid impairs the sexual development of the onion blight pathogen Stemphylium eturmiunum.

Curr Genet 2019 Jan 16. Epub 2019 Jan 16.

Key Laboratory for Biology of Vegetable Diseases and Insect Pests of Shandong Province, Department of Plant Pathology, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian, 271018, Shandong, China.

The formation of sexual fruiting bodies for plant pathogenic fungi is a key strategy to propagate their progenies upon environmental stresses. Stemphylium eturmiunum is an opportunistic plant pathogen fungus causing blight in onion. This self-fertilizing filamentous ascomycete persists in the soil by forming pseudothecia, the sexual fruiting body which helps the fungus survive in harsh environments. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00294-019-00930-w
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00294-019-00930-wDOI Listing
January 2019
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Quiescence, an individual journey.

Curr Genet 2019 Jan 16. Epub 2019 Jan 16.

Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Institut de Biochimie et Génétique Cellulaires, Unité Mixte de Recherche 5095, Université de Bordeaux, CS61390, Bordeaux Cedex, 33077, France.

Quiescence is operationally characterized as a temporary and reversible proliferation arrest. There are many preconceived ideas about quiescence, quiescent cells being generally viewed as insignificant sleeping G1 cells. In fact, quiescence is central for organism physiology and its dysregulation involved in many pathologies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00294-018-00928-wDOI Listing
January 2019
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Role of Mediator in virulence and antifungal drug resistance in pathogenic fungi.

Curr Genet 2019 Jan 14. Epub 2019 Jan 14.

Division of Oral Biosciences, Dublin Dental University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland.

Mediator complex has recently emerged as an important regulator of gene expression in pathogenic fungi. Mediator is a multi-subunit complex of polypeptides involved in transcriptional activation in eukaryotes, with roles including preinitiation complex (PIC) assembly and chromatin remodeling. Within the last decade, Mediator has been shown to play an integral role in regulating virulence gene expression and drug resistance in human fungal pathogens. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00294-019-00932-8DOI Listing
January 2019
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Adaptation in replicative senescence: a risky business.

Curr Genet 2019 Jan 12. Epub 2019 Jan 12.

Sorbonne Université, PSL Research University, CNRS, UMR8226, Institut de Biologie Physico-Chimique, Laboratoire de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire des Eucaryotes, 75005, Paris, France.

Cell proliferation is tightly regulated to avoid propagating DNA damage and mutations, which can lead to pathologies such as cancer. To ensure genome integrity, cells activate the DNA damage checkpoint in response to genotoxic lesions to block cell cycle progression. This surveillance mechanism provides time to repair the damage before resuming cell cycle with an intact genome. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00294-019-00933-7DOI Listing
January 2019
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Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici CH transcription factor FolCzf1 is required for conidiation, fusaric acid production, and early host infection.

Curr Genet 2019 Jan 10. Epub 2019 Jan 10.

State Key Laboratory of Ecological Pest Control for Fujian and Taiwan Crops, College of Plant Protection, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, China.

The soil-borne, asexual fungus Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici (Fol) is a causal agent of tomato wilt disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00294-019-00931-9DOI Listing
January 2019
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