236 results match your criteria Current Drug Abuse Reviews [Journal]


High Prevalence of Abandoned Needlesticks from Injecting Drug Users in Milton Keynes, UK: Analysing Access to Needle Exchange Centres and Drug Dependency Services.

Curr Drug Abuse Rev 2017 ;10(1):76-80

Milton Keynes Council, Civic Offices, 1 Saxon Gate East, Central Milton Keynes, MK9 3EJ, United Kingdom.

Background: In 2015, Milton Keynes (MK) Council waste management team shows an increase in the numbers of abandoned used needles being found across MK. MK is an area of high Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) prevalence and high Hepatitis C (HCV) in People Who Inject Drugs (PWID), the overriding concern was for the safety of the public.

Methods: Analysis of data collection to understand the scale and spread of the problem, preventing/ reducing the incidence of abandoned needles and looking at access to the designated Drug Dependency Unit (DDU) and the Blood Borne Virus (BBV) service. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1874473711666180418164130DOI Listing
October 2018
8 Reads

Thiamine and Alcohol for Brain Pathology: Super-imposing or Different Causative Factors for Brain Damage?

Curr Drug Abuse Rev 2017 ;10(1):44-51

Italian Liver Foundation, Centro Studi Fegato, SS14, Km 163.5, Trieste, 34149, Italy.

Background: Drinking more than the recommended limits is a worldwide emerging problem, difficult to circumscribe, and alcohol-related brain damages are an under-recognized health problem. Alcohol-cognitive disruption can be considered as transient and recoverable if the alcohol consumption is limited and occasional; if not, it can progress to the so-called Alcohol-Related Dementia (ARD), or to the Wernicke encephalopathy, or it can even induce the Korsakoff syndrome, an irreversible and long-lasting medical condition. ARD still remains poorly diagnosed and addressed, despite having increased research interest being a frustrating condition, a relatively non-progressive, or even partially reversible condition in abstinent ex-drinkers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1874473711666180402142012DOI Listing
October 2018
40 Reads

The Need to Move from Describing to Evaluating the Effectiveness of Indigenous Drug and Alcohol Residential Rehabilitation Services: A Systematic Review.

Curr Drug Abuse Rev 2017 ;10(1):52-67

National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre (NDARC), University of NSW, Sydney, Australia.

Background And Objectives: Despite the importance of Indigenous drug and alcohol residential rehabilitation, the knowledge supporting these services is limited. This paper aims to: (i) identify the research output related to Indigenous drug and alcohol residential rehabilitation services; (ii) classify identified studies according to their methodology; and (iii) describe key characteristics of clients and services, and critique the research methods.

Methods: A PRISMA compliant search of 10 electronic databases for studies of Indigenous drug and alcohol residential rehabilitation services from Australia, United States, Canada and New Zealand, published between 1 January 2000 and 28 March 2016, was conducted. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1874473711666180404123904DOI Listing
October 2018
8 Reads

Proceeding of the 9th Alcohol Hangover Research Group Meeting.

Curr Drug Abuse Rev 2017 ;10(1):68-75

Centre for Human Psychopharmacology, Swinburne University, Melbourne, Australia.

Background: Alcohol hangover is a common occurrence among individuals who have experienced an episode of heavy alcohol consumption the previous night. Until now defined as the general feeling of misery that develops once the Blood Alcohol Concentration approaches zero. Despite its prevalence and several related adverse consequences, insufficient research has been conducted with regards to this matter and further understanding of the pathology of alcohol hangover is necessary. Read More

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http://www.eurekaselect.com/158839/article
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1874473711666180105111616DOI Listing
October 2018
29 Reads

Role of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) in Treatment of Addiction and Related Disorders: A Systematic Review.

Curr Drug Abuse Rev 2017 ;10(1):31-43

Department of Psychiatry, Cooper Medical School of Rowan University, Cooper University Hospital, Camden, NJ, 08103, United States.

Background: Addiction and related disorders are devastating with their tremendous social, psychological, and physical consequences for which development of optimally effective treatments is long overdue. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) is relatively safe and is becoming an emerging therapeutic tool for these conditions.

Methods: This systematic review was conducted using PubMed, PsycINFO, PsychiatryOnline and Cochrane Library ranging from year 2001 to 2017. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1874473710666171129225914DOI Listing
October 2018
9 Reads

Drug-Drug Interactions in Cocaine-users and their Clinical Implications.

Curr Drug Abuse Rev 2017 ;10(1):25-30

Department of Health Science, School of Medicine, University of Catanzaro, Clinical Pharmacology and Pharmacovigilance Unit, Mater Domini Hospital Catanzaro, Catanzaro, Italy.

Background: Drug-Drug Interactions (DDIs) represent a common problem in clinical practice during drug treatments. DDIs can both induce the development of adverse drug reactions or reduce the clinical efficacy of each drug.

Objectives: The main objective of this review was to analyze the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic DDIs in cocaine consumers, focusing the interest on their clinical implications. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1874473710666170920143344DOI Listing
October 2018
22 Reads

Long-term Administration of Antipsychotic Drugs in Schizophrenia and Influence of Substance and Drug Abuse on the Disease Outcome.

Curr Drug Abuse Rev 2017 ;10(1):19-24

Laboratory of Neuroanatomy of the Peptidergic Systems (Lab. 14), Institute of Neurosciences of Castilla y Leon (INCYL), University of Salamanca, Salamanca, Castilla-Leon, 37007, Spain.

Background: Many schizophrenic patients with a long-term administration of antipsychotic drugs do not regularly adhere to the prescribed pharmacotherapy. Antipsychotic drugs constitute a palliative, but not a curative treatment, and the long-term effect of these drugs is not secure. Patients tend to consume nicotine and alcohol, as well as some patients consume drugs such as cannabis and amphetamines. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1874473710666171020104524DOI Listing
October 2018
16 Reads

Cannabis: An Overview of its Adverse Acute and Chronic Effects and its Implications.

Curr Drug Abuse Rev 2017 ;10(1):6-18

Centre for Human Psychopharmacology, Swinburne University, Melbourne, Australia.

In many communities, cannabis is perceived as a low-risk drug, leading to political lobbying to decriminalise its use. Acute and chronic cannabis use has been shown to be harmful to several aspects of psychological and physical health, such as mood states, psychiatric outcomes, neurocognition, driving and general health. Furthermore, cannabis is highly addictive, and the adverse effects of withdrawal can lead to regular use. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1874473710666170712113042DOI Listing
October 2018
19 Reads

Withdrawn: The Behavioral Profile of methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) and α-pyrrolidinopentiophenone (PVP) - A Systematic Review.

Curr Drug Abuse Rev 2017 03 21. Epub 2017 Mar 21.

Ecu - psychiatry greenville, United States.

The article entitled, “The Behavioral Profile of Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) and α– pyrrolidinopentiophenone (PVP) - A Systematic Review”, submitted in Current Drug Abuse Reviews (CDAR) by Dr. Cornel N Stanciu has been withdrawn from the journal in accordance with BSP Editorial Policies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1874473710666170321122226DOI Listing
March 2017
10 Reads

Pleasure as an Overlooked Target of Substance Use Disorder Research and Treatment.

Curr Drug Abuse Rev 2016 ;9(2):113-125

Department of Psychology, George Mason University, Mail Stop 3F5, Fairfax, VA, 22030. United States.

Background: People commonly use psychoactive substances to increase physical and psychological pleasure. Neuroadaptations in the brain's reward system coupled with changes in social functioning and networking resulting from chronic substance use impede the ability to derive pleasure from non-substance related activities.

Objective: We elucidate and validate the hypothesis that treatments for substance use disorders would potentially have a stronger and broader impact by helping recipients to experience pleasure as part of an expansive focus of increasing adaptive functioning, well-being, and personal fulfillment and actualization. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1874473710666170308163310DOI Listing
May 2018
20 Reads

Development of a Definition for the Alcohol Hangover: Consumer Descriptions and Expert Consensus.

Curr Drug Abuse Rev 2016 ;9(2):148-154

Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht University, Universiteitsweg 99, 3584 CG, Utrecht. Netherlands.

Up to now, there is no adequate definition of the alcohol hangover. The purpose of the current study was to develop a useful definition, and consensus among those who will use it in scientific publications. A survey was conducted among N=1099 social drinkers who recently had a hangover. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1874473710666170216125822DOI Listing
May 2018
15 Reads

A Review of the Physiological Factors Associated with Alcohol Hangover.

Curr Drug Abuse Rev 2016 ;9(2):93-98

Centre for Human Psychopharmacology, Swinburne University, Melbourne. Australia.

Alcohol hangovers are a commonly experienced consequence of drinking and are frequently associated with worsened mood and cognitive functioning. The physiological changes that occur with an alcohol-induced hangover state are largely unknown. This review focuses on key physiological factors of an alcohol-induced hangover, more specifically, oxidative stress, hormonal fluctuations, dehydration and changes to the immune system. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1874473710666170207152933DOI Listing
May 2018
7 Reads

A Review on the Sex Differences in Organ and System Pathology with Alcohol Drinking.

Curr Drug Abuse Rev 2016 ;9(2):87-92

Department of Medicine, Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, 505 S. Hancock St. CTR Room 503, Louisville KY 40202. United States.

Hazardous consequences of alcohol consumption adversely influence overall health, specifically physical and mental health. Differences in alcohol consumption and manifestations in pathology have been observed between males and females, however research on understanding these differences is limited. Negative consequences of alcohol consumption have now been studied including sex as a significant factor. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1874473710666170125151410DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5894513PMC
May 2018
10 Reads

Cultivating a Trauma Awareness Culture in the Addictions.

Curr Drug Abuse Rev 2016 ;9(2):99-105

Lecturer in Mental Health Nursing, Nursing Department, Technological Educational Institute, Athens. Greece.

Background: Research evidence points to the high prevalence of trauma exposure and post traumatic stress among addicted individuals, their families and the professionals responsible for their treatment.

Objective: The purpose of this review is to enhance understanding of the continuing effects of trauma and its impact on the lives of people with addiction problems as well as on the professionals who strive to provide support and care for them.

Method: Review of twenty eight articles on traumatic experiences in individuals and families facing addiction problems as well as on traumatic stress in addiction professionals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1874473710666170111102835DOI Listing
May 2018
5 Reads

Midazolam Plus Haloperidol as Adjuvant Analgesics to Morphine in Opium Dependent Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

Curr Drug Abuse Rev 2016 ;9(2):142-147

Department of Emergency Medicine, Dr. Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Iran.

Background: Tolerance to opioids among opium-dependent patients creates obstacles for proper pain management of these patients in the emergency department (ED). The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of intramuscular (IM) haloperidol plus midazolam on morphine analgesia among opium-dependent patients.

Methods: Opium-dependent adults who were admitted to the ED for new-onset severe pain in the limbs or abdomen (within 24 hours of admission and a pain score of over six, using a numerical rating scale [NRS]) were recruited. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1874473710666170106122455DOI Listing
May 2018
23 Reads

Editorial: Asleep at the Wheel: Concerning Driving after Co-Consumption of Alcohol and Benzodiazepines.

Curr Drug Abuse Rev 2017;10(1):4-5

Centre for Human Psychopharmacology, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, VIC, Australia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/187447371001180611082250DOI Listing
October 2018
1 Read

Proceeding of the 8th Alcohol Hangover Research Group Meeting.

Curr Drug Abuse Rev 2016 ;9(2):106-112

Utrecht University, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Division of Pharmacology, Universiteitsweg 99, 3584CG, Utrecht. Netherlands.

Alcohol hangover is one of the most commonly experienced consequences of alcohol consumption. An alcohol hangover develops as the blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) approaches zero, and is characterized by a general feeling of misery. More insight into the pathology of an alcohol hangover needs to be gained, in order to enhance the understanding of the area, and as a potential contribution to the innovation of a preventative or hangover curing treatment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1874473709666161229121527DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5515685PMC
May 2018
16 Reads

Smoking and Cognition.

Curr Drug Abuse Rev 2016 ;9(2):76-79

Departamento de Psiquiatria, Faculdade de Medicina da USP, Sao Paulo. Brazil.

Given the large availability of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) throughout the brain, and the wide range of neurotransmitter systems affected (norepinephrine, serotonin and dopamine), nicotine influences a wide variety of cognitive domains such as sensorial, motor, attention, executive function, learning and memory. This article reviews current state of the art research on the effects of nicotine upon cognition. There are different neurobiological mechanisms involved in acute/chronic smoking and nicotine abstinence. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1874473709666160803101633DOI Listing
May 2018
60 Reads

The Impact of Marijuana Use on Memory in HIV-Infected Patients: A Comprehensive Review of the HIV and Marijuana Literatures.

Curr Drug Abuse Rev 2016 ;9(2):126-141

Global Health Institute, Duke University, Durham, NC. United States.

Background: The most robust neurocognitive effect of marijuana use is memory impairment. Memory deficits are also high among persons living with HIV/AIDS, and marijuana is the most commonly used drug in this population. Yet research examining neurocognitive outcomes resulting from co-occurring marijuana and HIV is limited. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1874473709666160502124503DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5093083PMC
May 2018
19 Reads

Pain and Opioid Addiction: A Systematic Review and Evaluation of Pain Measurement in Patients with Opioid Dependence on Methadone Maintenance Treatment.

Curr Drug Abuse Rev 2016 ;9(1):49-60

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Neuroscience McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, L8S 4L8, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

Background: While chronic pain has been said to impact patient's response to methadone maintenance treatment for opioid dependence, the reported findings are inconsistent. These discrepancies may be a direct result of variations in the measurement of chronic pain or definitions of response to methadone treatment. The goal of this study is to evaluate the association between pain and substance use behaviour to determine the real impact of comorbid pain in the methadone population. Read More

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December 2016
8 Reads

Psychosocial Predictors of Relapse Among Patients with Alcohol Problems.

Curr Drug Abuse Rev 2016 ;9(1):19-25

Department of Community Health Nursing. School of Nursing- The University of Jordan. Amman 11942, Jordan.

Background: Alcohol abuse is a common problem that is socially, psychologically and economically devastating to health of individuals.

Objectives: the purpose of this study was to examine the interrelationship between alcohol relapse, self efficacy, perceived social support, and perceived stress among individual diagnosed with alcohol dependence.

Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive correlational design was utilized to collect data using self-administered questionnaire from a purposeful sample of 111 Jordanians diagnosed with alcohol dependence. Read More

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December 2016
6 Reads

Laterality of Brain Activation for Risk Factors of Addiction.

Authors:
Harold W Gordon

Curr Drug Abuse Rev 2016 ;9(1):1-18

Epidemiology Research Branch, Division of Epidemiology, Services, and Prevention Research (DESPR), National Institute on Drug Abuse, The Neuroscience Center, Room 5151, 6001 Executive Boulevard, Bethesda, MD 20892-9593, USA.

Background: Laterality of brain activation is reported for tests of risk factors of addiction- impulsivity and craving-but authors rarely address the potential significance of those asymmetries.

Objective: The purpose of this study is to demonstrate this laterality and discuss its relevance to cognitive and neurophysiological asymmetries associated with drug abuse vulnerability in order to provide new insights for future research in drug abuse.

Method: From published reports, brain areas of activation for two tests of response inhibition or craving for drugs of abuse were compiled from fMRI activation peaks and were tabulated for eight sections (octants) in each hemisphere. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4811731PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1874473709666151217121309DOI Listing
December 2016
5 Reads

Combining Stress and Dopamine Based Models of Addiction: Towards a Psycho-Neuro-Endocrinological Theory of Addiction.

Curr Drug Abuse Rev 2016 ;9(1):61-74

Institute of Psychological Medicine and Clinical Neurosciences, Cardiff University School of Medicine, Hadyn Ellis Building, Maindy Road, Cathays, Cardiff CF24 4HQ, UK.

The literature on the two main models of addiction (dopamine-based positive reinforcement and stress-based negative reinforcement models) have made many important contributions to understanding this brain disorder. However, rarely has there been a comprehensive critique of the limitations of both models. This article seeks to resolve theoretical issues inherent to each model, as well as propose a more comprehensive psycho-neuro-endocrinological theory of addiction which reconciles important elements of both. Read More

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December 2016
16 Reads

Social Inequality and Substance Use and Problematic Gambling Among Adolescents and Young Adults: A Review of Epidemiological Surveys in Germany.

Curr Drug Abuse Rev 2016 ;9(1):26-48

Ebertsbronn 31, D-97996 Niederstetten, Germany.

The current review provides an overview of socioepidemiological research in Germany about the prevalence of addictive behaviours (smoking, binge and hazardous drinking, consumption of cannabis and other illegal drugs, the non-medical use of prescription drugs and problematic gambling) among adolescents (11-17 years) and young adults (18-25 years), also differentiating between different socioeconomic status (SES) indicators (attended school type, family affluence, parental occupational status, parental SES, employment status) and migration background. The authors evaluated data from ten national surveys and one regional survey conducted between 2002 and 2012, which included different samples. The trends over this time frame reveal that the proportion of adolescents who smoke tobacco, show problematic patterns of alcohol consumption, use cannabis or other illegal drugs has generally declined over the investigated time span in Germany. Read More

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December 2016
11 Reads

How Can Geographical Information Systems and Spatial Analysis Inform a Response to Prescription Opioid Misuse? A Discussion in the Context of Existing Literature.

Curr Drug Abuse Rev 2015 ;8(2):104-10

Centre for Research and Action in Public Health (CeRAPH), Room 22B30, Innnovation Centre, Building 22, University of Canberra, University Drive, Bruce, Canberra, ACT 2600, Australia.

The misuse of prescription opioids is a major public health problem in the United States, Canada, Australia and other parts of the developed world. Methods to quantify dimensions of the risk environment in relation to drug usage and law enforcement that are both structural and spatial, draw geography into traditional public health research even though there has been limited attempt to address the prescription opioid misuse problem from a geographic perspective. We discuss how geographic technologies can be utilized to study the landscape of prescription opioids and similar drugs, and target appropriate health services interventions. Read More

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July 2016
6 Reads

Signs and Related Mechanisms of Ethanol Hepatotoxicity.

Curr Drug Abuse Rev 2015 ;8(2):86-103

Department of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Alameda Prof. Hernani Monteiro, 4200-319 Porto, Portugal.

Ethanol is the most abused psychoactive substance. Accordingly to World Health Organization ethanol ranks among the top five risk factors for disease, disability and death (3.3 million/year) throughout the world. Read More

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July 2016
12 Reads

Quitters Never Sleep: The Effect of Nicotine Withdrawal Upon Sleep.

Curr Drug Abuse Rev 2015 ;8(2):73-4

Centre for Human Psychopharmacology, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, VIC, Australia.

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July 2016
12 Reads

The Role of Different Aspects of Impulsivity as Independent Risk Factors for Substance Use Disorders in Patients with ADHD: A Review.

Curr Drug Abuse Rev 2015 ;8(2):119-33

Neurotech Solutions, 3 Golda Meir st. (36), Nes Ziona, 74036, Israel.

High impulsivity in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) plays a key role in their vulnerability to substance abuse disorders (SUDs). Although impulsivity is increasingly recognized as a multidimensional construct, efforts to describe the contribution of different impulsivity aspects to the development of SUD have been hindered by conceptual and experimental inconsistencies. This review seeks to map potential trajectories from childhood ADHD to SUD by examining the hypothesized mediating role of three different impulsivity-related constructs: disinhibition, impulsive choice, and sensation seeking. Read More

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July 2016
14 Reads

Can Decision Making Research Provide a Better Understanding of Chemical and Behavioral Addictions?

Curr Drug Abuse Rev 2015 ;8(2):75-85

Psychiatric Research Institute, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, 4301 West Markham St., Slot #554, Little Rock, AR 72205, USA.

We reviewed the cognitive and neurobiological commonalities between chemical and behavioral addictions. Poor impulse control, limited executive function and abnormalities in reward processing are seen in both group of entities. Brain imaging shows consistent abnormalities in frontoparietal regions and the limbic system. Read More

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July 2016
6 Reads

A Systematic Review of Digital and Computer-Based Alcohol Intervention Programs in Primary Care.

Curr Drug Abuse Rev 2015 ;8(2):111-8

National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, NSW, 2052, Australia. Centre for Research and Action in Public Health (CeRAPH), Room 22B30, Innnovation Centre, Building 22, University of Canberra, University Drive, Bruce, Canberra, ACT 2600, Australia.

Background: Alcohol misuse is a significant public health issue resulting in substantial morbidity, premature mortality and costs to the healthcare system. Although face-to-face interventions offered by health practitioners have been shown to be effective, they are not routinely offered due to lack of time, training and resources, and potential damage to rapport. Computerbased interventions may help overcome these implementation barriers. Read More

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July 2016
6 Reads

Toward a Developmentally Centered Approach to Adolescent Alcohol and Substance Use Treatment.

Curr Drug Abuse Rev 2015 ;8(2):134-51

Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506-0044, USA.

Adolescent alcohol and drug use disorders pose significant risks to adolescents' future functioning. Unfortunately, relapse rates following treatment for these disorders are high. The newest generation of interventions, designed in part to address this problem, place greater focus on the developmental needs of adolescents. Read More

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July 2016
7 Reads

The Misuse of Prescription Opioids: A Threat for Europe?

Curr Drug Abuse Rev 2015 ;8(1):3-14

Department of Psychiatry, Academic Medical Center, Meibergdreef 5, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, Netherlands.

In the the past two decades the medical use of prescription opioids (POs), in particular oxycodone, increased up to 14-fold in the U.S. and Canada. Read More

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March 2016
13 Reads

The Green Light on Ketamine: Considerations for On-Road Safety.

Curr Drug Abuse Rev 2015 ;8(1):1-2

Centre for Human Psychopharmacology, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, VIC, Australia.

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March 2016
7 Reads

Treatment of Adolescent Substance Use Disorders and Co-Occurring Internalizing Disorders: A Critical Review and Proposed Model.

Curr Drug Abuse Rev 2015 ;8(1):41-9

Department of Psychiatry, Indiana University School of Medicine, 705 Riley Hospital Drive, Room 4300, Indianapolis, IN 46205, USA.

Background: The past several decades have seen dramatic growth in empirically supported treatments for adolescent substance use disorders (SUDs), yet even the most well-established approaches struggle to produce large or long-lasting improvements. These difficulties may stem, in part, from the high rates of comorbidity between SUDs and other psychiatric disorders.

Method: We critically reviewed the treatment outcome literature for adolescents with co-occurring SUDs and internalizing disorders. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4819236PMC
March 2016
5 Reads

Executive Functioning in Alcohol Use Studies: A Brief Review of Findings and Challenges in Assessment.

Curr Drug Abuse Rev 2015 ;8(1):26-40

Center for Alcohol and Addiction Studies, Brown University, Box G-S121-4, Providence, RI 02912, USA.

There is a wealth of research about the links between executive functioning (EF) and alcohol use. However, difficulty may arise in interpreting findings because of the variability between studies regarding the specific components of EF measured, as well as the variability of tasks used to examine each EF construct. The current article considers each of these problems within the context of a literature review that focuses on two topics: (1) the efficacy of EF in predicting alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences, and (2) the effect of acute alcohol intoxication on EF task performance. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4638323PMC
March 2016
5 Reads

An Update of the Review of Neuropsychological Consequences of HIV and Substance Abuse: A Literature Review and Implications for Treatment and Future Research.

Curr Drug Abuse Rev 2015 ;8(1):50-71

Public Health Program, Ponce School of Medicine, Ponce, PR 00732, USA.

Neuropyschological dysfunction, ranging from mild cerebral indicators to dementia has been a consistent part of the medical picture of HIV/AIDS. However, advances in medical supervision, particularly as a result of antiretroviral (ARV) treatment, have resulted in some mitigation of the neuropsychological effects of HIV and necessitate re-evaluation of the pattern and nature of HIV-related cognitive or mental deficits. The associated enhancements in morbidity and mortality that have occurred as a result of ARV medication have led to a need for interventions and programs that maintain behaviors that are healthy and stop the resurgence of the risk of HIV transmission. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4900459PMC
March 2016
5 Reads

Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Abstinent MDMA Users: A Review.

Curr Drug Abuse Rev 2015 ;8(1):15-25

Department of Forensic medicine, Room No.303, New Forensic Block, AIIMS, New Delhi, India.

Ecstasy or 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a popular drug of abuse. In the animal studies MDMA has been shown to have deleterious effects on the serotonergic neurotransmitter system. Understanding the adverse effects of MDMA on human brain function is of considerable importance owing to the rising number of MDMA users. Read More

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March 2016
28 Reads

Editorial: Introduction to 'beneficial effects of psychedelics with a special focus on addictions'.

Curr Drug Abuse Rev 2014 ;7(2):69-70

Principal Investigator Neuroimaging Center University Medical Center Groningen P.O. Box 196; 9700 AD Groningen; NL.

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September 2015
6 Reads

Caffeine consumption in children, adolescents and adults.

Authors:
Joris C Verster

Curr Drug Abuse Rev 2014 ;7(3):133-4

Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht University, Universiteitsweg 99, 3584 CG, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

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October 2015
5 Reads

Cannabis concerns: increased potency, availability and synthetic analogues.

Curr Drug Abuse Rev 2014 ;7(2):67-8

Centre for Human Psychopharmacology, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, VIC, Australia.

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September 2015
7 Reads

What can neuroscience tell us about the potential of psychedelics in healthcare? How the neurophenomenology of psychedelics research could help us to flourish throughout our lives, as well as to enhance our dying.

Authors:
Robin Mackenzie

Curr Drug Abuse Rev 2014 ;7(3):136-45

Kent Law School, University of Kent, Canterbury, CT2 7NY, UK.

Health-related psychedelic research should focus on helping us flourish, not just remedying ill-health or addiction. We don't know enough about how psychedelics could enhance human flourishing. Factors promoting health-through-flourishing include finding meaning in life, spiritual practices, comfortable levels of social bonds, emotionally/physically satisfying sex in a long-term monogamous relationship and control over one's daily life. Read More

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October 2015
6 Reads

Ayahuasca, psychedelic studies and health sciences: the politics of knowledge and inquiry into an Amazonian plant brew.

Curr Drug Abuse Rev 2014 ;7(2):71-80

School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia, BC, Canada.

This article offers critical sociological and philosophical reflections on ayahuasca and other psychedelics as objects of research in medicine, health and human sciences. It situates 21st century scientific inquiry on ayahuasca in the broader context of how early modern European social trends and intellectual pursuits translated into new forms of empiricism and experimental philosophy, but later evolved into a form of dogmatism that convenienced the political suppression of academic inquiry into psychedelics. Applying ideas from the field of science and technology studies, we consider how ayahuasca's myriad ontological representations in the 21st century--for example, plant teacher, traditional medicine, religious sacrament, material commodity, cognitive tool, illicit drug--influence our understanding of it as an object of inquiry. Read More

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September 2015
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Crisis intervention related to the use of psychoactive substances in recreational settings--evaluating the Kosmicare Project at Boom Festival.

Curr Drug Abuse Rev 2014 ;7(2):81-100

Centre for Studies in Human Development, Faculty of Education and Psychology - Catholic University of Portugal. Rua Diogo de Botelho, 1327, Mail Code 4169-005 Porto, Portugal.

Kosmicare project implements crisis intervention in situations related to the use of psychoactive substances at Boom Festival (Portugal). We present evaluation research that aims to contribute to the transformation of the project into an evidence-based intervention model. It relies on harm reduction and risk minimization principles, crisis intervention models, and Grof's psychedelic psychotherapy approach for crisis intervention in situations related to unsupervised use of psychedelics. Read More

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http://www.fep.porto.ucp.pt/sites/default/files/files/FEP/CE
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September 2015
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Psychedelics as medicines for substance abuse rehabilitation: evaluating treatments with LSD, Peyote, Ibogaine and Ayahuasca.

Curr Drug Abuse Rev 2014 ;7(2):101-16

C.P. 62, Pirenopolis Goias, 72980-000 Brazil. He is retired from the School of Human Evolution and Social Change Arizona State University, USA.

Substances known as psychedelics, hallucinogens and entheogens have been employed in ethnomedical traditions for thousands of years, but after promising uses in the 1950's and 1960's they were largely prohibited in medical treatment and human research starting in the 1970's as part of the fallout from the war on drugs. Nonetheless, there are a number of studies which suggest that these substances have potential applications in the treatment of addictions. While these substances are generally classified as Schedule I, alleging no established medical uses and a high drug abuse potential, there is nonetheless evidence indicating they might be safe and effective tools for short term interventions in addictions treatment. Read More

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September 2015
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A review of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in the treatment of addictions: historical perspectives and future prospects.

Curr Drug Abuse Rev 2014 ;7(3):146-56

P.O. Box 302, 153 N. Washington Street, Suite 103, Monument, CO 80132, USA.

Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a semisynthetic compound with strong psychoactive properties. Chemically related to serotonin, LSD was initially hypothesized to produce a psychosislike state. Later, LSD was reported to have benefits in the treatment of addictions. Read More

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October 2015
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A qualitative report on the subjective experience of intravenous psilocybin administered in an FMRI environment.

Curr Drug Abuse Rev 2014 ;7(2):117-27

Neuropsychopharmacology Unit, Imperial College London, UK.

Background: This report documents the phenomenology of the subjective experiences of 15 healthy psychedelic experienced volunteers who were involved in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study that was designed to image the brain effects of intravenous psilocybin.

Methods: The participants underwent a semi-structured interview exploring the effects of psilocybin in the MRI scanner. These interviews were analysed by Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Read More

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September 2015
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Psilocybin-occasioned mystical experiences in the treatment of tobacco addiction.

Curr Drug Abuse Rev 2014 ;7(3):157-64

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 5510 Nathan Shock Drive, Baltimore, MD 21224-6823, USA.

Psilocybin-occasioned mystical experiences have been linked to persisting effects in healthy volunteers including positive changes in behavior, attitudes, and values, and increases in the personality domain of openness. In an open-label pilot-study of psilocybin-facilitated smoking addiction treatment, 15 smokers received 2 or 3 doses of psilocybin in the context of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for smoking cessation. Twelve of 15 participants (80%) demonstrated biologically verified smoking abstinence at 6-month follow-up. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4342293PMC
October 2015
16 Reads

Salvinorin a and related compounds as therapeutic drugs for psychostimulant-related disorders.

Curr Drug Abuse Rev 2014 ;7(2):128-32

Departamento de Neurociencias e Ciencias do Comportamento, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Hospital das Clínicas, Terceiro Andar, Av. Bandeirantes, 3900, Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Pharmacological treatments are available for alcohol, nicotine, and opioid dependence, and several drugs for cannabis-related disorders are currently under investigation. On the other hand, psychostimulant abuse and dependence lacks pharmacological treatment. Mesolimbic dopaminergic neurons mediate the motivation to use drugs and drug-induced euphoria, and psychostimulants (cocaine, amphetamine, and methamphetamine) produce their effects in these neurons, which may be modulated by the opioid system. Read More

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September 2015
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