1,682 results match your criteria Current Diabetes Reports[Journal]


The Contribution of Low-Frequency and Rare Coding Variation to Susceptibility to Type 2 Diabetes.

Authors:
Jason Flannick

Curr Diab Rep 2019 Apr 8;19(5):25. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Division of Genetics and Genomics, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Soon after the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) for type 2 diabetes (T2D) was published, it was hypothesized that rare and low-frequency variants might explain a substantial proportion of disease risk. Rare coding variants in particular were emphasized given their large expected role in disease. This review summarizes the extent to which recent T2D genetic studies provide evidence for or against this hypothesis. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11892-019-1142-5DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Diabetes Prevention and Care Programs in the US-Affiliated Pacific Islands: Challenges, Innovation, and Recommendations for Effective Scale-Up.

Curr Diab Rep 2019 Mar 27;19(5):24. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

College of Medicine, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR, USA.

Purpose Of Review: This review describes some of the unique challenges faced by the US-Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPIs) in addressing diabetes prevention and care and presents innovative population-level strategies that have been employed to address them.

Recent Findings: Challenges include an unhealthy food environment and a strained health care infrastructure, both compounded by geography. Innovations in addressing these challenges include attempts to modify the food environment, a focus on early life prevention, and task shifting among the health workforce. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11892-019-1139-0DOI Listing

Economics of Genetic Testing for Diabetes.

Authors:
Rochelle Naylor

Curr Diab Rep 2019 Mar 27;19(5):23. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

The University of Chicago Medicine, 5841 S Maryland Ave, MC 5053, Chicago, IL, 60637, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Monogenic diabetes is an uncommon but important form of diabetes, with the most common causes benefitting from management that accounts for the genetic mutation. This often results in decreased costs and treatment burden for affected individuals. Misdiagnosis as type 1 and type 2 diabetes is common. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11892-019-1140-7DOI Listing

Current Status on Immunological Therapies for Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.

Curr Diab Rep 2019 Mar 23;19(5):22. Epub 2019 Mar 23.

Department of Life Sciences, School of Pharmacy, International Medical University, Bukit Jalil, 57000, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Purpose Of Review: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) occurs when there is destruction of beta cells within the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas due to autoimmunity. It is considered a complex disease, and different complications can surface and worsen the condition if T1D is not managed well. Since it is an incurable disease, numerous treatments and therapies have been postulated in order to control T1D by balancing hyperglycemia control while minimizing hypoglycemic episodes. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11892-019-1144-3
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11892-019-1144-3DOI Listing
March 2019
11 Reads
3.080 Impact Factor

Genetic Mechanisms Highlight Shared Pathways for the Pathogenesis of Polygenic Type 1 Diabetes and Monogenic Autoimmune Diabetes.

Curr Diab Rep 2019 Mar 19;19(5):20. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Translational Research Program, Benaroya Research Institute at Virginia Mason, Seattle, WA, USA.

Purpose Of Review: To highlight pathways important for the development of autoimmune diabetes by investigating shared mechanisms of disease in polygenic and monogenic diabetes.

Recent Findings: Genome-wide association studies have identified 57 genetic risk loci for type 1 diabetes. Progress has been made in unravelling the mechanistic effects of some of these variants, providing key insights into the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11892-019-1141-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6424922PMC

The Interconnection Between Immuno-Metabolism, Diabetes, and CKD.

Curr Diab Rep 2019 Mar 19;19(5):21. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Department of Excellence of Pharmacological and Biomolecular Sciences (DisFeB), Università Degli Studi di Milano, Via Balzaretti 9, 20133, Milan, Italy.

Purpose Of Review: Metabolic reprogramming is increasingly recognized as an essential trait of functional activation of immune cells. Here, we describe the link between immuno-metabolism, diabetes, and diabetic nephropathy.

Recent Findings: Crosstalk between cellular metabolic functions and immune activation occurs when plasma levels of glucose, triglycerides, and free fatty acids increase, thus promoting systemic low-grade inflammation that further boosts the development of metabolic complications. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11892-019-1143-4DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Diabetes Disparities and Promising Interventions to Address Diabetes in Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander Populations.

Curr Diab Rep 2019 Mar 18;19(5):19. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Department of Native Hawaiian Health, John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 677 Ala Moana Blvd, Suite 1016, Honolulu, HI, 96813, USA.

Purpose Of Review: The Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander (NHPI) population is rapidly growing in the USA. NHPIs face significant health disparities and have a high prevalence of diabetes compared to the general US population.

Recent Findings: Recent culturally-adapted diabetes interventions have shown promise in addressing these disparities among NHPI communities. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11892-019-1138-1DOI Listing

The Global Burden of Diabetic Kidney Disease: Time Trends and Gender Gaps.

Curr Diab Rep 2019 Mar 2;19(4):18. Epub 2019 Mar 2.

Department of Global Health, University of Washington, 325 9th Avenue (Box 359931), Seattle, WA, 98104, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Diabetes mellitus prevalence is increasing throughout the world as a consequence of growing rates of obesity, metabolic syndrome, and westernization of lifestyle. It is currently unknown to what extent these trends affect the global burden of diabetic kidney disease (DKD). This review seeks to describe the global burden of DKD and how it has changed throughout time using recently released results of the Global Burden of Disease 2017 Study. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11892-019-1133-6DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Triglycerides: Emerging Targets in Diabetes Care? Review of Moderate Hypertriglyceridemia in Diabetes.

Curr Diab Rep 2019 Feb 26;19(4):13. Epub 2019 Feb 26.

Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Moderate hypertriglyceridemia is exceedingly common in diabetes, and there is growing evidence that it contributes to residual cardiovascular risk in statin-optimized patients. Major fibrate trials yielded inconclusive results regarding the cardiovascular benefit of lowering triglycerides, although there was a signal for improvement among patients with high triglycerides and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-the "diabetic dyslipidemia" phenotype. Until recently, no trials have examined a priori the impact of triglyceride lowering in patients with diabetic dyslipidemia, who are likely among the highest cardiovascular-risk patients. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11892-019-1136-3DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Cognitive Frailty in Older People with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: the Central Role of Hypoglycaemia and the Need for Prevention.

Curr Diab Rep 2019 Feb 26;19(4):15. Epub 2019 Feb 26.

Foundation for Diabetes Research in Older People, Diabetes Frail Ltd, Droitwich Spa, WR9 0QH, UK.

Purpose Of Review: To highlight the central role of hypoglycaemia in the causation of cognitive frailty and explore ways of recognition and prevention of hypoglycaemia.

Recent Findings: Cognitive frailty is an emerging new concept defined as the concomitant presence of physical frailty and cognitive impairment. In older people with diabetes, cognitive frailty is associated with an increased risk of mortality greater than from either physical frailty or cognitive impairment alone. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11892-019-1135-4DOI Listing
February 2019

The Continuing Evolution of Precision Health in Type 2 Diabetes: Achievements and Challenges.

Curr Diab Rep 2019 Feb 26;19(4):16. Epub 2019 Feb 26.

Department of Epidemiology, Richard M. Fairbanks School of Public Health, Indiana University, Indianapolis, IN, USA.

Purpose Of Review: The purpose of this review was to summarize recent advances in the genomics of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and to highlight current initiatives to advance precision health.

Recent Findings: Generation of multi-omic data to measure each of the "biologic layers," developments in describing genomic function and annotation in T2D relevant tissue, along with the increasing recognition that T2D is a heterogeneous disease, and large-scale collaborations have all contributed to advancing our understanding of the molecular basis of T2D. Substantial advances have been made in understanding the molecular basis of T2D pathogenesis, such that precision health diabetes is increasingly becoming a reality. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11892-019-1137-2DOI Listing
February 2019

Perioperative Management of Diabetes Mellitus: Novel Approaches.

Curr Diab Rep 2019 Feb 26;19(4):14. Epub 2019 Feb 26.

Comprehensive Diabetes Center, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, 5555 Ponce de Leon Blvd, Coral Gables, FL, 33145, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Several studies have demonstrated the benefits of glycemic control in the perioperative period and there is ongoing interest in development of systematic approaches to achieving glycemic control. This review discusses currently available data and proposes a new approach to the management of hyperglycemia in the perioperative period.

Recent Findings: In a recent study, we demonstrated that early preoperative identification of patients with poorly controlled diabetes and proactive treatment through various phases of surgery improves glycemic control, lowers the risk of surgical complications, and decreases the length of hospital stay. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11892-019-1132-7DOI Listing
February 2019
4 Reads

Retinal Neurodegeneration as an Early Manifestation of Diabetic Eye Disease and Potential Neuroprotective Therapies.

Curr Diab Rep 2019 Feb 26;19(4):17. Epub 2019 Feb 26.

Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD, 21287, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a major cause of visual impairment and blindness throughout the world. Microvascular changes have long been regarded central to disease pathogenesis. In recent years, however, retinal neurodegeneration is increasingly being hypothesized to occur prior to the vascular changes classically associated with DR and contribute to disease pathogenesis. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11892-019-1134-5DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read
3.080 Impact Factor

Genetic Dissection and Clinical Features of MODY6 (NEUROD1-MODY).

Curr Diab Rep 2019 Feb 22;19(3):12. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Graduate School of Medicine, Gifu University, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu city, Gifu, 501-1194, Japan.

Purpose Of Review: MODY6 due to mutations in the gene NEUROD1 is very rare, and details on its clinical manifestation and pathogenesis are scarce. In this review, we have summarized all reported cases of MODY6 diagnosed by genetic testing, and examined their clinical features in detail.

Recent Findings: MODY6 is a low penetrant MODY, suggesting that development of the disease is affected by genetic modifying factors, environmental factors, and/or the effects of interactions of genetic and environmental factors, as is the case with MODY5. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11892-019-1130-9DOI Listing
February 2019

Diabetes Management in Older Adults With Chronic Kidney Disease.

Curr Diab Rep 2019 Feb 15;19(3):11. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Older adults often live with chronic disease including diabetes and its complications. In this review, we examine the complexity and heterogeneity of older adults with diabetes and chronic kidney disease, explore the nuances in their diabetes-related monitoring, and discuss their best diabetes management.

Recent Findings: Although there remains an overall lack of studies in older adults with diabetes and chronic kidney disease, recent reports have highlighted their vulnerabilities. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11892-019-1128-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6469508PMC
February 2019
4 Reads

Type 2 Diabetes Self-Management in Non-Hispanic Black Men: a Current State of the Literature.

Curr Diab Rep 2019 Feb 11;19(3):10. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

School of Social Work, University of Michigan, 1080 S. University Ave, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, USA.

Purpose Of Review: This article discusses the state of type 2 diabetes (T2D) self-management research on non-Hispanic Black men with a focus on their knowledge of diabetes, factors that impact T2D self-management and intervention research that specifically targets non-Hispanic Black men with T2D.

Recent Findings: Studies on T2D knowledge and barriers and facilitators to T2D self-management in non-Hispanic Black men are limited to small qualitative focus group and in-depth interviews. To date, few T2D interventions for non-Hispanic Black men have been developed and tested. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11892-019-1131-8DOI Listing
February 2019

Epigenetic Risk Profile of Diabetic Kidney Disease in High-Risk Populations.

Curr Diab Rep 2019 Feb 7;19(3). Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Department of Diabetes Complications and Metabolism, Beckman Research Institute, City of Hope, 1500 E. Duarte Rd., Duarte, CA, 91010, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Epigenetic variations have been shown to reveal vulnerability to diabetes and its complications. Although it has become clear that metabolic derangements, especially hyperglycemia, can impose a long-term metabolic memory that predisposes to diabetic complications, the underlying mechanisms remain to be understood. It has been suggested that epigenetics (e. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11892-019-1129-2DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Diabetes in the Middle East: Government Health Care Policies and Strategies that Address the Growing Diabetes Prevalence in the Middle East.

Curr Diab Rep 2019 Feb 4;19(2). Epub 2019 Feb 4.

National Diabetes and Endocrine Centre, Royal Hospital, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman.

Purpose Of Review: Diabetes is a primary public health concern and a challenge for health decision makers in this century. Though the number of people with diabetes is increasing all over the globe, the very high prevalence of diabetes in many Middle East countries has made this region one of the global diabetes hot spots. Due to rapid socioeconomic growth, lifestyle changes and increasing obesity prevalence, the number of people with diabetes is expected to double by 2045 in this region. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11892-019-1125-6DOI Listing
February 2019

Adaptive Intervention Designs to Promote Behavioral Change in Adults: What Is the Evidence?

Authors:
Carla K Miller

Curr Diab Rep 2019 Jan 25;19(2). Epub 2019 Jan 25.

Department of Human Sciences/Human Nutrition, Ohio State University, 1787 Neil Ave., 325 Campbell Hall, Columbus, OH, 43210, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Adaptive behavioral interventions tailor the type or dose of intervention strategies to individuals over time to improve saliency and intervention efficacy. This review describes the unique characteristics of adaptive intervention designs, summarizes recent diabetes-related prevention studies, which used adaptive designs, and offers recommendations for future research.

Recent Findings: Eight adaptive intervention studies were reported since 2013 to reduce sedentary behavior or improve weight management in overweight or obese adults. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11892-019-1127-4DOI Listing
January 2019

New Areas of Interest: Is There a Role for Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation in Patients With Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease?

Authors:
Francine K Welty

Curr Diab Rep 2019 Jan 25;19(2). Epub 2019 Jan 25.

Division of Cardiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, 02215, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Summarize studies on omega-3 fatty acids in prevention of albuminuria in subjects with diabetes.

Recent Findings: Several small, short-term trials suggested benefit on albuminuria in subjects with diabetes; however, results were not definitive. Welty et al. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11892-019-1126-5DOI Listing
January 2019

Economic Impact of Diabetes in Africa.

Curr Diab Rep 2019 Jan 24;19(2). Epub 2019 Jan 24.

National Obesity Center and Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases Unit, Yaoundé Central Hospital, Yaoundé, Cameroon.

Purpose Of Review: This review seeks to address knowledge gaps around the economic burden of diabetes in Africa. Africa is home to numerous endemic infections and also prevalent non-communicable diseases including diabetes. It is projected that the greatest increases in diabetes prevalence will occur in Africa. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11892-019-1124-7DOI Listing
January 2019
3.080 Impact Factor

Mineralocorticoid Antagonism and Diabetic Kidney Disease.

Curr Diab Rep 2019 Jan 23;19(1). Epub 2019 Jan 23.

Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.

Purpose Of Review: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with an increased risk of diabetic kidney disease (DKD), cardiovascular disease, and heart failure, in part through activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). Although recent cardiovascular outcome trials have identified newer therapeutic agents such as sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)-receptor agonists that reduce the risk of these complications, patients still exhibit residual cardiorenal morbidity and mortality. Accordingly, the identification of pharmacological agents that attenuate micro- and macrovascular complications related to T2D is a major priority. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11892-019-1123-8DOI Listing
January 2019
15 Reads

Youth-Onset Type 2 Diabetes and the Developing Brain.

Curr Diab Rep 2019 Jan 21;19(1). Epub 2019 Jan 21.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, USA.

Purpose Of Review: This review describes the literature evaluating the potential adverse effects of youth-onset type 2 diabetes on the developing brain. A summary of recently published articles and the current state of knowledge are covered succinctly in this manuscript.

Recent Findings: Current literature suggests both cognitive and brain structural differences are found in youth with type 2 diabetes. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11892-019-1120-yDOI Listing
January 2019

Economic Impact of Diabetes in Japan.

Curr Diab Rep 2019 Jan 16;19(1). Epub 2019 Jan 16.

Department of Pediatrics, Nihon University School of Medicine, 1-6 Kandasurugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

Purpose Of Review: The economic burden of diabetes in Japan is already serious and will become greater in the future. We review the economic impact of diabetes in Japan to examine viable options for mitigating its effects.

Recent Findings: Medical costs for diabetes have been increasing by US $1 million annually, reaching US $11 million in 2009, of which US $7 million was accounted for by people aged 65 years or older. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11892-019-1122-9DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads

Breastfeeding and Type 2 Diabetes: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Curr Diab Rep 2019 Jan 14;19(1). Epub 2019 Jan 14.

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Epidemiologia, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Rua Marechal Deodoro 1160 - 3° andar, Pelotas, 96020-220, Brazil.

Purpose Of Review: Breastfeeding has short- and long-term benefits for child health. In this systematic review, we updated a review on the association between breastfeeding and type 2 diabetes.

Recent Findings: A meta-analysis published in 2015 reported that breastfeeding protects against type 2 diabetes (pooled odds ratio, 0. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11892-019-1121-xDOI Listing
January 2019
5 Reads

Innovations in Professional Inpatient Diabetes Education.

Curr Diab Rep 2018 Nov 21;18(12):147. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism, The Houston Methodist Hospital, 6550 Fannin Street Suite SM 1001, Houston, TX, 77030, USA.

Purpose Of Review: In the rapidly evolving and complex field of inpatient diabetes, complex care teams of physicians, nurse practitioners, physician assistants, nurses, and pharmacists are challenged to remain well informed of the latest clinical treatments and health care trends. Traditional continuing medical education (CME) and continuing education unit (CEU) strategies that require travel and/or time away from work pose a major barrier. With advancements in technology, there are media and other electronic strategies for delivering CME/ CEU that may overcome these current challenges. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11892-018-1119-9
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11892-018-1119-9DOI Listing
November 2018
15 Reads

Genetics of Obesity in Diverse Populations.

Curr Diab Rep 2018 Nov 19;18(12):145. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 123 West Franklin Street, Suite 410, CB# 8050, Chapel Hill, NC, 27516, USA.

Purpose Of Review: The prevalence of obesity continues to rise, fueling a global public health crisis characterized by dramatic increases in type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and many cancers. In the USA, several minority populations, who bear much of the obesity burden (47% in African Americans and Hispanic/Latinos, compared to 38% in European descent groups), are particularly at risk of downstream chronic disease. Compounding these disparities, most genome-wide association studies (GWAS)-including those of obesity-have largely been conducted in populations of European or East Asian ancestry. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11892-018-1107-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6380516PMC
November 2018
8 Reads

Advancing Health Policy and Program Research in Diabetes: Findings from the Natural Experiments for Translation in Diabetes (NEXT-D) Network.

Curr Diab Rep 2018 Nov 20;18(12):146. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Division of Diabetes Translation, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Mailstop K10, 4770 Buford Highway, Atlanta, GA, 30341, USA.

Purpose Of Review: To advance our understanding of the impacts of policies and programs aimed at improving detection, engagement, prevention, and clinical diabetes management in the USA, we synthesized findings from a network of studies that used natural experiments to evaluate diabetes health policies and programs.

Findings: Studies from the Natural EXperiments for Translation in Diabetes (NEXT-D) network used rigorous longitudinal quasi-experimental study designs (e.g. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11892-018-1112-3DOI Listing
November 2018
11 Reads

The Evolving Role of the Cardiologist in the Management of Type 2 Diabetes.

Curr Diab Rep 2018 Nov 8;18(12):144. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Division of Cardiology, UT Health San Antonio, 7703 Floyd Curl Drive, Mail Code 7872, San Antonio, TX, 78229, USA.

Purpose Of Review: To evaluate the treatment of type 2 diabetes from a cardiologist's view.

Recent Findings: A new era in the treatment of type 2 diabetes began for the cardiologist in 2015 with the publication of the EMPA-REG outcome trial finding a significant reduction in CV death with empagliflozin (oral sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 [SGLT2] inhibitor) in patients with type 2 diabetes at increased cardiovascular risk. Shortly thereafter, the injectable glucagon-like peptide agonists (GLP-1) liraglutide and semaglutide found a significant reduction in composite major cardiovascular events (CV death, non-fatal MI, or stroke). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11892-018-1114-1
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11892-018-1114-1DOI Listing
November 2018
41 Reads

Phenotypic and Genetic Characteristics of Lipodystrophy: Pathophysiology, Metabolic Abnormalities, and Comorbidities.

Curr Diab Rep 2018 Nov 8;18(12):143. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Brehm Center for Diabetes Research, Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology & Diabetes, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, 1000 Wall Street, Room 5313, Ann Arbor, MI, 48105, USA.

Purpose Of Review: This article focuses on recent progress in understanding the genetics of lipodystrophy syndromes, the pathophysiology of severe metabolic abnormalities caused by these syndromes, and causes of severe morbidity and a possible signal of increased mortality associated with lipodystrophy. An updated classification scheme is also presented.

Recent Findings: Lipodystrophy encompasses a group of heterogeneous rare diseases characterized by generalized or partial lack of adipose tissue and associated metabolic abnormalities including altered lipid metabolism and insulin resistance. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11892-018-1099-9
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11892-018-1099-9DOI Listing
November 2018
29 Reads

Implications of the CANVAS Study in Reducing Cardiovascular Outcomes.

Curr Diab Rep 2018 Nov 5;18(12):142. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Department of Internal Medicine, Diabetes Endocrinology & Metabolism, University of Nebraska Medical Center, 984120 Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, 68198-4120, USA.

Purpose Of Review: In recent years, Cardiovascular Outcome Event Trials (CVOTs) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have demonstrated that sodium glucose transporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) could reduce major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and cardiovascular mortality independent of a glucose lowering mechanism. SGLT2i trials reported significant results that have generated biologically plausible theories with regard to the macrovascular benefit. In this review, we have summarized and discussed the results of the CANVAS program. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11892-018-1106-1
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11892-018-1106-1DOI Listing
November 2018
20 Reads

Genetics of Monogenic Diabetes: Present Clinical Challenges.

Curr Diab Rep 2018 Oct 30;18(12):141. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology & Metabolism, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX3 7LJ, UK.

Purpose Of Review: Monogenic forms of diabetes have specific treatments that differ from the standard care provided for type 1 and type 2 diabetes, making the appropriate diagnosis essential. In this review, we discuss current clinical challenges that remain, including improving case-finding strategies, particularly those that have transethnic applicability, and understanding the interpretation of genetic variants as pathogenic, with clinically meaningful impacts.

Recent Findings: Biomarker approaches to the stratification for genetic testing now appear to be most effective in identifying cases of monogenic diabetes, and use of genetic risk scores may also prove useful. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11892-018-1111-4
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11892-018-1111-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6209016PMC
October 2018
4 Reads

Update on Therapeutic Options in Lipodystrophy.

Curr Diab Rep 2018 Oct 29;18(12):139. Epub 2018 Oct 29.

Brehm Center for Diabetes Research, Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology & Diabetes, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, 1000 Wall Street, Room 5313, Ann Arbor, MI, 48105, USA.

Purpose Of Review: The purpose of this review is to summarize the therapeutic approach for lipodystrophy syndromes with conventional treatment options and metreleptin therapy in detail and to point out the current investigational treatments in development.

Recent Findings: The observation of leptin deficiency in patients with lipodystrophy and the potential of leptin replacement to rescue metabolic abnormalities in animal models of lipodystrophy were followed by the first clinical study of leptin therapy in patients with severe lipodystrophy. This and several other long-term studies demonstrated important benefits of recombinant human leptin (metreleptin) to treat metabolic abnormalities of lipodystrophy. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11892-018-1100-7
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11892-018-1100-7DOI Listing
October 2018
17 Reads

Comparison of Lipid-Lowering Medications and Risk for Cardiovascular Disease in Diabetes.

Curr Diab Rep 2018 Oct 29;18(12):138. Epub 2018 Oct 29.

Department of Cardiovascular Science, Campus Bio-Medico University of Rome, Via Alvaro del Portillo 200, 00128, Rome, Italy.

Purpose Of The Review: To summarize available evidence regarding lipid-lowering interventions for the prevention of cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes.

Recent Findings: Statins and non-statin therapies that act through upregulation of LDL receptor expression are associated with similar cardiovascular risk reduction per decrease in LDL cholesterol. In subjects with diabetes, with or without established cardiovascular disease, each 39 mg/dl reduction in LDL cholesterol observed with statins is associated with a 21% relative reduction in the risk of major coronary events at 5 years. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11892-018-1117-y
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11892-018-1117-yDOI Listing
October 2018
4 Reads

Non-Diabetic Hyperglycemia in the Pediatric Age: Why, How, and When to Treat?

Curr Diab Rep 2018 Oct 29;18(12):140. Epub 2018 Oct 29.

Department of Translational Medical Science (DISMET), Section of Pediatrics, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy.

Purpose Of Review: Non-diabetic hyperglycemia (NDHY) is a pathological condition that is not yet well known. The aim of this review is to examine approaches for management of this condition.

Recent Findings: While it is well known that persistent hyperglycemia in diabetes affects immune response and risk for diabetes-related micro- and macrovascular complications, little is known about the biological effects of transient NDHY, particularly in the pediatric age group. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11892-018-1115-0
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11892-018-1115-0DOI Listing
October 2018
6 Reads

Blood Pressure Variability and Autonomic Dysfunction.

Curr Diab Rep 2018 Oct 25;18(12):137. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

Endocrinology, Department of Systems Medicine, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Via Montpellier, 1, 00133, Rome, Italy.

Purpose Of Review: This review considers the relationship between abnormal blood pressure (BP) variability and autonomic dysfunction through an attempt to answer questions about its clinical relevance and pertinence to diabetes and cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) and which therapeutic measures can lessen its cardiovascular impact.

Recent Findings: Office, ambulatory, and home BP monitoring identify posture-related, circadian, short-term, and long-term BP variabilities. Abnormal BP variability is a risk marker for organ damage, mortality, and cardiovascular events. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11892-018-1108-z
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11892-018-1108-zDOI Listing
October 2018
18 Reads

The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) Study: 2018 Update.

Curr Diab Rep 2018 Oct 23;18(12):136. Epub 2018 Oct 23.

Health Informatics Institute, Morsani College of Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA.

Purpose Of Review: The environmental triggers of islet autoimmunity leading to type 1 diabetes (T1D) need to be elucidated to inform primary prevention. The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) Study follows from birth 8676 children with T1D risk HLA-DR-DQ genotypes in the USA, Finland, Germany, and Sweden. Most study participants (89%) have no first-degree relative with T1D. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11892-018-1113-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6415767PMC
October 2018
8 Reads

A Review of Data of Findings on Night Shift Work and the Development of DM and CVD Events: a Synthesis of the Proposed Molecular Mechanisms.

Curr Diab Rep 2018 Oct 20;18(12):132. Epub 2018 Oct 20.

Department of Epidemiology, Center for Public Health, Medical University of Vienna, Kinderspitalgasse 15, 1090, Vienna, Austria.

Purpose Of Review: Night shift work has become highly prevalent in our 24/7 societies, with up to 18% of the US work force working alternate shift schedules. However, studies indicate that there may be adverse health effects of chronic night work across diverse populations. These effects are likely due to misalignment of the circadian system with work schedules, mediated by the system's primary marker melatonin as well as other downstream molecules. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11892-018-1102-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6209035PMC
October 2018
1 Read

Who Will Win: Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Versus Embryonic Stem Cells for β Cell Replacement and Diabetes Disease Modeling?

Curr Diab Rep 2018 Oct 20;18(12):133. Epub 2018 Oct 20.

Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Tufts University, Science and Technology Center, Room 276A, Medford, MA, 02155, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Ever since the reprogramming of human fibroblasts to induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs), scientists have been trying to determine if hiPSCs can give rise to progeny akin to native terminally differentiated cells as human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) do. Many different somatic cell types have been successfully reprogrammed via a variety of methods. In this review, we will discuss recent studies comparing hiPSCs and hESCs and their ability to differentiate to desired cell types as well as explore diabetes disease models. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11892-018-1109-y
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11892-018-1109-yDOI Listing
October 2018
4 Reads

Revisiting the Diabetes-Heart Failure Connection.

Curr Diab Rep 2018 Oct 20;18(12):134. Epub 2018 Oct 20.

Center for Biomarker Research in Medicine, CBmed, Graz, Austria.

Purpose Of The Review: To summarize current clinical data investigating the link between diabetes and heart failure pathophysiology, the association of glucose control with heart failure, and the impact of current antihyperglycemic drugs on heart failure.

Recent Findings: Although heart failure is one of the most prevalent outcomes occurring in real life and cardiovascular outcome trials, insufficient attention was given to this condition in diabetes research over the last decades. With both beneficial and detrimental findings for heart failure hospitalization in the health authority-mandated outcome trials for new antihyperglycemic agents, research on heart failure and its interplay with diabetes mellitus gained momentum. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11892-018-1116-z
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11892-018-1116-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6209037PMC
October 2018
16 Reads

Chronic Care Management Services for Complex Diabetes Management: a Practical Overview.

Curr Diab Rep 2018 Oct 20;18(12):135. Epub 2018 Oct 20.

Brigham and Women's Hospital, Division of Endocrinology, Harvard Medical School, 221 Longwood Avenue, Suite 381, Boston, MA, 02115, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Formalized chronic care management has the potential to improve the quality and cost-effectiveness of complex diabetes management in adults, but has historically not been sustainably supported by health care systems. This review discusses the application of the chronic care model in the care of complex diabetes and its translation in the current reimbursement structure designed by Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS).

Recent Findings: Following the introduction of Wagner's Chronic Care Model (CCM) in the late 1990s, evidence gathered over the past 2 decades has supported the shift in focus of health care systems from acute to chronic disease management and proactive care. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11892-018-1118-x
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11892-018-1118-xDOI Listing
October 2018
6 Reads

Gut Microbiome in Obesity, Metabolic Syndrome, and Diabetes.

Curr Diab Rep 2018 Oct 18;18(12):129. Epub 2018 Oct 18.

Department of Pathology & Immunology, Baylor College of Medicine and Texas Children's Hospital, 6621 Fannin Street, Houston, TX, 77030, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Obesity and diabetes are worldwide epidemics. There is also a growing body of evidence relating the gut microbiome composition to insulin resistance. The purpose of this review is to delineate the studies linking gut microbiota to obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11892-018-1104-3
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11892-018-1104-3DOI Listing
October 2018
20 Reads

Effect of Health Information Technologies on Glycemic Control Among Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

Curr Diab Rep 2018 Oct 18;18(12):130. Epub 2018 Oct 18.

Department of Health Management and Informatics, School of Medicine, University of Missouri-Columbia, CE707 CS&E Bldg., One Hospital Drive, Columbia, MO, USA.

Purpose Of Review: This study was to present meta-analysis findings across selected clinical trials for the effect of health information technologies (HITs) on glycemic control among patients with type 2 diabetes.

Recent Findings: HITs may be promising in diabetes management. However, findings on effect size of glycated hemoglobin level (HbA1c) yielded from HITs varied across previous studies. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11892-018-1105-2
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11892-018-1105-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6209028PMC
October 2018
12 Reads

Inflammation Markers in Type 2 Diabetes and the Metabolic Syndrome in the Pediatric Population.

Curr Diab Rep 2018 Oct 18;18(12):131. Epub 2018 Oct 18.

Center for Integrative Brain Research, Seattle Children's Research Institute, 1900 Ninth Avenue, Seattle, WA, 98101, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Chronic inflammation, adipokines, and hepatokines have been identified as basis of insulin resistance and β cell failure in animal models. We present our current knowledge concerning the potential relationship between these cytokines, inflammation, metabolic syndrome (MetS), and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the pediatric population.

Recent Findings: Pro-inflammatory cytokines related to insulin resistance and MetS in children are tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, interferon gamma, pigment epithelium-derived factor, chemerin, vaspin, and fetuin A. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11892-018-1110-5
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11892-018-1110-5DOI Listing
October 2018
16 Reads

Pathogenesis of Lipid Disorders in Insulin Resistance: a Brief Review.

Curr Diab Rep 2018 Oct 17;18(12):127. Epub 2018 Oct 17.

Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Division of Cardiology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Insulin resistance (IR) is recognized to play an important role in the pathogenesis of dyslipidemia. This review summarizes the complex interplay between IR and dyslipidemia in people with and without diabetes.

Recent Findings: IR impacts the metabolism of triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) by several mechanisms. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11892-018-1101-6
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11892-018-1101-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6428207PMC
October 2018
6 Reads
3.080 Impact Factor

Fat Versus Carbohydrate-Based Energy-Restricted Diets for Weight Loss in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes.

Curr Diab Rep 2018 Oct 17;18(12):128. Epub 2018 Oct 17.

Joslin Diabetes Center, Harvard Medical School, One Joslin Place, Boston, MA, 02215, USA.

Purpose Of Review: The prevalence of combined obesity and diabetes has increased dramatically in the last few decades. Although medical and surgical weight management are variably effective in addressing this epidemic, it is essential to parallel these strategies with a hypocaloric diet comprising the appropriate macronutrient composition to induce weight loss, enhance glycemic control, and improve cardiovascular risk factors. This review reports the current evidence of the role of carbohydrates and fat-based diets for weight management in patients with combined type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11892-018-1103-4
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11892-018-1103-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6209021PMC
October 2018
37 Reads
3.080 Impact Factor

Beyond Statins: Who and When to Prescribe?

Authors:
Om Ganda

Curr Diab Rep 2018 Oct 15;18(11):126. Epub 2018 Oct 15.

Adult Diabetes and Clinical Research, Joslin Diabetes Center, Harvard Medical School, 1 Joslin Place, Boston, MA, 02215, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Statins are the most evidence-based therapy to target LDL-C to reduce atherosclerotic events. Yet, many people are unable to achieve adequate reduction in this key atherogenic factor. Moreover, residual risk of cardiovascular events may persist even after "optimal" LDL-C due to elevations in triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11892-018-1087-0
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11892-018-1087-0DOI Listing
October 2018
12 Reads

Diabetes and HIV.

Curr Diab Rep 2018 Oct 8;18(11):125. Epub 2018 Oct 8.

National Obesity Center and Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases Unit, Yaoundé Central Hospital, Yaoundé, Cameroon.

Purpose Of Review: This review seeks to address the epidemiology and pathophysiological basis of the interaction between HIV infection and diabetes and the implication for treatment. Its importance stems from the current context of the growing burden of both conditions and the possible mechanisms of interactions that may exist but not yet sufficiently examined.

Recent Findings: HIV infection is associated with increased risk of insulin resistance, and ART is associated with metabolic derangement and the occurrence of type 2 diabetes. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11892-018-1076-3
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11892-018-1076-3DOI Listing
October 2018
20 Reads

Pancreas Pathology During the Natural History of Type 1 Diabetes.

Curr Diab Rep 2018 Oct 6;18(11):124. Epub 2018 Oct 6.

Diabetes Research Institute, Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Leonard Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA.

Purpose Of Review: We provide an overview of pancreas pathology in type 1 diabetes (T1D) in the context of its clinical stages.

Recent Findings: Recent studies of pancreata from organ donors with T1D and non-diabetic donors expressing T1D-associated autoantibodies reveal pathological changes/disease mechanisms beyond the well-known loss of β cells and lymphocytic infiltrates of the islets (insulitis), including β-cell stress, dysfunction, and viral infections. Pancreas pathology evolves through disease stages, is asynchronous, and demonstrates a chronic disease that remains active years after diagnosis. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11892-018-1084-3
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11892-018-1084-3DOI Listing
October 2018
3 Reads

App-Based Insulin Calculators: Current and Future State.

Curr Diab Rep 2018 Oct 4;18(11):123. Epub 2018 Oct 4.

Division of Diabetes, Endocrinology & Metabolism, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, USA.

Purpose Of Review: To perform a comprehensive literature review and critical assessment of peer-reviewed manuscripts addressing the efficacy, safety, or usability of insulin calculator apps.

Recent Findings: Managing diabetes with insulin can be complex, and literacy and numeracy skills pose barriers to manual insulin dose calculations. App-based insulin calculators are promising tools to help people with diabetes administer insulin safely and have potential to improve glycemic control. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11892-018-1097-yDOI Listing
October 2018
15 Reads