1,844 results match your criteria Current Cardiology Reports[Journal]


Lifestyle Interventions to Prevent Cardiovascular Events After Stroke and Transient Ischemic Attack.

Curr Cardiol Rep 2019 Apr 22;21(6):44. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Paul L. Foster School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center El Paso, El Paso, TX, 79905, USA.

Purpose Of Review: To summarize lifestyle interventions including pharmacological and non-pharmacological methods targeting modifiable risk factors and their impact on the future cardiovascular events in patients who have suffered transient ischemic attack (TIA) and/or ischemic stroke (IS).

Recent Findings: The latest research indicates that secondary prevention measures can decrease the risk of recurrent stroke, cardiovascular events, and even death. Modifiable risk factors also require behavioral change which can be challenging. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11886-019-1132-x
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11886-019-1132-xDOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Device Closure of Patent Foramen Ovale for Cryptogenic Stroke: Patient Selection and Outcomes According to New Randomized Trials.

Curr Cardiol Rep 2019 Apr 22;21(6):48. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

University of Colorado School of Medicine, Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, 80045, USA.

Purpose Of Review: This review summarizes the most recent randomized clinical trials that studied the role of device-mediated patent foramen ovale (PFO) closure in patients after an ischemic stroke presumed to have been caused by a paradoxical embolism.

Recent Findings: Three major randomized trials published in 2017 studied the strategy of using PFO closure for secondary prevention in patients between the ages of 18 and 60 who presented with an index stroke having characteristics of an embolic mechanism. All patients had a PFO that potentially could have enabled paradoxical embolism and other causes of stroke were excluded by a thorough neurologic and cardiac evaluation. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11886-019-1137-5
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11886-019-1137-5DOI Listing
April 2019
5 Reads

Polygenic Hypercholesterolemia and Cardiovascular Disease Risk.

Curr Cardiol Rep 2019 Apr 22;21(6):43. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Centre for Cardiovascular Genetics, Institute of Cardiovascular Science, University College London, 5 University St, London, WC1E 6JF, UK.

Purpose Of The Review: Identification of loci and common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that have modest effects on plasma lipids have been used to confirm or refute the causal role of lipid traits in the development of coronary heart disease (CHD), and as tools to identify individuals with polygenic hypercholesterolemia.

Recent Findings: Several groups have reported on the use of SNP scores in distinguishing individuals with a clinical diagnosis of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) with a monogenic or polygenic etiology. We review evidence that those with monogenic FH have worse prognosis and discuss the possible mechanisms for this and their management. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11886-019-1130-zDOI Listing

Ethics and Bias in Clinical Trial Enrollment in Stroke.

Curr Cardiol Rep 2019 Apr 22;21(6):49. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Stroke Center, University of Utah, 175 N Medical Center Drive, Third Floor, Salt Lake City, UT, 84132, USA.

Purpose Of Review: To familiarize the reader with ethical concerns and potential scientific bias in management and conduction of clinical stroke trials.

Recent Findings: The goal of clinical trials in stroke is to find effective interventions for stroke prevention, acute treatment, and rehabilitation and recovery. Acute trials must be designed in the context of the time-sensitivity of revascularization therapies. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11886-019-1139-3
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11886-019-1139-3DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Treatment Challenges in Patients with Acute Heart Failure and Severe Aortic Valve Stenosis.

Curr Cardiol Rep 2019 Apr 22;21(6):47. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Department of Cardiology, Asklepios Klinik St. Georg, Lohmühlenstr. 5, 20099, Hamburg, Germany.

Purpose Of Review: The goal of this paper is to describe the treatment challenges in patients with aortic stenosis in combination with a reduced left ventricular function.

Recent Findings: Since the risk of mortality is increased in this patient population, transcatheter aortic valve implantation emerged as an important treatment option. Concomitant factors such as mitral regurgitation or coronary artery disease are important co-factors that need to be evaluated and taken into account for treatment decision. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11886-019-1135-7
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11886-019-1135-7DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Mortality and Cardiovascular Disease in Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes.

Curr Cardiol Rep 2019 Apr 22;21(6):45. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Paul L. Foster School of Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center at El Paso, 5001 El Paso Drive, MSC 21009, El Paso, TX, 79905, USA.

Purpose Of Review: The aims of this review are to summarize recent data on mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in type 1 and type 2 diabetes and to determine the interventions that could have contributed to a reduction in mortality.

Recent Findings: Recent studies found a downward trend in mortality and CVD among both diabetics and non-diabetics worldwide over the last few decades. The decline among diabetics is steeper than that among non-diabetics. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11886-019-1133-9
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11886-019-1133-9DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Dyslipidemia Profiles in Patients with Peripheral Artery Disease.

Curr Cardiol Rep 2019 Apr 22;21(6):42. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Divisions of Preventive Medicine and Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Purpose Of Review: This review of the literature aims to discuss the evidence linking different lipid and apolipoprotein measures to peripheral artery disease.

Recent Findings: Measures of atherogenic dyslipidemia, including elevations in total cholesterol and total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol as well as low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, are strongly associated with future risk of peripheral artery disease. Compared to coronary artery disease, there are fewer data showing an association between low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and future risk of peripheral artery disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11886-019-1129-5DOI Listing

Refractory Angina: the Current State of Mechanical Therapies.

Curr Cardiol Rep 2019 Apr 22;21(6):46. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, El Paso, TX, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Refractory angina (RA), which is characterized by tissue ischemia along with neurological, mitochondrial, and psychogenic dysfunction, is becoming a major cause of morbidity in patients with advanced coronary artery disease. In this review, we discuss in detail the invasive mechanical non-cell therapy-based options, the evidence behind these therapies, and future trends.

Recent Findings: There is extensive ongoing research in the areas of spinal-cord stimulation, transmyocardial laser revascularization, sympathectomy, angiogenesis, and other non-cell-based therapies to explore the best therapy for refractory angina. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11886-019-1134-8DOI Listing

Multimodality Imaging for the Assessment of Pericardial Diseases.

Curr Cardiol Rep 2019 Apr 16;21(5):41. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Heart and Vascular Institute, Center for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Pericardial Disease, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA.

Purpose Of Review: The diagnosis of pericardial syndromes, while occasionally straightforward, includes a wide range of pathologies and is often a well-recognized clinical challenge. The aim of this review is to highlight the key role of the various imaging modalities for the diagnosis and management of the spectrum of pericardial diseases.

Recent Findings: Cardiac imaging has become an integral part of the diagnostic process often beginning with echocardiography and supported by advanced imaging modalities including computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and positive emission tomography. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11886-019-1115-y
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11886-019-1115-yDOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Correction to: Cardiotoxicity of Targeted Cancer Drugs: Concerns, "The Cart Before the Horse," and Lessons from Trastuzumab.

Curr Cardiol Rep 2019 Apr 15;21(5):40. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Medicine, Unit of Drug Sciences and Center for Integrated Research, University Campus Bio-Medico, Rome, Italy.

In the original publication, there were two errors in Fig. 2. "Anhracyline" should be "Anthracycline" and "targetd" should be "targeted. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11886-019-1131-yDOI Listing

Revascularization Strategies for Non-ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

Curr Cardiol Rep 2019 Apr 10;21(5):39. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Gill Heart and Vascular Institute, University of Kentucky, 900 S. Limestone Street, 326 Wethington Bldg, Lexington, KY, 40536-0200, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) is an urgent medical condition that requires prompt application of simultaneous pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic therapies. The variation in patient clinical characteristics coupled with the multitude of treatment modalities makes optimal and timely management challenging. This review summarizes risk stratification of patients, the role and timing of revascularization, and highlights important considerations in the revascularization approach with attention to individual patient characteristics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11886-019-1125-9DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Nutrigenetics of Blood Cholesterol Concentrations: Towards Personalized Nutrition.

Curr Cardiol Rep 2019 Mar 29;21(5):38. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Richardson Centre for Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals, University of Manitoba, 196 Innovation Drive, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T 6C5, Canada.

Purpose Of The Review: To summarize achievements made in the field of nutrigenetics to personalized nutrition. Moreover, the limitations and challenges observed to enable clinical utilization are discussed.

Recent Findings: Currently, with the availability of low-cost genetic testing and new bioinformatics tools, significant developments have occurred to allow issues inherent to the highly complex nature of genetic data to be tackled. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11886-019-1124-x
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11886-019-1124-xDOI Listing
March 2019
5 Reads

Transcatheter Tricuspid Valve Interventions: An Emerging Field.

Curr Cardiol Rep 2019 Mar 28;21(5):37. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Cardiac Imaging Unit, Cardiology Department, St. Antonius Hospital, Koekoekslaan 1, 3435 CM, Nieuwegein, The Netherlands.

Purpose Of Review: This review aims to provide an updated overview and a clinical perspective on novel transcatheter tricuspid valve interventions (TTVI), highlighting potential challenges and future directions.

Recent Findings: Severe tricuspid regurgitation (TR) is a predictor of mortality. However, a sizeable number of patients remain untreated until the end-stage when cardiac surgery presents a prohibitive risk. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11886-019-1119-7DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Radial Artery Versus Saphenous Vein Grafts in Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery: a Literature Review.

Curr Cardiol Rep 2019 Mar 22;21(5):36. Epub 2019 Mar 22.

Division of Cardiology, Hoffman Heart Institute, St Francis Hospital, Hartford, CT, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Coronary artery bypass grafting is a preferred strategy for complete coronary revascularization in patients who have multi-vessel coronary artery disease, left ventricular dysfunction, and/or diabetes. Both arterial (internal thoracic artery/radial artery) and venous grafts are utilized to bypass the obstruction in native vessels. Despite having radial arterial grafts as a preferred second conduit for bypass, venous grafts are more commonly used. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11886-019-1112-1DOI Listing

Neuromodulation Approaches for Cardiac Arrhythmias: Recent Advances.

Curr Cardiol Rep 2019 Mar 18;21(5):32. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

UCLA Cardiac Arrhythmia Center, UCLA Neurocardiology Research Center, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, University of California, 100 Medical Plaza, Suite 660, Westwood Blvd, Los Angeles, CA, 90095-1679, USA.

Purpose Of Review: This review aims to describe the latest advances in autonomic neuromodulation approaches to treating cardiac arrhythmias, with a focus on ventricular arrhythmias.

Recent Findings: The increasing understanding of neuronal remodeling in cardiac diseases has led to the development and improvement of novel neuromodulation therapies targeting multiple levels of the autonomic nervous system. Thoracic epidural anesthesia, spinal cord stimulation, stellate ganglion modulatory therapies, vagal stimulation, renal denervation, and interventions on the intracardiac nervous system have all been studied in preclinical models, with encouraging preliminary clinical data. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11886-019-1120-1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11886-019-1120-1DOI Listing
March 2019
8 Reads

PET/CT for Diagnosis and Management of Large-Vessel Vasculitis.

Curr Cardiol Rep 2019 Mar 18;21(5):34. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, University of Ottawa Heart Institute, 40 Ruskin Street, Ottawa, ON, K1Y 4W7, Canada.

Purpose Of Review: This review aims to discuss the use of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET/CT) for diagnosis and management of patients with large-vessel vasculitis (LVV).

Recent Findings: Incidence of LVV is likely underestimated, in part due to its non-specific symptoms. Nevertheless, early diagnosis of LVV is essential to initiate timely therapy in order to prevent vascular complications, such as stenoses and aneurysms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11886-019-1122-zDOI Listing
March 2019
4 Reads

The Creation of an Interatrial Right-To-Left Shunt in Patients with Severe, Irreversible Pulmonary Hypertension: Rationale, Devices, Outcomes.

Curr Cardiol Rep 2019 Mar 18;21(5):31. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Department for Pediatric Cardiology and Intensive Care, Ludwig Maximilians University, Marchioninistrasse 15, D-80137, Munich, Germany.

Purpose Of The Review: Targeted pharmacotherapies did improve survival rates, exercise capacity, and quality of life (QoL) of PAH patients. However, these pharmacological interventions are expensive and not always accessible. In addition, not all patients do respond similarly to these medications and many will continue to deteriorate. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11886-019-1118-8
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11886-019-1118-8DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

The Adult with Post-operative Congenital Heart Disease: a Systematic Echocardiographic Approach.

Curr Cardiol Rep 2019 Mar 18;21(5):29. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Division of Cardiology, Children's Hospital of Michigan, Carman and Ann Adams Department of Pediatrics, Wayne State University School of Medicine, 3901 Beaubien Blvd, Detroit, MI, 48201-2119, USA.

Purpose Of Review: This article attempts to review some of the commonly seen repaired congenital heart defects in the adult population (ACHD), with a focus on important echocardiographic findings that may assist a practitioner in recognizing and managing this group of patients.

Recent Findings: The prevalence of ACHD population is increasing, and currently, there are over 1 million adults with congenital heart disease. At the current time, the total number of ACHD patients exceeds the total number of pediatric patients with CHD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11886-019-1116-xDOI Listing

Cardiotoxicity of Targeted Cancer Drugs: Concerns, "The Cart Before the Horse," and Lessons from Trastuzumab.

Curr Cardiol Rep 2019 Mar 18;21(5):33. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Department of Medicine, Unit of Drug Sciences and Center for Integrated Research, University Campus Bio-Medico, Rome, Italy.

Purpose Of Review: Modern oncology is witnessing a renaissance of its pharmacologic armamentarium. Old generation drugs, such as anthracyclines and other cytotoxic or cytostatic drugs, were plagued with a lack of specificity and with the possible occurrence of untoward effects in the cardiovascular system and other healthy tissues. The old drugs are now combined with, or replaced by, new agents that are more specific in attacking some unique moieties and vital functions of cancer cells, causing less noxious effects in healthy tissues. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11886-019-1121-0DOI Listing

The Importance and Role of Multiple Risk Factor Control in Type 2 Diabetes.

Curr Cardiol Rep 2019 Mar 18;21(5):35. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Heart Disease Prevention Program, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA, USA.

Purpose Of Review: The importance of composite risk factor control for reducing CVD risk in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) has gained increased attention and here we review the latest findings in the field.

Recent Findings: The Steno-2 study was the first to show that early intensive risk factor control could improve risk factor status and halve the CVD risk in patients with diabetes with lasting impact. A range of observational studies have added further insight to the importance of multiple risk factor control showing an incremental association between number of risk factors controlled and reduction in CVD risk. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11886-019-1123-yDOI Listing

Ultrasound Molecular Imaging: Principles and Applications in Cardiovascular Medicine.

Curr Cardiol Rep 2019 Mar 18;21(5):30. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Knight Cardiovascular Institute, UHN-62, Oregon Health & Science University, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Rd., Portland, OR, 97239, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Non-invasive molecular imaging is currently used as a research technique to better understand disease pathophysiology. There are also many potential clinical applications where molecular imaging may provide unique information that allows either earlier or more definitive diagnosis, or can guide precision medicine-based decisions on therapy. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEU) with targeted microbubble contrast agents is one such technique that has been developed that has the unique properties of providing rapid information and revealing information only on events that occur within the vascular space. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11886-019-1117-9DOI Listing

Relationship Between Outpatient Clinic and Ambulatory Blood Pressure Measurements and Mortality.

Authors:
KoKo Aung Thwe Htay

Curr Cardiol Rep 2019 Mar 18;21(5):28. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center El Paso, 200 Rick Francis St, MSC 21006, El Paso, TX, 79905, USA.

Purpose Of Review: This review aims to summarize and discuss the relationship between outpatient clinic and ambulatory blood pressure (BP) measurements and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

Recent Findings: Contemporary clinical practice guidelines worldwide recommend ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) to confirm the diagnosis of hypertension. Recent epidemiological studies and systematic reviews showed ABPM predicts cardiovascular events and mortality independent of clinic BP. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11886-019-1114-zDOI Listing

Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Versus Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting in Treatment of Unprotected Left Main Stenosis.

Curr Cardiol Rep 2019 Mar 18;21(5):27. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, East Tennessee State University, 329 N State of Franklin Rd, Johnson City, TN, 37604, USA.

Purpose Of Review: This article reviews the latest data on unprotected left main (ULM) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) versus coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery, with a focus on the NOBLE and EXCEL trials.

Recent Findings: In EXCEL trial, the primary endpoint at 3 years was 15.4% in the PCI group and 14. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11886-019-1113-0DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Most Promising Therapies in Interventional Cardiology.

Curr Cardiol Rep 2019 Mar 13;21(4):26. Epub 2019 Mar 13.

PERFUSE Study Group, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, 930 Commonwealth Ave, Boston, MA, 02215, USA.

Purpose Of Review: The last 40 years of clinical research in interventional cardiology were extraordinarily innovative. This article will review the most promising up and coming interventional cardiovascular therapies, with a primary focus on the treatment of coronary artery disease.

Recent Findings: From the first stent, to the first transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI), and the left appendage closure technique, percutaneous interventions revolutionized the treatment of multiple diseases and dramatically improved the prognosis of many patients. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11886-019-1108-x
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11886-019-1108-xDOI Listing
March 2019
6 Reads

Physiology-Guided Management of Serial/Diffuse Coronary Artery Disease.

Curr Cardiol Rep 2019 Mar 7;21(4):25. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

Section of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Harlem Hospital Center/Columbia University, New York, NY, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Just over four decades ago, the management of coronary artery disease (CAD) witnessed a major breakthrough with the advent of minimally invasive treatment modalities like angioplasty followed by coronary stenting. Dr. Andreas Gruentzig pioneered this field in 1977 by adding a balloon to the Dotter catheter. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11886-019-1105-0DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Risk of Recurrent Venous Thromboembolism After an Initial Episode: Risk Stratification and Implications for Long-term Treatment.

Curr Cardiol Rep 2019 Mar 4;21(4):24. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Heart and Vascular Institute, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 1215 Ave South Medical Center East, 5th Floor, South Tower, Nashville, TN, 37232-8802, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common condition with significant associated morbidity and mortality. Recurrent VTE after an initial episode is a preventable medical condition. The following review discusses data supporting recurrence risk estimates after an initial VTE episode as well as treatment strategies to mitigate risk of recurrent VTE. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11886-019-1111-2DOI Listing
March 2019
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Update in the Management of Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients with Cardiogenic Shock.

Curr Cardiol Rep 2019 Mar 4;21(4):17. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

Minneapolis Heart Institute, Abbott Northwestern Hospital and Minneapolis Heart Institute Foundation, 920 E 28th Street #300, Minneapolis, MN, 55407, USA.

Purpose Of Review: We provide a concise update on the contemporary management of cardiogenic shock in the setting of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Early shock recognition, optimal selection and initiation of mechanical circulatory support (MCS), early coronary revascularization, and a team-based, protocol-driven approach are the current pillars of management.

Recent Findings: Cardiogenic shock complicates approximately 5-10% of ACS cases and continues to have high mortality. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11886-019-1102-3DOI Listing
March 2019
4 Reads

Valvular Disease in Marfan Syndrome: Surgical Considerations and Management.

Curr Cardiol Rep 2019 Mar 4;21(4):23. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

Division of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, DUMC BOX 3051, Durham, NC, 27710, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Detail the current strategies for the management of valve dysfunction in Marfan syndrome (MFS), understand the limitations of surgical interventions, and delineate the likely direction of future innovations.

Recent Findings: Significant advances in both medical and surgical management of MFS have been made over the last 50 years. This has resulted in improved overall outcomes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11886-019-1110-3DOI Listing
March 2019
4 Reads

Intensive Cardiac Rehabilitation: an Underutilized Resource.

Curr Cardiol Rep 2019 Mar 4;21(4):19. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

Preventive Medicine Research Institute and Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Purpose Of Review: To review evidence-based lifestyle modification strategies for secondary prevention and explore how they are incorporated in traditional cardiac rehabilitation (CR) and intensive cardiac rehabilitation (ICR) programs.

Recent Findings: While physical activity is an important element of cardiac rehabilitation, more recent studies support a variety of methods, including stress management and plant-based diets, to reduce cardiovascular risk factors. Patients who participate in traditional CR programs demonstrate clinical improvement, which are significantly greater in intensive CR (ICR). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11886-019-1104-1DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Epidemiology of Diabetes Mellitus and Cardiovascular Disease.

Curr Cardiol Rep 2019 Mar 4;21(4):21. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

Department of Medicine, Heart Disease Prevention Program, Division of Cardiology, University of California, C240 Medical Sciences, Irvine, CA, 92697, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Diabetes mellitus (DM) has become a rising epidemic in the last century, more pressing in the last few decades with the exponential rise of obesity, and has become one of the leading causes of death worldwide.

Recent Findings: Genetic variants have also been a new field of epidemiology research to determine the underlying genetic component of those risk factors and the association of DM with CVD. In light of its significant prevalence, patients remain unaware of their disease progression that arises from genetic and metabolic risk factors. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11886-019-1107-y
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11886-019-1107-yDOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

Echocardiography in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.

Curr Cardiol Rep 2019 Mar 4;21(4):22. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

Division of Cardiology, A. Cardarelli Hospital, Via A. Cardarelli, 9, 80131, Naples, Italy.

Purpose Of Review: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a devastating disease which can result in right heart (RH) failure and death. Herein, we discuss the current clinical applications of echocardiography in PAH.

Recent Findings: Advanced echocardiographic techniques (strain, strain rate, 2D-speckle tracking strain, and three-dimensional echocardiography) may reveal in the near future additional important insights into RH structure and function. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11886-019-1109-9
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11886-019-1109-9DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

The New Face of Hyperlipidemia and the Role of PCSK9 Inhibitors.

Curr Cardiol Rep 2019 Mar 4;21(4):18. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute, University of Adelaide, PO Box 11050, Adelaide, SA, 5001, Australia.

Purpose Of Review: To review the clinical rationale for use of proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors in clinical practice.

Recent Findings: Despite widespread use of statins for lipid lowering, many patients at high cardiovascular risk continue to demonstrate unsatisfactory cholesterol levels and experience clinical events. This highlights the ongoing need to develop additional strategies to achieve more effective risk reduction in a greater number of patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11886-019-1103-2DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Rationale and Current Evidence for Testing Iron Chelators for Treating Stroke.

Curr Cardiol Rep 2019 Mar 4;21(4):20. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Division of Stroke & Cerebrovascular Disease, Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Avenue - Palmer 127, Boston, MA, 02215, USA.

Purpose Of Review: To discuss the mechanisms of iron regulation in the brain and the pathophysiological role of deregulation of iron homeostasis following a stroke, and to review existing evidence supporting the potential role of iron chelators in the treatment of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke.

Recent Findings: In recent years, accumulating evidence has highlighted the role of neuroinflammation in neurological injury after ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, and that free iron is central to this process. Via the Fenton reaction, free iron catalyzes the conversion of superoxide ion and hydrogen peroxide into hydroxyl radicals, which promote oxidative stress. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11886-019-1106-zDOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

The Autonomic Nervous System and Hypertension: Ethnic Differences and Psychosocial Factors.

Curr Cardiol Rep 2019 Feb 28;21(3):15. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Department of Psychology, The Ohio State University, 175 Psychology Building, 1835 Neil Avenue, Columbus, OH, 43210, USA.

Purpose Of The Review: In the present paper, we overview emerging research examining the autonomic nervous system (ANS), especially the parasympathetic nervous system as indexed by heart rate variability (HRV), and the impact of psychosocial factors on hypertension-related disease in African Americans.

Recent Findings: A growing corpus of studies has shown that (1) usual patterns of compensatory sympathetic-parasympathetic regulation differ between African Americans and European Americans; (2) despite their enhanced cardiovascular disease risk profile, African Americans tend to exhibit higher HRV relative to European Americans; and (3) racial discrimination and other forms of psychosocial stress are associated with diminished HRV among African Americans. Significant disparities in hypertension-related disease exist such that African Americans have greater risk. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11886-019-1100-5DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Preparticipation Cardiovascular Screening of Student-Athletes with Echocardiography: Ethical, Clinical, Economic, and Legal Considerations.

Curr Cardiol Rep 2019 Feb 28;21(3):16. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Bay Care Clinic, Green Bay, WI, USA.

Purpose Of Review: To identify whether the use of echocardiography is a viable approach for the screening of athletes for the prevention of sudden cardiac death when considering ethical, clinical, economic, and legal issues.

Recent Findings: Ethical musings, echocardiographic findings, economic calculations, and legal analysis suggest that echocardiographic screening may reduce sudden cardiac death on the athletic field. Ethical, clinical, economic, and legal considerations suggest echocardiographic screening is a viable option to meet the societal goal to prevent athletic field sudden death. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11886-019-1101-4DOI Listing
February 2019

Rheumatic Mitral Valve Stenosis: Diagnosis and Treatment Options.

Curr Cardiol Rep 2019 Feb 28;21(3):14. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

The Heart Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Purpose Of Review: This review provides an update on rheumatic mitral stenosis. Acute rheumatic fever (RF), the sequela of group A β-hemolytic streptococcal infection, is the major etiology for mitral stenosis (MS).

Recent Findings: While the incidence of acute RF in the Western world had substantially declined over the past five decades, this trend is reversing due to immigration from non-industrialized countries where rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is higher. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11886-019-1099-7DOI Listing
February 2019
4 Reads

Recent Advances in Congenital Heart Surgery: Alternative Perfusion Strategies for Infant Aortic Arch Repair.

Curr Cardiol Rep 2019 Feb 28;21(3):13. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Pediatric and Congenital Heart Center, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA.

Purpose Of Review: This paper will discuss current cannulation strategies for infant aortic arch repair and compare them to more traditionally used techniques.

Recent Findings: Aortic arch reconstruction in infants has traditionally involved deep hypothermic circulatory arrest which results in total body ischemia. This has been associated with an increased risk of morbidity including bleeding, renal dysfunction, and neurologic injury. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11886-019-1098-8DOI Listing
February 2019

Molecular Imaging of Cardiac Amyloidosis.

Curr Cardiol Rep 2019 Feb 28;21(3):12. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Department of Medical Imaging, Montreal Heart Institute, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Purpose Of Review: The aim of this review is to give an update on the molecular imaging tools currently available as well as to discuss the potential roles and limitations of molecular imaging in cardiac amyloidosis.

Recent Findings: Molecular imaging plays a central role in the evaluation of patients with suspected cardiac amyloidosis. It can be used to diagnose and distinguish between the different types of cardiac amyloidosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11886-019-1097-9DOI Listing
February 2019
7 Reads

Quantification of PET Myocardial Blood Flow.

Curr Cardiol Rep 2019 Feb 28;21(3):11. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Gordon Center for Medical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Purpose Of Review: The aim of this review is to provide an update on quantification of myocardial blood flow (MBF) with positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. Technical and clinical aspects of flow quantification with PET are reviewed.

Recent Findings: The diagnostic and prognostic values of myocardial flow quantification have been established in numerous studies and in various populations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11886-019-1096-xDOI Listing
February 2019
5 Reads

Percutaneous Coronary Intervention of Chronic Total Occlusions in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus: a Treatment-Risk Paradox.

Curr Cardiol Rep 2019 Feb 21;21(2). Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Division of Cardiology, Geneva University Hospitals, Rue Gabrielle Perret-Gentil 4, 1211, Geneva 14, Switzerland.

Purpose Of Review: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is highly prevalent among patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for chronic total occlusions (CTOs). This review aims to summarize the available evidence on CTO recanalization in patients with DM.

Recent Findings: Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery is the recommended revascularization modality for patients with DM and multivessel coronary artery disease (CAD). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11886-019-1091-2DOI Listing
February 2019

Management of Atrial Fibrillation in Patients with Heart Failure: Time to Implement Ablation Control.

Curr Cardiol Rep 2019 Feb 21;21(2):10. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

The Comprehensive Arrhythmia Research and Management (CARMA) Center, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Utah Health Sciences Center, 30 North 1900 East, Room 4A100, Salt Lake City, UT, 84132-2400, USA.

Purpose Of The Review: Atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients with heart failure and reduced systolic ejection fraction (HFrEF) is common and associated with increased morbidity and mortality, and managing AF in this population has been particularly challenging with sparse data regarding the optimal treatment strategy.

Recent Findings: Recent data suggests that rhythm control with catheter ablation can be of particular benefit to patients with coexisting AF and HFrEF. Recent randomized control trials actually suggest that catheter ablation could potentially improve mortality in this particular patient population. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11886-019-1093-0DOI Listing
February 2019

Radical Pericardiectomy for Pericardial Diseases.

Curr Cardiol Rep 2019 Feb 12;21(2). Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Cleveland Clinic, 9500 Euclid Avenue/Desk J4-1, Cleveland, OH, 44195, USA.

Purpose Of Review: The surgical management of constrictive pericarditis has evolved from a partial pericardiectomy via a thoracotomy approach to a more extensive removal of the pericardium. This review summarizes the published studies regarding surgical management of pericardial disease, focusing on the surgical technique of radical pericardiectomy for constrictive pericarditis.

Recent Findings: Anterior phrenic to phrenic resection without the use of cardiopulmonary bypass has been performed in many centers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11886-019-1092-1DOI Listing
February 2019
7 Reads

Echocardiographic Findings in Cardiac Amyloidosis: Inside Two-Dimensional, Doppler, and Strain Imaging.

Curr Cardiol Rep 2019 Feb 12;21(2). Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Clinical and Experimental Medicine Department, Cardiology Unit, University of Messina, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria 'Policlinico G. Martino,' Via Consolare Valeria 1, 98125, Messina, Italy.

Purpose Of Review: The aim is to provide a description of the most important echocardiographic features in systemic amyloidosis.

Recent Findings: Amyloidosis is a heterogeneous group of multisystem disorders, characterized by an extracellular deposition of amyloid fibrils. Several imaging tests are available for the diagnosis; however, echocardiography is the cornerstone of the non-invasive imaging modality for cardiac amyloidosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11886-019-1094-zDOI Listing
February 2019

Chagas Cardiomyopathy in Latin America Review.

Curr Cardiol Rep 2019 Feb 12;21(2). Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Messejana Heart and Lung Hospital Dr. Carlos Alberto Studart Gomes, Av. Frei Cirilo, 3480 Messejana, Fortaleza, CE, 60.846-190, Brazil.

Purpose Of Review: Chagas cardiomyopathy is a major public health disease in Latin America and, due to migration, is becoming a worldwide health and economic burden. This review sought to present the clinical and epidemiological aspects of Chagas cardiomyopathy, as well as some specific features and principles of treatment. We also retrospectively assessed our institutional experience with mechanical circulatory support in refractory heart failure due to Chagas cardiomyopathy over a 10-year period. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11886-019-1095-yDOI Listing
February 2019
3 Reads

Direct Oral Anticoagulants in Addition to Antiplatelet Therapy for Secondary Prevention after Acute Coronary Syndromes: a Review.

Curr Cardiol Rep 2019 Jan 28;21(1). Epub 2019 Jan 28.

Department of Internal Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center. Paul L. Foster School of Medicine, 4800 Alberta Avenue, El Paso, TX, 79905, USA.

Purpose Of Review: As the management of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) continues to evolve, many old practices proved to be of a little benefit and other approaches established the new pillars of modern medicine. Treating ACS patients with dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) for a year by combining aspirin and a P2Y12 inhibitor (clopidogrel, ticagrelor, or prasugrel) has resulted in better outcomes and is currently the standard of therapy. However, owing to the persistent activation of the coagulation cascade, patients may continue to experience recurrent ischemia and high mortality rates despite compliance with the dual antiplatelet therapy. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11886-019-1088-x
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11886-019-1088-xDOI Listing
January 2019
17 Reads

Is Hemispheric Hypoperfusion a Treatable Cause of Cognitive Impairment?

Curr Cardiol Rep 2019 Jan 19;21(1). Epub 2019 Jan 19.

Department of Neurology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1720 7th Ave S-SC 650, Birmingham, AL, 35294, USA.

Purpose Of Review: To review the current literature that supports the notion that cerebral hemodynamic compromise from internal carotid artery stenosis may be a cause of vascular cognitive impairment that is amenable to treatment by revascularization.

Recent Findings: Converging evidence suggests that successful carotid endarterectomy and carotid artery stenting are associated with reversal of cognitive decline in many patients with severe but asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis. Most of these findings have been derived from cohort studies and comparisons with either normal or surgical controls. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11886-019-1089-9DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Advances in Antiplatelet and Anticoagulant Therapies for NSTE-ACS.

Curr Cardiol Rep 2019 Jan 12;21(1). Epub 2019 Jan 12.

Department of Internal Medicine, Duke University Health System, 2301 Erwin Rd, Durham, NC, 27707, USA.

The treatment of patients requiring anticoagulation who develop acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and/or require percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) must balance the reduction in major adverse cardiovascular events, stroke, and major bleeding. The development of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) for the treatment of atrial fibrillation has ushered in an era of potential treatment options for these complex patients. PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the clinical evidence underlying the use of DOACs for the treatment of patients with atrial fibrillation and ACS or PCI. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11886-019-1090-3DOI Listing
January 2019
15 Reads

Outcomes of New-Generation Drug-Eluting Stents in Women with Acute Myocardial Infarction.

Authors:
Subrata Kar

Curr Cardiol Rep 2019 Jan 10;21(1). Epub 2019 Jan 10.

Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Paul L. Foster School of Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center El Paso, 4800 Alberta Ave, El Paso, TX, 79905, USA.

Purpose Of Review: This review discusses the outcomes of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in women who experience acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and are treated with drug-eluting stents (DES). The review also describes the role of the new-generation DES compared with the early generation.

Recent Findings: Recent literature shows that the new-generation DES can be effective in women who present with AMI. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11886-019-1087-y
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11886-019-1087-yDOI Listing
January 2019
4 Reads

Genetic Risk, Adherence to a Healthy Lifestyle, and Ischemic Heart Disease.

Curr Cardiol Rep 2019 Jan 10;21(1). Epub 2019 Jan 10.

Gill Heart and Vascular Institute, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA.

Purpose Of Review: The purpose of this review is to investigate and discuss two aspects of coronary artery disease (CAD)-genetic risk and therapeutic lifestyle change (TLC)-both of which have key importance for patients and their care but which actually receive inadequate attention.

Recent Findings: Genetic risk has generally been relegated to a broad association with the presence of one or more inherited cardiovascular (CV) risk factors such as hypercholesterolemia, family history of atherosclerosis, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus. However, the future of genetic risk is an understanding of specific genes, a genetic risk score, specific genetic loci known as selective nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), specific alleles, and microribonucleic acids (miRNAs). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11886-019-1086-zDOI Listing
January 2019
8 Reads

The Role of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance for Surveillance of Cardiac Performance upon Receipt of Potentially Cardiotoxic Cancer Therapeutics.

Curr Cardiol Rep 2018 Oct 26;20(12):142. Epub 2018 Oct 26.

Department of Internal Medicine, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Advancements in cancer treatment have resulted in improved cancer-related survival and consequently an increase in the number of cancer survivors. Unfortunately, associated with this increase in cancer-related survivorship, cardiac events have occurred with increasing frequency in cancer survivors. Recognition that cancer survivors are at increased risk for cardiovascular (CV) morbidity has generated interest to develop cardiac imaging techniques that identify subclinical CV disease during receipt of potentially cardiotoxic cancer treatment. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11886-018-1075-7
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11886-018-1075-7DOI Listing
October 2018
22 Reads